CHANGES   [plain text]


 Changes between 0.9.6k and 0.9.6l  [04 Nov 2003]

  *) Fix additional bug revealed by the NISCC test suite:

     Stop bug triggering large recursion when presented with
     certain ASN.1 tags (CAN-2003-0851)
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.6j and 0.9.6k  [30 Sep 2003]

  *) Fix various bugs revealed by running the NISCC test suite:

     Stop out of bounds reads in the ASN1 code when presented with
     invalid tags (CAN-2003-0543 and CAN-2003-0544).
     If verify callback ignores invalid public key errors don't try to check
     certificate signature with the NULL public key.

     [Steve Henson]

  *) In ssl3_accept() (ssl/s3_srvr.c) only accept a client certificate
     if the server requested one: as stated in TLS 1.0 and SSL 3.0
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In ssl3_get_client_hello() (ssl/s3_srvr.c), tolerate additional
     extra data after the compression methods not only for TLS 1.0
     but also for SSL 3.0 (as required by the specification).
     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Matthias Loepfe]

  *) Change X509_certificate_type() to mark the key as exported/exportable
     when it's 512 *bits* long, not 512 bytes.
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 0.9.6i and 0.9.6j  [10 Apr 2003]

  *) Countermeasure against the Klima-Pokorny-Rosa extension of
     Bleichbacher's attack on PKCS #1 v1.5 padding: treat
     a protocol version number mismatch like a decryption error
     in ssl3_get_client_key_exchange (ssl/s3_srvr.c).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Turn on RSA blinding by default in the default implementation
     to avoid a timing attack. Applications that don't want it can call
     RSA_blinding_off() or use the new flag RSA_FLAG_NO_BLINDING.
     They would be ill-advised to do so in most cases.
     [Ben Laurie, Steve Henson, Geoff Thorpe, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change RSA blinding code so that it works when the PRNG is not
     seeded (in this case, the secret RSA exponent is abused as
     an unpredictable seed -- if it is not unpredictable, there
     is no point in blinding anyway).  Make RSA blinding thread-safe
     by remembering the creator's thread ID in rsa->blinding and
     having all other threads use local one-time blinding factors
     (this requires more computation than sharing rsa->blinding, but
     avoids excessive locking; and if an RSA object is not shared
     between threads, blinding will still be very fast).
     [Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.6h and 0.9.6i  [19 Feb 2003]

  *) In ssl3_get_record (ssl/s3_pkt.c), minimize information leaked
     via timing by performing a MAC computation even if incorrrect
     block cipher padding has been found.  This is a countermeasure
     against active attacks where the attacker has to distinguish
     between bad padding and a MAC verification error. (CAN-2003-0078)

     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Brice Canvel (EPFL),
     Alain Hiltgen (UBS), Serge Vaudenay (EPFL), and
     Martin Vuagnoux (EPFL, Ilion)]

 Changes between 0.9.6g and 0.9.6h  [5 Dec 2002]

  *) New function OPENSSL_cleanse(), which is used to cleanse a section of
     memory from it's contents.  This is done with a counter that will
     place alternating values in each byte.  This can be used to solve
     two issues: 1) the removal of calls to memset() by highly optimizing
     compilers, and 2) cleansing with other values than 0, since those can
     be read through on certain media, for example a swap space on disk.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Bugfix: client side session caching did not work with external caching,
     because the session->cipher setting was not restored when reloading
     from the external cache. This problem was masked, when
     (Found by Steve Haslam <>.)
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix client_certificate (ssl/s2_clnt.c): The permissible total
     length of the REQUEST-CERTIFICATE message is 18 .. 34, not 17 .. 33.
     [Zeev Lieber <>]

  *) Undo an undocumented change introduced in 0.9.6e which caused
     repeated calls to OpenSSL_add_all_ciphers() and 
     OpenSSL_add_all_digests() to be ignored, even after calling
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Change the default configuration reader to deal with last line not
     being properly terminated.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Change X509_NAME_cmp() so it applies the special rules on handling
     DN values that are of type PrintableString, as well as RDNs of type
     emailAddress where the value has the type ia5String.
     [ via Richard Levitte]

  *) Add a SSL_SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL_STORE flag to take over half
     the job SSL_SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL_LOOKUP was inconsistently
     doing, define a new flag (SSL_SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL) to be
     the bitwise-OR of the two for use by the majority of applications
     wanting this behaviour, and update the docs. The documented
     behaviour and actual behaviour were inconsistent and had been
     changing anyway, so this is more a bug-fix than a behavioural
     [Geoff Thorpe, diagnosed by Nadav Har'El]

  *) Don't impose a 16-byte length minimum on session IDs in ssl/s3_clnt.c
     (the SSL 3.0 and TLS 1.0 specifications allow any length up to 32 bytes).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix initialization code race conditions in
        SSLv23_method(),  SSLv23_client_method(),   SSLv23_server_method(),
        SSLv2_method(),   SSLv2_client_method(),    SSLv2_server_method(),
        SSLv3_method(),   SSLv3_client_method(),    SSLv3_server_method(),
        TLSv1_method(),   TLSv1_client_method(),    TLSv1_server_method(),
     [Patrick McCormick <>, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Reorder cleanup sequence in SSL_CTX_free(): only remove the ex_data after
     the cached sessions are flushed, as the remove_cb() might use ex_data
     contents. Bug found by Sam Varshavchik <>
     (see [ #212]).
     [Geoff Thorpe, Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix typo in OBJ_txt2obj which incorrectly passed the content
     length, instead of the encoding length to d2i_ASN1_OBJECT.
     [Steve Henson]

 Changes between 0.9.6f and 0.9.6g  [9 Aug 2002]

  *) [In 0.9.6g-engine release:]
     Fix crypto/engine/vendor_defns/cswift.h for WIN32 (use '_stdcall').
     [Lynn Gazis <>]

 Changes between 0.9.6e and 0.9.6f  [8 Aug 2002]

  *) Fix ASN1 checks. Check for overflow by comparing with LONG_MAX
     and get fix the header length calculation.
     [Florian Weimer <Weimer@CERT.Uni-Stuttgart.DE>,
	Alon Kantor <> (and others),
	Steve Henson]

  *) Use proper error handling instead of 'assertions' in buffer
     overflow checks added in 0.9.6e.  This prevents DoS (the
     assertions could call abort()).
     [Arne Ansper <>, Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.6d and 0.9.6e  [30 Jul 2002]

  *) Add various sanity checks to asn1_get_length() to reject
     the ASN1 length bytes if they exceed sizeof(long), will appear
     negative or the content length exceeds the length of the
     supplied buffer.
     [Steve Henson, Adi Stav <>, James Yonan <>]

  *) Fix cipher selection routines: ciphers without encryption had no flags
     for the cipher strength set and where therefore not handled correctly
     by the selection routines (PR #130).
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix EVP_dsa_sha macro.
     [Nils Larsch]

  *) New option
     for disabling the SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 CBC vulnerability countermeasure
     that was added in OpenSSL 0.9.6d.

     As the countermeasure turned out to be incompatible with some
     broken SSL implementations, the new option is part of SSL_OP_ALL.
     SSL_OP_ALL is usually employed when compatibility with weird SSL
     implementations is desired (e.g. '-bugs' option to 's_client' and
     's_server'), so the new option is automatically set in many
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Changes in security patch:

     Changes marked "(CHATS)" were sponsored by the Defense Advanced
     Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Air Force Research Laboratory,
     Air Force Materiel Command, USAF, under agreement number

  *) Add various sanity checks to asn1_get_length() to reject
     the ASN1 length bytes if they exceed sizeof(long), will appear
     negative or the content length exceeds the length of the
     supplied buffer. (CAN-2002-0659)
     [Steve Henson, Adi Stav <>, James Yonan <>]

  *) Assertions for various potential buffer overflows, not known to
     happen in practice.
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Various temporary buffers to hold ASCII versions of integers were
     too small for 64 bit platforms. (CAN-2002-0655)
     [Matthew Byng-Maddick <> and Ben Laurie (CHATS)>

  *) Remote buffer overflow in SSL3 protocol - an attacker could
     supply an oversized session ID to a client. (CAN-2002-0656)
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

  *) Remote buffer overflow in SSL2 protocol - an attacker could
     supply an oversized client master key. (CAN-2002-0656)
     [Ben Laurie (CHATS)]

 Changes between 0.9.6c and 0.9.6d  [9 May 2002]

  *) Fix crypto/asn1/a_sign.c so that 'parameters' is omitted (not
     encoded as NULL) with id-dsa-with-sha1.
     [Nils Larsch <>; problem pointed out by Bodo Moeller]

  *) Check various X509_...() return values in apps/req.c.
     [Nils Larsch <>]

  *) Fix BASE64 decode (EVP_DecodeUpdate) for data with CR/LF ended lines:
     an end-of-file condition would erronously be flagged, when the CRLF
     was just at the end of a processed block. The bug was discovered when
     processing data through a buffering memory BIO handing the data to a
     BASE64-decoding BIO. Bug fund and patch submitted by Pavel Tsekov
     <> and Nedelcho Stanev.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Implement a countermeasure against a vulnerability recently found
     in CBC ciphersuites in SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0: Send an empty fragment
     before application data chunks to avoid the use of known IVs
     with data potentially chosen by the attacker.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix length checks in ssl3_get_client_hello().
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) TLS/SSL library bugfix: use s->s3->in_read_app_data differently
     to prevent ssl3_read_internal() from incorrectly assuming that
     ssl3_read_bytes() found application data while handshake
     processing was enabled when in fact s->s3->in_read_app_data was
     merely automatically cleared during the initial handshake.
     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Arne Ansper <>]

  *) Fix object definitions for Private and Enterprise: they were not
     recognized in their shortname (=lowercase) representation. Extend to issue an error when using undefined keywords instead
     of silently ignoring the problem (Svenning Sorensen
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix DH_generate_parameters() so that it works for 'non-standard'
     generators, i.e. generators other than 2 and 5.  (Previously, the
     code did not properly initialise the 'add' and 'rem' values to

     In the new general case, we do not insist that 'generator' is
     actually a primitive root: This requirement is rather pointless;
     a generator of the order-q subgroup is just as good, if not
     [Bodo Moeller]
  *) Map new X509 verification errors to alerts. Discovered and submitted by
     Tom Wu <>.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix ssl3_pending() (ssl/s3_lib.c) to prevent SSL_pending() from
     returning non-zero before the data has been completely received
     when using non-blocking I/O.
     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by John Hughes]

  *) Some of the ciphers missed the strength entry (SSL_LOW etc).
     [Ben Laurie, Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix bug in SSL_clear(): bad sessions were not removed (found by
     Yoram Zahavi <>).
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Add information about CygWin 1.3 and on, and preserve proper
     configuration for the versions before that.
     [Corinna Vinschen <> and Richard Levitte]

  *) Make removal from session cache (SSL_CTX_remove_session()) more robust:
     check whether we deal with a copy of a session and do not delete from
     the cache in this case. Problem reported by "Izhar Shoshani Levi"
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Do not store session data into the internal session cache, if it
     is never intended to be looked up (SSL_SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL_LOOKUP
     flag is set). Proposed by Aslam <>.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Have ASN1_BIT_STRING_set_bit() really clear a bit when the requested
     value is 0.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) [In 0.9.6d-engine release:]
     Fix a crashbug and a logic bug in hwcrhk_load_pubkey().
     [Toomas Kiisk <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the configuration target linux-s390x.
     [Neale Ferguson <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) The earlier bugfix for the SSL3_ST_SW_HELLO_REQ_C case of
     ssl3_accept (ssl/s3_srvr.c) incorrectly used a local flag
     variable as an indication that a ClientHello message has been
     received.  As the flag value will be lost between multiple
     invocations of ssl3_accept when using non-blocking I/O, the
     function may not be aware that a handshake has actually taken
     place, thus preventing a new session from being added to the
     session cache.

     To avoid this problem, we now set s->new_session to 2 instead of
     using a local variable.
     [Lutz Jaenicke, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Bugfix: Return -1 from ssl3_get_server_done (ssl3/s3_clnt.c)
     if the SSL_R_LENGTH_MISMATCH error is detected.
     [Geoff Thorpe, Bodo Moeller]

  *) New 'shared_ldflag' column in Configure platform table.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix EVP_CIPHER_mode macro.
     ["Dan S. Camper" <>]

  *) Fix ssl3_read_bytes (ssl/s3_pkt.c): To ignore messages of unknown
     type, we must throw them away by setting rr->length to 0.
     [D P Chang <>]

 Changes between 0.9.6b and 0.9.6c  [21 dec 2001]

  *) Fix BN_rand_range bug pointed out by Dominikus Scherkl
     <>.  (The previous implementation
     worked incorrectly for those cases where  range = 10..._2  and
     3*range  is two bits longer than  range.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Only add signing time to PKCS7 structures if it is not already
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix crypto/objects/objects.h: "ld-ce" should be "id-ce",
     OBJ_ld_ce should be OBJ_id_ce.
     Also some ip-pda OIDs in crypto/objects/objects.txt were
     incorrect (cf. RFC 3039).
     [Matt Cooper, Frederic Giudicelli, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Release CRYPTO_LOCK_DYNLOCK when CRYPTO_destroy_dynlockid()
     returns early because it has nothing to do.
     [Andy Schneider <>]

  *) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
     Fix mutex callback return values in crypto/engine/hw_ncipher.c.
     [Andy Schneider <>]

  *) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
     Add support for Cryptographic Appliance's keyserver technology.
     (Use engine 'keyclient')
     [Cryptographic Appliances and Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Add a configuration entry for OS/390 Unix.  The C compiler 'c89'
     is called via tools/ because arguments have to be
     rearranged (all '-L' options must appear before the first object
     [Richard Shapiro <>]

  *) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
     Add support for Broadcom crypto accelerator cards, backported
     from 0.9.7.
     [Broadcom, Nalin Dahyabhai <>, Mark Cox]

  *) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
     Add support for SureWare crypto accelerator cards from 
     Baltimore Technologies.  (Use engine 'sureware')
     [Baltimore Technologies and Mark Cox]

  *) [In 0.9.6c-engine release:]
     Add support for crypto accelerator cards from Accelerated
     Encryption Processing,  (Use engine 'aep')
     [AEP Inc. and Mark Cox]

  *) Add a configuration entry for gcc on UnixWare.
     [Gary Benson <>]

  *) Change ssl/s2_clnt.c and ssl/s2_srvr.c so that received handshake
     messages are stored in a single piece (fixed-length part and
     variable-length part combined) and fix various bugs found on the way.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Disable caching in BIO_gethostbyname(), directly use gethostbyname()
     instead.  BIO_gethostbyname() does not know what timeouts are
     appropriate, so entries would stay in cache even when they have
     become invalid.
     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Rich Salz <>

  *) Change ssl23_get_client_hello (ssl/s23_srvr.c) behaviour when
     faced with a pathologically small ClientHello fragment that does
     not contain client_version: Instead of aborting with an error,
     simply choose the highest available protocol version (i.e.,
     TLS 1.0 unless it is disabled).  In practice, ClientHello
     messages are never sent like this, but this change gives us
     strictly correct behaviour at least for TLS.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix SSL handshake functions and SSL_clear() such that SSL_clear()
     never resets s->method to s->ctx->method when called from within
     one of the SSL handshake functions.
     [Bodo Moeller; problem pointed out by Niko Baric]

  *) In ssl3_get_client_hello (ssl/s3_srvr.c), generate a fatal alert
     (sent using the client's version number) if client_version is
     smaller than the protocol version in use.  Also change
     ssl23_get_client_hello (ssl/s23_srvr.c) to select TLS 1.0 if
     the client demanded SSL 3.0 but only TLS 1.0 is enabled; then
     the client will at least see that alert.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix ssl3_get_message (ssl/s3_both.c) to handle message fragmentation
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Avoid infinite loop in ssl3_get_message (ssl/s3_both.c) if a
     client receives HelloRequest while in a handshake.
     [Bodo Moeller; bug noticed by Andy Schneider <>]

  *) Bugfix in ssl3_accept (ssl/s3_srvr.c): Case SSL3_ST_SW_HELLO_REQ_C
     should end in 'break', not 'goto end' which circuments various
     cleanups done in state SSL_ST_OK.   But session related stuff
     must be disabled for SSL_ST_OK in the case that we just sent a

     Also avoid some overhead by not calling ssl_init_wbio_buffer()
     before just sending a HelloRequest.
     [Bodo Moeller, Eric Rescorla <>]

  *) Fix ssl/s3_enc.c, ssl/t1_enc.c and ssl/s3_pkt.c so that we don't
     reveal whether illegal block cipher padding was found or a MAC
     verification error occured.  (Neither SSLerr() codes nor alerts
     are directly visible to potential attackers, but the information
     may leak via logfiles.)

