dns-sd.c   [plain text]


/* -*- Mode: C; tab-width: 4 -*-
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2002-2015 Apple Inc. All rights reserved.
 *
 * Disclaimer: IMPORTANT:  This Apple software is supplied to you by Apple Inc.
 * ("Apple") in consideration of your agreement to the following terms, and your
 * use, installation, modification or redistribution of this Apple software
 * constitutes acceptance of these terms.  If you do not agree with these terms,
 * please do not use, install, modify or redistribute this Apple software.
 *
 * In consideration of your agreement to abide by the following terms, and subject
 * to these terms, Apple grants you a personal, non-exclusive license, under Apple's
 * copyrights in this original Apple software (the "Apple Software"), to use,
 * reproduce, modify and redistribute the Apple Software, with or without
 * modifications, in source and/or binary forms; provided that if you redistribute
 * the Apple Software in its entirety and without modifications, you must retain
 * this notice and the following text and disclaimers in all such redistributions of
 * the Apple Software.  Neither the name, trademarks, service marks or logos of
 * Apple Inc. may be used to endorse or promote products derived from the
 * Apple Software without specific prior written permission from Apple.  Except as
 * expressly stated in this notice, no other rights or licenses, express or implied,
 * are granted by Apple herein, including but not limited to any patent rights that
 * may be infringed by your derivative works or by other works in which the Apple
 * Software may be incorporated.
 *
 * The Apple Software is provided by Apple on an "AS IS" basis.  APPLE MAKES NO
 * WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION THE IMPLIED
 * WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
 * PURPOSE, REGARDING THE APPLE SOFTWARE OR ITS USE AND OPERATION ALONE OR IN
 * COMBINATION WITH YOUR PRODUCTS.
 *
 * IN NO EVENT SHALL APPLE BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR
 * CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE
 * GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
 * ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE, REPRODUCTION, MODIFICATION AND/OR DISTRIBUTION
 * OF THE APPLE SOFTWARE, HOWEVER CAUSED AND WHETHER UNDER THEORY OF CONTRACT, TORT
 * (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), STRICT LIABILITY OR OTHERWISE, EVEN IF APPLE HAS BEEN
 * ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
 *
   To build this tool, copy and paste the following into a command line:

   OS X:
   gcc dns-sd.c -o dns-sd

   POSIX systems:
   gcc dns-sd.c -o dns-sd -I../mDNSShared -ldns_sd

   Windows:
   cl dns-sd.c -I../mDNSShared -DNOT_HAVE_GETOPT ws2_32.lib ..\mDNSWindows\DLL\Release\dnssd.lib
   (may require that you run a Visual Studio script such as vsvars32.bat first)
 */

// For testing changes to dnssd_clientstub.c, uncomment this line and the code will be compiled
// with an embedded copy of the client stub instead of linking the system library version at runtime.
// This also useful to work around link errors when you're working on an older version of Mac OS X,
// and trying to build a newer version of the "dns-sd" command which uses new API entry points that
// aren't in the system's /usr/lib/libSystem.dylib.
//#define TEST_NEW_CLIENTSTUB 1

#include <ctype.h>
#include <stdio.h>          // For stdout, stderr
#include <stdlib.h>         // For exit()
#include <string.h>         // For strlen(), strcpy()
#include <errno.h>          // For errno, EINTR
#include <time.h>
#include <sys/types.h>      // For u_char

#ifdef _WIN32
    #include <winsock2.h>
    #include <ws2tcpip.h>
    #include <Iphlpapi.h>
    #include <process.h>
typedef int pid_t;
    #define getpid     _getpid
    #define strcasecmp _stricmp
    #define snprintf   _snprintf
static const char kFilePathSep = '\\';
    #ifndef HeapEnableTerminationOnCorruption
    #     define HeapEnableTerminationOnCorruption (HEAP_INFORMATION_CLASS)1
    #endif
    #if !defined(IFNAMSIZ)
     #define IFNAMSIZ 16
    #endif
    #define if_nametoindex if_nametoindex_win
    #define if_indextoname if_indextoname_win

typedef PCHAR (WINAPI * if_indextoname_funcptr_t)(ULONG index, PCHAR name);
typedef ULONG (WINAPI * if_nametoindex_funcptr_t)(PCSTR name);

unsigned if_nametoindex_win(const char *ifname)
{
    HMODULE library;
    unsigned index = 0;

    // Try and load the IP helper library dll
    if ((library = LoadLibrary(TEXT("Iphlpapi")) ) != NULL )
    {
        if_nametoindex_funcptr_t if_nametoindex_funcptr;

        // On Vista and above there is a Posix like implementation of if_nametoindex
        if ((if_nametoindex_funcptr = (if_nametoindex_funcptr_t) GetProcAddress(library, "if_nametoindex")) != NULL )
        {
            index = if_nametoindex_funcptr(ifname);
        }

        FreeLibrary(library);
    }

    return index;
}

char * if_indextoname_win( unsigned ifindex, char *ifname)
{
    HMODULE library;
    char * name = NULL;

    // Try and load the IP helper library dll
    if ((library = LoadLibrary(TEXT("Iphlpapi")) ) != NULL )
    {
        if_indextoname_funcptr_t if_indextoname_funcptr;

        // On Vista and above there is a Posix like implementation of if_indextoname
        if ((if_indextoname_funcptr = (if_indextoname_funcptr_t) GetProcAddress(library, "if_indextoname")) != NULL )
        {
            name = if_indextoname_funcptr(ifindex, ifname);
        }

        FreeLibrary(library);
    }

    return name;
}

static size_t _sa_len(const struct sockaddr *addr)
{
    if (addr->sa_family == AF_INET) return (sizeof(struct sockaddr_in));
    else if (addr->sa_family == AF_INET6) return (sizeof(struct sockaddr_in6));
    else return (sizeof(struct sockaddr));
}

#   define SA_LEN(addr) (_sa_len(addr))

#else
    #include <unistd.h>         // For getopt() and optind
    #include <netdb.h>          // For getaddrinfo()
    #include <sys/time.h>       // For struct timeval
    #include <sys/socket.h>     // For AF_INET
    #include <netinet/in.h>     // For struct sockaddr_in()
    #include <arpa/inet.h>      // For inet_addr()
    #include <net/if.h>         // For if_nametoindex()
static const char kFilePathSep = '/';
// #ifndef NOT_HAVE_SA_LEN
//  #define SA_LEN(addr) ((addr)->sa_len)
// #else
    #define SA_LEN(addr) (((addr)->sa_family == AF_INET6) ? sizeof(struct sockaddr_in6) : sizeof(struct sockaddr_in))
// #endif
#endif

#if (TEST_NEW_CLIENTSTUB && !defined(__APPLE_API_PRIVATE))
#define __APPLE_API_PRIVATE 1
#endif

// DNSServiceSetDispatchQueue is not supported on 10.6 & prior
#if !TEST_NEW_CLIENTSTUB && defined(__ENVIRONMENT_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED__) && (__ENVIRONMENT_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED__ - (__ENVIRONMENT_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED__ % 10) <= 1060)
#undef _DNS_SD_LIBDISPATCH
#endif
#include "dns_sd.h"
#include "dns_sd_internal.h"
#include "ClientCommon.h"

#if TEST_NEW_CLIENTSTUB
#include "../mDNSShared/dnssd_ipc.c"
#include "../mDNSShared/dnssd_clientlib.c"
#include "../mDNSShared/dnssd_clientstub.c"
#endif

//*************************************************************************************************************
// Globals

#define DS_FIXED_SIZE   4
typedef struct
{
    unsigned short keyTag;
    unsigned char alg; 
    unsigned char digestType;
    unsigned char  *digest;
} rdataDS;

#define DNSKEY_FIXED_SIZE    4
typedef struct
{
    unsigned short flags;
    unsigned char proto;
    unsigned char alg;
    unsigned char *data;
} rdataDNSKey;

//size of rdataRRSIG excluding signerName and signature (which are variable fields) 
#define RRSIG_FIXED_SIZE      18
typedef struct
{
    unsigned short typeCovered;
    unsigned char alg; 
    unsigned char labels;
    unsigned int origTTL;
    unsigned int sigExpireTime;
    unsigned int sigInceptTime;
    unsigned short keyTag;
    char signerName[256];
    //unsigned char *signature
} rdataRRSig;

#define RR_TYPE_SIZE 16

typedef union { unsigned char b[2]; unsigned short NotAnInteger; } Opaque16;

static int operation;
static uint32_t opinterface = kDNSServiceInterfaceIndexAny;
static DNSServiceRef client    = NULL;
static DNSServiceRef client_pa = NULL;  // DNSServiceRef for RegisterProxyAddressRecord
static DNSServiceRef sc1, sc2, sc3;     // DNSServiceRefs for kDNSServiceFlagsShareConnection testing

static int num_printed;
static char addtest = 0;
static DNSRecordRef record = NULL;
static char myhinfoW[14] = "\002PC\012Windows XP";
static char myhinfoX[ 9] = "\003Mac\004OS X";
static char updatetest[3] = "\002AA";
static char bigNULL[8192];  // 8K is maximum rdata we support

#if _DNS_SD_LIBDISPATCH
dispatch_queue_t main_queue;
dispatch_source_t timer_source;
#endif

// Note: the select() implementation on Windows (Winsock2) fails with any timeout much larger than this
#define LONG_TIME 100000000

static volatile int stopNow = 0;
static volatile int timeOut = LONG_TIME;

#if _DNS_SD_LIBDISPATCH
#define EXIT_IF_LIBDISPATCH_FATAL_ERROR(E) \
    if (main_queue && (E) == kDNSServiceErr_ServiceNotRunning) { fprintf(stderr, "Error code %d\n", (E)); exit(0); }
#else
#define EXIT_IF_LIBDISPATCH_FATAL_ERROR(E)
#endif

//*************************************************************************************************************
// Supporting Utility Functions
static uint16_t GetRRClass(const char *s)   
{
    if (!strcasecmp(s, "IN")) 
        return kDNSServiceClass_IN;
    else
        return(atoi(s));
}     

static uint16_t GetRRType(const char *s)
{
    if      (!strcasecmp(s, "A"       )) return(kDNSServiceType_A);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "NS"      )) return(kDNSServiceType_NS);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "MD"      )) return(kDNSServiceType_MD);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "MF"      )) return(kDNSServiceType_MF);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "CNAME"   )) return(kDNSServiceType_CNAME);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "SOA"     )) return(kDNSServiceType_SOA);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "MB"      )) return(kDNSServiceType_MB);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "MG"      )) return(kDNSServiceType_MG);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "MR"      )) return(kDNSServiceType_MR);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "NULL"    )) return(kDNSServiceType_NULL);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "WKS"     )) return(kDNSServiceType_WKS);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "PTR"     )) return(kDNSServiceType_PTR);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "HINFO"   )) return(kDNSServiceType_HINFO);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "MINFO"   )) return(kDNSServiceType_MINFO);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "MX"      )) return(kDNSServiceType_MX);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "TXT"     )) return(kDNSServiceType_TXT);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "RP"      )) return(kDNSServiceType_RP);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "AFSDB"   )) return(kDNSServiceType_AFSDB);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "X25"     )) return(kDNSServiceType_X25);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "ISDN"    )) return(kDNSServiceType_ISDN);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "RT"      )) return(kDNSServiceType_RT);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "NSAP"    )) return(kDNSServiceType_NSAP);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "NSAP_PTR")) return(kDNSServiceType_NSAP_PTR);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "SIG"     )) return(kDNSServiceType_SIG);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "KEY"     )) return(kDNSServiceType_KEY);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "PX"      )) return(kDNSServiceType_PX);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "GPOS"    )) return(kDNSServiceType_GPOS);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "AAAA"    )) return(kDNSServiceType_AAAA);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "LOC"     )) return(kDNSServiceType_LOC);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "NXT"     )) return(kDNSServiceType_NXT);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "EID"     )) return(kDNSServiceType_EID);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "NIMLOC"  )) return(kDNSServiceType_NIMLOC);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "SRV"     )) return(kDNSServiceType_SRV);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "ATMA"    )) return(kDNSServiceType_ATMA);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "NAPTR"   )) return(kDNSServiceType_NAPTR);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "KX"      )) return(kDNSServiceType_KX);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "CERT"    )) return(kDNSServiceType_CERT);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "A6"      )) return(kDNSServiceType_A6);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "DNAME"   )) return(kDNSServiceType_DNAME);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "SINK"    )) return(kDNSServiceType_SINK);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "OPT"     )) return(kDNSServiceType_OPT);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "TKEY"    )) return(kDNSServiceType_TKEY);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "TSIG"    )) return(kDNSServiceType_TSIG);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "IXFR"    )) return(kDNSServiceType_IXFR);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "AXFR"    )) return(kDNSServiceType_AXFR);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "MAILB"   )) return(kDNSServiceType_MAILB);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "MAILA"   )) return(kDNSServiceType_MAILA);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "dnskey"  )) return(kDNSServiceType_DNSKEY);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "ds"      )) return(kDNSServiceType_DS);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "rrsig"   )) return(kDNSServiceType_RRSIG);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "nsec"    )) return(kDNSServiceType_NSEC);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "ANY"     )) return(kDNSServiceType_ANY);
    else return(atoi(s));
}

