zmv   [plain text]

# function zmv {
# zmv, zcp, zln:
# This is a multiple move based on zsh pattern matching.  To get the full
# power of it, you need a postgraduate degree in zsh.  However, simple
# tasks work OK, so if that's all you need, here are some basic examples:
#   zmv '(*).txt' '$1.lis'
# Rename foo.txt to foo.lis, etc.  The parenthesis is the thing that
# gets replaced by the $1 (not the `*', as happens in mmv, and note the
# `$', not `=', so that you need to quote both words).
#   zmv '(**/)(*).txt '$1$2.lis'
# The same, but scanning through subdirectories.  The $1 becomes the full
# path.  Note that you need to write it like this; you can't get away with
# '(**/*).txt'.
#   zmv -w '**/*.txt' '$1$2.lis'
# This is the lazy version of the one above; zsh picks out the patterns
# for you.  The catch here is that you don't need the / in the replacement
# pattern.  (It's not really a catch, since $1 can be empty.)
#   zmv -C '**/(*).txt' ~/save/'$1'.lis
# Copy, instead of move, all .txt files in subdirectories to .lis files
# in the single directory `~/save'.  Note that the ~ was not quoted.
# You can test things safely by using the `-n' (no, not now) option.
# Clashes, where multiple files are renamed or copied to the same one, are
# picked up.
# Here's a more detailed description.
# Use zsh pattern matching to move, copy or link files, depending on
# the last two characters of the function name.  The general syntax is
#   zmv '<inpat>' '<outstring>'
# <inpat> is a globbing pattern, so it should be quoted to prevent it from
# immediate expansion, while <outstring> is a string that will be
# re-evaluated and hence may contain parameter substitutions, which should
# also be quoted.  Each set of parentheses in <inpat> (apart from those
# around glob qualifiers, if you use the -Q option, and globbing flags) may
# be referred to by a positional parameter in <outstring>, i.e. the first
# (...) matched is given by $1, and so on.  For example,
#   zmv '([a-z])(*).txt' '${(C)1}$2.txt'
# renames algernon.txt to Algernon.txt, boris.txt to Boris.txt and so on.
# The original file matched can be referred to as $f in the second
# argument; accidental or deliberate use of other parameters is at owner's
# risk and is not covered by the (non-existent) guarantee.
# As usual in zsh, /'s don't work inside parentheses.  There is a special
# case for (**/) and (***/):  these have the expected effect that the
# entire relevant path will be substituted by the appropriate positional
# parameter.
# There is a shortcut avoiding the use of parenthesis with the option -w
# (with wildcards), which picks out any expressions `*', `?', `<range>'
# (<->, <1-10>, etc.), `[...]', possibly followed by `#'s, `**/', `***/', and
# automatically parenthesises them. (You should quote any ['s or ]'s which
# appear inside [...] and which do not come from ranges of the form
# `[:alpha:]'.)  So for example, in
#    zmv -w '[[:upper:]]*' '${(L)1}$2'
# the $1 refers to the expression `[[:upper:]]' and the $2 refers to
# `*'. Thus this finds any file with an upper case first character and
# renames it to one with a lowercase first character.  Note that any
# existing parentheses are active, too, so you must count accordingly.
# Furthermore, an expression like '(?)' will be rewritten as '((?))' --- in
# other words, parenthesising of wildcards is independent of any existing
# parentheses.
# Any file whose name is not changed by the substitution is simply ignored.
# Any error --- a substitution resulted in an empty string, two
# substitutions gave the same result, the destination was an existing
# regular file and -f was not given --- causes the entire function to abort
# without doing anything.
# Options:
#  -f  force overwriting of destination files.  Not currently passed
#      down to the mv/cp/ln command due to vagaries of implementations
#      (but you can use -o-f to do that).
#  -i  interactive: show each line to be executed and ask the user whether
#      to execute it.  Y or y will execute it, anything else will skip it.
#      Note that you just need to type one character.
#  -n  no execution: print what would happen, but don't do it.
#  -q  Turn bare glob qualifiers off:  now assumed by default, so this
#      has no effect.
#  -Q  Force bare glob qualifiers on.  Don't turn this on unless you are
#      actually using glob qualifiers in a pattern (see below).
#  -s  symbolic, passed down to ln; only works with zln or z?? -L.
#  -v  verbose: print line as it's being executed.
#  -o <optstring>
#      <optstring> will be split into words and passed down verbatim
#      to the cp, ln or mv called to perform the work.  It will probably
#      begin with a `-'.
#  -p <program>
#      Call <program> instead of cp, ln or mv.  Whatever it does, it should
#      at least understand the form '<program> -- <oldname> <newname>',
#      where <oldname> and <newname> are filenames generated.
#  -w  Pick out wildcard parts of the pattern, as described above, and
#      implicitly add parentheses for referring to them.
#  -C
#  -L
#  -M  Force cp, ln or mv, respectively, regardless of the name of the
#      function.
# Bugs:
#   Parenthesised expressions can be confused with glob qualifiers, for
#   example a trailing '(*)' would be treated as a glob qualifier in
#   ordinary globbing.  This has proved so annoying that glob qualifiers
#   are now turned off by default.  To force the use of glob qualifiers,
#   give the flag -Q.
#   The second argument is re-evaluated in order to expand the parameters,
#   so quoting may be a bit haphazard.  In particular, a double quote
#   will need an extra level of quoting.
#   The pattern is always treated as an extendedglob pattern.  This
#   can also be interpreted as a feature.
# Unbugs:
#   You don't need braces around the 1 in expressions like '$1t' as
#   non-positional parameters may not start with a number, although
#   paranoiacs like the author will probably put them there anyway.