     Similar changes are not required for the SSL 2.0 implementation
     because the number of padding bytes is sent in clear for SSL 2.0,
     and the extra bytes are just ignored.  However ssl/s2_pkt.c
     failed to verify that the purported number of padding bytes is in
     the legal range.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add OpenUNIX-8 support including shared libraries
     (Boyd Lynn Gerber <>).
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Improve RSA_padding_check_PKCS1_OAEP() check again to avoid
     'wristwatch attack' using huge encoding parameters (cf.
     James H. Manger's CRYPTO 2001 paper).  Note that the
     RSA_PKCS1_OAEP_PADDING case of RSA_private_decrypt() does not use
     encoding parameters and hence was not vulnerable.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) BN_sqr() bug fix.
     [Ulf Möller, reported by Jim Ellis <>]

  *) Rabin-Miller test analyses assume uniformly distributed witnesses,
     so use BN_pseudo_rand_range() instead of using BN_pseudo_rand()
     followed by modular reduction.
     [Bodo Moeller; pointed out by Adam Young <AYoung1@NCSUS.JNJ.COM>]

  *) Add BN_pseudo_rand_range() with obvious functionality: BN_rand_range()
     equivalent based on BN_pseudo_rand() instead of BN_rand().
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) s3_srvr.c: allow sending of large client certificate lists (> 16 kB).
     This function was broken, as the check for a new client hello message
     to handle SGC did not allow these large messages.
     (Tracked down by "Douglas E. Engert" <>.)
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Add alert descriptions for TLSv1 to SSL_alert_desc_string[_long]().
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix buggy behaviour of BIO_get_num_renegotiates() and BIO_ctrl()
     for BIO_C_GET_WRITE_BUF_SIZE ("Stephen Hinton" <>).
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Rework the configuration and shared library support for Tru64 Unix.
     The configuration part makes use of modern compiler features and
     still retains old compiler behavior for those that run older versions
     of the OS.  The shared library support part includes a variant that
     uses the RPATH feature, and is available through the special
     configuration target "alpha-cc-rpath", which will never be selected
     [Tim Mooney <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) In ssl3_get_key_exchange (ssl/s3_clnt.c), call ssl3_get_message()
     with the same message size as in ssl3_get_certificate_request().
     Otherwise, if no ServerKeyExchange message occurs, CertificateRequest
     messages might inadvertently be reject as too long.
     [Petr Lampa <>]

  *) Enhanced support for IA-64 Unix platforms (well, Linux and HP-UX).
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Modified SSL library such that the verify_callback that has been set
     specificly for an SSL object with SSL_set_verify() is actually being
     used. Before the change, a verify_callback set with this function was
     ignored and the verify_callback() set in the SSL_CTX at the time of
     the call was used. New function X509_STORE_CTX_set_verify_cb() introduced
     to allow the necessary settings.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Initialize static variable in crypto/dsa/dsa_lib.c and crypto/dh/dh_lib.c
     explicitly to NULL, as at least on Solaris 8 this seems not always to be
     done automatically (in contradiction to the requirements of the C
     standard). This made problems when used from OpenSSH.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) In OpenSSL 0.9.6a and 0.9.6b, crypto/dh/dh_key.c ignored
     dh->length and always used

          BN_rand_range(priv_key, dh->p).

     BN_rand_range() is not necessary for Diffie-Hellman, and this
     specific range makes Diffie-Hellman unnecessarily inefficient if
     dh->length (recommended exponent length) is much smaller than the
     length of dh->p.  We could use BN_rand_range() if the order of
     the subgroup was stored in the DH structure, but we only have

     So switch back to

          BN_rand(priv_key, l, ...)

     where 'l' is dh->length if this is defined, or BN_num_bits(dh->p)-1
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In

          RSA_eay_private_encrypt (signing)
          RSA_eay_public_decrypt (signature verification)

     (default implementations for RSA_public_encrypt,
     RSA_private_decrypt, RSA_private_encrypt, RSA_public_decrypt),
     always reject numbers >= n.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In crypto/rand/md_rand.c, use a new short-time lock CRYPTO_LOCK_RAND2
     to synchronize access to 'locking_thread'.  This is necessary on
     systems where access to 'locking_thread' (an 'unsigned long'
     variable) is not atomic.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In crypto/rand/md_rand.c, set 'locking_thread' to current thread's ID
     *before* setting the 'crypto_lock_rand' flag.  The previous code had
     a race condition if 0 is a valid thread ID.
     [Travis Vitek <>]

  *) Add support for shared libraries under Irix.
     [Albert Chin-A-Young <>]

  *) Add configuration option to build on Linux on both big-endian and
     little-endian MIPS.
     [Ralf Baechle <>]

  *) Add the possibility to create shared libraries on HP-UX.
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 0.9.6a and 0.9.6b  [9 Jul 2001]

  *) Change ssleay_rand_bytes (crypto/rand/md_rand.c)
     to avoid a SSLeay/OpenSSL PRNG weakness pointed out by
     Markku-Juhani O. Saarinen <>:
     PRNG state recovery was possible based on the output of
     one PRNG request appropriately sized to gain knowledge on
     'md' followed by enough consecutive 1-byte PRNG requests
     to traverse all of 'state'.

     1. When updating 'md_local' (the current thread's copy of 'md')
        during PRNG output generation, hash all of the previous
        'md_local' value, not just the half used for PRNG output.

     2. Make the number of bytes from 'state' included into the hash
        independent from the number of PRNG bytes requested.

     The first measure alone would be sufficient to avoid
     Markku-Juhani's attack.  (Actually it had never occurred
     to me that the half of 'md_local' used for chaining was the
     half from which PRNG output bytes were taken -- I had always
     assumed that the secret half would be used.)  The second
     measure makes sure that additional data from 'state' is never
     mixed into 'md_local' in small portions; this heuristically
     further strengthens the PRNG.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix crypto/bn/asm/mips3.s.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) When only the key is given to "enc", the IV is undefined. Print out
     an error message in this case.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Handle special case when X509_NAME is empty in X509 printing routines.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In dsa_do_verify (crypto/dsa/dsa_ossl.c), verify that r and s are
     positive and less than q.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Don't change *pointer in CRYPTO_add_lock() is add_lock_callback is
     used: it isn't thread safe and the add_lock_callback should handle
     that itself.
     [Paul Rose <>]

  *) Verify that incoming data obeys the block size in
     ssl3_enc (ssl/s3_enc.c) and tls1_enc (ssl/t1_enc.c).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix OAEP check.
     [Ulf Möller, Bodo Möller]

  *) The countermeasure against Bleichbacher's attack on PKCS #1 v1.5
     RSA encryption was accidentally removed in s3_srvr.c in OpenSSL 0.9.5
     when fixing the server behaviour for backwards-compatible 'client
     hello' messages.  (Note that the attack is impractical against
     SSL 3.0 and TLS 1.0 anyway because length and version checking
     means that the probability of guessing a valid ciphertext is
     around 2^-40; see section 5 in Bleichenbacher's CRYPTO '98

     Before 0.9.5, the countermeasure (hide the error by generating a
     random 'decryption result') did not work properly because
     ERR_clear_error() was missing, meaning that SSL_get_error() would
     detect the supposedly ignored error.

     Both problems are now fixed.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In crypto/bio/bf_buff.c, increase DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE to 4096
     (previously it was 1024).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix for compatibility mode trust settings: ignore trust settings
     unless some valid trust or reject settings are present.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix for blowfish EVP: its a variable length cipher.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix various bugs related to DSA S/MIME verification. Handle missing
     parameters in DSA public key structures and return an error in the
     DSA routines if parameters are absent.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In versions up to 0.9.6, RAND_file_name() resorted to file ".rnd"
     in the current directory if neither $RANDFILE nor $HOME was set.
     RAND_file_name() in 0.9.6a returned NULL in this case.  This has
     caused some confusion to Windows users who haven't defined $HOME.
     Thus RAND_file_name() is changed again: e_os.h can define a
     DEFAULT_HOME, which will be used if $HOME is not set.
     For Windows, we use "C:"; on other platforms, we still require
     environment variables.

  *) Move 'if (!initialized) RAND_poll()' into regions protected by
     CRYPTO_LOCK_RAND.  This is not strictly necessary, but avoids
     having multiple threads call RAND_poll() concurrently.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In crypto/rand/md_rand.c, replace 'add_do_not_lock' flag by a
     combination of a flag and a thread ID variable.
     Otherwise while one thread is in ssleay_rand_bytes (which sets the
     flag), *other* threads can enter ssleay_add_bytes without obeying
     the CRYPTO_LOCK_RAND lock (and may even illegally release the lock
     that they do not hold after the first thread unsets add_do_not_lock).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change bctest again: '-x' expressions are not available in all
     versions of 'test'.
     [Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.6 and 0.9.6a  [5 Apr 2001]

  *) Fix a couple of memory leaks in PKCS7_dataDecode()
     [Steve Henson, reported by Heyun Zheng <>]

  *) Change Configure and Makefiles to provide EXE_EXT, which will contain
     the default extension for executables, if any.  Also, make the perl
     scripts that use symlink() to test if it really exists and use "cp"
     if it doesn't.  All this made OpenSSL compilable and installable in
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix for asn1_GetSequence() for indefinite length constructed data.
     If SEQUENCE is length is indefinite just set c->slen to the total
     amount of data available.
     [Steve Henson, reported by]
     [This change does not apply to 0.9.7.]

  *) Change bctest to avoid here-documents inside command substitution
     (workaround for FreeBSD /bin/sh bug).
     For compatibility with Ultrix, avoid shell functions (introduced
     in the bctest version that searches along $PATH).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Rename 'des_encrypt' to 'des_encrypt1'.  This avoids the clashes
     with des_encrypt() defined on some operating systems, like Solaris
     and UnixWare.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Check the result of RSA-CRT (see D. Boneh, R. DeMillo, R. Lipton:
     On the Importance of Eliminating Errors in Cryptographic
     Computations, J. Cryptology 14 (2001) 2, 101-119,
     [Ulf Moeller]
  *) MIPS assembler BIGNUM division bug fix. 
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Disabled incorrect Alpha assembler code.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix PKCS#7 decode routines so they correctly update the length
     after reading an EOC for the EXPLICIT tag.
     [Steve Henson]
     [This change does not apply to 0.9.7.]

  *) Fix bug in PKCS#12 key generation routines. This was triggered
     if a 3DES key was generated with a 0 initial byte. Include
     PKCS12_BROKEN_KEYGEN compilation option to retain the old
     (but broken) behaviour.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Enhance bctest to search for a working bc along $PATH and print
     it when found.
     [Tim Rice <> via Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix memory leaks in err.c: free err_data string if necessary;
     don't write to the wrong index in ERR_set_error_data.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Implement ssl23_peek (analogous to ssl23_read), which previously
     did not exist.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Replace rdtsc with _emit statements for VC++ version 5.
     [Jeremy Cooper <>]

  *) Make it possible to reuse SSLv2 sessions.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) In copy_email() check for >= 0 as a return value for
     X509_NAME_get_index_by_NID() since 0 is a valid index.
     [Steve Henson reported by Massimiliano Pala <>]

  *) Avoid coredump with unsupported or invalid public keys by checking if
     X509_get_pubkey() fails in PKCS7_verify(). Fix memory leak when
     PKCS7_verify() fails with non detached data.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Don't use getenv in library functions when run as setuid/setgid.
     New function OPENSSL_issetugid().
     [Ulf Moeller]

  *) Avoid false positives in memory leak detection code (crypto/mem_dbg.c)
     due to incorrect handling of multi-threading:

     1. Fix timing glitch in the MemCheck_off() portion of CRYPTO_mem_ctrl().

     2. Fix logical glitch in is_MemCheck_on() aka CRYPTO_is_mem_check_on().

     3. Count how many times MemCheck_off() has been called so that
        nested use can be treated correctly.  This also avoids 
        inband-signalling in the previous code (which relied on the
        assumption that thread ID 0 is impossible).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add "-rand" option also to s_client and s_server.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix CPU detection on Irix 6.x.
     [Kurt Hockenbury <> and
      "Bruce W. Forsberg" <>]

  *) Fix X509_NAME bug which produced incorrect encoding if X509_NAME
     was empty.
     [Steve Henson]
     [This change does not apply to 0.9.7.]

  *) Use the cached encoding of an X509_NAME structure rather than
     copying it. This is apparently the reason for the libsafe "errors"
     but the code is actually correct.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new function BN_rand_range(), and fix DSA_sign_setup() to prevent
     Bleichenbacher's DSA attack.
     Extend BN_[pseudo_]rand: As before, top=1 forces the highest two bits
     to be set and top=0 forces the highest bit to be set; top=-1 is new
     and leaves the highest bit random.
     [Ulf Moeller, Bodo Moeller]

  *) In the NCONF_...-based implementations for CONF_... queries
     (crypto/conf/conf_lib.c), if the input LHASH is NULL, avoid using
     a temporary CONF structure with the data component set to NULL
     (which gives segmentation faults in lh_retrieve).
     Instead, use NULL for the CONF pointer in CONF_get_string and
     CONF_get_number (which may use environment variables) and directly
     return NULL from CONF_get_section.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix potential buffer overrun for EBCDIC.
     [Ulf Moeller]

  *) Tolerate nonRepudiation as being valid for S/MIME signing and certSign
     keyUsage if basicConstraints absent for a CA.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make SMIME_write_PKCS7() write mail header values with a format that
     is more generally accepted (no spaces before the semicolon), since
     some programs can't parse those values properly otherwise.  Also make
     sure BIO's that break lines after each write do not create invalid
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Make the CRL encoding routines work with empty SEQUENCE OF. The
     macros previously used would not encode an empty SEQUENCE OF
     and break the signature.
     [Steve Henson]
     [This change does not apply to 0.9.7.]

