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PGSQL_TABLE(5)                                                  PGSQL_TABLE(5)

       pgsql_table - Postfix PostgreSQL client configuration

       <b>postmap -q "</b><i>string</i><b>" <a href="pgsql_table.5.html">pgsql</a>:/etc/postfix/filename</b>

       <b>postmap -q - <a href="pgsql_table.5.html">pgsql</a>:/etc/postfix/</b><i>filename</i> &lt;<i>inputfile</i>

       The  Postfix  mail system uses optional tables for address
       rewriting or mail routing. These tables are usually in <b>dbm</b>
       or <b>db</b> format.

       Alternatively,  lookup  tables  can  be specified as Post-
       greSQL databases.  In order  to  use  PostgreSQL  lookups,
       define  a  PostgreSQL source as a lookup table in <a href="postconf.5.html"></a>,
       for example:
           <a href="postconf.5.html#alias_maps">alias_maps</a> = <a href="pgsql_table.5.html">pgsql</a>:/etc/

       The file /etc/postfix/ has the same format
       as  the  Postfix <a href="postconf.5.html"></a> file, and can specify the parame-
       ters described below.

       For compatibility with other Postfix lookup tables,  Post-
       greSQL  parameters  can  also  be  defined in <a href="postconf.5.html"></a>.  In
       order to do that, specify as PostgreSQL source a name that
       doesn't  begin  with  a  slash  or  a dot.  The PostgreSQL
       parameters will then be  accessible  as  the  name  you've
       given the source in its definition, an underscore, and the
       name of the parameter.  For example, if the map is  speci-
       fied  as  "<a href="pgsql_table.5.html">pgsql</a>:<i>pgsqlname</i>",  the  parameter "hosts" below
       would be defined in <a href="postconf.5.html"></a> as "<i>pgsqlname</i>_hosts".

       Note: with this form, the  passwords  for  the  PostgreSQL
       sources  are  written in <a href="postconf.5.html"></a>, which is normally world-
       readable.  Support for this form  will  be  removed  in  a
       future Postfix version.

       Postfix  2.2  has  enhanced query interfaces for MySQL and
       PostgreSQL, these include  features  previously  available
       only  in the Postfix LDAP client. In the new interface the
       SQL query  is  specified  via  a  single  <b>query</b>  parameter
       (described  in  more  detail  below).   In Postfix 2.1 the
       parameter  precedence  was,  from   highest   to   lowest,
       <b>select_function</b>, <b>query</b> and finally <b>select_field</b>, ...

       With  Postfix  2.2  the <b>query</b> parameter has highest prece-
       dence, and is used in preference to the  still  supported,
       but    slated   to   be   phased   out,   <b>select_function</b>,
       <b>select_field</b>, <b>table</b>, <b>where_field</b> and <b>additional_conditions</b>
       parameters. To migrate to the new interface set:

           <b>query</b> = SELECT <i>select</i><b>_</b><i>function</i>('%s')

       or  in  the  absence  of <b>select_function</b>, the lower prece-

           <b>query</b> = SELECT <i>select</i><b>_</b><i>field</i>
               FROM <i>table</i>
               WHERE <i>where</i><b>_</b><i>field</i> = '%s'

       Use the value, not the name,  of  each  legacy  parameter.
       Note  that the <b>additional_conditions</b> parameter is optional
       and if not empty, will always start with <b>AND</b>.

       When using SQL to store lists such as $<a href="postconf.5.html#mynetworks">mynetworks</a>, $<a href="postconf.5.html#mydestination">mydes</a>-
       <a href="postconf.5.html#mydestination">tination</a>,  $<a href="postconf.5.html#relay_domains">relay_domains</a>, $<a href="postconf.5.html#local_recipient_maps">local_recipient_maps</a>, etc., it
       is important to understand that the table must store  each
       list  member  as a separate key. The table lookup verifies
       the *existence* of the  key.  See  "Postfix  lists  versus
       tables"  in the <a href="DATABASE_README.html">DATABASE_README</a> document for a discussion.

       Do NOT create tables that return the full list of  domains
       in  $<a href="postconf.5.html#mydestination">mydestination</a> or $<a href="postconf.5.html#relay_domains">relay_domains</a> etc., or IP addresses
       in $<a href="postconf.5.html#mynetworks">mynetworks</a>.

       DO create tables with each matching item as a key and with
       an  arbitrary value. With SQL databases it is not uncommon
       to return the key itself or a constant value.