emulate -RL zsh
setopt extendedglob

local f g args match mbegin mend files action myname tmpf opt exec
local opt_f opt_i opt_n opt_q opt_Q opt_s opt_M opt_C opt_L 
local opt_o opt_p opt_v opt_w MATCH MBEGIN MEND
local pat repl errstr fpat hasglobqual opat
typeset -A from to
integer stat

while getopts ":o:p:MCLfinqQsvw" opt; do
  if [[ $opt = "?" ]]; then
    print -P "%N: unrecognized option: -$OPTARG" >&2
    return 1
  eval "opt_$opt=${OPTARG:--$opt}"
(( OPTIND > 1 )) && shift $(( OPTIND - 1 ))

[[ -z $opt_Q ]] && setopt nobareglobqual
[[ -n $opt_M ]] && action=mv
[[ -n $opt_C ]] && action=cp
[[ -n $opt_L ]] && action=ln
[[ -n $opt_p ]] && action=$opt_p

if (( $# != 2 )); then
  print -P "Usage:
  %N oldpattern newpattern
where oldpattern contains parenthesis surrounding patterns which will
be replaced in turn by $1, $2, ... in newpattern.  For example,
  %N '(*).lis' '\$1.txt'
renames 'foo.lis' to 'foo.txt', 'my.old.stuff.lis' to 'my.old.stuff.txt',
and so on." >&2
  return 1


if [[ -z $action ]]; then
  # We can't necessarily get the name of the function directly, because
  # of no_function_argzero stupidity.
  print -P %N >$tmpf
  rm -f $tmpf


  if [[ $action != (cp|mv|ln) ]]; then
    print "Action $action not recognised: must be cp, mv or ln." >&2
    return 1

if [[ -n $opt_s && $action != ln ]]; then
  print -P "%N: invalid option: -s" >&2
  return 1

if [[ -n $opt_w ]]; then
  # Parenthesise all wildcards.
  local newpat
  # Well, this seems to work.
  # The tricky bit is getting all forms of [...] correct, but as long
  # as we require inactive bits to be backslashed its not so bad.
  if [[ $newpat = $pat ]]; then
    print -P "%N: warning: no wildcards were found" >&2

if [[ -n $opt_Q && $pat = (#b)(*)\([^\)\|\~]##\) ]]; then
  # strip off qualifiers for use as ordinary pattern

if [[ $pat = (#b)(*)\((\*\*##/)\)(*) ]]; then
  # Now make sure we do depth-first searching.
  # This is so that the names of any files are altered before the
  # names of the directories they are in.
  if [[ -n $opt_Q && -n $hasglobqual ]]; then
    setopt bareglobqual

[[ -n $hasglobqual ]] && pat=$opat


for f in $files; do
  if [[ $pat = (#b)(*)\(\*\*##/\)(*) ]]; then
    # This looks like a recursive glob.  This isn't good enough,
    # because we should really enforce that $match[1] and $match[2]
    # don't match slashes unless they were explicitly given.  But
    # it's a start.  It's fine for the classic case where (**/) is
    # at the start of the pattern.
  [[ -e $f && $f = (#b)${~pat} ]] || continue
  set -- "$match[@]"
  eval g=\"$repl\"
  if [[ -z $g ]]; then
    errs=($errs "$f expanded to empty string")
  elif [[ $f = $g ]]; then
    # don't cause error: more useful just to skip
    #   errs=($errs "$f not altered by substitution")
    [[ -n $opt_v ]] && print "$f not altered, ignored"
  elif [[ -n $from[$g] && ! -d $g ]]; then
    errs=($errs "$f and $from[$g] both map to $g")
  elif [[ -f $g && -z $opt_f ]]; then
    errs=($errs "file exists: $g")

if (( $#errs )); then
  print -P "%N: error(s) in substitution:" >&2
  print -l $errs >&2
  return 1

for f in $files; do
  [[ -z $to[$f] ]] && continue
  exec=($action ${=opt_o} $opt_s -- $f $to[$f])
  [[ -n $opt_i$opt_n$opt_v ]] && print -- $exec
  if [[ -n $opt_i ]]; then
    read -q 'opt?Execute? ' || continue
  if [[ -z $opt_n ]]; then
    $exec || stat=1

return $stat
# }