  *) Zero the premaster secret after deriving the master secret in
     DH ciphersuites.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add some EVP_add_digest_alias registrations (as found in
     OpenSSL_add_all_digests()) to SSL_library_init()
     aka OpenSSL_add_ssl_algorithms().  This provides improved
     compatibility with peers using X.509 certificates
     with unconventional AlgorithmIdentifier OIDs.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix for Irix with NO_ASM.
     ["Bruce W. Forsberg" <>]

  *) ./config script fixes.
     [Ulf Moeller, Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix 'openssl passwd -1'.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change PKCS12_key_gen_asc() so it can cope with non null
     terminated strings whose length is passed in the passlen
     parameter, for example from PEM callbacks. This was done
     by adding an extra length parameter to asc2uni().
     [Steve Henson, reported by <>]

  *) Fix C code generated by 'openssl dsaparam -C': If a BN_bin2bn
     call failed, free the DSA structure.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix to uni2asc() to cope with zero length Unicode strings.
     These are present in some PKCS#12 files.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Increase s2->wbuf allocation by one byte in ssl2_new (ssl/s2_lib.c).
     Otherwise do_ssl_write (ssl/s2_pkt.c) will write beyond buffer limits
     when writing a 32767 byte record.
     [Bodo Moeller; problem reported by Eric Day <>]

  *) In RSA_eay_public_{en,ed}crypt and RSA_eay_mod_exp (rsa_eay.c),
     obtain lock CRYPTO_LOCK_RSA before setting rsa->_method_mod_{n,p,q}.

     (RSA objects have a reference count access to which is protected
     by CRYPTO_LOCK_RSA [see rsa_lib.c, s3_srvr.c, ssl_cert.c, ssl_rsa.c],
     so they are meant to be shared between threads.)
     [Bodo Moeller, Geoff Thorpe; original patch submitted by
     "Reddie, Steven" <>]

  *) Fix a deadlock in CRYPTO_mem_leaks().
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Use better test patterns in bntest.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) rand_win.c fix for Borland C.
     [Ulf Möller]
  *) BN_rshift bugfix for n == 0.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add a 'bctest' script that checks for some known 'bc' bugs
     so that 'make test' does not abort just because 'bc' is broken.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Store verify_result within SSL_SESSION also for client side to
     avoid potential security hole. (Re-used sessions on the client side
     always resulted in verify_result==X509_V_OK, not using the original
     result of the server certificate verification.)
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix ssl3_pending: If the record in s->s3->rrec is not of type
     SSL3_RT_APPLICATION_DATA, return 0.
     Similarly, change ssl2_pending to return 0 if SSL_in_init(s) is true.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix SSL_peek:
     Both ssl2_peek and ssl3_peek, which were totally broken in earlier
     releases, have been re-implemented by renaming the previous
     implementations of ssl2_read and ssl3_read to ssl2_read_internal
     and ssl3_read_internal, respectively, and adding 'peek' parameters
     to them.  The new ssl[23]_{read,peek} functions are calls to
     ssl[23]_read_internal with the 'peek' flag set appropriately.
     A 'peek' parameter has also been added to ssl3_read_bytes, which
     does the actual work for ssl3_read_internal.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Initialise "ex_data" member of RSA/DSA/DH structures prior to calling
     the method-specific "init()" handler. Also clean up ex_data after
     calling the method-specific "finish()" handler. Previously, this was
     happening the other way round.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Increase BN_CTX_NUM (the number of BIGNUMs in a BN_CTX) to 16.
     The previous value, 12, was not always sufficient for BN_mod_exp().
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Make sure that shared libraries get the internal name engine with
     the full version number and not just 0.  This should mark the
     shared libraries as not backward compatible.  Of course, this should
     be changed again when we can guarantee backward binary compatibility.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix typo in get_cert_by_subject() in by_dir.c
     [Jean-Marc Desperrier <>]

  *) Rework the system to generate shared libraries:

     - Make note of the expected extension for the shared libraries and
       if there is a need for symbolic links from for example
       to  There is extended info in Configure for

     - Make as few rebuilds of the shared libraries as possible.

     - Still avoid linking the OpenSSL programs with the shared libraries.

     - When installing, install the shared libraries separately from the
       static ones.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Fix SSL_CTX_set_read_ahead macro to actually use its argument.

     Copy SSL_CTX's read_ahead flag to SSL object directly in SSL_new
     and not in SSL_clear because the latter is also used by the
     accept/connect functions; previously, the settings made by
     SSL_set_read_ahead would be lost during the handshake.
     [Bodo Moeller; problems reported by Anders Gertz <>]     

  *) Correct util/ to be selective about disabled algorithms.
     Previously, it would create entries for disableed algorithms no
     matter what.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Added several new manual pages for SSL_* function.
     [Lutz Jaenicke]

 Changes between 0.9.5a and 0.9.6  [24 Sep 2000]

  *) In ssl23_get_client_hello, generate an error message when faced
     with an initial SSL 3.0/TLS record that is too small to contain the
     first two bytes of the ClientHello message, i.e. client_version.
     (Note that this is a pathologic case that probably has never happened
     in real life.)  The previous approach was to use the version number
     from the record header as a substitute; but our protocol choice
     should not depend on that one because it is not authenticated
     by the Finished messages.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) More robust randomness gathering functions for Windows.
     [Jeffrey Altman <>]

  *) For compatibility reasons if the flag X509_V_FLAG_ISSUER_CHECK is
     not set then we don't setup the error code for issuer check errors
     to avoid possibly overwriting other errors which the callback does
     handle. If an application does set the flag then we assume it knows
     what it is doing and can handle the new informational codes
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix for a nasty bug in ASN1_TYPE handling. ASN1_TYPE is used for
     a general "ANY" type, as such it should be able to decode anything
     including tagged types. However it didn't check the class so it would
     wrongly interpret tagged types in the same way as their universal
     counterpart and unknown types were just rejected. Changed so that the
     tagged and unknown types are handled in the same way as a SEQUENCE:
     that is the encoding is stored intact. There is also a new type
     "V_ASN1_OTHER" which is used when the class is not universal, in this
     case we have no idea what the actual type is so we just lump them all
     [Steve Henson]

  *) On VMS, stdout may very well lead to a file that is written to
     in a record-oriented fashion.  That means that every write() will
     write a separate record, which will be read separately by the
     programs trying to read from it.  This can be very confusing.

     The solution is to put a BIO filter in the way that will buffer
     text until a linefeed is reached, and then write everything a
     line at a time, so every record written will be an actual line,
     not chunks of lines and not (usually doesn't happen, but I've
     seen it once) several lines in one record.  BIO_f_linebuffer() is
     the answer.

     Currently, it's a VMS-only method, because that's where it has
     been tested well enough.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Remove 'optimized' squaring variant in BN_mod_mul_montgomery,
     it can return incorrect results.
     (Note: The buggy variant was not enabled in OpenSSL 0.9.5a,
     but it was in 0.9.6-beta[12].)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Disable the check for content being present when verifying detached
     signatures in pk7_smime.c. Some versions of Netscape (wrongly)
     include zero length content when signing messages.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New BIO_shutdown_wr macro, which invokes the BIO_C_SHUTDOWN_WR
     BIO_ctrl (for BIO pairs).
     [Bodo Möller]

  *) Add DSO method for VMS.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Bug fix: Montgomery multiplication could produce results with the
     wrong sign.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add RPM specification openssl.spec and modify it to build three
     packages.  The default package contains applications, application
     documentation and run-time libraries.  The devel package contains
     include files, static libraries and function documentation.  The
     doc package contains the contents of the doc directory.  The original
     openssl.spec was provided by Damien Miller <>.
     [Richard Levitte]
  *) Add a large number of documentation files for many SSL routines.
     [Lutz Jaenicke <Lutz.Jaenicke@aet.TU-Cottbus.DE>]

  *) Add a configuration entry for Sony News 4.
     [NAKAJI Hiroyuki <>]

  *) Don't set the two most significant bits to one when generating a
     random number < q in the DSA library.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) New SSL API mode 'SSL_MODE_AUTO_RETRY'.  This disables the default
     behaviour that SSL_read may result in SSL_ERROR_WANT_READ (even if
     the underlying transport is blocking) if a handshake took place.
     (The default behaviour is needed by applications such as s_client
     and s_server that use select() to determine when to use SSL_read;
     but for applications that know in advance when to expect data, it
     just makes things more complicated.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add RAND_egd_bytes(), which gives control over the number of bytes read
     from EGD.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add a few more EBCDIC conditionals that make `req' and `x509'
     work better on such systems.
     [Martin Kraemer <Martin.Kraemer@MchP.Siemens.De>]

  *) Add two demo programs for PKCS12_parse() and PKCS12_create().
     Update PKCS12_parse() so it copies the friendlyName and the
     keyid to the certificates aux info.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix bug in PKCS7_verify() which caused an infinite loop
     if there was more than one signature.
     [Sven Uszpelkat <>]

  *) Major change in util/ to include extra information
     about each symbol, as well as presentig variables as well
     as functions.  This change means that there's n more need
     to rebuild the .num files when some algorithms are excluded.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Allow the verify time to be set by an application,
     rather than always using the current time.
     [Steve Henson]
  *) Phase 2 verify code reorganisation. The certificate
     verify code now looks up an issuer certificate by a
     number of criteria: subject name, authority key id
     and key usage. It also verifies self signed certificates
     by the same criteria. The main comparison function is
     X509_check_issued() which performs these checks.
     Lot of changes were necessary in order to support this
     without completely rewriting the lookup code.
     Authority and subject key identifier are now cached.
     The LHASH 'certs' is X509_STORE has now been replaced
     by a STACK_OF(X509_OBJECT). This is mainly because an
     LHASH can't store or retrieve multiple objects with
     the same hash value.

     As a result various functions (which were all internal
     use only) have changed to handle the new X509_STORE
     structure. This will break anything that messed round
     with X509_STORE internally.
     The functions X509_STORE_add_cert() now checks for an
     exact match, rather than just subject name.
     The X509_STORE API doesn't directly support the retrieval
     of multiple certificates matching a given criteria, however
     this can be worked round by performing a lookup first
     (which will fill the cache with candidate certificates)
     and then examining the cache for matches. This is probably
     the best we can do without throwing out X509_LOOKUP
     entirely (maybe later...).
     The X509_VERIFY_CTX structure has been enhanced considerably.
     All certificate lookup operations now go via a get_issuer()
     callback. Although this currently uses an X509_STORE it
     can be replaced by custom lookups. This is a simple way
     to bypass the X509_STORE hackery necessary to make this
     work and makes it possible to use more efficient techniques
     in future. A very simple version which uses a simple
     STACK for its trusted certificate store is also provided
     using X509_STORE_CTX_trusted_stack().
     The verify_cb() and verify() callbacks now have equivalents
     in the X509_STORE_CTX structure.
     X509_STORE_CTX also has a 'flags' field which can be used
     to customise the verify behaviour.
     [Steve Henson]
  *) Add new PKCS#7 signing option PKCS7_NOSMIMECAP which 
     excludes S/MIME capabilities.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) When a certificate request is read in keep a copy of the
     original encoding of the signed data and use it when outputing
     again. Signatures then use the original encoding rather than
     a decoded, encoded version which may cause problems if the
     request is improperly encoded.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) For consistency with other BIO_puts implementations, call
     buffer_write(b, ...) directly in buffer_puts instead of calling
     BIO_write(b, ...).

     In BIO_puts, increment b->num_write as in BIO_write.

  *) Fix BN_mul_word for the case where the word is 0. (We have to use
     BN_zero, we may not return a BIGNUM with an array consisting of
     words set to zero.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Avoid calling abort() from within the library when problems are
     detected, except if preprocessor symbols have been defined
     (such as REF_CHECK, BN_DEBUG etc.).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New openssl application 'rsautl'. This utility can be
     used for low level RSA operations. DER public key
     BIO/fp routines also added.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New Configure entry and patches for compiling on QNX 4.
     [Andreas Schneider <>]

  *) A demo state-machine implementation was sponsored by
     Nuron ( and is now available in
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) New options added to the 'dgst' utility for signature
     generation and verification.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Unrecognized PKCS#7 content types are now handled via a
     catch all ASN1_TYPE structure. This allows unsupported
     types to be stored as a "blob" and an application can
     encode and decode it manually.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix various signed/unsigned issues to make a_strex.c
     compile under VC++.
     [Oscar Jacobsson <>]

  *) ASN1 fixes. i2d_ASN1_OBJECT was not returning the correct
     length if passed a buffer. ASN1_INTEGER_to_BN failed
     if passed a NULL BN and its argument was negative.
     [Steve Henson, pointed out by Sven Heiberg <>]

  *) Modification to PKCS#7 encoding routines to output definite
     length encoding. Since currently the whole structures are in
     memory there's not real point in using indefinite length 
     constructed encoding. However if OpenSSL is compiled with
     the flag PKCS7_INDEFINITE_ENCODING the old form is used.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Added BIO_vprintf() and BIO_vsnprintf().
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Added more prefixes to parse for in the the strings written
     through a logging bio, to cover all the levels that are available
     through syslog.  The prefixes are now:


     and as before, if none of those prefixes are present at the
     beginning of the string, LOG_ERR is chosen.

     On Win32, the LOG_* levels are mapped according to this:


     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Made it possible to reconfigure with just the configuration
     argument "reconf" or "reconfigure".  The command line arguments
     are stored in Makefile.ssl in the variable CONFIGURE_ARGS,
     and are retrieved from there when reconfiguring.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) MD4 implemented.
     [Assar Westerlund <>, Richard Levitte]

  *) Add the arguments -CAfile and -CApath to the pkcs12 utility.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) The script was messing up the sorting of object
     names. The reason was that it compared the quoted version
     of strings as a result "OCSP" > "OCSP Signing" because
     " > SPACE. Changed script to store unquoted versions of
     names and add quotes on output. It was also omitting some
     names from the lookup table if they were given a default
     value (that is if SN is missing it is given the same
     value as LN and vice versa), these are now added on the
     grounds that if an object has a name we should be able to
     look it up. Finally added warning output when duplicate
     short or long names are found.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Changes needed for Tandem NSK.
     [Scott Uroff <>]

  *) Fix SSL 2.0 rollback checking: Due to an off-by-one error in
     RSA_padding_check_SSLv23(), special padding was never detected
     and thus the SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 countermeasure against protocol
     version rollback attacks was not effective.