static char *DNSTypeName(unsigned short rr_type)
{
    switch (rr_type)
    {
        case kDNSServiceType_A:          return("Addr");
        case kDNSServiceType_NS:         return("NS");
        case kDNSServiceType_MD:         return("MD");
        case kDNSServiceType_MF:         return("MF");
        case kDNSServiceType_CNAME:      return("CNAME");
        case kDNSServiceType_SOA:        return("SOA");
        case kDNSServiceType_MB:         return("MB");
        case kDNSServiceType_MG:         return("MG");
        case kDNSServiceType_MR:         return("MR");
        case kDNSServiceType_NULL:       return("NULL");
        case kDNSServiceType_WKS:        return("WKS");
        case kDNSServiceType_PTR:        return("PTR");
        case kDNSServiceType_HINFO:      return("HINFO");
        case kDNSServiceType_MINFO:      return("MINFO");
        case kDNSServiceType_MX:         return("MX");
        case kDNSServiceType_TXT:        return("TXT");
        case kDNSServiceType_RP:         return("RP");
        case kDNSServiceType_AFSDB:      return("AFSDB");
        case kDNSServiceType_X25:        return("X25");
        case kDNSServiceType_ISDN:       return("ISDN");
        case kDNSServiceType_RT:         return("RT");
        case kDNSServiceType_NSAP:       return("NSAP");
        case kDNSServiceType_NSAP_PTR:   return("NSAP_PTR");
        case kDNSServiceType_SIG:        return("SIG");
        case kDNSServiceType_KEY:        return("KEY");
        case kDNSServiceType_PX:         return("PX");
        case kDNSServiceType_GPOS:       return("GPOS");
        case kDNSServiceType_AAAA:       return("AAAA");
        case kDNSServiceType_LOC:        return("LOC");
        case kDNSServiceType_NXT:        return("NXT");
        case kDNSServiceType_EID:        return("EID");
        case kDNSServiceType_NIMLOC:     return("NIMLOC");
        case kDNSServiceType_SRV:        return("SRV");
        case kDNSServiceType_ATMA:       return("ATMA");
        case kDNSServiceType_NAPTR:      return("NAPTR");
        case kDNSServiceType_KX:         return("KX");
        case kDNSServiceType_CERT:       return("CERT");
        case kDNSServiceType_A6:         return("A6");
        case kDNSServiceType_DNAME:      return("DNAME");
        case kDNSServiceType_SINK:       return("SINK");
        case kDNSServiceType_OPT:        return("OPT");
        case kDNSServiceType_APL:        return("APL");
        case kDNSServiceType_DS:         return("DS");
        case kDNSServiceType_SSHFP:      return("SSHFP");
        case kDNSServiceType_IPSECKEY:   return("IPSECKEY");
        case kDNSServiceType_RRSIG:      return("RRSIG");
        case kDNSServiceType_NSEC:       return("NSEC");
        case kDNSServiceType_DNSKEY:     return("DNSKEY");
        case kDNSServiceType_DHCID:      return("DHCID");
        case kDNSServiceType_NSEC3:      return("NSEC3");
        case kDNSServiceType_NSEC3PARAM: return("NSEC3PARAM");
        case kDNSServiceType_HIP:        return("HIP");
        case kDNSServiceType_SPF:        return("SPF");
        case kDNSServiceType_UINFO:      return("UINFO");
        case kDNSServiceType_UID:        return("UID");
        case kDNSServiceType_GID:        return("GID");
        case kDNSServiceType_UNSPEC:     return("UNSPEC");
        case kDNSServiceType_TKEY:       return("TKEY");
        case kDNSServiceType_TSIG:       return("TSIG");
        case kDNSServiceType_IXFR:       return("IXFR");
        case kDNSServiceType_AXFR:       return("AXFR");
        case kDNSServiceType_MAILB:      return("MAILB");
        case kDNSServiceType_MAILA:      return("MAILA");
        case kDNSServiceType_ANY:        return("ANY");
        default:            
        {
            static char buffer[RR_TYPE_SIZE];
            snprintf(buffer, sizeof(buffer), "TYPE%d", rr_type);
            return(buffer);
        }
    }
}

static unsigned short swap16(unsigned short x)
{
    unsigned char *ptr = (unsigned char *)&x;
    return (unsigned short)((unsigned short)ptr[0] << 8 | ptr[1]);
}

static unsigned int swap32(unsigned int x) 
{
    unsigned char *ptr = (unsigned char *)&x;
    return (unsigned int)((unsigned int)ptr[0] << 24 | (unsigned int)ptr[1] << 16 | (unsigned int)ptr[2] << 8 | ptr[3]);
}
static unsigned int keytag(unsigned char *key, unsigned int keysize)  
{
    unsigned long ac;
    unsigned int i;

    for (ac = 0, i = 0; i < keysize; ++i)
        ac += (i & 1) ? key[i] : key[i] << 8;
    ac += (ac >> 16) & 0xFFFF;
    return ac & 0xFFFF;
}

// Base 64 encoding according to <https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4648#section-4>.
#define kBase64EncodingTable "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/"

static void base64Encode(char *buffer, size_t buflen, void *rdata, size_t rdlen)
{
    const uint8_t *src = (const uint8_t *)rdata;
    const uint8_t *const end = &src[rdlen];
    char *dst = buffer;
    const char *lim;

    if (buflen == 0) return;
    lim = &buffer[buflen - 1];
    while ((src < end) && (dst < lim))
    {
        uint32_t i;
        const size_t rem = (size_t)(end - src);

        // Form a 24-bit input group. If less than 24 bits remain, pad with zero bits.
        if (     rem >= 3) i = (src[0] << 16) | (src[1] << 8) | src[2]; // 24 bits are equal to 4 6-bit groups.
        else if (rem == 2) i = (src[0] << 16) | (src[1] << 8);          // 16 bits are treated as 3 6-bit groups + 1 pad
        else               i =  src[0] << 16;                           //  8 bits are treated as 2 6-bit groups + 2 pads

        // Encode each 6-bit group.
                       *dst++ =              kBase64EncodingTable[(i >> 18) & 0x3F];
        if (dst < lim) *dst++ =              kBase64EncodingTable[(i >> 12) & 0x3F];
        if (dst < lim) *dst++ = (rem >= 2) ? kBase64EncodingTable[(i >>  6) & 0x3F] : '=';
        if (dst < lim) *dst++ = (rem >= 3) ? kBase64EncodingTable[ i        & 0x3F] : '=';
        src += (rem > 3) ? 3 : rem;
    }
    *dst = '\0';
}

static DNSServiceProtocol GetProtocol(const char *s)
{
    if      (!strcasecmp(s, "v4"      )) return(kDNSServiceProtocol_IPv4);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "v6"      )) return(kDNSServiceProtocol_IPv6);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "v4v6"    )) return(kDNSServiceProtocol_IPv4 | kDNSServiceProtocol_IPv6);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "v6v4"    )) return(kDNSServiceProtocol_IPv4 | kDNSServiceProtocol_IPv6);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "udp"     )) return(kDNSServiceProtocol_UDP);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "tcp"     )) return(kDNSServiceProtocol_TCP);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "udptcp"  )) return(kDNSServiceProtocol_UDP | kDNSServiceProtocol_TCP);
    else if (!strcasecmp(s, "tcpudp"  )) return(kDNSServiceProtocol_UDP | kDNSServiceProtocol_TCP);
    else return(atoi(s));
}


//*************************************************************************************************************
// Sample callback functions for each of the operation types

#define printtimestamp() printtimestamp_F(stdout)

static void printtimestamp_F(FILE *outstream)
{
    struct tm tm;
    int ms;
    static char date[16];
    static char new_date[16];
#ifdef _WIN32
    SYSTEMTIME sysTime;
    time_t uct = time(NULL);
    tm = *localtime(&uct);
    GetLocalTime(&sysTime);
    ms = sysTime.wMilliseconds;
#else
    struct timeval tv;
    gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);
    localtime_r((time_t*)&tv.tv_sec, &tm);
    ms = tv.tv_usec/1000;
#endif
    strftime(new_date, sizeof(new_date), "%a %d %b %Y", &tm);
    if (strncmp(date, new_date, sizeof(new_date)))
    {
        fprintf(outstream, "DATE: ---%s---\n", new_date); //display date only if it has changed
        strncpy(date, new_date, sizeof(date));
    }
    fprintf(outstream, "%2d:%02d:%02d.%03d  ", tm.tm_hour, tm.tm_min, tm.tm_sec, ms);
}

// formating time to RFC 4034 format
static void FormatTime(unsigned long te, unsigned char *buf, int bufsize) 
{
    struct tm tmTime;
#ifdef _WIN32
	__time32_t t = (__time32_t) te;
	_gmtime32_s(&tmTime, &t);
#else
    // Time since epoch : strftime takes "tm". Convert seconds to "tm" using
    // gmtime_r first and then use strftime
	time_t t = (time_t)te;
	gmtime_r(&t, &tmTime);
#endif
    strftime((char *)buf, bufsize, "%Y%m%d%H%M%S", &tmTime);
}

static void print_usage(const char *arg0, int print_all)
{
    // Print the commonly used command line options.  These are listed in "the order they have been in historically".
    fprintf(stderr, "%s -E                              (Enumerate recommended registration domains)\n", arg0);
    fprintf(stderr, "%s -F                                  (Enumerate recommended browsing domains)\n", arg0);
    fprintf(stderr, "%s -R <Name> <Type> <Domain> <Port> [<TXT>...]             (Register a service)\n", arg0);
    fprintf(stderr, "%s -B        <Type> <Domain>                     (Browse for service instances)\n", arg0);
    fprintf(stderr, "%s -L <Name> <Type> <Domain>                       (Resolve a service instance)\n", arg0);
    fprintf(stderr, "%s -Q <name> <rrtype> <rrclass>             (Generic query for any record type)\n", arg0);
    fprintf(stderr, "%s -Z        <Type> <Domain>               (Output results in Zone File format)\n", arg0);
    fprintf(stderr, "%s -G     v4/v6/v4v6 <name>              (Get address information for hostname)\n", arg0);
    fprintf(stderr, "%s -H                                   (Print usage for complete command list)\n", arg0);
    fprintf(stderr, "%s -V                (Get version of currently running daemon / system service)\n", arg0);

    if (print_all)  // Print all available options for dns-sd tool.  Keep these in alphabetical order for easier maintenance.
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "\n");
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -A                                  (Test Adding/Updating/Deleting a record)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -C <FQDN> <rrtype> <rrclass>               (Query; reconfirming each result)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -D <name> <rrtype> <rrclass>(Validate query for any record type with DNSSEC)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -I               (Test registering and then immediately updating TXT record)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -N                                         (Test adding a large NULL record)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -M                  (Test creating a registration with multiple TXT records)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -P <Name> <Type> <Domain> <Port> <Host> <IP> [<TXT>...]              (Proxy)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -S                             (Test multiple operations on a shared socket)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -T                                        (Test creating a large TXT record)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -U                                              (Test updating a TXT record)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -X udp/tcp/udptcp <IntPort> <ExtPort> <TTL>               (NAT Port Mapping)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -ble                                      (Use kDNSServiceInterfaceIndexBLE)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -g v4/v6/v4v6 <name>        (Validate address info for hostname with DNSSEC)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -i <Interface>             (Run dns-sd cmd on a specific interface (en0/en1)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -includep2p                            (Set kDNSServiceFlagsIncludeP2P flag)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -includeAWDL                          (Set kDNSServiceFlagsIncludeAWDL flag)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -intermediates                (Set kDNSServiceFlagsReturnIntermediates flag)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -ku                                   (Set kDNSServiceFlagsKnownUnique flag)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -lo                              (Run dns-sd cmd using local only interface)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -optional                        (Set kDNSServiceFlagsValidateOptional flag)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -p2p                                      (Use kDNSServiceInterfaceIndexP2P)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -q <name> <rrtype> <rrclass> (Equivalent to -Q with kDNSServiceFlagsSuppressUnusable set)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -tc                        (Set kDNSServiceFlagsBackgroundTrafficClass flag)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -test                                      (Run basic API input range tests)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -t1                                  (Set kDNSServiceFlagsThresholdOne flag)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -tFinder                          (Set kDNSServiceFlagsThresholdFinder flag)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -timeout                                  (Set kDNSServiceFlagsTimeout flag)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -unicastResponse                  (Set kDNSServiceFlagsUnicastResponse flag)\n", arg0);
        fprintf(stderr, "%s -autoTrigger                          (Set kDNSServiceFlagsAutoTrigger flag)\n", arg0);
    }
}