       <b>hosts</b>  The hosts that Postfix will try to connect  to  and
              query from.  Specify <i>unix:</i> for UNIX-domain sockets,
              <i>inet:</i> for TCP connections (default).  Example:
                  hosts = host1.some.domain host2.some.domain
                  hosts = unix:/file/name

              The hosts are tried in random order, with all  con-
              nections  over  UNIX  domain  sockets  being  tried
              before those over TCP.  The connections  are  auto-
              matically  closed  after  being  idle  for  about 1
              minute, and are re-opened as necessary.

              NOTE: the <i>unix:</i> and <i>inet:</i> prefixes are accepted for
              backwards  compatibility  reasons, but are actually
              ignored.  The PostgreSQL client library will always
              try to connect to an UNIX socket if the name starts
              with a slash, and will try a TCP connection  other-

       <b>user, password</b>
              The  user  name  and password to log into the pgsql
              server.  Example:
                  user = someone
                  password = some_password

       <b>dbname</b> The database name on the servers. Example:
                  dbname = customer_database

       <b>query</b>  The SQL query template used to search the database,
              where <b>%s</b> is a substitute for the address Postfix is
              trying to resolve, e.g.
                  query = SELECT replacement FROM aliases WHERE mailbox = '%s'

              This parameter supports the  following  '%'  expan-

              <b>%%</b>     This is replaced by a literal '%' character.
                     (Postfix 2.2 and later)

              <b>%s</b>     This is replaced  by  the  input  key.   SQL
                     quoting  is used to make sure that the input
                     key does not add unexpected  metacharacters.

              <b>%u</b>     When the input key is an address of the form
                     user@domain,  <b>%u</b>  is  replaced  by  the  SQL
                     quoted  local  part  of the address.  Other-
                     wise, <b>%u</b> is replaced by  the  entire  search
                     string.   If  the  localpart  is  empty, the
                     query is suppressed and returns no  results.

              <b>%d</b>     When the input key is an address of the form
                     user@domain,  <b>%d</b>  is  replaced  by  the  SQL
                     quoted  domain  part of the address.  Other-
                     wise, the query is suppressed and returns no

              <b>%[SUD]</b> The  upper-case  equivalents  of  the  above
                     expansions behave  in  the  <b>query</b>  parameter
                     identically  to  their  lower-case  counter-
                     parts.   With  the  <b>result_format</b>  parameter
                     (see  below),  they  expand  the  input  key
                     rather than the result value.

                     The above  %S,  %U  and  %D  expansions  are
                     available with Postfix 2.2 and later

              <b>%[1-9]</b> The  patterns %1, %2, ... %9 are replaced by
                     the corresponding most significant component
                     of  the input key's domain. If the input key
                     is <i></i>, then %1 is <b>com</b>, %2
                     is  <b>example</b> and %3 is <b>mail</b>. If the input key
                     is  unqualified  or  does  not  have  enough
                     domain  components to satisfy all the speci-
                     fied patterns, the query is  suppressed  and
                     returns no results.

                     The  above  %1, ... %9 expansions are avail-
                     able with Postfix 2.2 and later

              The <b>domain</b> parameter  described  below  limits  the
              input  keys  to addresses in matching domains. When
              the <b>domain</b> parameter is non-empty, SQL queries  for
              unqualified  addresses or addresses in non-matching
              domains are suppressed and return no results.

              The precedence of this parameter has  changed  with
              Postfix  2.2, in prior releases the precedence was,
              from highest  to  lowest,  <b>select_function</b>,  <b>query</b>,
              <b>select_field</b>, ...

              With  Postfix  2.2  the <b>query</b> parameter has highest
              precedence, see COMPATIBILITY above.

              NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the <b>query</b> parameter.

       <b>result_format (default: %s</b>)
              Format  template applied to result attributes. Most
              commonly used to append (or prepend)  text  to  the
              result.  This  parameter supports the following '%'

              <b>%%</b>     This is replaced by a literal '%' character.

              <b>%s</b>     This  is replaced by the value of the result
                     attribute.  When  result  is  empty  it   is

              <b>%u</b>     When   the  result  attribute  value  is  an
                     address  of  the  form  user@domain,  <b>%u</b>  is
                     replaced  by  the local part of the address.
                     When the result has an empty localpart it is

              <b>%d</b>     When  a result attribute value is an address
                     of the form user@domain, <b>%d</b> is  replaced  by
                     the domain part of the attribute value. When
                     the result is unqualified it is skipped.