     In s23_clnt.c, don't use special rollback-attack detection padding
     (RSA_SSLV23_PADDING) if SSL 2.0 is the only protocol enabled in the
     client; similarly, in s23_srvr.c, don't do the rollback check if
     SSL 2.0 is the only protocol enabled in the server.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Make it possible to get hexdumps of unprintable data with 'openssl
     asn1parse'.  By implication, the functions ASN1_parse_dump() and
     BIO_dump_indent() are added.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) New functions ASN1_STRING_print_ex() and X509_NAME_print_ex()
     these print out strings and name structures based on various
     flags including RFC2253 support and proper handling of
     multibyte characters. Added options to the 'x509' utility 
     to allow the various flags to be set.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Various fixes to use ASN1_TIME instead of ASN1_UTCTIME.
     Also change the functions X509_cmp_current_time() and
     X509_gmtime_adj() work with an ASN1_TIME structure,
     this will enable certificates using GeneralizedTime in validity
     dates to be checked.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make the NEG_PUBKEY_BUG code (which tolerates invalid
     negative public key encodings) on by default,
     NO_NEG_PUBKEY_BUG can be set to disable it.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function c2i_ASN1_OBJECT() which acts on ASN1_OBJECT
     content octets. An i2c_ASN1_OBJECT is unnecessary because
     the encoding can be trivially obtained from the structure.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) crypto/err.c locking bugfix: Use write locks (CRYPTO_w_[un]lock),
     not read locks (CRYPTO_r_[un]lock).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) A first attempt at creating official support for shared
     libraries through configuration.  I've kept it so the
     default is static libraries only, and the OpenSSL programs
     are always statically linked for now, but there are
     preparations for dynamic linking in place.
     This has been tested on Linux and Tru64.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Randomness polling function for Win9x, as described in:
     Peter Gutmann, Software Generation of Practically Strong
     Random Numbers.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Fix so PRNG is seeded in req if using an already existing
     DSA key.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New options to smime application. -inform and -outform
     allow alternative formats for the S/MIME message including
     PEM and DER. The -content option allows the content to be
     specified separately. This should allow things like Netscape
     form signing output easier to verify.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix the ASN1 encoding of tags using the 'long form'.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New ASN1 functions, i2c_* and c2i_* for INTEGER and BIT
     STRING types. These convert content octets to and from the
     underlying type. The actual tag and length octets are
     already assumed to have been read in and checked. These
     are needed because all other string types have virtually
     identical handling apart from the tag. By having versions
     of the ASN1 functions that just operate on content octets
     IMPLICIT tagging can be handled properly. It also allows
     the ASN1_ENUMERATED code to be cut down because ASN1_ENUMERATED
     and ASN1_INTEGER are identical apart from the tag.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change the handling of OID objects as follows:

     - New object identifiers are inserted in objects.txt, following
       the syntax given in objects.README.
     - is used to process obj_mac.num and create a new
     - is used to create a new obj_dat.h, using the data in

     This is currently kind of a hack, and the perl code in
     isn't very elegant, but it works as I intended.  The simplest way
     to check that it worked correctly is to look in obj_dat.h and
     check the array nid_objs and make sure the objects haven't moved
     around (this is important!).  Additions are OK, as well as
     consistent name changes. 
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add BSD-style MD5-based passwords to 'openssl passwd' (option '-1').
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Addition of the command line parameter '-rand file' to 'openssl req'.
     The given file adds to whatever has already been seeded into the
     random pool through the RANDFILE configuration file option or
     environment variable, or the default random state file.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) now sorts each macro group into lexical order.
     Previously the output order depended on the order the files
     appeared in the directory, resulting in needless rewriting
     of safestack.h .
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Patches to make OpenSSL compile under Win32 again. Mostly
     work arounds for the VC++ problem that it treats func() as
     func(void). Also stripped out the parts of that
     added extra typesafe functions: these no longer exist.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Reorganisation of the stack code. The macros are now all 
     collected in safestack.h . Each macro is defined in terms of
     a "stack macro" of the form SKM_<name>(type, a, b). The 
     DEBUG_SAFESTACK is now handled in terms of function casts,
     this has the advantage of retaining type safety without the
     use of additional functions. If DEBUG_SAFESTACK is not defined
     then the non typesafe macros are used instead. Also modified the script to handle the new form. Needs testing to see
     if which (if any) compilers it chokes and maybe make DEBUG_SAFESTACK
     the default if no major problems. Similar behaviour for ASN1_SET_OF
     and PKCS12_STACK_OF.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) When some versions of IIS use the 'NET' form of private key the
     key derivation algorithm is different. Normally MD5(password) is
     used as a 128 bit RC4 key. In the modified case
     MD5(MD5(password) + "SGCKEYSALT")  is used insted. Added some
     new functions i2d_RSA_NET(), d2i_RSA_NET() etc which are the same
     as the old Netscape_RSA functions except they have an additional
     'sgckey' parameter which uses the modified algorithm. Also added
     an -sgckey command line option to the rsa utility. Thanks to 
     Adrian Peck <> for posting details of the modified
     algorithm to openssl-dev.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) The evp_local.h macros were using 'c.##kname' which resulted in
     invalid expansion on some systems (SCO 5.0.5 for example).
     Corrected to 'c.kname'.
     [Phillip Porch <>]

  *) New X509_get1_email() and X509_REQ_get1_email() functions that return
     a STACK of email addresses from a certificate or request, these look
     in the subject name and the subject alternative name extensions and 
     omit any duplicate addresses.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Re-implement BN_mod_exp2_mont using independent (and larger) windows.
     This makes DSA verification about 2 % faster.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Increase maximum window size in BN_mod_exp_... to 6 bits instead of 5
     (meaning that now 2^5 values will be precomputed, which is only 4 KB
     plus overhead for 1024 bit moduli).
     This makes exponentiations about 0.5 % faster for 1024 bit
     exponents (as measured by "openssl speed rsa2048").
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Rename memory handling macros to avoid conflicts with other
          Malloc         =>  OPENSSL_malloc
          Malloc_locked  =>  OPENSSL_malloc_locked
          Realloc        =>  OPENSSL_realloc
          Free           =>  OPENSSL_free
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) New function BN_mod_exp_mont_word for small bases (roughly 15%
     faster than BN_mod_exp_mont, i.e. 7% for a full DH exchange).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) CygWin32 support.
     [John Jarvie <>]

  *) The type-safe stack code has been rejigged. It is now only compiled
     in when OpenSSL is configured with the DEBUG_SAFESTACK option and
     by default all type-specific stack functions are "#define"d back to
     standard stack functions. This results in more streamlined output
     but retains the type-safety checking possibilities of the original
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) The STACK code has been cleaned up, and certain type declarations
     that didn't make a lot of sense have been brought in line. This has
     also involved a cleanup of sorts in safestack.h to more correctly
     map type-safe stack functions onto their plain stack counterparts.
     This work has also resulted in a variety of "const"ifications of
     lots of the code, especially "_cmp" operations which should normally
     be prototyped with "const" parameters anyway.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) When generating bytes for the first time in md_rand.c, 'stir the pool'
     by seeding with STATE_SIZE dummy bytes (with zero entropy count).
     (The PRNG state consists of two parts, the large pool 'state' and 'md',
     where all of 'md' is used each time the PRNG is used, but 'state'
     is used only indexed by a cyclic counter. As entropy may not be
     well distributed from the beginning, 'md' is important as a
     chaining variable. However, the output function chains only half
     of 'md', i.e. 80 bits.  ssleay_rand_add, on the other hand, chains
     all of 'md', and seeding with STATE_SIZE dummy bytes will result
     in all of 'state' being rewritten, with the new values depending
     on virtually all of 'md'.  This overcomes the 80 bit limitation.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In ssl/s2_clnt.c and ssl/s3_clnt.c, call ERR_clear_error() when
     the handshake is continued after ssl_verify_cert_chain();
     otherwise, if SSL_VERIFY_NONE is set, remaining error codes
     can lead to 'unexplainable' connection aborts later.
     [Bodo Moeller; problem tracked down by Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Major EVP API cipher revision.
     Add hooks for extra EVP features. This allows various cipher
     parameters to be set in the EVP interface. Support added for variable
     key length ciphers via the EVP_CIPHER_CTX_set_key_length() function and
     setting of RC2 and RC5 parameters.

     Modify EVP_OpenInit() and EVP_SealInit() to cope with variable key length

     Remove lots of duplicated code from the EVP library. For example *every*
     cipher init() function handles the 'iv' in the same way according to the
     cipher mode. They also all do nothing if the 'key' parameter is NULL and
     for CFB and OFB modes they zero ctx->num.

     New functionality allows removal of S/MIME code RC2 hack.

     Most of the routines have the same form and so can be declared in terms
     of macros.

     By shifting this to the top level EVP_CipherInit() it can be removed from
     all individual ciphers. If the cipher wants to handle IVs or keys
     differently it can set the EVP_CIPH_CUSTOM_IV or EVP_CIPH_ALWAYS_CALL_INIT

     Change lots of functions like EVP_EncryptUpdate() to now return a
     value: although software versions of the algorithms cannot fail
     any installed hardware versions can.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Implement SSL_OP_TLS_ROLLBACK_BUG: In ssl3_get_client_key_exchange, if
     this option is set, tolerate broken clients that send the negotiated
     protocol version number instead of the requested protocol version
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Call dh_tmp_cb (set by ..._TMP_DH_CB) with correct 'is_export' flag;
     i.e. non-zero for export ciphersuites, zero otherwise.
     Previous versions had this flag inverted, inconsistent with
     rsa_tmp_cb (..._TMP_RSA_CB).
     [Bodo Moeller; problem reported by Amit Chopra]

  *) Add missing DSA library text string. Work around for some IIS
     key files with invalid SEQUENCE encoding.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a document (doc/standards.txt) that list all kinds of standards
     and so on that are implemented in OpenSSL.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Enhance c_rehash script. Old version would mishandle certificates
     with the same subject name hash and wouldn't handle CRLs at all.
     Added -fingerprint option to crl utility, to support new c_rehash
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Eliminate non-ANSI declarations in crypto.h and stack.h.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Fix for SSL server purpose checking. Server checking was
     rejecting certificates which had extended key usage present
     but no ssl client purpose.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Rene Grosser <>]

  *) Make PKCS#12 code work with no password. The PKCS#12 spec
     is a little unclear about how a blank password is handled.
     Since the password in encoded as a BMPString with terminating
     double NULL a zero length password would end up as just the
     double NULL. However no password at all is different and is
     handled differently in the PKCS#12 key generation code. NS
     treats a blank password as zero length. MSIE treats it as no
     password on export: but it will try both on import. We now do
     the same: PKCS12_parse() tries zero length and no password if
     the password is set to "" or NULL (NULL is now a valid password:
     it wasn't before) as does the pkcs12 application.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Bugfixes in apps/x509.c: Avoid a memory leak; and don't use
     perror when PEM_read_bio_X509_REQ fails, the error message must
     be obtained from the error queue.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Avoid 'thread_hash' memory leak in crypto/err/err.c by freeing
     it in ERR_remove_state if appropriate, and change ERR_get_state
     accordingly to avoid race conditions (this is necessary because
     thread_hash is no longer constant once set).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Bugfix for linux-elf
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) RSA_get_default_method() will now cause a default
     RSA_METHOD to be chosen if one doesn't exist already.
     Previously this was only set during a call to RSA_new()
     or RSA_new_method(NULL) meaning it was possible for
     RSA_get_default_method() to return NULL.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) Added native name translation to the existing DSO code
     that will convert (if the flag to do so is set) filenames
     that are sufficiently small and have no path information
     into a canonical native form. Eg. "blah" converted to
     "" or "blah.dll" etc.
     [Geoff Thorpe]

  *) New function ERR_error_string_n(e, buf, len) which is like
     ERR_error_string(e, buf), but writes at most 'len' bytes
     including the 0 terminator.  For ERR_error_string_n, 'buf'
     may not be NULL.
     [Damien Miller <>, Bodo Moeller]

  *) CONF library reworked to become more general.  A new CONF
     configuration file reader "class" is implemented as well as a
     new functions (NCONF_*, for "New CONF") to handle it.  The now
     old CONF_* functions are still there, but are reimplemented to
     work in terms of the new functions.  Also, a set of functions
     to handle the internal storage of the configuration data is
     provided to make it easier to write new configuration file
     reader "classes" (I can definitely see something reading a
     configuration file in XML format, for example), called _CONF_*,
     or "the configuration storage API"...

     The new configuration file reading functions are:

        NCONF_new, NCONF_free, NCONF_load, NCONF_load_fp, NCONF_load_bio,
        NCONF_get_section, NCONF_get_string, NCONF_get_numbre

        NCONF_default, NCONF_WIN32

        NCONF_dump_fp, NCONF_dump_bio

     NCONF_default and NCONF_WIN32 are method (or "class") choosers,
     NCONF_new creates a new CONF object.  This works in the same way
     as other interfaces in OpenSSL, like the BIO interface.
     NCONF_dump_* dump the internal storage of the configuration file,
     which is useful for debugging.  All other functions take the same
     arguments as the old CONF_* functions wth the exception of the
     first that must be a `CONF *' instead of a `LHASH *'.

     To make it easer to use the new classes with the old CONF_* functions,
     the function CONF_set_default_method is provided.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add '-tls1' option to 'openssl ciphers', which was already
     mentioned in the documentation but had not been implemented.
     (This option is not yet really useful because even the additional
     experimental TLS 1.0 ciphers are currently treated as SSL 3.0 ciphers.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Initial DSO code added into libcrypto for letting OpenSSL (and
     OpenSSL-based applications) load shared libraries and bind to
     them in a portable way.
     [Geoff Thorpe, with contributions from Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 0.9.5 and 0.9.5a  [1 Apr 2000]

  *) Make sure _lrotl and _lrotr are only used with MSVC.

  *) Use lock CRYPTO_LOCK_RAND correctly in ssleay_rand_status
     (the default implementation of RAND_status).

  *) Rename openssl x509 option '-crlext', which was added in 0.9.5,
     to '-clrext' (= clear extensions), as intended and documented.
     [Bodo Moeller; inconsistency pointed out by Michael Attili

  *) Fix for HMAC. It wasn't zeroing the rest of the block if the key length
     was larger than the MD block size.      
     [Steve Henson, pointed out by Yost William <>]

  *) Modernise PKCS12_parse() so it uses STACK_OF(X509) for its ca argument
     fix a leak when the ca argument was passed as NULL. Stop X509_PUBKEY_set()
     using the passed key: if the passed key was a private key the result
     of X509_print(), for example, would be to print out all the private key
     [Steve Henson]

  *) des_quad_cksum() byte order bug fix.
     [Ulf Möller, using the problem description in krb4-0.9.7, where
      the solution is attributed to Derrick J Brashear <shadow@DEMENTIA.ORG>]

  *) Fix so V_ASN1_APP_CHOOSE works again: however its use is strongly
     [Steve Henson, pointed out by Brian Korver <>]

  *) For easily testing in shell scripts whether some command
     'openssl XXX' exists, the new pseudo-command 'openssl no-XXX'
     returns with exit code 0 iff no command of the given name is available.
     'no-XXX' is printed in this case, 'XXX' otherwise.  In both cases,
     the output goes to stdout and nothing is printed to stderr.
     Additional arguments are always ignored.

     Since for each cipher there is a command of the same name,
     the 'no-cipher' compilation switches can be tested this way.

