if_lua.txt   [plain text]

*if_lua.txt*    For Vim version 8.0.  Last change: 2015 Oct 16

		  VIM REFERENCE MANUAL    by Luis Carvalho

The Lua Interface to Vim				*lua* *Lua*

1. Commands			|lua-commands|
2. The vim module		|lua-vim|
3. List userdata		|lua-list|
4. Dict userdata		|lua-dict|
5. Funcref userdata		|lua-funcref|
6. Buffer userdata		|lua-buffer|
7. Window userdata		|lua-window|
8. The luaeval function		|lua-luaeval|
9. Dynamic loading		|lua-dynamic|

{Vi does not have any of these commands}

The Lua interface is available only when Vim was compiled with the
|+lua| feature.

1. Commands						*lua-commands*

:[range]lua {chunk}
			Execute Lua chunk {chunk}.    {not in Vi}

	:lua print("Hello, Vim!")
	:lua local curbuf = vim.buffer() curbuf[7] = "line #7"

:[range]lua << {endmarker}
			Execute Lua script {script}.  {not in Vi}
			Note: This command doesn't work when the Lua
			feature wasn't compiled in.  To avoid errors, see

{endmarker} must NOT be preceded by any white space.  If {endmarker} is
omitted from after the "<<", a dot '.' must be used after {script}, like
for the |:append| and |:insert| commands.
This form of the |:lua| command is mainly useful for including Lua code
in Vim scripts.

	function! CurrentLineInfo()
	lua << EOF
	local linenr = vim.window().line
	local curline = vim.buffer()[linenr]
	print(string.format("Current line [%d] has %d chars",
		linenr, #curline))
To see what version of Lua you have: >
	:lua print(_VERSION)

If you use LuaJIT you can also use this: >
	:lua print(jit.version)

:[range]luado {body}	Execute Lua function "function (line, linenr) {body}
			end" for each line in the [range], with the function
			argument being set to the text of each line in turn,
			without a trailing <EOL>, and the current line number.
			If the value returned by the function is a string it
			becomes the text of the line in the current turn. The
			default for [range] is the whole file: "1,$".
							{not in Vi}

	:luado return string.format("%s\t%d", line:reverse(), #line)

	:lua require"lpeg"
	:lua -- balanced parenthesis grammar:
	:lua bp = lpeg.P{ "(" * ((1 - lpeg.S"()") + lpeg.V(1))^0 * ")" }
	:luado if bp:match(line) then return "-->\t" .. line end

:[range]luafile {file}
			Execute Lua script in {file}. {not in Vi}
			The whole argument is used as a single file name.

	:luafile script.lua
	:luafile %

All these commands execute a Lua chunk from either the command line (:lua and
:luado) or a file (:luafile) with the given line [range]. Similarly to the Lua
interpreter, each chunk has its own scope and so only global variables are
shared between command calls. All Lua default libraries are available. In
addition, Lua "print" function has its output redirected to the Vim message
area, with arguments separated by a white space instead of a tab.

Lua uses the "vim" module (see |lua-vim|) to issue commands to Vim
and manage buffers (|lua-buffer|) and windows (|lua-window|). However,
procedures that alter buffer content, open new buffers, and change cursor
position are restricted when the command is executed in the |sandbox|.

2. The vim module					*lua-vim*

Lua interfaces Vim through the "vim" module. The first and last line of the
input range are stored in "vim.firstline" and "vim.lastline" respectively. The
module also includes routines for buffer, window, and current line queries,
Vim evaluation and command execution, and others.

	vim.list([arg])		Returns an empty list or, if "arg" is a Lua
				table with numeric keys 1, ..., n (a
				"sequence"), returns a list l such that l[i] =
				arg[i] for i = 1, ..., n (see |List|).
				Non-numeric keys are not used to initialize
				the list. See also |lua-eval| for conversion
				rules. Example: >
					:lua t = {math.pi, false, say = 'hi'}
					:echo luaeval('vim.list(t)')
					:" [3.141593, 0], 'say' is ignored
	vim.dict([arg])		Returns an empty dictionary or, if "arg" is a
				Lua table, returns a dict d such that d[k] =
				arg[k] for all string keys k in "arg" (see
				|Dictionary|). Number keys are converted to
				strings. Keys that are not strings are not
				used to initialize the dictionary. See also
				|lua-eval| for conversion rules. Example: >
					:lua t = {math.pi, false, say = 'hi'}
					:echo luaeval('vim.dict(t)')
					:" {'say': 'hi'}, numeric keys ignored
	vim.funcref({name})	Returns a Funcref to function {name} (see
				|Funcref|). It is equivalent to Vim's
				"function". NOT IMPLEMENTED YET

	vim.buffer([arg])	If "arg" is a number, returns buffer with
				number "arg" in the buffer list or, if "arg"
				is a string, returns buffer whose full or short
				name is "arg". In both cases, returns 'nil'
				(nil value, not string) if the buffer is not
				found. Otherwise, if "toboolean(arg)" is
				'true' returns the first buffer in the buffer
				list or else the current buffer.