#define DomainMsg(X) (((X) &kDNSServiceFlagsDefault) ? "(Default)" : \
                      ((X) &kDNSServiceFlagsAdd)     ? "Added"     : "Removed")

#define MAX_LABELS 128

static void DNSSD_API enum_reply(DNSServiceRef sdref, const DNSServiceFlags flags, uint32_t ifIndex,
                                 DNSServiceErrorType errorCode, const char *replyDomain, void *context)
{
    DNSServiceFlags partialflags = flags & ~(kDNSServiceFlagsMoreComing | kDNSServiceFlagsAdd | kDNSServiceFlagsDefault);
    int labels = 0, depth = 0, i, initial = 0;
    char text[64];
    const char *label[MAX_LABELS];

    (void)sdref;        // Unused
    (void)ifIndex;      // Unused
    (void)context;      // Unused
    EXIT_IF_LIBDISPATCH_FATAL_ERROR(errorCode);

    // 1. Print the header
    if (num_printed++ == 0) printf("Timestamp     Recommended %s domain\n", operation == 'E' ? "Registration" : "Browsing");
    printtimestamp();
    if (errorCode)
        printf("Error code %d\n", errorCode);
    else if (!*replyDomain)
        printf("Error: No reply domain\n");
    else
    {
        printf("%-10s", DomainMsg(flags));
        printf("%-8s", (flags & kDNSServiceFlagsMoreComing) ? "(More)" : "");
        if (partialflags) printf("Flags: %4X  ", partialflags);
        else printf("             ");

        // 2. Count the labels
        while (replyDomain && *replyDomain && labels < MAX_LABELS)
        {
            label[labels++] = replyDomain;
            replyDomain = GetNextLabel(replyDomain, text);
        }

        // 3. Decide if we're going to clump the last two or three labels (e.g. "apple.com", or "nicta.com.au")
        if      (labels >= 3 && replyDomain - label[labels-1] <= 3 && label[labels-1] - label[labels-2] <= 4) initial = 3;
        else if (labels >= 2 && replyDomain - label[labels-1] <= 4) initial = 2;
        else initial = 1;
        labels -= initial;

        // 4. Print the initial one-, two- or three-label clump
        for (i=0; i<initial; i++)
        {
            GetNextLabel(label[labels+i], text);
            if (i>0) printf(".");
            printf("%s", text);
        }
        printf("\n");

        // 5. Print the remainder of the hierarchy
        for (depth=0; depth<labels; depth++)
        {
            printf("                                             ");
            for (i=0; i<=depth; i++) printf("- ");
            GetNextLabel(label[labels-1-depth], text);
            printf("> %s\n", text);
        }
    }

    if (!(flags & kDNSServiceFlagsMoreComing)) fflush(stdout);
}

static int CopyLabels(char *dst, const char *lim, const char **srcp, int labels)
{
    const char *src = *srcp;
    while (*src != '.' || --labels > 0)
    {
        if (*src == '\\') *dst++ = *src++;  // Make sure "\." doesn't confuse us
        if (!*src || dst >= lim) return -1;
        *dst++ = *src++;
        if (!*src || dst >= lim) return -1;
    }
    *dst++ = 0;
    *srcp = src + 1;    // skip over final dot
    return 0;
}

static void DNSSD_API zonedata_resolve(DNSServiceRef sdref, const DNSServiceFlags flags, uint32_t ifIndex, DNSServiceErrorType errorCode,
                                       const char *fullname, const char *hosttarget, uint16_t opaqueport, uint16_t txtLen, const unsigned char *txt, void *context)
{
    union { uint16_t s; u_char b[2]; } port = { opaqueport };
    uint16_t PortAsNumber = ((uint16_t)port.b[0]) << 8 | port.b[1];

    const char *p = fullname;
    char n[kDNSServiceMaxDomainName];
    char t[kDNSServiceMaxDomainName];

    const unsigned char *max = txt + txtLen;

    (void)sdref;        // Unused
    (void)ifIndex;      // Unused
    (void)context;      // Unused

    //if (!(flags & kDNSServiceFlagsAdd)) return;
    if (errorCode) { printf("Error code %d\n", errorCode); return; }

    if (CopyLabels(n, n + kDNSServiceMaxDomainName, &p, 3)) return;     // Fetch name+type
    p = fullname;
    if (CopyLabels(t, t + kDNSServiceMaxDomainName, &p, 1)) return;     // Skip first label
    if (CopyLabels(t, t + kDNSServiceMaxDomainName, &p, 2)) return;     // Fetch next two labels (service type)

    if (num_printed++ == 0)
    {
        printf("\n");
        printf("; To direct clients to browse a different domain, substitute that domain in place of '@'\n");
        printf("%-47s PTR     %s\n", "lb._dns-sd._udp", "@");
        printf("\n");
        printf("; In the list of services below, the SRV records will typically reference dot-local Multicast DNS names.\n");
        printf("; When transferring this zone file data to your unicast DNS server, you'll need to replace those dot-local\n");
        printf("; names with the correct fully-qualified (unicast) domain name of the target host offering the service.\n");
    }

    printf("\n");
    printf("%-47s PTR     %s\n", t, n);
    printf("%-47s SRV     0 0 %d %s ; Replace with unicast FQDN of target host\n", n, PortAsNumber, hosttarget);
    printf("%-47s TXT    ", n);

    while (txt < max)
    {
        const unsigned char *const end = txt + 1 + txt[0];
        txt++;      // Skip over length byte
        printf(" \"");
        while (txt<end)
        {
            if (*txt == '\\' || *txt == '\"') printf("\\");
            printf("%c", *txt++);
        }
        printf("\"");
    }
    printf("\n");

    DNSServiceRefDeallocate(sdref);
    free(context);

    if (!(flags & kDNSServiceFlagsMoreComing)) fflush(stdout);
}

static void DNSSD_API zonedata_browse(DNSServiceRef sdref, const DNSServiceFlags flags, uint32_t ifIndex, DNSServiceErrorType errorCode,
                                      const char *replyName, const char *replyType, const char *replyDomain, void *context)
{
    DNSServiceRef *newref;

    (void)sdref;        // Unused
    (void)context;      // Unused
    EXIT_IF_LIBDISPATCH_FATAL_ERROR(errorCode);

    if (!(flags & kDNSServiceFlagsAdd)) return;
    if (errorCode) { printf("Error code %d\n", errorCode); return; }

    newref = malloc(sizeof(*newref));
    *newref = client;
    DNSServiceResolve(newref, kDNSServiceFlagsShareConnection, ifIndex, replyName, replyType, replyDomain, zonedata_resolve, newref);
}

static void DNSSD_API browse_reply(DNSServiceRef sdref, const DNSServiceFlags flags, uint32_t ifIndex, DNSServiceErrorType errorCode,
                                   const char *replyName, const char *replyType, const char *replyDomain, void *context)
{
    char *op = (flags & kDNSServiceFlagsAdd) ? "Add" : "Rmv";
    (void)sdref;        // Unused
    (void)context;      // Unused
    EXIT_IF_LIBDISPATCH_FATAL_ERROR(errorCode);

    if (num_printed++ == 0) printf("Timestamp     A/R    Flags  if %-20s %-20s %s\n", "Domain", "Service Type", "Instance Name");
    printtimestamp();
    if (errorCode) 
        printf("Error code %d\n", errorCode);
    else 
        printf("%s %8X %3d %-20s %-20s %s\n", 
                op, flags, ifIndex, replyDomain, replyType, replyName);
    if (!(flags & kDNSServiceFlagsMoreComing)) fflush(stdout);

    // To test selective cancellation of operations of shared sockets,
    // cancel the current operation when we've got a multiple of five results
    //if (operation == 'S' && num_printed % 5 == 0) DNSServiceRefDeallocate(sdref);
}

static void ShowTXTRecord(uint16_t txtLen, const unsigned char *txtRecord)
{
    const unsigned char *ptr = txtRecord;
    const unsigned char *max = txtRecord + txtLen;
    while (ptr < max)
    {
        const unsigned char *const end = ptr + 1 + ptr[0];
        if (end > max) { printf("<< invalid data >>"); break; }
        if (++ptr < end) printf(" ");   // As long as string is non-empty, begin with a space
        while (ptr<end)
        {
            // We'd like the output to be shell-friendly, so that it can be copied and pasted unchanged into a "dns-sd -R" command.
            // However, this is trickier than it seems. Enclosing a string in double quotes doesn't necessarily make it
            // shell-safe, because shells still expand variables like $foo even when they appear inside quoted strings.
            // Enclosing a string in single quotes is better, but when using single quotes even backslash escapes are ignored,
            // meaning there's simply no way to represent a single quote (or apostrophe) inside a single-quoted string.
            // The only remaining solution is not to surround the string with quotes at all, but instead to use backslash
            // escapes to encode spaces and all other known shell metacharacters.
            // (If we've missed any known shell metacharacters, please let us know.)
            // In addition, non-printing ascii codes (0-31) are displayed as \xHH, using a two-digit hex value.
            // Because '\' is itself a shell metacharacter (the shell escape character), it has to be escaped as "\\" to survive
            // the round-trip to the shell and back. This means that a single '\' is represented here as EIGHT backslashes:
            // The C compiler eats half of them, resulting in four appearing in the output.
            // The shell parses those four as a pair of "\\" sequences, passing two backslashes to the "dns-sd -R" command.
            // The "dns-sd -R" command interprets this single "\\" pair as an escaped literal backslash. Sigh.
            if (strchr(" &;`'\"|*?~<>^()[]{}$", *ptr)) printf("\\");
            if      (*ptr == '\\') printf("\\\\\\\\");
            else if (*ptr >= ' ' ) printf("%c",        *ptr);
            else printf("\\\\x%02X", *ptr);
            ptr++;
        }
    }
}

static void DNSSD_API resolve_reply(DNSServiceRef sdref, const DNSServiceFlags flags, uint32_t ifIndex, DNSServiceErrorType errorCode,
                                    const char *fullname, const char *hosttarget, uint16_t opaqueport, uint16_t txtLen, const unsigned char *txtRecord, void *context)
{
    union { uint16_t s; u_char b[2]; } port = { opaqueport };
    uint16_t PortAsNumber = ((uint16_t)port.b[0]) << 8 | port.b[1];

    (void)sdref;        // Unused
    (void)ifIndex;      // Unused
    (void)context;      // Unused
    EXIT_IF_LIBDISPATCH_FATAL_ERROR(errorCode);

    printtimestamp();

    printf("%s ", fullname);

    if (errorCode == kDNSServiceErr_NoSuchRecord) printf("No Such Record");
    else if (errorCode) printf("error code %d\n", errorCode);
    else printf("can be reached at %s:%u (interface %d)", hosttarget, PortAsNumber, ifIndex);

    if (flags) printf(" Flags: %X", flags);