     ('openssl no-XXX' is not able to detect pseudo-commands such
     as 'quit', 'list-XXX-commands', or 'no-XXX' itself.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Update test suite so that 'make test' succeeds in 'no-rsa' configuration.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) For SSL_[CTX_]set_tmp_dh, don't create a DH key if SSL_OP_SINGLE_DH_USE
     is set; it will be thrown away anyway because each handshake creates
     its own key.
     ssl_cert_dup, which is used by SSL_new, now copies DH keys in addition
     to parameters -- in previous versions (since OpenSSL 0.9.3) the
     'default key' from SSL_CTX_set_tmp_dh would always be lost, meanining
     you effectivly got SSL_OP_SINGLE_DH_USE when using this macro.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New s_client option -ign_eof: EOF at stdin is ignored, and
     'Q' and 'R' lose their special meanings (quit/renegotiate).
     This is part of what -quiet does; unlike -quiet, -ign_eof
     does not suppress any output.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add compatibility options to the purpose and trust code. The
     purpose X509_PURPOSE_ANY is "any purpose" which automatically
     accepts a certificate or CA, this was the previous behaviour,
     with all the associated security issues.

     X509_TRUST_COMPAT is the old trust behaviour: only and
     automatically trust self signed roots in certificate store. A
     new trust setting X509_TRUST_DEFAULT is used to specify that
     a purpose has no associated trust setting and it should instead
     use the value in the default purpose.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix the PKCS#8 DSA private key code so it decodes keys again
     and fix a memory leak.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In util/ (which implements 'make errors'), preserve
     reason strings from the previous version of the .c file, as
     the default to have only downcase letters (and digits) in
     automatically generated reasons codes is not always appropriate.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In ERR_load_ERR_strings(), build an ERR_LIB_SYS error reason table
     using strerror.  Previously, ERR_reason_error_string() returned
     library names as reason strings for SYSerr; but SYSerr is a special
     case where small numbers are errno values, not library numbers.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add '-dsaparam' option to 'openssl dhparam' application.  This
     converts DSA parameters into DH parameters. (When creating parameters,
     DSA_generate_parameters is used.)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Include 'length' (recommended exponent length) in C code generated
     by 'openssl dhparam -C'.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) The second argument to set_label in perlasm was already being used
     so couldn't be used as a "file scope" flag. Moved to third argument
     which was free.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In PEM_ASN1_write_bio and some other functions, use RAND_pseudo_bytes
     instead of RAND_bytes for encryption IVs and salts.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Include RAND_status() into RAND_METHOD instead of implementing
     it only for md_rand.c  Otherwise replacing the PRNG by calling
     RAND_set_rand_method would be impossible.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Don't let DSA_generate_key() enter an infinite loop if the random
     number generation fails.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New 'rand' application for creating pseudo-random output.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Added configuration support for Linux/IA64
     [Rolf Haberrecker <>]

  *) Assembler module support for Mingw32.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Shared library support for HPUX (in shlib/).
     [Lutz Jaenicke <Lutz.Jaenicke@aet.TU-Cottbus.DE> and Anonymous]

  *) Shared library support for Solaris gcc.
     [Lutz Behnke <>]

 Changes between 0.9.4 and 0.9.5  [28 Feb 2000]

  *) PKCS7_encrypt() was adding text MIME headers twice because they
     were added manually and by SMIME_crlf_copy().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) In bntest.c don't call BN_rand with zero bits argument.
     [Steve Henson, pointed out by Andrew W. Gray <>]

  *) BN_mul bugfix: In bn_mul_part_recursion() only the a>a[n] && b>b[n]
     case was implemented. This caused BN_div_recp() to fail occasionally.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add an optional second argument to the set_label() in the perl
     assembly language builder. If this argument exists and is set
     to 1 it signals that the assembler should use a symbol whose 
     scope is the entire file, not just the current function. This
     is needed with MASM which uses the format label:: for this scope.
     [Steve Henson, pointed out by Peter Runestig <>]

  *) Change the ASN1 types so they are typedefs by default. Before
     almost all types were #define'd to ASN1_STRING which was causing
     STACK_OF() problems: you couldn't declare STACK_OF(ASN1_UTF8STRING)
     for example.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change names of new functions to the new get1/get0 naming
     convention: After 'get1', the caller owns a reference count
     and has to call ..._free; 'get0' returns a pointer to some
     data structure without incrementing reference counters.
     (Some of the existing 'get' functions increment a reference
     counter, some don't.)
     Similarly, 'set1' and 'add1' functions increase reference
     counters or duplicate objects.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Allow for the possibility of temp RSA key generation failure:
     the code used to assume it always worked and crashed on failure.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix potential buffer overrun problem in BIO_printf().
     [Ulf Möller, using public domain code by Patrick Powell; problem
      pointed out by David Sacerdote <>]

  *) Support EGD <>.  New functions
     RAND_egd() and RAND_status().  In the command line application,
     the EGD socket can be specified like a seed file using RANDFILE
     or -rand.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Allow the string CERTIFICATE to be tolerated in PKCS#7 structures.
     Some CAs (e.g. Verisign) distribute certificates in this form.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Remove the SSL_ALLOW_ADH compile option and set the default cipher
     list to exclude them. This means that no special compilation option
     is needed to use anonymous DH: it just needs to be included in the
     cipher list.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change the EVP_MD_CTX_type macro so its meaning consistent with
     EVP_MD_type. The old functionality is available in a new macro called
     EVP_MD_md(). Change code that uses it and update docs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) ..._ctrl functions now have corresponding ..._callback_ctrl functions
     where the 'void *' argument is replaced by a function pointer argument.
     Previously 'void *' was abused to point to functions, which works on
     many platforms, but is not correct.  As these functions are usually
     called by macros defined in OpenSSL header files, most source code
     should work without changes.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) <openssl/opensslconf.h> (which is created by Configure) now contains
     sections with information on -D... compiler switches used for
     compiling the library so that applications can see them.  To enable
     one of these sections, a pre-processor symbol OPENSSL_..._DEFINES
     must be defined.  E.g.,
        #include <openssl/opensslconf.h>
     defines all pertinent NO_<algo> symbols, such as NO_IDEA, NO_RSA, etc.
     [Richard Levitte, Ulf and Bodo Möller]

  *) Bugfix: Tolerate fragmentation and interleaving in the SSL 3/TLS
     record layer.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change the 'other' type in certificate aux info to a STACK_OF
     X509_ALGOR. Although not an AlgorithmIdentifier as such it has
     the required ASN1 format: arbitrary types determined by an OID.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add some PEM_write_X509_REQ_NEW() functions and a command line
     argument to 'req'. This is not because the function is newer or
     better than others it just uses the work 'NEW' in the certificate
     request header lines. Some software needs this.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Reorganise password command line arguments: now passwords can be
     obtained from various sources. Delete the PEM_cb function and make
     it the default behaviour: i.e. if the callback is NULL and the
     usrdata argument is not NULL interpret it as a null terminated pass
     phrase. If usrdata and the callback are NULL then the pass phrase
     is prompted for as usual.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for the Compaq Atalla crypto accelerator. If it is installed,
     the support is automatically enabled. The resulting binaries will
     autodetect the card and use it if present.
     [Ben Laurie and Compaq Inc.]

  *) Work around for Netscape hang bug. This sends certificate request
     and server done in one record. Since this is perfectly legal in the
     SSL/TLS protocol it isn't a "bug" option and is on by default. See
     the bugs/SSLv3 entry for more info.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) HP-UX tune-up: new unified configs, HP C compiler bug workaround.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Add -rand argument to smime and pkcs12 applications and read/write
     of seed file.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New 'passwd' tool for crypt(3) and apr1 password hashes.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add command line password options to the remaining applications.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Bug fix for BN_div_recp() for numerators with an even number of
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) More tests in bntest.c, and changed test_bn output.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) ./config recognizes MacOS X now.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Bug fix for BN_div() when the first words of num and divsor are
     equal (it gave wrong results if (rem=(n1-q*d0)&BN_MASK2) < d0).
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add support for various broken PKCS#8 formats, and command line
     options to produce them.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New functions BN_CTX_start(), BN_CTX_get() and BT_CTX_end() to
     get temporary BIGNUMs from a BN_CTX.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Correct return values in BN_mod_exp_mont() and BN_mod_exp2_mont()
     for p == 0.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Change the SSLeay_add_all_*() functions to OpenSSL_add_all_*() and
     include a #define from the old name to the new. The original intent
     was that statically linked binaries could for example just call
     SSLeay_add_all_ciphers() to just add ciphers to the table and not
     link with digests. This never worked becayse SSLeay_add_all_digests()
     and SSLeay_add_all_ciphers() were in the same source file so calling
     one would link with the other. They are now in separate source files.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a new -notext option to 'ca' and a -pubkey option to 'spkac'.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Use a less unusual form of the Miller-Rabin primality test (it used
     a binary algorithm for exponentiation integrated into the Miller-Rabin
     loop, our standard modexp algorithms are faster).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Support for the EBCDIC character set completed.
     [Martin Kraemer <Martin.Kraemer@Mch.SNI.De>]

  *) Source code cleanups: use const where appropriate, eliminate casts,
     use void * instead of char * in lhash.
     [Ulf Möller] 

  *) Bugfix: ssl3_send_server_key_exchange was not restartable
     (the state was not changed to SSL3_ST_SW_KEY_EXCH_B, and because of
     this the server could overwrite ephemeral keys that the client
     has already seen).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Turn DSA_is_prime into a macro that calls BN_is_prime,
     using 50 iterations of the Rabin-Miller test.

     DSA_generate_parameters now uses BN_is_prime_fasttest (with 50
     iterations of the Rabin-Miller test as required by the appendix
     to FIPS PUB 186[-1]) instead of DSA_is_prime.
     As BN_is_prime_fasttest includes trial division, DSA parameter
     generation becomes much faster.

     This implies a change for the callback functions in DSA_is_prime
     and DSA_generate_parameters: The callback function is called once
     for each positive witness in the Rabin-Miller test, not just
     occasionally in the inner loop; and the parameters to the
     callback function now provide an iteration count for the outer
     loop rather than for the current invocation of the inner loop.
     DSA_generate_parameters additionally can call the callback
     function with an 'iteration count' of -1, meaning that a
     candidate has passed the trial division test (when q is generated 
     from an application-provided seed, trial division is skipped).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function BN_is_prime_fasttest that optionally does trial
     division before starting the Rabin-Miller test and has
     an additional BN_CTX * argument (whereas BN_is_prime always
     has to allocate at least one BN_CTX).
     'callback(1, -1, cb_arg)' is called when a number has passed the
     trial division stage.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix for bug in CRL encoding. The validity dates weren't being handled
     as ASN1_TIME.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New -pkcs12 option to script to write out a PKCS#12 file.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function BN_pseudo_rand().
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Clean up BN_mod_mul_montgomery(): replace the broken (and unreadable)
     bignum version of BN_from_montgomery() with the working code from
     SSLeay 0.9.0 (the word based version is faster anyway), and clean up
     the comments.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Avoid a race condition in s2_clnt.c (function get_server_hello) that
     made it impossible to use the same SSL_SESSION data structure in
     SSL2 clients in multiple threads.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) The return value of RAND_load_file() no longer counts bytes obtained
     by stat().  RAND_load_file(..., -1) is new and uses the complete file
     to seed the PRNG (previously an explicit byte count was required).
     [Ulf Möller, Bodo Möller]

  *) Clean up CRYPTO_EX_DATA functions, some of these didn't have prototypes
     used (char *) instead of (void *) and had casts all over the place.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make BN_generate_prime() return NULL on error if ret!=NULL.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Retain source code compatibility for BN_prime_checks macro:
     BN_is_prime(..., BN_prime_checks, ...) now uses
     BN_prime_checks_for_size to determine the appropriate number of
     Rabin-Miller iterations.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Diffie-Hellman uses "safe" primes: DH_check() return code renamed to
     (Check if this is true? OpenPGP calls them "strong".)
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Merge the functionality of "dh" and "gendh" programs into a new program
     "dhparam". The old programs are retained for now but will handle DH keys
     (instead of parameters) in future.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make the ciphers, s_server and s_client programs check the return values
     when a new cipher list is set.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Enhance the SSL/TLS cipher mechanism to correctly handle the TLS 56bit
     ciphers. Before when the 56bit ciphers were enabled the sorting was

     The syntax for the cipher sorting has been extended to support sorting by
     cipher-strength (using the strength_bits hard coded in the tables).
     The new command is "@STRENGTH" (see also doc/apps/ciphers.pod).

     Fix a bug in the cipher-command parser: when supplying a cipher command
     string with an "undefined" symbol (neither command nor alphanumeric
     [A-Za-z0-9], ssl_set_cipher_list used to hang in an endless loop. Now
     an error is flagged.

     Due to the strength-sorting extension, the code of the
     ssl_create_cipher_list() function was completely rearranged. I hope that
     the readability was also increased :-)
     [Lutz Jaenicke <Lutz.Jaenicke@aet.TU-Cottbus.DE>]

  *) Minor change to 'x509' utility. The -CAcreateserial option now uses 1
     for the first serial number and places 2 in the serial number file. This
     avoids problems when the root CA is created with serial number zero and
     the first user certificate has the same issuer name and serial number
     as the root CA.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixes to X509_ATTRIBUTE utilities, change the 'req' program so it uses
     the new code. Add documentation for this stuff.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Changes to X509_ATTRIBUTE utilities. These have been renamed from
     X509_*() to X509at_*() on the grounds that they don't handle X509
     structures and behave in an analagous way to the X509v3 functions:
     they shouldn't be called directly but wrapper functions should be used

     So we also now have some wrapper functions that call the X509at functions
     when passed certificate requests. (TO DO: similar things can be done with
     PKCS#7 signed and unsigned attributes, PKCS#12 attributes and a few other
     things. Some of these need some d2i or i2d and print functionality
     because they handle more complex structures.)
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add missing #ifndefs that caused missing symbols when building libssl
     as a shared library without RSA.  Use #ifndef NO_SSL2 instead of
     NO_RSA in ssl/s2*.c. 
     [Kris Kennaway <>, modified by Ulf Möller]

  *) Precautions against using the PRNG uninitialized: RAND_bytes() now
     has a return value which indicates the quality of the random data
     (1 = ok, 0 = not seeded).  Also an error is recorded on the thread's
     error queue. New function RAND_pseudo_bytes() generates output that is
     guaranteed to be unique but not unpredictable. RAND_add is like
     RAND_seed, but takes an extra argument for an entropy estimate
     (RAND_seed always assumes full entropy).
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Do more iterations of Rabin-Miller probable prime test (specifically,
     3 for 1024-bit primes, 6 for 512-bit primes, 12 for 256-bit primes
     instead of only 2 for all lengths; see BN_prime_checks_for_size definition
     in crypto/bn/bn_prime.c for the complete table).  This guarantees a
     false-positive rate of at most 2^-80 for random input.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Rewrite ssl3_read_n (ssl/s3_pkt.c) avoiding a couple of bugs.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function X509_CTX_rget_chain() (renamed to X509_CTX_get1_chain
     in the 0.9.5 release), this returns the chain
     from an X509_CTX structure with a dup of the stack and all
     the X509 reference counts upped: so the stack will exist
     after X509_CTX_cleanup() has been called. Modify pkcs12.c
     to use this.

     Also make SSL_SESSION_print() print out the verify return
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add manpage for the pkcs12 command. Also change the default
     behaviour so MAC iteration counts are used unless the new
     -nomaciter option is used. This improves file security and
     only older versions of MSIE (4.0 for example) need it.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Honor the no-xxx Configure options when creating .DEF files.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add PKCS#10 attributes to field table: challengePassword, 
     unstructuredName and unstructuredAddress. These are taken from
     draft PKCS#9 v2.0 but are compatible with v1.2 provided no 
     international characters are used.