	vim.window([arg])	If "arg" is a number, returns window with
				number "arg" or 'nil' (nil value, not string)
				if not found. Otherwise, if "toboolean(arg)"
				is 'true' returns the first window or else the
				current window.

	vim.type({arg})		Returns the type of {arg}. It is equivalent to
				Lua's "type" function, but returns "list",
				"dict", "funcref", "buffer", or "window" if
				{arg} is a list, dictionary, funcref, buffer,
				or window, respectively. Examples: >
					:lua l = vim.list()
					:lua print(type(l), vim.type(l))
					:" userdata list
	vim.command({cmd})	Executes the vim (ex-mode) command {cmd}.
				Examples: >
					:lua vim.command"set tw=60"
					:lua vim.command"normal ddp"
	vim.eval({expr})	Evaluates expression {expr} (see |expression|),
				converts the result to Lua, and returns it.
				Vim strings and numbers are directly converted
				to Lua strings and numbers respectively. Vim
				lists and dictionaries are converted to Lua
				userdata (see |lua-list| and |lua-dict|).
				Examples: >
					:lua tw = vim.eval"&tw"
					:lua print(vim.eval"{'a': 'one'}".a)
	vim.line()		Returns the current line (without the trailing
				<EOL>), a Lua string.

	vim.beep()		Beeps.

	vim.open({fname})	Opens a new buffer for file {fname} and
				returns it. Note that the buffer is not set as

3. List userdata					*lua-list*

List userdata represent vim lists, and the interface tries to follow closely
Vim's syntax for lists. Since lists are objects, changes in list references in
Lua are reflected in Vim and vice-versa. A list "l" has the following
properties and methods:

	o "#l" is the number of items in list "l", equivalent to "len(l)"
	    in Vim.
	o "l[k]" returns the k-th item in "l"; "l" is zero-indexed, as in Vim.
	    To modify the k-th item, simply do "l[k] = newitem"; in
	    particular, "l[k] = nil" removes the k-th item from "l".
	o "l()" returns an iterator for "l".

	o "l:add(item)" appends "item" to the end of "l".
	o "l:insert(item[, pos])" inserts "item" at (optional)
	    position "pos" in the list. The default value for "pos" is 0.

	:let l = [1, 'item']
	:lua l = vim.eval('l') -- same 'l'
	:lua l:add(vim.list())
	:lua l[0] = math.pi
	:echo l[0] " 3.141593
	:lua l[0] = nil -- remove first item
	:lua l:insert(true, 1)
	:lua print(l, #l, l[0], l[1], l[-1])
	:lua for item in l() do print(item) end

4. Dict userdata					*lua-dict*

Similarly to list userdata, dict userdata represent vim dictionaries; since
dictionaries are also objects, references are kept between Lua and Vim. A dict
"d" has the following properties:

	o "#d" is the number of items in dict "d", equivalent to "len(d)"
	    in Vim.
	o "d.key" or "d['key']" returns the value at entry "key" in "d".
	    To modify the entry at this key, simply do "d.key = newvalue"; in
	    particular, "d.key = nil" removes the entry from "d".
	o "d()" returns an iterator for "d" and is equivalent to "items(d)" in

	:let d = {'n':10}
	:lua d = vim.eval('d') -- same 'd'
	:lua print(d, d.n, #d)
	:let d.self = d
	:lua for k, v in d() do print(d, k, v) end
	:lua d.x = math.pi
	:lua d.self = nil -- remove entry
	:echo d

5. Funcref userdata					*lua-funcref*

Funcref userdata represent funcref variables in Vim. Funcrefs that were
defined with a "dict" attribute need to be obtained as a dictionary key
in order to have "self" properly assigned to the dictionary (see examples
below.) A funcref "f" has the following properties:

	o "#f" is the name of the function referenced by "f"
	o "f(...)" calls the function referenced by "f" (with arguments)

	:function I(x)
	:  return a:x
	:  endfunction
	:let R = function('I')
	:lua i1 = vim.funcref('I')
	:lua i2 = vim.eval('R')
	:lua print(#i1, #i2) -- both 'I'
	:lua print(i1, i2, #i2(i1) == #i1(i2))
	:function Mylen() dict
	:  return len(self.data)
	:  endfunction
	:let mydict = {'data': [0, 1, 2, 3]}
	:lua d = vim.eval('mydict'); d.len = vim.funcref('Mylen')
	:echo mydict.len()
	:lua l = d.len -- assign d as 'self'
	:lua print(l())