    // Don't show degenerate TXT records containing nothing but a single empty string
    if (!errorCode && txtLen > 1) { printf("\n"); ShowTXTRecord(txtLen, txtRecord); }

    printf("\n");

    if (!(flags & kDNSServiceFlagsMoreComing)) fflush(stdout);
}

static void myTimerCallBack(void)
{
    DNSServiceErrorType err = kDNSServiceErr_Unknown;

    switch (operation)
    {
    case 'A':
    {
        switch (addtest)
        {
        case 0: printf("Adding Test HINFO record\n");
            err = DNSServiceAddRecord(client, &record, 0, kDNSServiceType_HINFO, sizeof(myhinfoW), &myhinfoW[0], 0);
            addtest = 1;
            break;
        case 1: printf("Updating Test HINFO record\n");
            err = DNSServiceUpdateRecord(client, record, 0, sizeof(myhinfoX), &myhinfoX[0], 0);
            addtest = 2;
            break;
        case 2: printf("Removing Test HINFO record\n");
            err = DNSServiceRemoveRecord(client, record, 0);
            addtest = 0;
            break;
        }
    }
    break;

    case 'U':
    {
        if (updatetest[1] != 'Z') updatetest[1]++;
        else updatetest[1] = 'A';
        // The following line toggles the string length between 1 and 2 characters.
        updatetest[0] = 3 - updatetest[0];
        updatetest[2] = updatetest[1];
        printtimestamp();
        printf("Updating Test TXT record to %c\n", updatetest[1]);
        err = DNSServiceUpdateRecord(client, NULL, 0, 1+updatetest[0], &updatetest[0], 0);
    }
    break;

    case 'N':
    {
        printf("Adding big NULL record\n");
        err = DNSServiceAddRecord(client, &record, 0, kDNSServiceType_NULL, sizeof(bigNULL), &bigNULL[0], 0);
        if (err) printf("Failed: %d\n", err);else printf("Succeeded\n");
        timeOut = LONG_TIME;
#if _DNS_SD_LIBDISPATCH
        if (timer_source)
            dispatch_source_set_timer(timer_source, dispatch_time(DISPATCH_TIME_NOW, (uint64_t)timeOut * NSEC_PER_SEC),
                                      (uint64_t)timeOut * NSEC_PER_SEC, 0);
#endif
    }
    break;
    }

    if (err != kDNSServiceErr_NoError)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "DNSService add/update/remove failed %ld\n", (long int)err);
        stopNow = 1;
    }
}

static void DNSSD_API reg_reply(DNSServiceRef sdref, const DNSServiceFlags flags, DNSServiceErrorType errorCode,
                                const char *name, const char *regtype, const char *domain, void *context)
{
    (void)sdref;    // Unused
    (void)flags;    // Unused
    (void)context;  // Unused
    EXIT_IF_LIBDISPATCH_FATAL_ERROR(errorCode);

    printtimestamp();
    printf("Got a reply for service %s.%s%s: ", name, regtype, domain);

    if (errorCode == kDNSServiceErr_NoError)
    {
        if (flags & kDNSServiceFlagsAdd) printf("Name now registered and active\n");
        else printf("Name registration removed\n");
        if (operation == 'A' || operation == 'U' || operation == 'N')
        {
            timeOut = 5;
#if _DNS_SD_LIBDISPATCH
            if (timer_source)
                dispatch_source_set_timer(timer_source, dispatch_time(DISPATCH_TIME_NOW, (uint64_t)timeOut * NSEC_PER_SEC),
                                          (uint64_t)timeOut * NSEC_PER_SEC, 0);
#endif
        }
    }
    else if (errorCode == kDNSServiceErr_NameConflict)
    {
        printf("Name in use, please choose another\n");
        exit(-1);
    }
    else
        printf("Error %d\n", errorCode);

    if (!(flags & kDNSServiceFlagsMoreComing)) fflush(stdout);
}

// Output the wire-format domainname pointed to by rd
static int snprintd(char *p, int max, const unsigned char **rd)
{
    const char *const buf = p;
    const char *const end = p + max;
    while (**rd) 
    { 
        p += snprintf(p, end-p, "%.*s.", **rd, *rd+1); 
        *rd += 1 + **rd; 
    }
    *rd += 1;   // Advance over the final zero byte
    return(p-buf);
}

static void ParseDNSSECRecords(uint16_t rrtype, char *rdb, size_t rdb_size, unsigned const char *rd, uint16_t rdlen)
{
    char *p = rdb;
    switch (rrtype) 
    {
        case kDNSServiceType_DS:
        {
            unsigned char *ptr;
            int i;
            rdataDS *rrds = (rdataDS *)rd;
            p += snprintf(p, rdb + rdb_size - p, "%d  %d  %d  ",
                          rrds->alg, swap16(rrds->keyTag), rrds->digestType);
            ptr = (unsigned char *)(rd + DS_FIXED_SIZE);
            for (i = 0; i < (rdlen - DS_FIXED_SIZE); i++)
                p += snprintf(p, rdb + rdb_size - p, "%x", ptr[i]);   
            break; 
        } 
            
        case kDNSServiceType_DNSKEY:
        {
            rdataDNSKey *rrkey = (rdataDNSKey *)rd;
            p += snprintf(p, rdb + rdb_size - p, "%d  %d  %d  %u ", swap16(rrkey->flags), rrkey->proto,
                          rrkey->alg, (unsigned int)keytag((unsigned char *)rrkey, rdlen));
            base64Encode(p, rdb + rdb_size - p, (unsigned char *)(rd + DNSKEY_FIXED_SIZE), rdlen - DNSKEY_FIXED_SIZE);
            break;
        }
            
        case kDNSServiceType_NSEC: 
        {
            unsigned char *next = (unsigned char *)rd;
            int len, bitmaplen;
            int win, wlen, type;
            unsigned char *bmap;
            char *l = NULL;
            
            l = p;
            p += snprintd(p, rdb + rdb_size - p, &rd);
            len = p - l + 1;
            
            bitmaplen = rdlen - len;
            bmap = (unsigned char *)((unsigned char *)next + len);
            
            while (bitmaplen > 0)
            {
                int i;
                
                if (bitmaplen < 3)
                {
                    printf("Case NSEC: malformed nsec, bitmaplen %d short\n", bitmaplen);
                    break;
                }   
                
                win = *bmap++;
                wlen = *bmap++;
                bitmaplen -= 2;
                if (bitmaplen < wlen || wlen < 1 || wlen > 32)
                {
                    printf("Case NSEC: malformed nsec, bitmaplen %d wlen %d\n", bitmaplen, wlen);
                    break;
                }
                if (win < 0 || win >= 256)
                {
                    printf("Case NSEC: malformed nsec, bad window win %d\n", win);
                    break;
                }
                type = win * 256;
                for (i = 0; i < wlen * 8; i++)
                {
                    if (bmap[i>>3] & (128 >> (i&7)))
                        p += snprintf(p, rdb + rdb_size - p, " %s ", DNSTypeName(type + i));
                }
                bmap += wlen;
                bitmaplen -= wlen;
            }
            break;
        }
            
        case kDNSServiceType_RRSIG:    
        {
            rdataRRSig *rrsig = (rdataRRSig *)rd;
            unsigned char expTimeBuf[64];
            unsigned char inceptTimeBuf[64];
            unsigned long inceptClock;
            unsigned long expClock;
            const unsigned char *q = NULL;
            char *k = NULL;
            int len;
            
            expClock = (unsigned long)swap32(rrsig->sigExpireTime);
            FormatTime(expClock, expTimeBuf, sizeof(expTimeBuf));
            
            inceptClock = (unsigned long)swap32(rrsig->sigInceptTime);
            FormatTime(inceptClock, inceptTimeBuf, sizeof(inceptTimeBuf));
            
            p += snprintf(p, rdb + rdb_size - p, " %-7s  %d  %d  %d  %s  %s  %7d  ",
                          DNSTypeName(swap16(rrsig->typeCovered)), rrsig->alg, rrsig->labels, swap32(rrsig->origTTL),
                          expTimeBuf, inceptTimeBuf, swap16(rrsig->keyTag));
            
            q = (const unsigned char *)&rrsig->signerName;
            k = p;
            p += snprintd(p, rdb + rdb_size - p, &q);
            len = p - k + 1;
            
            if ((&rdb[rdb_size] - p) >= 2)
            {
                *p++ = ' ';
                *p   = '\0';
            }
            base64Encode(p, rdb + rdb_size - p, (unsigned char *)(rd + len + RRSIG_FIXED_SIZE), rdlen - (len + RRSIG_FIXED_SIZE));
            break;
        }
    }
    return;                           
}

static void DNSSD_API qr_reply(DNSServiceRef sdref, const DNSServiceFlags flags, uint32_t ifIndex, DNSServiceErrorType errorCode,
                               const char *fullname, uint16_t rrtype, uint16_t rrclass, uint16_t rdlen, const void *rdata, uint32_t ttl, void *context)
{
    char *op = (flags & kDNSServiceFlagsAdd) ? "Add" : "Rmv";
    const unsigned char *rd  = rdata;
    const unsigned char *end = (const unsigned char *) rdata + rdlen;
    char rdb[1000] = "0.0.0.0", *p = rdb;
    int unknowntype = 0;
    char dnssec_status[15] = "Unknown";
    char rr_type[RR_TYPE_SIZE];
    char rr_class[3];
    DNSServiceFlags check_flags = flags;//local flags for dnssec status checking

    (void)sdref;    // Unused
    (void)ifIndex;  // Unused
    (void)ttl;      // Unused
    (void)context;  // Unused
    EXIT_IF_LIBDISPATCH_FATAL_ERROR(errorCode);

    if (num_printed++ == 0)
    {
        if (operation == 'D') 
            printf("Timestamp     A/R if %-30s%-6s%-7s%-18s Rdata\n", "Name", "Type", "Class", "DNSSECStatus"); 
        else     
            printf("Timestamp     A/R    Flags if %-30s%-6s%-7s Rdata\n", "Name", "Type", "Class");
    }
    printtimestamp();

    switch (rrclass)
    {
        case kDNSServiceClass_IN:
            strncpy(rr_class, "IN", sizeof(rr_class));
            break;
        default:
            snprintf(rr_class, sizeof(rr_class), "%d", rrclass);
            break;
    }
    strncpy(rr_type, DNSTypeName(rrtype), sizeof(rr_type));

    if (!errorCode) //to avoid printing garbage in rdata
    {
        if (!(check_flags & (kDNSServiceFlagsValidate | kDNSServiceFlagsValidateOptional)))
        {
            switch (rrtype)
            {
                case kDNSServiceType_A:
                    snprintf(rdb, sizeof(rdb), "%d.%d.%d.%d", rd[0], rd[1], rd[2], rd[3]);
                    break;
    
                case kDNSServiceType_NS:
                case kDNSServiceType_CNAME:
                case kDNSServiceType_PTR:
                case kDNSServiceType_DNAME:
                    snprintd(p, sizeof(rdb), &rd);
                    break;

                case kDNSServiceType_SOA:
                    p += snprintd(p, rdb + sizeof(rdb) - p, &rd);           // mname
                    p += snprintf(p, rdb + sizeof(rdb) - p, " ");
                    p += snprintd(p, rdb + sizeof(rdb) - p, &rd);           // rname
                         snprintf(p, rdb + sizeof(rdb) - p, " Ser %d Ref %d Ret %d Exp %d Min %d",
                             ntohl(((uint32_t*)rd)[0]), ntohl(((uint32_t*)rd)[1]), ntohl(((uint32_t*)rd)[2]), ntohl(((uint32_t*)rd)[3]), ntohl(((uint32_t*)rd)[4]));
                    break;

                case kDNSServiceType_AAAA:
                    snprintf(rdb, sizeof(rdb), "%02X%02X:%02X%02X:%02X%02X:%02X%02X:%02X%02X:%02X%02X:%02X%02X:%02X%02X",
                        rd[0x0], rd[0x1], rd[0x2], rd[0x3], rd[0x4], rd[0x5], rd[0x6], rd[0x7],
                        rd[0x8], rd[0x9], rd[0xA], rd[0xB], rd[0xC], rd[0xD], rd[0xE], rd[0xF]);
                    break;

                case kDNSServiceType_SRV:
                    p += snprintf(p, rdb + sizeof(rdb) - p, "%d %d %d ",        // priority, weight, port
                             ntohs(*(unsigned short*)rd), ntohs(*(unsigned short*)(rd+2)), ntohs(*(unsigned short*)(rd+4)));
                    rd += 6;
                         snprintd(p, rdb + sizeof(rdb) - p, &rd);               // target host
                    break;

                case kDNSServiceType_DS:
                case kDNSServiceType_DNSKEY:
                case kDNSServiceType_NSEC:
                case kDNSServiceType_RRSIG:
                    ParseDNSSECRecords(rrtype, rdb, sizeof(rdb), rd, rdlen);
                    break;

                default: 
                    snprintf(rdb, sizeof(rdb), "%d bytes%s", rdlen, rdlen ? ":" : ""); 
                    unknowntype = 1;
                    break;
            }   
        }   
        else 
        {
            strncpy(rdb, "----", sizeof(rdb));
            //Clear all o/p bits, and then check for dnssec status
            check_flags &= ~kDNSServiceOutputFlags;
            if (check_flags & kDNSServiceFlagsSecure)
                strncpy(dnssec_status, "Secure", sizeof(dnssec_status));
            else if (check_flags & kDNSServiceFlagsInsecure)
                strncpy(dnssec_status, "Insecure", sizeof(dnssec_status));
            else if (check_flags & kDNSServiceFlagsIndeterminate)
                strncpy(dnssec_status, "Indeterminate", sizeof(dnssec_status));
            else if (check_flags & kDNSServiceFlagsBogus) 
                strncpy(dnssec_status, "Bogus", sizeof(dnssec_status));
        }
    }