     More changes to X509_ATTRIBUTE code: allow the setting of types
     based on strings. Remove the 'loc' parameter when adding
     attributes because these will be a SET OF encoding which is sorted
     in ASN1 order.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial changes to the 'req' utility to allow request generation
     automation. This will allow an application to just generate a template
     file containing all the field values and have req construct the

     Initial support for X509_ATTRIBUTE handling. Stacks of these are
     used all over the place including certificate requests and PKCS#7
     structures. They are currently handled manually where necessary with
     some primitive wrappers for PKCS#7. The new functions behave in a
     manner analogous to the X509 extension functions: they allow
     attributes to be looked up by NID and added.

     Later something similar to the X509V3 code would be desirable to
     automatically handle the encoding, decoding and printing of the
     more complex types. The string types like challengePassword can
     be handled by the string table functions.

     Also modified the multi byte string table handling. Now there is
     a 'global mask' which masks out certain types. The table itself
     can use the flag STABLE_NO_MASK to ignore the mask setting: this
     is useful when for example there is only one permissible type
     (as in countryName) and using the mask might result in no valid
     types at all.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Clean up 'Finished' handling, and add functions SSL_get_finished and
     SSL_get_peer_finished to allow applications to obtain the latest
     Finished messages sent to the peer or expected from the peer,
     respectively.  (SSL_get_peer_finished is usually the Finished message
     actually received from the peer, otherwise the protocol will be aborted.)

     As the Finished message are message digests of the complete handshake
     (with a total of 192 bits for TLS 1.0 and more for SSL 3.0), they can
     be used for external authentication procedures when the authentication
     provided by SSL/TLS is not desired or is not enough.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Enhanced support for Alpha Linux is added. Now ./config checks if
     the host supports BWX extension and if Compaq C is present on the
     $PATH. Just exploiting of the BWX extension results in 20-30%
     performance kick for some algorithms, e.g. DES and RC4 to mention
     a couple. Compaq C in turn generates ~20% faster code for MD5 and
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Add support for MS "fast SGC". This is arguably a violation of the
     SSL3/TLS protocol. Netscape SGC does two handshakes: the first with
     weak crypto and after checking the certificate is SGC a second one
     with strong crypto. MS SGC stops the first handshake after receiving
     the server certificate message and sends a second client hello. Since
     a server will typically do all the time consuming operations before
     expecting any further messages from the client (server key exchange
     is the most expensive) there is little difference between the two.

     To get OpenSSL to support MS SGC we have to permit a second client
     hello message after we have sent server done. In addition we have to
     reset the MAC if we do get this second client hello.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a function 'd2i_AutoPrivateKey()' this will automatically decide
     if a DER encoded private key is RSA or DSA traditional format. Changed
     d2i_PrivateKey_bio() to use it. This is only needed for the "traditional"
     format DER encoded private key. Newer code should use PKCS#8 format which
     has the key type encoded in the ASN1 structure. Added DER private key
     support to pkcs8 application.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) SSL 3/TLS 1 servers now don't request certificates when an anonymous
     ciphersuites has been selected (as required by the SSL 3/TLS 1
     specifications).  Exception: When SSL_VERIFY_FAIL_IF_NO_PEER_CERT
     is set, we interpret this as a request to violate the specification
     (the worst that can happen is a handshake failure, and 'correct'
     behaviour would result in a handshake failure anyway).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In SSL_CTX_add_session, take into account that there might be multiple
     SSL_SESSION structures with the same session ID (e.g. when two threads
     concurrently obtain them from an external cache).
     The internal cache can handle only one SSL_SESSION with a given ID,
     so if there's a conflict, we now throw out the old one to achieve
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add OIDs for idea and blowfish in CBC mode. This will allow both
     to be used in PKCS#5 v2.0 and S/MIME.  Also add checking to
     some routines that use cipher OIDs: some ciphers do not have OIDs
     defined and so they cannot be used for S/MIME and PKCS#5 v2.0 for
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Simplify the trust setting structure and code. Now we just have
     two sequences of OIDs for trusted and rejected settings. These will
     typically have values the same as the extended key usage extension
     and any application specific purposes.

     The trust checking code now has a default behaviour: it will just
     check for an object with the same NID as the passed id. Functions can
     be provided to override either the default behaviour or the behaviour
     for a given id. SSL client, server and email already have functions
     in place for compatibility: they check the NID and also return "trusted"
     if the certificate is self signed.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add d2i,i2d bio/fp functions for PrivateKey: these convert the
     traditional format into an EVP_PKEY structure.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a password callback function PEM_cb() which either prompts for
     a password if usr_data is NULL or otherwise assumes it is a null
     terminated password. Allow passwords to be passed on command line
     environment or config files in a few more utilities.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a bunch of DER and PEM functions to handle PKCS#8 format private
     keys. Add some short names for PKCS#8 PBE algorithms and allow them
     to be specified on the command line for the pkcs8 and pkcs12 utilities.
     Update documentation.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for ASN1 "NULL" type. This could be handled before by using
     ASN1_TYPE but there wasn't any function that would try to read a NULL
     and produce an error if it couldn't. For compatibility we also have
     ASN1_NULL_new() and ASN1_NULL_free() functions but these are faked and
     don't allocate anything because they don't need to.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial support for MacOS is now provided. Examine INSTALL.MacOS
     for details.
     [Andy Polyakov, Roy Woods <>]

  *) Rebuild of the memory allocation routines used by OpenSSL code and
     possibly others as well.  The purpose is to make an interface that
     provide hooks so anyone can build a separate set of allocation and
     deallocation routines to be used by OpenSSL, for example memory
     pool implementations, or something else, which was previously hard
     since Malloc(), Realloc() and Free() were defined as macros having
     the values malloc, realloc and free, respectively (except for Win32
     compilations).  The same is provided for memory debugging code.
     OpenSSL already comes with functionality to find memory leaks, but
     this gives people a chance to debug other memory problems.

     With these changes, a new set of functions and macros have appeared:

       CRYPTO_set_mem_debug_functions()	        [F]
       CRYPTO_get_mem_debug_functions()         [F]
       CRYPTO_dbg_set_options()	                [F]
       CRYPTO_dbg_get_options()                 [F]
       CRYPTO_malloc_debug_init()               [M]

     The memory debug functions are NULL by default, unless the library
     is compiled with CRYPTO_MDEBUG or friends is defined.  If someone
     wants to debug memory anyway, CRYPTO_malloc_debug_init() (which
     gives the standard debugging functions that come with OpenSSL) or
     CRYPTO_set_mem_debug_functions() (tells OpenSSL to use functions
     provided by the library user) must be used.  When the standard
     debugging functions are used, CRYPTO_dbg_set_options can be used to
     request additional information:
     CRYPTO_dbg_set_options(V_CYRPTO_MDEBUG_xxx) corresponds to setting
     the CRYPTO_MDEBUG_xxx macro when compiling the library.   

     Also, things like CRYPTO_set_mem_functions will always give the
     expected result (the new set of functions is used for allocation
     and deallocation) at all times, regardless of platform and compiler

     To finish it up, some functions that were never use in any other
     way than through macros have a new API and new semantic:


     All macros of value have retained their old syntax.
     [Richard Levitte and Bodo Moeller]

  *) Some S/MIME fixes. The OID for SMIMECapabilities was wrong, the
     ordering of SMIMECapabilities wasn't in "strength order" and there
     was a missing NULL in the AlgorithmIdentifier for the SHA1 signature
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Some ASN1 types with illegal zero length encoding (INTEGER,
     ENUMERATED and OBJECT IDENTIFIER) choked the ASN1 routines.
     [Frans Heymans <>, modified by Steve Henson]

  *) Merge in my S/MIME library for OpenSSL. This provides a simple
     S/MIME API on top of the PKCS#7 code, a MIME parser (with enough
     functionality to handle multipart/signed properly) and a utility
     called 'smime' to call all this stuff. This is based on code I
     originally wrote for Celo who have kindly allowed it to be
     included in OpenSSL.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add variants des_set_key_checked and des_set_key_unchecked of
     des_set_key (aka des_key_sched).  Global variable des_check_key
     decides which of these is called by des_set_key; this way
     des_check_key behaves as it always did, but applications and
     the library itself, which was buggy for des_check_key == 1,
     have a cleaner way to pick the version they need.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function PKCS12_newpass() which changes the password of a
     PKCS12 structure.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify X509_TRUST and X509_PURPOSE so it also uses a static and
     dynamic mix. In both cases the ids can be used as an index into the
     table. Also modified the X509_TRUST_add() and X509_PURPOSE_add()
     functions so they accept a list of the field values and the
     application doesn't need to directly manipulate the X509_TRUST
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify the ASN1_STRING_TABLE stuff so it also uses bsearch and doesn't
     need initialising.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify the way the V3 extension code looks up extensions. This now
     works in a similar way to the object code: we have some "standard"
     extensions in a static table which is searched with OBJ_bsearch()
     and the application can add dynamic ones if needed. The file
     crypto/x509v3/ext_dat.h now has the info: this file needs to be
     updated whenever a new extension is added to the core code and kept
     in ext_nid order. There is a simple program 'tabtest.c' which checks
     this. New extensions are not added too often so this file can readily
     be maintained manually.

     There are two big advantages in doing things this way. The extensions
     can be looked up immediately and no longer need to be "added" using
     X509V3_add_standard_extensions(): this function now does nothing.
     [Side note: I get *lots* of email saying the extension code doesn't
      work because people forget to call this function]
     Also no dynamic allocation is done unless new extensions are added:
     so if we don't add custom extensions there is no need to call
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify enc utility's salting as follows: make salting the default. Add a
     magic header, so unsalted files fail gracefully instead of just decrypting
     to garbage. This is because not salting is a big security hole, so people
     should be discouraged from doing it.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fixes and enhancements to the 'x509' utility. It allowed a message
     digest to be passed on the command line but it only used this
     parameter when signing a certificate. Modified so all relevant
     operations are affected by the digest parameter including the
     -fingerprint and -x509toreq options. Also -x509toreq choked if a
     DSA key was used because it didn't fix the digest.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial certificate chain verify code. Currently tests the untrusted
     certificates for consistency with the verify purpose (which is set
     when the X509_STORE_CTX structure is set up) and checks the pathlength.

     There is a NO_CHAIN_VERIFY compilation option to keep the old behaviour:
     this is because it will reject chains with invalid extensions whereas
     every previous version of OpenSSL and SSLeay made no checks at all.

     Trust code: checks the root CA for the relevant trust settings. Trust
     settings have an initial value consistent with the verify purpose: e.g.
     if the verify purpose is for SSL client use it expects the CA to be
     trusted for SSL client use. However the default value can be changed to
     permit custom trust settings: one example of this would be to only trust
     certificates from a specific "secure" set of CAs.

     Also added X509_STORE_CTX_new() and X509_STORE_CTX_free() functions
     which should be used for version portability: especially since the
     verify structure is likely to change more often now.

     SSL integration. Add purpose and trust to SSL_CTX and SSL and functions
     to set them. If not set then assume SSL clients will verify SSL servers
     and vice versa.

     Two new options to the verify program: -untrusted allows a set of
     untrusted certificates to be passed in and -purpose which sets the
     intended purpose of the certificate. If a purpose is set then the
     new chain verify code is used to check extension consistency.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for the authority information access extension.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify RSA and DSA PEM read routines to transparently handle
     PKCS#8 format private keys. New *_PUBKEY_* functions that handle
     public keys in a format compatible with certificate
     SubjectPublicKeyInfo structures. Unfortunately there were already
     functions called *_PublicKey_* which used various odd formats so
     these are retained for compatibility: however the DSA variants were
     never in a public release so they have been deleted. Changed dsa/rsa
     utilities to handle the new format: note no releases ever handled public
     keys so we should be OK.

     The primary motivation for this change is to avoid the same fiasco
     that dogs private keys: there are several incompatible private key
     formats some of which are standard and some OpenSSL specific and
     require various evil hacks to allow partial transparent handling and
     even then it doesn't work with DER formats. Given the option anything
     other than PKCS#8 should be dumped: but the other formats have to
     stay in the name of compatibility.

     With public keys and the benefit of hindsight one standard format 
     is used which works with EVP_PKEY, RSA or DSA structures: though
     it clearly returns an error if you try to read the wrong kind of key.

     Added a -pubkey option to the 'x509' utility to output the public key.
     Also rename the EVP_PKEY_get_*() to EVP_PKEY_rget_*()
     (renamed to EVP_PKEY_get1_*() in the OpenSSL 0.9.5 release) and add
     EVP_PKEY_rset_*() functions (renamed to EVP_PKEY_set1_*())
     that do the same as the EVP_PKEY_assign_*() except they up the
     reference count of the added key (they don't "swallow" the
     supplied key).
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixes to crypto/x509/by_file.c the code to read in certificates and
     CRLs would fail if the file contained no certificates or no CRLs:
     added a new function to read in both types and return the number
     read: this means that if none are read it will be an error. The
     DER versions of the certificate and CRL reader would always fail
     because it isn't possible to mix certificates and CRLs in DER format
     without choking one or the other routine. Changed this to just read
     a certificate: this is the best we can do. Also modified the code
     in apps/verify.c to take notice of return codes: it was previously
     attempting to read in certificates from NULL pointers and ignoring
     any errors: this is one reason why the cert and CRL reader seemed
     to work. It doesn't check return codes from the default certificate
     routines: these may well fail if the certificates aren't installed.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Code to support otherName option in GeneralName.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) First update to verify code. Change the verify utility
     so it warns if it is passed a self signed certificate:
     for consistency with the normal behaviour. X509_verify
     has been modified to it will now verify a self signed
     certificate if *exactly* the same certificate appears
     in the store: it was previously impossible to trust a
     single self signed certificate. This means that:
     openssl verify ss.pem
     now gives a warning about a self signed certificate but
     openssl verify -CAfile ss.pem ss.pem
     is OK.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) For servers, store verify_result in SSL_SESSION data structure
     (and add it to external session representation).
     This is needed when client certificate verifications fails,
     but an application-provided verification callback (set by
     SSL_CTX_set_cert_verify_callback) allows accepting the session
     anyway (i.e. leaves x509_store_ctx->error != X509_V_OK
     but returns 1): When the session is reused, we have to set
     ssl->verify_result to the appropriate error code to avoid
     security holes.
     [Bodo Moeller, problem pointed out by Lutz Jaenicke]

  *) Fix a bug in the new PKCS#7 code: it didn't consider the
     case in PKCS7_dataInit() where the signed PKCS7 structure
     didn't contain any existing data because it was being created.
     [Po-Cheng Chen <>, slightly modified by Steve Henson]

  *) Add a salt to the key derivation routines in enc.c. This
     forms the first 8 bytes of the encrypted file. Also add a
     -S option to allow a salt to be input on the command line.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function X509_cmp(). Oddly enough there wasn't a function
     to compare two certificates. We do this by working out the SHA1
     hash and comparing that. X509_cmp() will be needed by the trust
     [Steve Henson]

  *) SSL_get1_session() is like SSL_get_session(), but increments
     the reference count in the SSL_SESSION returned.
     [Geoff Thorpe <>]

  *) Fix for 'req': it was adding a null to request attributes.
     Also change the X509_LOOKUP and X509_INFO code to handle
     certificate auxiliary information.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add support for 40 and 64 bit RC2 and RC4 algorithms: document
     the 'enc' command.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add the possibility to add extra information to the memory leak
     detecting output, to form tracebacks, showing from where each
     allocation was originated: CRYPTO_push_info("constant string") adds
     the string plus current file name and line number to a per-thread
     stack, CRYPTO_pop_info() does the obvious, CRYPTO_remove_all_info()
     is like calling CYRPTO_pop_info() until the stack is empty.
     Also updated memory leak detection code to be multi-thread-safe.
     [Richard Levitte]

  *) Add options -text and -noout to pkcs7 utility and delete the
     encryption options which never did anything. Update docs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add options to some of the utilities to allow the pass phrase
     to be included on either the command line (not recommended on
     OSes like Unix) or read from the environment. Update the
     manpages and fix a few bugs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a few manpages for some of the openssl commands.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix the -revoke option in ca. It was freeing up memory twice,
     leaking and not finding already revoked certificates.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Extensive changes to support certificate auxiliary information.
     This involves the use of X509_CERT_AUX structure and X509_AUX
     functions. An X509_AUX function such as PEM_read_X509_AUX()
     can still read in a certificate file in the usual way but it
     will also read in any additional "auxiliary information". By
     doing things this way a fair degree of compatibility can be
     retained: existing certificates can have this information added
     using the new 'x509' options. 