                     The upper-case and decimal digit  expansions
                     interpolate  the  parts  of  the  input  key
                     rather than the result.  Their  behavior  is
                     identical  to that described with <b>query</b>, and
                     in fact because the input key  is  known  in
                     advance,  queries whose key does not contain
                     all the information specified in the  result
                     template   are   suppressed  and  return  no

              For  example,  using  "result_format  =  <a href="smtp.8.html">smtp</a>:[%s]"
              allows one to use a mailHost attribute as the basis
              of a <a href="transport.5.html">transport(5)</a> table. After applying the  result
              format,  multiple  values are concatenated as comma
              separated strings. The expansion_limit and  parame-
              ter explained below allows one to restrict the num-
              ber of values in the result,  which  is  especially
              useful for maps that must return at most one value.

              The default value <b>%s</b>  specifies  that  each  result
              value should be used as is.

              This  parameter  is  available with Postfix 2.2 and

              NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the result format!

       <b>domain (default: no domain list)</b>
              This is a list of domain names, paths to files,  or
              dictionaries.  When specified, only fully qualified
              search keys with  a  *non-empty*  localpart  and  a
              matching  domain  are  eligible  for lookup: 'user'
              lookups, bare domain lookups and "@domain"  lookups
              are  not  performed.  This can significantly reduce
              the query load on the PostgreSQL server.
                  domain =, hash:/etc/postfix/searchdomains

              It is best not to use SQL to store the domains eli-
              gible for SQL lookups.

              This  parameter  is  available with Postfix 2.2 and

              NOTE: DO NOT define  this  parameter  for  <a href="local.8.html">local(8)</a>
              aliases, because the input keys are always unquali-

       <b>expansion_limit (default: 0)</b>
              A limit on the  total  number  of  result  elements
              returned  (as  a  comma separated list) by a lookup
              against the map.  A setting of  zero  disables  the
              limit.  Lookups  fail with a temporary error if the
              limit is exceeded.  Setting the limit to 1  ensures
              that lookups do not return multiple values.

       This  section  describes  query interfaces that are depre-
       cated as of Postfix 2.2.  Please migrate to the new  <b>query</b>
       interface  as  the  old interfaces are slated to be phased

              This parameter specifies a database function  name.
                  select_function = my_lookup_user_alias

              This is equivalent to:
                  query = SELECT my_lookup_user_alias('%s')

              This  parameter  overrides the legacy table-related
              fields (described  below).  With  Postfix  versions
              prior  to  2.2, it also overrides the <b>query</b> parame-
              ter. Starting with Postfix 2.2, the <b>query</b> parameter
              has  highest  precedence,  and  the <b>select_function</b>
              parameter is deprecated.

       The following parameters (with lower precedence  than  the
       <b>select_function</b>  interface described above) can be used to
       build the SQL select statement as follows:

           SELECT [<b>select_field</b>]
           FROM [<b>table</b>]
           WHERE [<b>where_field</b>] = '%s'

       The specifier %s is  replaced  with  each  lookup  by  the
       lookup  key and is escaped so if it contains single quotes
       or other odd characters, it will not cause a parse  error,
       or worse, a security problem.

       Starting  with Postfix 2.2, this interface is obsoleted by
       the more  general  <b>query</b>  interface  described  above.  If
       higher  precedence the <b>query</b> or <b>select_function</b> parameters
       described above are defined, the parameters described here
       are ignored.

              The SQL "select" parameter. Example:
                  <b>select_field</b> = forw_addr

       <b>table</b>  The SQL "select .. from" table name. Example:
                  <b>table</b> = mxaliases

              The SQL "select .. where" parameter. Example:
                  <b>where_field</b> = alias

              Additional conditions to the SQL query. Example:
                  <b>additional_conditions</b> = AND status = 'paid'

<b>SEE ALSO</b>
       <a href="postmap.1.html">postmap(1)</a>, Postfix lookup table manager
       <a href="postconf.5.html">postconf(5)</a>, configuration parameters
       <a href="ldap_table.5.html">ldap_table(5)</a>, LDAP lookup tables
       <a href="mysql_table.5.html">mysql_table(5)</a>, MySQL lookup tables

       <a href="DATABASE_README.html">DATABASE_README</a>, Postfix lookup table overview
       <a href="PGSQL_README.html">PGSQL_README</a>, Postfix PostgreSQL client guide

       The Secure Mailer license must be  distributed  with  this

       PgSQL support was introduced with Postfix version 2.1.

       Based on the MySQL client by:
       Scott Cotton, Joshua Marcus
       IC Group, Inc.

       Ported to PostgreSQL by:
       Aaron Sethman

       Further enhanced by:
       Liviu Daia
       Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy
       P.O. BOX 1-764
       RO-014700 Bucharest, ROMANIA

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