    if (operation == 'D')
        printf("%s%3d %-30s%-6s%-7s%-18s %s", op, ifIndex, fullname, rr_type, rr_class, dnssec_status, rdb);
    else
        printf("%s%9X%3d %-30s%-7s%-6s %s", op, flags, ifIndex, fullname, rr_type, rr_class, rdb);
    if (unknowntype)
    { 
        while (rd < end) 
            printf(" %02X", *rd++);
    }
    if (errorCode)
    {
        if (errorCode == kDNSServiceErr_NoSuchRecord) 
            printf("    No Such Record");
        else if (errorCode == kDNSServiceErr_Timeout)
        {
            printf("    No Such Record\n");
            printf("Query Timed Out\n");
            exit(1);
        }
    }
    printf("\n");

    if (operation == 'C')
        if (flags & kDNSServiceFlagsAdd)
            DNSServiceReconfirmRecord(flags, ifIndex, fullname, rrtype, rrclass, rdlen, rdata);

    if (!(flags & kDNSServiceFlagsMoreComing)) 
        fflush(stdout);
}

static void DNSSD_API port_mapping_create_reply(DNSServiceRef sdref, DNSServiceFlags flags, uint32_t ifIndex, DNSServiceErrorType errorCode, uint32_t publicAddress, uint32_t protocol, uint16_t privatePort, uint16_t publicPort, uint32_t ttl, void *context)
{
    (void)sdref;       // Unused
    (void)flags;       // Unused
    (void)context;     // Unused
    EXIT_IF_LIBDISPATCH_FATAL_ERROR(errorCode);

    if (num_printed++ == 0) printf("Timestamp     if   %-20s %-15s %-15s %-15s %-6s\n", "External Address", "Protocol", "Internal Port", "External Port", "TTL");
    printtimestamp();
    if (errorCode && errorCode != kDNSServiceErr_DoubleNAT) printf("Error code %d\n", errorCode);
    else
    {
        const unsigned char *digits = (const unsigned char *)&publicAddress;
        char addr[256];

        snprintf(addr, sizeof(addr), "%d.%d.%d.%d", digits[0], digits[1], digits[2], digits[3]);
        printf("%-4d %-20s %-15d %-15d %-15d %-6d%s\n", ifIndex, addr, protocol, ntohs(privatePort), ntohs(publicPort), ttl, errorCode == kDNSServiceErr_DoubleNAT ? " Double NAT" : "");
    }

    if (!(flags & kDNSServiceFlagsMoreComing)) fflush(stdout);
}

static void DNSSD_API addrinfo_reply(DNSServiceRef sdref, const DNSServiceFlags flags, uint32_t interfaceIndex, DNSServiceErrorType errorCode, const char *hostname, const struct sockaddr *address, uint32_t ttl, void *context)
{
    char *op = (flags & kDNSServiceFlagsAdd) ? "Add" : "Rmv";
    char addr[256] = "";
    char dnssec_status[15] = "Unknown"; 
    DNSServiceFlags check_flags = flags;
	(void) sdref;
	(void) context;

    EXIT_IF_LIBDISPATCH_FATAL_ERROR(errorCode);

    if (num_printed++ == 0)
    {
        if (operation == 'g') 
            printf("Timestamp     A/R if %-25s %-44s %-18s\n", "Hostname", "Address", "DNSSECStatus");
        else  
            printf("Timestamp     A/R    Flags if %-38s %-44s %s\n", "Hostname", "Address", "TTL");
    }
    printtimestamp();
   
    if (address && address->sa_family == AF_INET)
    {
        const unsigned char *b = (const unsigned char *) &((struct sockaddr_in *)address)->sin_addr;
        snprintf(addr, sizeof(addr), "%d.%d.%d.%d", b[0], b[1], b[2], b[3]);
    }
    else if (address && address->sa_family == AF_INET6)
    {
        char if_name[IFNAMSIZ];     // Older Linux distributions don't define IF_NAMESIZE
        const struct sockaddr_in6 *s6 = (const struct sockaddr_in6 *)address;
        const unsigned char       *b  = (const unsigned char *      )&s6->sin6_addr;
        if (!if_indextoname(s6->sin6_scope_id, if_name))
            snprintf(if_name, sizeof(if_name), "<%d>", s6->sin6_scope_id);
            snprintf(addr, sizeof(addr), "%02X%02X:%02X%02X:%02X%02X:%02X%02X:%02X%02X:%02X%02X:%02X%02X:%02X%02X%%%s",
            b[0x0], b[0x1], b[0x2], b[0x3], b[0x4], b[0x5], b[0x6], b[0x7],
            b[0x8], b[0x9], b[0xA], b[0xB], b[0xC], b[0xD], b[0xE], b[0xF], if_name);
    }

    //go through this only if you have a dnssec validation status
    if (!errorCode && (check_flags & (kDNSServiceFlagsValidate | kDNSServiceFlagsValidateOptional)))
    {
        strncpy(addr, "----", sizeof(addr));
        //Clear all o/p bits, and then check for dnssec status
        check_flags &= ~kDNSServiceOutputFlags;
        if (check_flags & kDNSServiceFlagsSecure)
            strncpy(dnssec_status, "Secure", sizeof(dnssec_status));
        else if (check_flags & kDNSServiceFlagsInsecure)
            strncpy(dnssec_status, "Insecure", sizeof(dnssec_status));
        else if (check_flags & kDNSServiceFlagsIndeterminate)
            strncpy(dnssec_status, "Indeterminate", sizeof(dnssec_status));
        else if (check_flags & kDNSServiceFlagsBogus) 
            strncpy(dnssec_status, "Bogus", sizeof(dnssec_status));
    }
    
    if (operation == 'g')
        printf("%s%3d %-25s %-44s %-18s", op, interfaceIndex, hostname, addr, dnssec_status);
    else
        printf("%s%9X%3d %-38s %-44s %d", op, flags, interfaceIndex, hostname, addr, ttl);
    if (errorCode)
    {
        if (errorCode == kDNSServiceErr_NoSuchRecord) 
            printf("   No Such Record");
        else 
            printf("   Error code %d", errorCode);
    }
    printf("\n");

    if (!(flags & kDNSServiceFlagsMoreComing)) 
        fflush(stdout);
}

//*************************************************************************************************************
// The main test function

static void HandleEvents(void)
#if _DNS_SD_LIBDISPATCH
{
    main_queue = dispatch_get_main_queue();
    if (client) DNSServiceSetDispatchQueue(client, main_queue);
    if (client_pa) DNSServiceSetDispatchQueue(client_pa, main_queue);
    if (operation == 'A' || operation == 'U' || operation == 'N')
    {
        timer_source = dispatch_source_create(DISPATCH_SOURCE_TYPE_TIMER, 0, 0, main_queue);
        if (timer_source)
        {
            // Start the timer "timeout" seconds into the future and repeat it every "timeout" seconds
            dispatch_source_set_timer(timer_source, dispatch_time(DISPATCH_TIME_NOW, (uint64_t)timeOut * NSEC_PER_SEC),
                                      (uint64_t)timeOut * NSEC_PER_SEC, 0);
            dispatch_source_set_event_handler(timer_source, ^{myTimerCallBack();});
            dispatch_resume(timer_source);
        }
    }
    dispatch_main();
}
#else
{
    int dns_sd_fd  = client    ? DNSServiceRefSockFD(client   ) : -1;
    int dns_sd_fd2 = client_pa ? DNSServiceRefSockFD(client_pa) : -1;
    int nfds = dns_sd_fd + 1;
    fd_set readfds;
    struct timeval tv;
    int result;

    if (dns_sd_fd2 > dns_sd_fd) nfds = dns_sd_fd2 + 1;

    while (!stopNow)
    {
        // 1. Set up the fd_set as usual here.
        // This example client has no file descriptors of its own,
        // but a real application would call FD_SET to add them to the set here
        FD_ZERO(&readfds);

        // 2. Add the fd for our client(s) to the fd_set
        if (client   ) FD_SET(dns_sd_fd, &readfds);
        if (client_pa) FD_SET(dns_sd_fd2, &readfds);

        // 3. Set up the timeout.
        tv.tv_sec  = timeOut;
        tv.tv_usec = 0;

        result = select(nfds, &readfds, (fd_set*)NULL, (fd_set*)NULL, &tv);
        if (result > 0)
        {
            DNSServiceErrorType err = kDNSServiceErr_NoError;
            if      (client    && FD_ISSET(dns_sd_fd, &readfds)) err = DNSServiceProcessResult(client   );
            else if (client_pa && FD_ISSET(dns_sd_fd2, &readfds)) err = DNSServiceProcessResult(client_pa);
            if (err) { printtimestamp_F(stderr); fprintf(stderr, "DNSServiceProcessResult returned %d\n", err); stopNow = 1; }
        }
        else if (result == 0)
            myTimerCallBack();
        else
        {
            printf("select() returned %d errno %d %s\n", result, errno, strerror(errno));
            if (errno != EINTR) stopNow = 1;
        }
    }
}
#endif

static int getfirstoption(int argc, char **argv, const char *optstr, int *pOptInd)
// Return the recognized option in optstr and the option index of the next arg.
#if NOT_HAVE_GETOPT
{
    int i;
    for (i=1; i < argc; i++)
    {
        if (argv[i][0] == '-' && &argv[i][1] &&
            NULL != strchr(optstr, argv[i][1]))
        {
            *pOptInd = i + 1;
            return argv[i][1];
        }
    }
    return -1;
}
#else
{
    int o = getopt(argc, (char *const *)argv, optstr);
    *pOptInd = optind;
    return o;
}
#endif

static void DNSSD_API MyRegisterRecordCallback(DNSServiceRef service, DNSRecordRef rec, const DNSServiceFlags flags,
                                               DNSServiceErrorType errorCode, void *context)
{
    char *name = (char *)context;

    (void)service;  // Unused
    (void)rec;      // Unused
    (void)flags;    // Unused
    EXIT_IF_LIBDISPATCH_FATAL_ERROR(errorCode);

    printtimestamp();
    printf("Got a reply for record %s: ", name);

    switch (errorCode)
    {
    case kDNSServiceErr_NoError:      printf("Name now registered and active\n"); break;
    case kDNSServiceErr_NameConflict: printf("Name in use, please choose another\n"); exit(-1);
    default:                          printf("Error %d\n", errorCode); break;
    }
    if (!(flags & kDNSServiceFlagsMoreComing)) fflush(stdout);
}

static void getip(const char *const name, struct sockaddr_storage *result)
{
    struct addrinfo *addrs = NULL;
    int err = getaddrinfo(name, NULL, NULL, &addrs);
    if (err) fprintf(stderr, "getaddrinfo error %d for %s", err, name);
    else memcpy(result, addrs->ai_addr, SA_LEN(addrs->ai_addr));
    if (addrs) freeaddrinfo(addrs);
}

static DNSServiceErrorType RegisterProxyAddressRecord(DNSServiceRef sdref, const char *host, const char *ip, DNSServiceFlags flags)
{
    // Call getip() after the call DNSServiceCreateConnection().
    // On the Win32 platform, WinSock must be initialized for getip() to succeed.
    // Any DNSService* call will initialize WinSock for us, so we make sure
    // DNSServiceCreateConnection() is called before getip() is.
    struct sockaddr_storage hostaddr;
    memset(&hostaddr, 0, sizeof(hostaddr));
    getip(ip, &hostaddr);
    flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsUnique;
    if (hostaddr.ss_family == AF_INET)
        return(DNSServiceRegisterRecord(sdref, &record, flags, opinterface, host,
                                        kDNSServiceType_A,    kDNSServiceClass_IN,  4, &((struct sockaddr_in *)&hostaddr)->sin_addr,  240, MyRegisterRecordCallback, (void*)host));
    else if (hostaddr.ss_family == AF_INET6)
        return(DNSServiceRegisterRecord(sdref, &record, flags, opinterface, host,
                                        kDNSServiceType_AAAA, kDNSServiceClass_IN, 16, &((struct sockaddr_in6*)&hostaddr)->sin6_addr, 240, MyRegisterRecordCallback, (void*)host));
    else return(kDNSServiceErr_BadParam);
}