     Current auxiliary information includes an "alias" and some trust
     settings. The trust settings will ultimately be used in enhanced
     certificate chain verification routines: currently a certificate
     can only be trusted if it is self signed and then it is trusted
     for all purposes.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix assembler for Alpha (tested only on DEC OSF not Linux or *BSD).
     The problem was that one of the replacement routines had not been working
     since SSLeay releases.  For now the offending routine has been replaced
     with non-optimised assembler.  Even so, this now gives around 95%
     performance improvement for 1024 bit RSA signs.
     [Mark Cox]

  *) Hack to fix PKCS#7 decryption when used with some unorthodox RC2 
     handling. Most clients have the effective key size in bits equal to
     the key length in bits: so a 40 bit RC2 key uses a 40 bit (5 byte) key.
     A few however don't do this and instead use the size of the decrypted key
     to determine the RC2 key length and the AlgorithmIdentifier to determine
     the effective key length. In this case the effective key length can still
     be 40 bits but the key length can be 168 bits for example. This is fixed
     by manually forcing an RC2 key into the EVP_PKEY structure because the
     EVP code can't currently handle unusual RC2 key sizes: it always assumes
     the key length and effective key length are equal.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a bunch of functions that should simplify the creation of 
     X509_NAME structures. Now you should be able to do:
     X509_NAME_add_entry_by_txt(nm, "CN", MBSTRING_ASC, "Steve", -1, -1, 0);
     and have it automatically work out the correct field type and fill in
     the structures. The more adventurous can try:
     X509_NAME_add_entry_by_txt(nm, field, MBSTRING_UTF8, str, -1, -1, 0);
     and it will (hopefully) work out the correct multibyte encoding.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change the 'req' utility to use the new field handling and multibyte
     copy routines. Before the DN field creation was handled in an ad hoc
     way in req, ca, and x509 which was rather broken and didn't support
     BMPStrings or UTF8Strings. Since some software doesn't implement
     BMPStrings or UTF8Strings yet, they can be enabled using the config file
     using the dirstring_type option. See the new comment in the default
     openssl.cnf for more info.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make crypto/rand/md_rand.c more robust:
     - Assure unique random numbers after fork().
     - Make sure that concurrent threads access the global counter and
       md serializably so that we never lose entropy in them
       or use exactly the same state in multiple threads.
       Access to the large state is not always serializable because
       the additional locking could be a performance killer, and
       md should be large enough anyway.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New file apps/app_rand.c with commonly needed functionality
     for handling the random seed file.

     Use the random seed file in some applications that previously did not:
          dsaparam -genkey (which also ignored its '-rand' option), 
          x509 (when signing).
     Except on systems with /dev/urandom, it is crucial to have a random
     seed file at least for key creation, DSA signing, and for DH exchanges;
     for RSA signatures we could do without one.

     gendh and gendsa (unlike genrsa) used to read only the first byte
     of each file listed in the '-rand' option.  The function as previously
     found in genrsa is now in app_rand.c and is used by all programs
     that support '-rand'.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) In RAND_write_file, use mode 0600 for creating files;
     don't just chmod when it may be too late.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Report an error from X509_STORE_load_locations
     when X509_LOOKUP_load_file or X509_LOOKUP_add_dir failed.
     [Bill Perry]

  *) New function ASN1_mbstring_copy() this copies a string in either
     ASCII, Unicode, Universal (4 bytes per character) or UTF8 format
     into an ASN1_STRING type. A mask of permissible types is passed
     and it chooses the "minimal" type to use or an error if not type
     is suitable.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add function equivalents to the various macros in asn1.h. The old
     macros are retained with an M_ prefix. Code inside the library can
     use the M_ macros. External code (including the openssl utility)
     should *NOT* in order to be "shared library friendly".
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add various functions that can check a certificate's extensions
     to see if it usable for various purposes such as SSL client,
     server or S/MIME and CAs of these types. This is currently 
     VERY EXPERIMENTAL but will ultimately be used for certificate chain
     verification. Also added a -purpose flag to x509 utility to
     print out all the purposes.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a CRYPTO_EX_DATA to X509 certificate structure and associated
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New X509V3_{X509,CRL,REVOKED}_get_d2i() functions. These will search
     for, obtain and decode and extension and obtain its critical flag.
     This allows all the necessary extension code to be handled in a
     single function call.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) RC4 tune-up featuring 30-40% performance improvement on most RISC
     platforms. See crypto/rc4/rc4_enc.c for further details.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) New -noout option to asn1parse. This causes no output to be produced
     its main use is when combined with -strparse and -out to extract data
     from a file (which may not be in ASN.1 format).
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix for pkcs12 program. It was hashing an invalid certificate pointer
     when producing the local key id.
     [Richard Levitte <>]

  *) New option -dhparam in s_server. This allows a DH parameter file to be
     stated explicitly. If it is not stated then it tries the first server
     certificate file. The previous behaviour hard coded the filename
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add -pubin and -pubout options to the rsa and dsa commands. These allow
     a public key to be input or output. For example:
     openssl rsa -in key.pem -pubout -out pubkey.pem
     Also added necessary DSA public key functions to handle this.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix so PKCS7_dataVerify() doesn't crash if no certificates are contained
     in the message. This was handled by allowing
     X509_find_by_issuer_and_serial() to tolerate a NULL passed to it.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Sampo Kellomaki <>]

  *) Fix for bug in d2i_ASN1_bytes(): other ASN1 functions add an extra null
     to the end of the strings whereas this didn't. This would cause problems
     if strings read with d2i_ASN1_bytes() were later modified.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Arne Ansper <>]

  *) Fix for base64 decode bug. When a base64 bio reads only one line of
     data and it contains EOF it will end up returning an error. This is
     caused by input 46 bytes long. The cause is due to the way base64
     BIOs find the start of base64 encoded data. They do this by trying a
     trial decode on each line until they find one that works. When they
     do a flag is set and it starts again knowing it can pass all the
     data directly through the decoder. Unfortunately it doesn't reset
     the context it uses. This means that if EOF is reached an attempt
     is made to pass two EOFs through the context and this causes the
     resulting error. This can also cause other problems as well. As is
     usual with these problems it takes *ages* to find and the fix is
     trivial: move one line.
     [Steve Henson, reported by (Ivan Nejgebauer) ]

  *) Ugly workaround to get s_client and s_server working under Windows. The
     old code wouldn't work because it needed to select() on sockets and the
     tty (for keypresses and to see if data could be written). Win32 only
     supports select() on sockets so we select() with a 1s timeout on the
     sockets and then see if any characters are waiting to be read, if none
     are present then we retry, we also assume we can always write data to
     the tty. This isn't nice because the code then blocks until we've
     received a complete line of data and it is effectively polling the
     keyboard at 1s intervals: however it's quite a bit better than not
     working at all :-) A dedicated Windows application might handle this
     with an event loop for example.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Enhance RSA_METHOD structure. Now there are two extra methods, rsa_sign
     and rsa_verify. When the RSA_FLAGS_SIGN_VER option is set these functions
     will be called when RSA_sign() and RSA_verify() are used. This is useful
     if rsa_pub_dec() and rsa_priv_enc() equivalents are not available.
     For this to work properly RSA_public_decrypt() and RSA_private_encrypt()
     should *not* be used: RSA_sign() and RSA_verify() must be used instead.
     This necessitated the support of an extra signature type NID_md5_sha1
     for SSL signatures and modifications to the SSL library to use it instead
     of calling RSA_public_decrypt() and RSA_private_encrypt().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new -verify -CAfile and -CApath options to the crl program, these
     will lookup a CRL issuers certificate and verify the signature in a
     similar way to the verify program. Tidy up the crl program so it
     no longer accesses structures directly. Make the ASN1 CRL parsing a bit
     less strict. It will now permit CRL extensions even if it is not
     a V2 CRL: this will allow it to tolerate some broken CRLs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initialize all non-automatic variables each time one of the openssl
     sub-programs is started (this is necessary as they may be started
     multiple times from the "OpenSSL>" prompt).
     [Lennart Bang, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Preliminary compilation option RSA_NULL which disables RSA crypto without
     removing all other RSA functionality (this is what NO_RSA does). This
     is so (for example) those in the US can disable those operations covered
     by the RSA patent while allowing storage and parsing of RSA keys and RSA
     key generation.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Non-copying interface to BIO pairs.
     (still largely untested)
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function ANS1_tag2str() to convert an ASN1 tag to a descriptive
     ASCII string. This was handled independently in various places before.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New functions UTF8_getc() and UTF8_putc() that parse and generate
     UTF8 strings a character at a time.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Use client_version from client hello to select the protocol
     (s23_srvr.c) and for RSA client key exchange verification
     (s3_srvr.c), as required by the SSL 3.0/TLS 1.0 specifications.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add various utility functions to handle SPKACs, these were previously
     handled by poking round in the structure internals. Added new function
     NETSCAPE_SPKI_print() to print out SPKAC and a new utility 'spkac' to
     print, verify and generate SPKACs. Based on an original idea from
     Massimiliano Pala <> but extensively modified.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) RIPEMD160 is operational on all platforms and is back in 'make test'.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Allow the config file extension section to be overwritten on the
     command line. Based on an original idea from Massimiliano Pala
     <>. The new option is called -extensions
     and can be applied to ca, req and x509. Also -reqexts to override
     the request extensions in req and -crlexts to override the crl extensions
     in ca.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new feature to the SPKAC handling in ca.  Now you can include
     the same field multiple times by preceding it by "XXXX." for example:
     1.OU="Unit name 1"
     2.OU="Unit name 2"
     this is the same syntax as used in the req config file.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Allow certificate extensions to be added to certificate requests. These
     are specified in a 'req_extensions' option of the req section of the
     config file. They can be printed out with the -text option to req but
     are otherwise ignored at present.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix a horrible bug in enc_read() in crypto/evp/bio_enc.c: if the first
     data read consists of only the final block it would not decrypted because
     EVP_CipherUpdate() would correctly report zero bytes had been decrypted.
     A misplaced 'break' also meant the decrypted final block might not be
     copied until the next read.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial support for DH_METHOD. Again based on RSA_METHOD. Also added
     a few extra parameters to the DH structure: these will be useful if
     for example we want the value of 'q' or implement X9.42 DH.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial support for DSA_METHOD. This is based on the RSA_METHOD and
     provides hooks that allow the default DSA functions or functions on a
     "per key" basis to be replaced. This allows hardware acceleration and
     hardware key storage to be handled without major modification to the
     library. Also added low level modexp hooks and CRYPTO_EX structure and 
     associated functions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a new flag to memory BIOs, BIO_FLAG_MEM_RDONLY. This marks the BIO
     as "read only": it can't be written to and the buffer it points to will
     not be freed. Reading from a read only BIO is much more efficient than
     a normal memory BIO. This was added because there are several times when
     an area of memory needs to be read from a BIO. The previous method was
     to create a memory BIO and write the data to it, this results in two
     copies of the data and an O(n^2) reading algorithm. There is a new
     function BIO_new_mem_buf() which creates a read only memory BIO from
     an area of memory. Also modified the PKCS#7 routines to use read only
     memory BIOs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Bugfix: ssl23_get_client_hello did not work properly when called in
     state SSL23_ST_SR_CLNT_HELLO_B, i.e. when the first 7 bytes of
     a SSLv2-compatible client hello for SSLv3 or TLSv1 could be read,
     but a retry condition occured while trying to read the rest.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) The PKCS7_ENC_CONTENT_new() function was setting the content type as
     NID_pkcs7_encrypted by default: this was wrong since this should almost
     always be NID_pkcs7_data. Also modified the PKCS7_set_type() to handle
     the encrypted data type: this is a more sensible place to put it and it
     allows the PKCS#12 code to be tidied up that duplicated this
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Changed script so it takes its input and output files on
     the command line. This should avoid shell escape redirection problems
     under Win32.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Initial support for certificate extension requests, these are included
     in things like Xenroll certificate requests. Included functions to allow
     extensions to be obtained and added.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) -crlf option to s_client and s_server for sending newlines as
     CRLF (as required by many protocols).
     [Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.3a and 0.9.4  [09 Aug 1999]
  *) Install libRSAglue.a when OpenSSL is built with RSAref.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) A few more ``#ifndef NO_FP_API / #endif'' pairs for consistency.
     [Andrija Antonijevic <>]

  *) Fix -startdate and -enddate (which was missing) arguments to 'ca'
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function DSA_dup_DH, which duplicates DSA parameters/keys as
     DH parameters/keys (q is lost during that conversion, but the resulting
     DH parameters contain its length).

     For 1024-bit p, DSA_generate_parameters followed by DSA_dup_DH is
     much faster than DH_generate_parameters (which creates parameters
     where p = 2*q + 1), and also the smaller q makes DH computations
     much more efficient (160-bit exponentiation instead of 1024-bit
     exponentiation); so this provides a convenient way to support DHE
     ciphersuites in SSL/TLS servers (see ssl/ssltest.c).  It is of
     utter importance to use
         SSL_CTX_set_options(s_ctx, SSL_OP_SINGLE_DH_USE);
         SSL_set_options(s_ctx, SSL_OP_SINGLE_DH_USE);
     when such DH parameters are used, because otherwise small subgroup
     attacks may become possible!
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Avoid memory leak in i2d_DHparams.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Allow the -k option to be used more than once in the enc program:
     this allows the same encrypted message to be read by multiple recipients.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function OBJ_obj2txt(buf, buf_len, a, no_name), this converts
     an ASN1_OBJECT to a text string. If the "no_name" parameter is set then
     it will always use the numerical form of the OID, even if it has a short
     or long name.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Added an extra RSA flag: RSA_FLAG_EXT_PKEY. Previously the rsa_mod_exp
     method only got called if p,q,dmp1,dmq1,iqmp components were present,
     otherwise bn_mod_exp was called. In the case of hardware keys for example
     no private key components need be present and it might store extra data
     in the RSA structure, which cannot be accessed from bn_mod_exp.
     By setting RSA_FLAG_EXT_PKEY rsa_mod_exp will always be called for
     private key operations.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Added support for SPARC Linux.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) pem_password_cb function type incompatibly changed from
          typedef int pem_password_cb(char *buf, int size, int rwflag);
          ....(char *buf, int size, int rwflag, void *userdata);
     so that applications can pass data to their callbacks:
     The PEM[_ASN1]_{read,write}... functions and macros now take an
     additional void * argument, which is just handed through whenever
     the password callback is called.
     [Damien Miller <>; tiny changes by Bodo Moeller]

     New function SSL_CTX_set_default_passwd_cb_userdata.