6. Buffer userdata					*lua-buffer*

Buffer userdata represent vim buffers. A buffer userdata "b" has the following
properties and methods:

	o "b()" sets "b" as the current buffer.
	o "#b" is the number of lines in buffer "b".
	o "b[k]" represents line number k: "b[k] = newline" replaces line k
	    with string "newline" and "b[k] = nil" deletes line k.
	o "b.name" contains the short name of buffer "b" (read-only).
	o "b.fname" contains the full name of buffer "b" (read-only).
	o "b.number" contains the position of buffer "b" in the buffer list

	o "b:insert(newline[, pos])" inserts string "newline" at (optional)
	    position "pos" in the buffer. The default value for "pos" is
	    "#b + 1". If "pos == 0" then "newline" becomes the first line in
	    the buffer.
	o "b:next()" returns the buffer next to "b" in the buffer list.
	o "b:previous()" returns the buffer previous to "b" in the buffer
	o "b:isvalid()" returns 'true' (boolean) if buffer "b" corresponds to
	    a "real" (not freed from memory) Vim buffer.

	:lua b = vim.buffer() -- current buffer
	:lua print(b.name, b.number)
	:lua b[1] = "first line"
	:lua b:insert("FIRST!", 0)
	:lua b[1] = nil -- delete top line
	:lua for i=1,3 do b:insert(math.random()) end
	:3,4lua for i=vim.lastline,vim.firstline,-1 do b[i] = nil end
	:lua vim.open"myfile"() -- open buffer and set it as current

	function! ListBuffers()
	lua << EOF
	local b = vim.buffer(true) -- first buffer in list
	while b ~= nil do
		print(b.number, b.name, #b)
		b = b:next()

7. Window userdata					*lua-window*

Window objects represent vim windows. A window userdata "w" has the following
properties and methods:

	o "w()" sets "w" as the current window.
	o "w.buffer" contains the buffer of window "w" (read-only).
	o "w.line" represents the cursor line position in window "w".
	o "w.col" represents the cursor column position in window "w".
	o "w.width" represents the width of window "w".
	o "w.height" represents the height of window "w".

	o "w:next()" returns the window next to "w".
	o "w:previous()" returns the window previous to "w".
	o "w:isvalid()" returns 'true' (boolean) if window "w" corresponds to
	    a "real" (not freed from memory) Vim window.

	:lua w = vim.window() -- current window
	:lua print(w.buffer.name, w.line, w.col)
	:lua w.width = w.width + math.random(10)
	:lua w.height = 2 * math.random() * w.height
	:lua n,w = 0,vim.window(true) while w~=nil do n,w = n + 1,w:next() end
	:lua print("There are " .. n .. " windows")

8. The luaeval function					*lua-luaeval* *lua-eval*

The (dual) equivalent of "vim.eval" for passing Lua values to Vim is
"luaeval". "luaeval" takes an expression string and an optional argument and
returns the result of the expression. It is semantically equivalent in Lua to:
	local chunkheader = "local _A = select(1, ...) return "
	function luaeval (expstr, arg)
	    local chunk = assert(loadstring(chunkheader .. expstr, "luaeval"))
	    return chunk(arg) -- return typval
Note that "_A" receives the argument to "luaeval". Lua numbers, strings, and
list, dict, and funcref userdata are converted to their Vim respective types,
while Lua booleans are converted to numbers. An error is thrown if conversion
of any of the remaining Lua types, including userdata other than lists, dicts,
and funcrefs, is attempted.

Examples: >

	:echo luaeval('math.pi')
	:lua a = vim.list():add('newlist')
	:let a = luaeval('a')
	:echo a[0] " 'newlist'
	:function Rand(x,y) " random uniform between x and y
	:  return luaeval('(_A.y-_A.x)*math.random()+_A.x', {'x':a:x,'y':a:y})
	:  endfunction
	:echo Rand(1,10)

9. Dynamic loading				    *lua-dynamic*

On MS-Windows and Unix the Lua library can be loaded dynamically.  The
|:version| output then includes |+lua/dyn|.

This means that Vim will search for the Lua DLL or shared library file only
when needed.  When you don't use the Lua interface you don't need it, thus
you can use Vim without this file.

MS-Windows ~

To use the Lua interface the Lua DLL must be in your search path.  In a
console window type "path" to see what directories are used.  The 'luadll'
option can be also used to specify the Lua DLL.  The version of the DLL must
match the Lua version Vim was compiled with.

Unix ~

The 'luadll' option can be used to specify the Lua shared library file instead
of DYNAMIC_LUA_DLL file what was specified at compile time.  The version of
the shared library must match the Lua version Vim was compiled with.