#define HexVal(X) ( ((X) >= '0' && (X) <= '9') ? ((X) - '0'     ) :  \
                    ((X) >= 'A' && (X) <= 'F') ? ((X) - 'A' + 10) :  \
                    ((X) >= 'a' && (X) <= 'f') ? ((X) - 'a' + 10) : 0)

#define HexPair(P) ((HexVal((P)[0]) << 4) | HexVal((P)[1]))

static DNSServiceErrorType RegisterService(DNSServiceRef *sdref,
                                           const char *nam, const char *typ, const char *dom, const char *host, const char *port, int argc, char **argv, DNSServiceFlags flags)
{
    uint16_t PortAsNumber = atoi(port);
    Opaque16 registerPort = { { PortAsNumber >> 8, PortAsNumber & 0xFF } };
    unsigned char txt[2048] = "";
    unsigned char *ptr = txt;
    int i;

    if (nam[0] == '.' && nam[1] == 0) nam = "";   // We allow '.' on the command line as a synonym for empty string
    if (dom[0] == '.' && dom[1] == 0) dom = "";   // We allow '.' on the command line as a synonym for empty string

    printf("Registering Service %s.%s%s%s", nam[0] ? nam : "<<Default>>", typ, dom[0] ? "." : "", dom);
    if (host && *host) printf(" host %s", host);
    printf(" port %s", port);

    if (argc)
    {
        for (i = 0; i < argc; i++)
        {
            const char *p = argv[i];
            *ptr = 0;
            while (*p && *ptr < 255 && ptr + 1 + *ptr < txt+sizeof(txt))
            {
                if      (p[0] != '\\' || p[1] == 0)                       { ptr[++*ptr] = *p;           p+=1; }
                else if (p[1] == 'x' && isxdigit(p[2]) && isxdigit(p[3])) { ptr[++*ptr] = HexPair(p+2); p+=4; }
                else                                                      { ptr[++*ptr] = p[1];         p+=2; }
            }
            ptr += 1 + *ptr;
        }
        printf(" TXT");
        ShowTXTRecord(ptr-txt, txt);
    }
    printf("\n");

    //flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsAllowRemoteQuery;
    //flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsNoAutoRename;

    return(DNSServiceRegister(sdref, flags, opinterface, nam, typ, dom, host, registerPort.NotAnInteger, (uint16_t) (ptr-txt), txt, reg_reply, NULL));
}

#define TypeBufferSize 80
static char *gettype(char *buffer, char *typ)
{
    if (!typ || !*typ || (typ[0] == '.' && typ[1] == 0)) typ = "_http._tcp";
    if (!strchr(typ, '.')) { snprintf(buffer, TypeBufferSize, "%s._tcp", typ); typ = buffer; }
    return(typ);
}

// Do some basic tests to verify API handles > 63 byte strings gracefully with 
// a returned error code.

#define STRING_64_BYTES "_123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123"

static int API_string_limit_test()
{
    const char * regtype;
    DNSServiceRef sdRef = NULL;
    const char * longHost = STRING_64_BYTES ".local";
    const char * longDomain = "hostname." STRING_64_BYTES;

    printf("Testing for error returns when various strings are > 63 bytes.\n");

    printf("DNSServiceGetAddrInfo(), hostname = %s\n", longHost);
    if (DNSServiceGetAddrInfo(&sdRef, 0, 0, 0, longHost, addrinfo_reply, 0) == 0)
    {
        printf("DNSServiceGetAddrInfo(): expected error return\n");
        return 1;
    };

    printf("DNSServiceGetAddrInfo(), hostname = %s\n", longDomain);
    if (DNSServiceGetAddrInfo(&sdRef, 0, 0, 0, longDomain, addrinfo_reply, 0) == 0)
    {
        printf("DNSServiceGetAddrInfo(): expected error return\n");
        return 1;
    };

    printf("DNSServiceResolve(), name = %s\n", STRING_64_BYTES);
    if (DNSServiceResolve(&sdRef, 0, 0, STRING_64_BYTES, "_test._tcp", "local", resolve_reply, NULL) == 0)
    {
        printf("DNSServiceResolve(): expected error return\n");
        return 1;
    };

    regtype = STRING_64_BYTES "._tcp";
    printf("DNSServiceResolve(), regtype = %s\n", regtype);
    if (DNSServiceResolve(&sdRef, 0, 0, "instanceName", regtype, "local", resolve_reply, NULL) == 0)
    {
        printf("DNSServiceResolve(): expected error return\n");
        return 1;
    };

    printf("DNSServiceResolve(), domain = %s\n", STRING_64_BYTES);
    if (DNSServiceResolve(&sdRef, 0, 0, "instanceName", "_test._tcp", STRING_64_BYTES, resolve_reply, NULL) == 0)
    {
        printf("DNSServiceResolve(): expected error return\n");
        return 1;
    };

    printf("Testing for error returns when various strings are > 63 bytes: PASSED\n");
    return 0;
}

static int API_NULL_input_test()
{
    printf("Running basic API input range tests with various pointer parameters set to NULL:\n");

    // Test that API's handle NULL pointers by returning an error when appropriate.

    // DNSServiceRefSockFD()
    if (DNSServiceRefSockFD(0) != -1)
    {
        printf("DNSServiceRefSockFD(): expected dnssd_InvalidSocket return\n");
        return 1;
    }

    // DNSServiceProcessResult()
    if (DNSServiceProcessResult(0) == 0)
    {
        printf("DNSServiceProcessResult(): expected error return\n");
        return 1;
    }

    // DNSServiceRefDeallocate(): no return value, just verify it doesn't crash
    DNSServiceRefDeallocate(0);

    // DNSServiceGetProperty()
    {
        uint32_t   result;
        uint32_t   size;

	    if (    (DNSServiceGetProperty(                                0, &result, &size) == 0)
	         || (DNSServiceGetProperty(kDNSServiceProperty_DaemonVersion,       0, &size) == 0)
	         || (DNSServiceGetProperty(kDNSServiceProperty_DaemonVersion, &result, 0) == 0)
           )
	    {
	        printf("DNSServiceGetProperty(): expected error return\n");
	        return 1;
	    }
    }

    // DNSServiceResolve()
    {
	    DNSServiceRef       sdRef;
	    DNSServiceFlags     flags = 0;
	    uint32_t            interfaceIndex = 0;
	    const char          *name = "name";
	    const char          *regtype = "_test._tcp";
	    const char          *domain = "local";
	    DNSServiceResolveReply callBack = 0;
	    void                *context = 0;   // can be a NULL pointer

	    if (    (DNSServiceResolve(    0,  flags, interfaceIndex, name, regtype, domain, callBack, context) == 0)
            ||  (DNSServiceResolve(&sdRef, flags, interfaceIndex,    0, regtype, domain, callBack, context) == 0)
            ||  (DNSServiceResolve(&sdRef, flags, interfaceIndex, name,       0, domain, callBack, context) == 0)
            ||  (DNSServiceResolve(&sdRef, flags, interfaceIndex, name, regtype,      0, callBack, context) == 0)
            ||  (DNSServiceResolve(&sdRef, flags, interfaceIndex, name, regtype, domain, callBack, context) == 0)
           )
	    {
	        printf("DNSServiceResolve(): expected error return\n");
	        return 1;
	    }
    }

    // DNSServiceQueryRecord()
    {
	    DNSServiceRef       sdRef;
	    DNSServiceFlags     flags = 0;
	    uint32_t            interfaceIndex = 0;
	    const char          *fullname = "fullname";
	    uint16_t            rrtype = 0;
	    uint16_t            rrclass = 0;
	    DNSServiceQueryRecordReply callBack = 0;
	    void                *context = 0;  /* may be NULL */

	    if (    (DNSServiceQueryRecord(     0, flags, interfaceIndex, fullname, rrtype, rrclass, callBack, context) == 0)
	        ||  (DNSServiceQueryRecord(&sdRef, flags, interfaceIndex, 0,        rrtype, rrclass, callBack, context) == 0)
	        ||  (DNSServiceQueryRecord(&sdRef, flags, interfaceIndex, fullname, rrtype, rrclass,        0, context) == 0)
           )
	    {
	        printf("DNSServiceQueryRecord(): expected error return\n");
	        return 1;
	    }
    }

    // DNSServiceGetAddrInfo()
    {
	    DNSServiceRef       sdRef;
	    DNSServiceFlags     flags = 0;
	    uint32_t            interfaceIndex = 0;
	    DNSServiceProtocol  protocol = kDNSServiceProtocol_IPv4|kDNSServiceProtocol_IPv6;
	    const char          *hostname = "host.local";
	    DNSServiceGetAddrInfoReply callBack = 0;
	    void                *context = 0;   // may be NULL

	    if (    (DNSServiceGetAddrInfo(     0, flags, interfaceIndex, protocol, hostname, callBack, context) == 0)
            ||  (DNSServiceGetAddrInfo(&sdRef, flags, interfaceIndex, protocol,        0, callBack, context) == 0)
            ||  (DNSServiceGetAddrInfo(&sdRef, flags, interfaceIndex, protocol, hostname,        0, context) == 0)
           )
	    {
	        printf("DNSServiceGetAddrInfo(): expected error return\n");
	        return 1;
	    }
    }

    // DNSServiceBrowse()
    {
	    DNSServiceRef       sdRef;
	    DNSServiceFlags     flags = 0;
	    uint32_t            interfaceIndex = 0;
	    const char          *regtype = "_test._tcp";
	    const char          *domain = 0;    /* may be NULL */
	    DNSServiceBrowseReply callBack = 0;
	    void                *context = 0;   /* may be NULL */

	    if (    (DNSServiceBrowse(     0, flags, interfaceIndex, regtype, domain, callBack, context) == 0)
            ||  (DNSServiceBrowse(&sdRef, flags, interfaceIndex,       0, domain, callBack, context) == 0)
            ||  (DNSServiceBrowse(&sdRef, flags, interfaceIndex, regtype, domain,        0, context) == 0)
           )
	    {
	        printf("DNSServiceBrowse(): expected error return\n");
	        return 1;
	    }
    }

#if APPLE_OSX_mDNSResponder
    // DNSServiceSetDefaultDomainForUser()
    if (DNSServiceSetDefaultDomainForUser(0, 0) == 0)
    {
        printf("DNSServiceSetDefaultDomainForUser(): expected error return\n");
        return 1;
    }
#endif

    // DNSServiceRegister()
    {
	    DNSServiceRef       sdRef;
	    DNSServiceFlags     flags = 0;
	    uint32_t            interfaceIndex = 0;
	    const char          *name = 0;         /* may be NULL */
	    const char          *regtype = "_test._tcp";
	    const char          *domain = 0;       /* may be NULL */
	    const char          *host = 0;         /* may be NULL */
	    uint16_t            port = 0x2211;     /* In network byte order */
	    uint16_t            txtLen = 1;
	    const void          *txtRecord = "\0";    /* may be NULL */
	    DNSServiceRegisterReply callBack = 0;  /* may be NULL */
	    void                *context = 0;      /* may be NULL */

	    if (    (DNSServiceRegister(     0, flags, interfaceIndex, name, regtype, domain, host, port, txtLen, txtRecord, callBack, context) == 0)
            ||  (DNSServiceRegister(&sdRef, flags, interfaceIndex, name,       0, domain, host, port, txtLen, txtRecord, callBack, context) == 0)
           )
	    {
	        printf("DNSServiceRegister(): expected error return\n");
	        return 1;
	    }
    }

    // DNSServiceEnumerateDomains()
    {
	    DNSServiceRef       sdRef;
	    DNSServiceFlags     flags = 0;
	    uint32_t            interfaceIndex = 0;
	    DNSServiceDomainEnumReply callBack = 0;
	    void                *context = 0;  /* may be NULL */

	    if (    (DNSServiceEnumerateDomains(     0, flags, interfaceIndex, callBack, context) == 0)
            ||  (DNSServiceEnumerateDomains(&sdRef, flags, interfaceIndex,        0, context) == 0)
           )
	    {
	        printf("DNSServiceEnumerateDomains(): expected error return\n");
	        return 1;
	    }
    }

    // DNSServiceCreateConnection()
    if (DNSServiceCreateConnection(0) == 0)
    {
        printf("DNSServiceCreateConnection(): expected error return\n");
        return 1;
    }

#if APPLE_OSX_mDNSResponder
    // DNSServiceCreateDelegateConnection()
    if (DNSServiceCreateDelegateConnection(0, 0, 0) == 0)
    {
        printf("DNSServiceCreateDelegateConnection(): expected error return\n");
        return 1;
    }
#endif

    // DNSServiceRegisterRecord()
    {
	    DNSServiceRef       sdRef;
	    DNSRecordRef        RecordRef;
	    DNSServiceFlags     flags = 0;
	    uint32_t            interfaceIndex = 0;
	    const char          *fullname = "test1._test._tcp.local";
	    uint16_t            rrtype = kDNSServiceType_TXT;
	    uint16_t            rrclass = kDNSServiceClass_IN;
	    uint16_t            rdlen = 1;
	    const void          *rdata = "\0";
	    uint32_t            ttl = 0;
	    DNSServiceRegisterRecordReply callBack = 0;
	    void                *context = 0;    /* may be NULL */

        // Need an initialize sdRef
        if (DNSServiceCreateConnection(&sdRef))
        {
	        printf("DNSServiceCreateConnection(): failed\n");
	        return 1;
        }

	    if (    (DNSServiceRegisterRecord(     0, &RecordRef, flags, interfaceIndex, fullname, rrtype, rrclass, rdlen, rdata, ttl, callBack, context) == 0)
	        ||  (DNSServiceRegisterRecord(sdRef, &RecordRef, flags, interfaceIndex,         0, rrtype, rrclass, rdlen, rdata, ttl, callBack, context) == 0)
	        ||  (DNSServiceRegisterRecord(sdRef, &RecordRef, flags, interfaceIndex,  fullname, rrtype, rrclass, rdlen,     0, ttl, callBack, context) == 0)
	        ||  (DNSServiceRegisterRecord(sdRef, &RecordRef, flags, interfaceIndex,  fullname, rrtype, rrclass, rdlen, rdata, ttl,        0, context) == 0)
           )
	    {
	        printf("DNSServiceRegisterRecord(): expected error return\n");
	        return 1;
	    }
    }

    // DNSServiceAddRecord(), DNSServiceUpdateRecord(), and DNSServiceRemoveRecord() verify that they 
    // get a valid DNSServiceRef returned from DNSServiceRegister() 
    {
        DNSServiceErrorType err;
	    Opaque16            registerPort = { { 0x12, 0x34 } };
	    static const char   TXT[] = "\xC" "First String";
        DNSServiceRef       sdRef;

	    DNSRecordRef        RecordRef;
	    DNSServiceFlags     flags = 0;
	    uint16_t            rrtype = kDNSServiceType_TXT;
	    uint16_t            rdlen = 1;
	    const void          *rdata = "\0";
	    uint32_t            ttl = 100;

	    err = DNSServiceRegister(&sdRef, 0, 0, "Test", "_test._tcp.", "", NULL, registerPort.NotAnInteger, sizeof(TXT)-1, TXT, reg_reply, NULL);
        if (err)
        {
            printf("DNSServiceRegister() failed with: %d\n", err);
            return 1;
        }
	
	    // DNSServiceAddRecord()
	    if (    (DNSServiceAddRecord(    0, &RecordRef, flags, rrtype, rdlen, rdata, ttl) == 0)
	        ||  (DNSServiceAddRecord(sdRef,          0, flags, rrtype, rdlen, rdata, ttl) == 0)
	        ||  (DNSServiceAddRecord(sdRef, &RecordRef, flags, rrtype, rdlen,     0, ttl) == 0)
           )

	    {
	        printf("DNSServiceAddRecord(): expected error return\n");
	        return 1;
	    }

        // (rdlen == 0 && rdata == 0) should indicate a TXT with rdata containing only a 0 length byte.
        if (DNSServiceAddRecord(sdRef, &RecordRef, flags, rrtype, 0, 0, ttl) == kDNSServiceErr_BadParam)
        {
	        printf("DNSServiceAddRecord(): with (rdlen == 0 && rdata == 0) returned kDNSServiceErr_BadParam\n");
	        return 1;
        }
	
	    // DNSServiceUpdateRecord()
        // Note, RecordRef can be NULL per explanation with declaration in dns_sd.h
	    if (    (DNSServiceUpdateRecord(    0, RecordRef, flags, rdlen, rdata, ttl) == 0)
	        ||  (DNSServiceUpdateRecord(sdRef, RecordRef, flags, rdlen,     0, ttl) == 0)
           )
	    {
	        printf("DNSServiceUpdateRecord(): expected error return\n");
	        return 1;
	    }
	
        // (rdlen == 0 && rdata == 0) should indicate a TXT with rdata containing only a 0 length byte.
        if (DNSServiceUpdateRecord(sdRef, RecordRef, flags, 0, 0, ttl) == kDNSServiceErr_BadParam)
        {
	        printf("DNSServiceUpdateRecord(): with (rdlen == 0 && rdata == 0) returned kDNSServiceErr_BadParam\n");
	        return 1;
        }

	    // DNSServiceRemoveRecord()
	    if (    (DNSServiceRemoveRecord(    0, RecordRef, flags) == 0)
	        ||  (DNSServiceRemoveRecord(sdRef,         0, flags) == 0)
           )
	    {
	        printf("DNSServiceRemoveRecord(): expected error return\n");
	        return 1;
	    }

        DNSServiceRefDeallocate(sdRef);
    }

    // DNSServiceReconfirmRecord()
    {
	    DNSServiceFlags     flags = 0;
	    uint32_t            interfaceIndex = 0;
	    const char          *fullname = "aaa._test._tcp.local";
	    uint16_t            rrtype = kDNSServiceType_TXT;
	    uint16_t            rrclass = kDNSServiceClass_IN;
	    uint16_t            rdlen = 1;
	    const void          *rdata = "\0";
	
	    if (    (DNSServiceReconfirmRecord(flags, interfaceIndex,        0, rrtype, rrclass, rdlen, rdata) == 0)
            ||  (DNSServiceReconfirmRecord(flags, interfaceIndex, fullname, rrtype, rrclass, rdlen,     0) == 0)
           )
	    {
	        printf("DNSServiceReconfirmRecord(): expected error return\n");
	        return 1;
	    }
        // (rdlen == 0 && rdata == 0) should indicate a TXT with rdata containing only a 0 length byte.
        if (DNSServiceReconfirmRecord(flags, interfaceIndex, fullname, rrtype, rrclass, 0, 0) == kDNSServiceErr_BadParam)
        {
	        printf("DNSServiceReconfirmRecord(): with (rdlen == 0 && rdata == 0) returned kDNSServiceErr_BadParam\n");
	        return 1;
        }
    }


    printf("Basic API input range tests: PASSED\n");
    return 0;
}

static int API_input_range_test()
{

    if (API_string_limit_test())
        return 1;

    if (API_NULL_input_test())
        return 1;

    return 0;
}

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    DNSServiceErrorType err;
    char buffer[TypeBufferSize], *typ, *dom;
    int opi;
    DNSServiceFlags flags = 0;
    int optional = 0;

    // Extract the program name from argv[0], which by convention contains the path to this executable.
    // Note that this is just a voluntary convention, not enforced by the kernel --
    // the process calling exec() can pass bogus data in argv[0] if it chooses to.
    const char *a0 = strrchr(argv[0], kFilePathSep) + 1;
    if (a0 == (const char *)1) a0 = argv[0];

#if defined(_WIN32)
    HeapSetInformation(NULL, HeapEnableTerminationOnCorruption, NULL, 0);
#endif

#if TEST_NEW_CLIENTSTUB
    printf("Using embedded copy of dnssd_clientstub instead of system library\n");
    if (sizeof(argv) == 8) printf("Running in 64-bit mode\n");
#endif

    // Test code for TXTRecord functions
    //TXTRecordRef txtRecord;
    //TXTRecordCreate(&txtRecord, 0, NULL);
    //TXTRecordSetValue(&txtRecord, "aaa", 1, "b");
    //printf("%d\n", TXTRecordContainsKey(TXTRecordGetLength(&txtRecord), TXTRecordGetBytesPtr(&txtRecord), "Aaa"));

    while (argc > 1)
    {
        int entryCount;

        // record current argc to see if we process an argument in this pass
        entryCount = argc;

	    if (argc > 1 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-test"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        return API_input_range_test();
	    }
	
	    if (argc > 1 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-lo"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        opinterface = kDNSServiceInterfaceIndexLocalOnly;
	        printf("Using LocalOnly\n");
	    }
	
	    if (argc > 1 && (!strcasecmp(argv[1], "-p2p")))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        opinterface = kDNSServiceInterfaceIndexP2P;
	    }
	
	    if (argc > 1 && (!strcasecmp(argv[1], "-ble")))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        opinterface = kDNSServiceInterfaceIndexBLE;
	    }
	
        if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-allowexpired"))
        {
            argc--;
            argv++;
            flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsAllowExpiredAnswers;
            printf("Setting kDNSServiceFlagsAllowExpiredAnswers\n");
        }
        
	    if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-includep2p"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsIncludeP2P;
	        printf("Setting kDNSServiceFlagsIncludeP2P\n");
	    }

	    if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-fmc"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsForceMulticast;
	        printf("Setting kDNSServiceFlagsForceMulticast flag for this request\n");
	    }
	
	    if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-includeAWDL"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsIncludeAWDL;
	        printf("Setting kDNSServiceFlagsIncludeAWDL\n");
	    }

        if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-intermediates"))
        {
            argc--;
            argv++;
            flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsReturnIntermediates;
            printf("Setting kDNSServiceFlagsReturnIntermediates\n");
        }

        if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-tc"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsBackgroundTrafficClass;
	        printf("Setting kDNSServiceFlagsBackgroundTrafficClass\n");
	    }
	
	    if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-t1"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsThresholdOne;
	        printf("Setting kDNSServiceFlagsThresholdOne\n");
	    }
	
	    if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-tFinder"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsThresholdFinder;
	        printf("Setting kDNSServiceFlagsThresholdFinder\n");
	    }
	
	    if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-wo"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsWakeOnlyService;
	        printf("Setting kDNSServiceFlagsWakeOnlyService\n");
	    }
	
	    if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-ku"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsKnownUnique;
	        printf("Setting kDNSServiceFlagsKnownUnique\n");
	    }
	
	    if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-unicastResponse"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsUnicastResponse;
	        printf("Setting kDNSServiceFlagsUnicastResponse\n");
	    }

	    if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-timeout"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsTimeout;
	        printf("Setting kDNSServiceFlagsTimeout\n");
	    }

	    if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-autoTrigger"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsAutoTrigger;
	        printf("Setting kDNSServiceFlagsAutoTrigger\n");
	    }

	    if (argc > 1 && !strcasecmp(argv[1], "-optional"))
	    {
	        argc--;
	        argv++;
	        optional = 1;
	        printf("Setting DNSSEC optional flag\n");
	    }

	    if (argc > 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-i"))
	    {
	        opinterface = if_nametoindex(argv[2]);
	        if (!opinterface) opinterface = atoi(argv[2]);
	        if (!opinterface) { fprintf(stderr, "Unknown interface %s\n", argv[2]); goto Fail; }
	        argc -= 2;
	        argv += 2;
	    }

        // Exit loop if if we didn't match one of the multi character options.
        if (argc == entryCount)
            break;
    }

    if (argc < 2) goto Fail;        // Minimum command line is the command name and one argument
    operation = getfirstoption(argc, argv, "ABCDEFHILMNPQRSTUVZhlq"
                               "X"
                               "Gg"
                               , &opi);
    if (operation == -1) goto Fail;

    if (opinterface) printf("Using interface %d\n", opinterface);

    switch (operation)
    {
    case 'E':   printf("Looking for recommended registration domains:\n");
        err = DNSServiceEnumerateDomains(&client, kDNSServiceFlagsRegistrationDomains, opinterface, enum_reply, NULL);
        break;

    case 'F':   printf("Looking for recommended browsing domains:\n");
        err = DNSServiceEnumerateDomains(&client, kDNSServiceFlagsBrowseDomains, opinterface, enum_reply, NULL);
        //enum_reply(client, kDNSServiceFlagsAdd, 0, 0, "nicta.com.au.", NULL);
        //enum_reply(client, kDNSServiceFlagsAdd, 0, 0, "bonjour.nicta.com.au.", NULL);
        //enum_reply(client, kDNSServiceFlagsAdd, 0, 0, "ibm.com.", NULL);
        //enum_reply(client, kDNSServiceFlagsAdd, 0, 0, "dns-sd.ibm.com.", NULL);
        break;

    case 'B':   typ = (argc < opi+1) ? "" : argv[opi+0];
        dom = (argc < opi+2) ? "" : argv[opi+1];              // Missing domain argument is the same as empty string i.e. use system default(s)
        typ = gettype(buffer, typ);
        if (dom[0] == '.' && dom[1] == 0) dom[0] = 0;               // We allow '.' on the command line as a synonym for empty string
        printf("Browsing for %s%s%s\n", typ, dom[0] ? "." : "", dom);
        err = DNSServiceBrowse(&client, flags, opinterface, typ, dom, browse_reply, NULL);
        break;

    case 'Z':   typ = (argc < opi+1) ? "" : argv[opi+0];
        dom = (argc < opi+2) ? "" : argv[opi+1];              // Missing domain argument is the same as empty string i.e. use system default(s)
        typ = gettype(buffer, typ);
        if (dom[0] == '.' && dom[1] == 0) dom[0] = 0;               // We allow '.' on the command line as a synonym for empty string
        printf("Browsing for %s%s%s\n", typ, dom[0] ? "." : "", dom);
        err = DNSServiceCreateConnection(&client);
        if (err) { fprintf(stderr, "DNSServiceCreateConnection returned %d\n", err); return(err); }
        sc1 = client;
        err = DNSServiceBrowse(&sc1, kDNSServiceFlagsShareConnection, opinterface, typ, dom, zonedata_browse, NULL);
        break;

    case 'l':
    case 'L':   {
        if (argc < opi+2) goto Fail;
        typ = (argc < opi+2) ? ""      : argv[opi+1];
        dom = (argc < opi+3) ? "local" : argv[opi+2];
        typ = gettype(buffer, typ);
        if (dom[0] == '.' && dom[1] == 0) dom = "local";               // We allow '.' on the command line as a synonym for "local"
        printf("Lookup %s.%s.%s\n", argv[opi+0], typ, dom);
        if (operation == 'l') flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsWakeOnResolve;
        err = DNSServiceResolve(&client, flags, opinterface, argv[opi+0], typ, dom, resolve_reply, NULL);
        break;
    }

    case 'R':   if (argc < opi+4) goto Fail;
        typ = (argc < opi+2) ? "" : argv[opi+1];
        dom = (argc < opi+3) ? "" : argv[opi+2];
        typ = gettype(buffer, typ);
        if (dom[0] == '.' && dom[1] == 0) dom[0] = 0;               // We allow '.' on the command line as a synonym for empty string
        err = RegisterService(&client, argv[opi+0], typ, dom, NULL, argv[opi+3], argc-(opi+4), argv+(opi+4), flags);
        break;


    case 'P':   if (argc < opi+6) goto Fail;
        err = DNSServiceCreateConnection(&client_pa);
        if (err) { fprintf(stderr, "DNSServiceCreateConnection returned %d\n", err); return(err); }
        err = RegisterProxyAddressRecord(client_pa, argv[opi+4], argv[opi+5], flags);
        if (err) break;
        err = RegisterService(&client, argv[opi+0], gettype(buffer, argv[opi+1]), argv[opi+2], argv[opi+4], argv[opi+3], argc-(opi+6), argv+(opi+6), flags);
        break;

    case 'D':
    case 'q':
    case 'Q':
    case 'C':   {
        uint16_t rrtype, rrclass;
        flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsReturnIntermediates;
        if (operation == 'q')
            flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsSuppressUnusable;
        if (argc < opi+1) 
            goto Fail;
        rrtype = (argc <= opi+1) ? kDNSServiceType_A  : GetRRType(argv[opi+1]);
        rrclass = (argc <= opi+2) ? kDNSServiceClass_IN : GetRRClass(argv[opi+2]);
        if (rrtype == kDNSServiceType_TXT || rrtype == kDNSServiceType_PTR)
            flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsLongLivedQuery;
        if (operation == 'D')
        {
            flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsSuppressUnusable;
            if (optional)
                flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsValidateOptional;
            else
                flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsValidate;
        }
        err = DNSServiceQueryRecord(&client, flags, opinterface, argv[opi+0], rrtype, rrclass, qr_reply, NULL);
        break;
    }

    case 'A':
    case 'U':
    case 'N':   {
        Opaque16 registerPort = { { 0x12, 0x34 } };
        static const char TXT[] = "\xC" "First String" "\xD" "Second String" "\xC" "Third String";
        printf("Registering Service Test._testupdate._tcp.local.\n");
        err = DNSServiceRegister(&client, 0, opinterface, "Test", "_testupdate._tcp.", "", NULL, registerPort.NotAnInteger, sizeof(TXT)-1, TXT, reg_reply, NULL);
        break;
    }

    case 'T':   {
        Opaque16 registerPort = { { 0x23, 0x45 } };
        char TXT[1024];
        unsigned int i;
        for (i=0; i<sizeof(TXT); i++)
            if ((i & 0x1F) == 0) TXT[i] = 0x1F;else TXT[i] = 'A' + (i >> 5);
        printf("Registering Service Test._testlargetxt._tcp.local.\n");
        err = DNSServiceRegister(&client, 0, opinterface, "Test", "_testlargetxt._tcp.", "", NULL, registerPort.NotAnInteger, sizeof(TXT), TXT, reg_reply, NULL);
        break;
    }

    case 'M':   {
        pid_t pid = getpid();
        Opaque16 registerPort = { { pid >> 8, pid & 0xFF } };
        static const char TXT1[] = "\xC" "First String"  "\xD" "Second String" "\xC" "Third String";
        static const char TXT2[] = "\xD" "Fourth String" "\xC" "Fifth String"  "\xC" "Sixth String";
        printf("Registering Service Test._testdualtxt._tcp.local.\n");
        err = DNSServiceRegister(&client, flags, opinterface, "Test", "_testdualtxt._tcp.", "", NULL, registerPort.NotAnInteger, sizeof(TXT1)-1, TXT1, reg_reply, NULL);
        if (!err) err = DNSServiceAddRecord(client, &record, flags, kDNSServiceType_TXT, sizeof(TXT2)-1, TXT2, 0);
        break;
    }

    case 'I':   {
        pid_t pid = getpid();
        Opaque16 registerPort = { { pid >> 8, pid & 0xFF } };
        static const char TXT[] = "\x09" "Test Data";
        printf("Registering Service Test._testtxt._tcp.local.\n");
        err = DNSServiceRegister(&client, 0, opinterface, "Test", "_testtxt._tcp.", "", NULL, registerPort.NotAnInteger, 0, NULL, reg_reply, NULL);
        if (!err) err = DNSServiceUpdateRecord(client, NULL, 0, sizeof(TXT)-1, TXT, 0);
        break;
    }

    case 'X':   {
        if (argc == opi)                // If no arguments, just fetch IP address
            err = DNSServiceNATPortMappingCreate(&client, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, port_mapping_create_reply, NULL);
        else if (argc >= opi+2 && atoi(argv[opi+0]) == 0)
        {
            DNSServiceProtocol prot  = GetProtocol(argv[opi+0]);                                    // Must specify TCP or UDP
            uint16_t IntPortAsNumber = atoi(argv[opi+1]);                                       // Must specify internal port
            uint16_t ExtPortAsNumber = (argc < opi+3) ? 0 : atoi(argv[opi+2]);              // Optional desired external port
            uint32_t ttl             = (argc < opi+4) ? 0 : atoi(argv[opi+3]);              // Optional desired lease lifetime
            Opaque16 intp = { { IntPortAsNumber >> 8, IntPortAsNumber & 0xFF } };
            Opaque16 extp = { { ExtPortAsNumber >> 8, ExtPortAsNumber & 0xFF } };
            err = DNSServiceNATPortMappingCreate(&client, 0, 0, prot, intp.NotAnInteger, extp.NotAnInteger, ttl, port_mapping_create_reply, NULL);
        }
        else goto Fail;
        break;
    }

    case 'g':
    case 'G':   {
        flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsReturnIntermediates;

        if (operation == 'g')
        {
            flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsSuppressUnusable;
            if (optional)
                flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsValidateOptional;
            else
                flags |= kDNSServiceFlagsValidate;
        }
        if (argc != opi+2) 
            goto Fail;
        else 
            err = DNSServiceGetAddrInfo(&client, flags, opinterface, GetProtocol(argv[opi+0]), argv[opi+1], addrinfo_reply, NULL);
        break;
    }

    case 'S':   {
        Opaque16 registerPort = { { 0x23, 0x45 } };                 // 9029 decimal
        unsigned char txtrec[16] = "\xF" "/path=test.html";
        DNSRecordRef rec;
        unsigned char nulrec[4] = "1234";

        err = DNSServiceCreateConnection(&client);
        if (err) { fprintf(stderr, "DNSServiceCreateConnection failed %ld\n", (long int)err); return (-1); }

        sc1 = client;
        err = DNSServiceBrowse(&sc1, kDNSServiceFlagsShareConnection, opinterface, "_http._tcp", "", browse_reply, NULL);
        if (err) { fprintf(stderr, "DNSServiceBrowse _http._tcp failed %ld\n", (long int)err); return (-1); }

        sc2 = client;
        err = DNSServiceBrowse(&sc2, kDNSServiceFlagsShareConnection, opinterface, "_ftp._tcp", "", browse_reply, NULL);
        if (err) { fprintf(stderr, "DNSServiceBrowse _ftp._tcp failed %ld\n", (long int)err); return (-1); }

        sc3 = client;
        err = DNSServiceRegister(&sc3, kDNSServiceFlagsShareConnection, opinterface, "kDNSServiceFlagsShareConnection",
                                 "_http._tcp", "local", NULL, registerPort.NotAnInteger, 0, NULL, reg_reply, NULL);
        if (err) { fprintf(stderr, "SharedConnection DNSServiceRegister failed %ld\n", (long int)err); return (-1); }

        err = DNSServiceUpdateRecord(sc3, NULL, 0, sizeof(txtrec), txtrec, 0);
        if (err) { fprintf(stderr, "SharedConnection DNSServiceUpdateRecord failed %ld\n", (long int)err); return (-1); }

        err = DNSServiceAddRecord(sc3, &rec, 0, kDNSServiceType_NULL, sizeof(nulrec), nulrec, 0);
        if (err) { fprintf(stderr, "SharedConnection DNSServiceAddRecord failed %ld\n", (long int)err); return (-1); }

        err = DNSServiceRemoveRecord(sc3, rec, 0);
        if (err) { fprintf(stderr, "SharedConnection DNSServiceRemoveRecord failed %ld\n", (long int)err); return (-1); }

        break;
    }

    case 'V':   {
        uint32_t v;
        uint32_t size = sizeof(v);
        err = DNSServiceGetProperty(kDNSServiceProperty_DaemonVersion, &v, &size);
        if (err) fprintf(stderr, "DNSServiceGetProperty failed %ld\n", (long int)err);
        else printf("Currently running daemon (system service) is version %d.%d.%d\n",  v / 10000, v / 100 % 100, v % 100);
        exit(0);
    }

    case 'H': goto Fail;

    default: goto Fail;
    }

    if (!client || err != kDNSServiceErr_NoError)
    {
        fprintf(stderr, "DNSService call failed %ld%s\n", (long int)err,
            (err == kDNSServiceErr_ServiceNotRunning) ? " (Service Not Running)" : "");
        return (-1);
    }
    printtimestamp();
    printf("...STARTING...\n");
    HandleEvents();

    // Be sure to deallocate the DNSServiceRef when you're finished
    if (client   ) DNSServiceRefDeallocate(client   );
    if (client_pa) DNSServiceRefDeallocate(client_pa);
    return 0;

Fail:
    if (operation == 'H') print_usage(a0,1);
    else print_usage(a0,0);
    return 0;

}

// Note: The C preprocessor stringify operator ('#') makes a string from its argument, without macro expansion
// e.g. If "version" is #define'd to be "4", then STRINGIFY_AWE(version) will return the string "version", not "4"
// To expand "version" to its value before making the string, use STRINGIFY(version) instead
#define STRINGIFY_ARGUMENT_WITHOUT_EXPANSION(s) # s
#define STRINGIFY(s) STRINGIFY_ARGUMENT_WITHOUT_EXPANSION(s)

// NOT static -- otherwise the compiler may optimize it out
// The "@(#) " pattern is a special prefix the "what" command looks for
const char VersionString_SCCS[] = "@(#) dns-sd " STRINGIFY(mDNSResponderVersion) " (" __DATE__ " " __TIME__ ")";

#if _BUILDING_XCODE_PROJECT_
// If the process crashes, then this string will be magically included in the automatically-generated crash log
const char *__crashreporter_info__ = VersionString_SCCS + 5;
asm (".desc ___crashreporter_info__, 0x10");
#endif