     Compatibility note: As many C implementations push function arguments
     onto the stack in reverse order, the new library version is likely to
     interoperate with programs that have been compiled with the old
     pem_password_cb definition (PEM_whatever takes some data that
     happens to be on the stack as its last argument, and the callback
     just ignores this garbage); but there is no guarantee whatsoever that
     this will work.

  *) The -DPLATFORM="\"$(PLATFORM)\"" definition and the similar -DCFLAGS=...
     (both in crypto/Makefile.ssl for use by crypto/cversion.c) caused
     problems not only on Windows, but also on some Unix platforms.
     To avoid problematic command lines, these definitions are now in an
     auto-generated file crypto/buildinf.h (created by crypto/Makefile.ssl
     for standard "make" builds, by util/ for "mk1mf" builds).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) MIPS III/IV assembler module is reimplemented.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) More DES library cleanups: remove references to srand/rand and
     delete an unused file.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add support for the the free Netwide assembler (NASM) under Win32,
     since not many people have MASM (ml) and it can be hard to obtain.
     This is currently experimental but it seems to work OK and pass all
     the tests. Check out INSTALL.W32 for info.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix memory leaks in s3_clnt.c: All non-anonymous SSL3/TLS1 connections
     without temporary keys kept an extra copy of the server key,
     and connections with temporary keys did not free everything in case
     of an error.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function RSA_check_key and new openssl rsa option -check
     for verifying the consistency of RSA keys.
     [Ulf Moeller, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Various changes to make Win32 compile work: 
     1. Casts to avoid "loss of data" warnings in p5_crpt2.c
     2. Change unsigned int to int in b_dump.c to avoid "signed/unsigned
        comparison" warnings.
     3. Add sk_<TYPE>_sort to DEF file generator and do make update.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a debugging option to PKCS#5 v2 key generation function: when
     you #define DEBUG_PKCS5V2 passwords, salts, iteration counts and
     derived keys are printed to stderr.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Copy the flags in ASN1_STRING_dup().
     [Roman E. Pavlov <>]

  *) The x509 application mishandled signing requests containing DSA
     keys when the signing key was also DSA and the parameters didn't match.

     It was supposed to omit the parameters when they matched the signing key:
     the verifying software was then supposed to automatically use the CA's
     parameters if they were absent from the end user certificate.

     Omitting parameters is no longer recommended. The test was also
     the wrong way round! This was probably due to unusual behaviour in
     EVP_cmp_parameters() which returns 1 if the parameters match. 
     This meant that parameters were omitted when they *didn't* match and
     the certificate was useless. Certificates signed with 'ca' didn't have
     this bug.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Doug Erickson <Doug.Erickson@Part.NET>]

  *) Memory leak checking (-DCRYPTO_MDEBUG) had some problems.
     The interface is as follows:
     Applications can use
         CRYPTO_mem_ctrl(CRYPTO_MEM_CHECK_ON) aka MemCheck_start(),
         CRYPTO_mem_ctrl(CRYPTO_MEM_CHECK_OFF) aka MemCheck_stop();
     "off" is now the default.
     The library internally uses
         CRYPTO_mem_ctrl(CRYPTO_MEM_CHECK_DISABLE) aka MemCheck_off(),
         CRYPTO_mem_ctrl(CRYPTO_MEM_CHECK_ENABLE) aka MemCheck_on()
     to disable memory-checking temporarily.

     Some inconsistent states that previously were possible (and were
     even the default) are now avoided.

     -DCRYPTO_MDEBUG_TIME is new and additionally stores the current time
     with each memory chunk allocated; this is occasionally more helpful
     than just having a counter.

     -DCRYPTO_MDEBUG_THREAD is also new and adds the thread ID.

     -DCRYPTO_MDEBUG_ALL enables all of the above, plus any future
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Introduce "mode" for SSL structures (with defaults in SSL_CTX),
     which largely parallels "options", but is for changing API behaviour,
     whereas "options" are about protocol behaviour.
     Initial "mode" flags are:

     SSL_MODE_ENABLE_PARTIAL_WRITE   Allow SSL_write to report success when
                                     a single record has been written.
     SSL_MODE_ACCEPT_MOVING_WRITE_BUFFER  Don't insist that SSL_write
                                     retries use the same buffer location.
                                     (But all of the contents must be
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Bugfix: SSL_set_options ignored its parameter, only SSL_CTX_set_options

  *) Fix problems with no-hmac etc.
     [Ulf Möller, pointed out by Brian Wellington <>]

  *) New functions RSA_get_default_method(), RSA_set_method() and
     RSA_get_method(). These allows replacement of RSA_METHODs without having
     to mess around with the internals of an RSA structure.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix memory leaks in DSA_do_sign and DSA_is_prime.
     Also really enable memory leak checks in openssl.c and in some
     test programs.
     [Chad C. Mulligan, Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix a bug in d2i_ASN1_INTEGER() and i2d_ASN1_INTEGER() which can mess
     up the length of negative integers. This has now been simplified to just
     store the length when it is first determined and use it later, rather
     than trying to keep track of where data is copied and updating it to
     point to the end.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Brien Wheeler

  *) Add a new function PKCS7_signatureVerify. This allows the verification
     of a PKCS#7 signature but with the signing certificate passed to the
     function itself. This contrasts with PKCS7_dataVerify which assumes the
     certificate is present in the PKCS#7 structure. This isn't always the
     case: certificates can be omitted from a PKCS#7 structure and be
     distributed by "out of band" means (such as a certificate database).
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Complete the PEM_* macros with DECLARE_PEM versions to replace the
     function prototypes in pem.h, also change util/ to add the
     necessary function names. 
     [Steve Henson]

  *) (used by Windows builds) did not properly read the
     options set by Configure in the top level Makefile, and Configure
     was not even able to write more than one option correctly.
     Fixed, now "no-idea no-rc5 -DCRYPTO_MDEBUG" etc. works as intended.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New functions CONF_load_bio() and CONF_load_fp() to allow a config
     file to be loaded from a BIO or FILE pointer. The BIO version will
     for example allow memory BIOs to contain config info.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New function "CRYPTO_num_locks" that returns CRYPTO_NUM_LOCKS.
     Whoever hopes to achieve shared-library compatibility across versions
     must use this, not the compile-time macro.
     (Exercise 0.9.4: Which is the minimum library version required by
     such programs?)
     Note: All this applies only to multi-threaded programs, others don't
     need locks.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add missing case to s3_clnt.c state machine -- one of the new SSL tests
     through a BIO pair triggered the default case, i.e.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New "BIO pair" concept (crypto/bio/bss_bio.c) so that applications
     can use the SSL library even if none of the specific BIOs is
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix a bug in i2d_DSAPublicKey() which meant it returned the wrong value
     for the encoded length.
     [Jeon KyoungHo <>]

  *) Add initial documentation of the X509V3 functions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a new pair of functions PEM_write_PKCS8PrivateKey() and 
     PEM_write_bio_PKCS8PrivateKey() that are equivalent to
     PEM_write_PrivateKey() and PEM_write_bio_PrivateKey() but use the more
     secure PKCS#8 private key format with a high iteration count.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix determination of Perl interpreter: A perl or perl5
     _directory_ in $PATH was also accepted as the interpreter.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fix demos/sign/sign.c: well there wasn't anything strictly speaking
     wrong with it but it was very old and did things like calling
     PEM_ASN1_read() directly and used MD5 for the hash not to mention some
     unusual formatting.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix demos/selfsign.c: it used obsolete and deleted functions, changed
     to use the new extension code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Implement the PEM_read/PEM_write functions in crypto/pem/pem_all.c
     with macros. This should make it easier to change their form, add extra
     arguments etc. Fix a few PEM prototypes which didn't have cipher as a
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add to configuration table a new entry that can specify an alternative
     name for unistd.h (for pre-POSIX systems); we need this for NeXTstep,
     according to Mark Crispin <MRC@Panda.COM>.
     [Bodo Moeller]

#if 0
  *) DES CBC did not update the IV. Weird.
     [Ben Laurie]
     des_cbc_encrypt does not update the IV, but des_ncbc_encrypt does.
     Changing the behaviour of the former might break existing programs --
     where IV updating is needed, des_ncbc_encrypt can be used.

  *) When bntest is run from "make test" it drives bc to check its
     calculations, as well as internally checking them. If an internal check
     fails, it needs to cause bc to give a non-zero result or make test carries
     on without noticing the failure. Fixed.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) DES library cleanups.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add support for PKCS#5 v2.0 PBE algorithms. This will permit PKCS#8 to be
     used with any cipher unlike PKCS#5 v1.5 which can at most handle 64 bit
     ciphers. NOTE: although the key derivation function has been verified
     against some published test vectors it has not been extensively tested
     yet. Added a -v2 "cipher" option to pkcs8 application to allow the use
     of v2.0.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Instead of "mkdir -p", which is not fully portable, use new
     Perl script "util/".
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Rewrite the way password based encryption (PBE) is handled. It used to
     assume that the ASN1 AlgorithmIdentifier parameter was a PBEParameter
     structure. This was true for the PKCS#5 v1.5 and PKCS#12 PBE algorithms
     but doesn't apply to PKCS#5 v2.0 where it can be something else. Now
     the 'parameter' field of the AlgorithmIdentifier is passed to the
     underlying key generation function so it must do its own ASN1 parsing.
     This has also changed the EVP_PBE_CipherInit() function which now has a
     'parameter' argument instead of literal salt and iteration count values
     and the function EVP_PBE_ALGOR_CipherInit() has been deleted.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for PKCS#5 v1.5 compatible password based encryption algorithms
     and PKCS#8 functionality. New 'pkcs8' application linked to openssl.
     Needed to change the PEM_STRING_EVP_PKEY value which was just "PRIVATE
     KEY" because this clashed with PKCS#8 unencrypted string. Since this
     value was just used as a "magic string" and not used directly its
     value doesn't matter.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Introduce some semblance of const correctness to BN. Shame C doesn't
     support mutable.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) "linux-sparc64" configuration (ultrapenguin).
     [Ray Miller <>]
     "linux-sparc" configuration.
     [Christian Forster <>]

  *) config now generates no-xxx options for missing ciphers.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Support the EBCDIC character set (work in progress).
     File ebcdic.c not yet included because it has a different license.
     [Martin Kraemer <Martin.Kraemer@MchP.Siemens.De>]

  *) Support BS2000/OSD-POSIX.
     [Martin Kraemer <Martin.Kraemer@MchP.Siemens.De>]

  *) Make callbacks for key generation use void * instead of char *.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Make S/MIME samples compile (not yet tested).
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Additional typesafe stacks.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) New configuration variants "bsdi-elf-gcc" (BSD/OS 4.x).
     [Bodo Moeller]

 Changes between 0.9.3 and 0.9.3a  [29 May 1999]

  *) New configuration variant "sco5-gcc".

  *) Updated some demos.
     [Sean O Riordain, Wade Scholine]

  *) Add missing BIO_free at exit of pkcs12 application.
     [Wu Zhigang]

  *) Fix memory leak in conf.c.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Updates for Win32 to assembler version of MD5.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Set #! path to perl in apps/der_chop to where we found it
     instead of using a fixed path.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) SHA library changes for irix64-mips4-cc.
     [Andy Polyakov]

  *) Improvements for VMS support.
     [Richard Levitte]

 Changes between 0.9.2b and 0.9.3  [24 May 1999]

  *) Bignum library bug fix. IRIX 6 passes "make test" now!
     This also avoids the problems with SC4.2 and unpatched SC5.  
     [Andy Polyakov <>]

  *) New functions sk_num, sk_value and sk_set to replace the previous macros.
     These are required because of the typesafe stack would otherwise break 
     existing code. If old code used a structure member which used to be STACK
     and is now STACK_OF (for example cert in a PKCS7_SIGNED structure) with
     sk_num or sk_value it would produce an error because the num, data members
     are not present in STACK_OF. Now it just produces a warning. sk_set
     replaces the old method of assigning a value to sk_value
     (e.g. sk_value(x, i) = y) which the library used in a few cases. Any code
     that does this will no longer work (and should use sk_set instead) but
     this could be regarded as a "questionable" behaviour anyway.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix most of the other PKCS#7 bugs. The "experimental" code can now
     correctly handle encrypted S/MIME data.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change type of various DES function arguments from des_cblock
     (which means, in function argument declarations, pointer to char)
     to des_cblock * (meaning pointer to array with 8 char elements),
     which allows the compiler to do more typechecking; it was like
     that back in SSLeay, but with lots of ugly casts.

     Introduce new type const_des_cblock.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Reorganise the PKCS#7 library and get rid of some of the more obvious
     problems: find RecipientInfo structure that matches recipient certificate
     and initialise the ASN1 structures properly based on passed cipher.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Belatedly make the BN tests actually check the results.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix the encoding and decoding of negative ASN1 INTEGERS and conversion
     to and from BNs: it was completely broken. New compilation option
     NEG_PUBKEY_BUG to allow for some broken certificates that encode public
     key elements as negative integers.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Reorganize and speed up MD5.
     [Andy Polyakov <>]

  *) VMS support.
     [Richard Levitte <>]

  *) New option -out to asn1parse to allow the parsed structure to be
     output to a file. This is most useful when combined with the -strparse
     option to examine the output of things like OCTET STRINGS.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make SSL library a little more fool-proof by not requiring any longer
     that SSL_set_{accept,connect}_state be called before
     SSL_{accept,connect} may be used (SSL_set_..._state is omitted
     in many applications because usually everything *appeared* to work as
     intended anyway -- now it really works as intended).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Move openssl.cnf out of lib/.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Fix various things to let OpenSSL even pass ``egcc -pipe -O2 -Wall
     -Wshadow -Wpointer-arith -Wcast-align -Wmissing-prototypes
     -Wmissing-declarations -Wnested-externs -Winline'' with EGCS 1.1.2+ 
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Various fixes to the EVP and PKCS#7 code. It may now be able to
     handle PKCS#7 enveloped data properly.
     [Sebastian Akerman <>, modified by Steve]

  *) Create a duplicate of the SSL_CTX's CERT in SSL_new instead of
     copying pointers.  The cert_st handling is changed by this in
     various ways (and thus what used to be known as ctx->default_cert
     is now called ctx->cert, since we don't resort to s->ctx->[default_]cert
     any longer when s->cert does not give us what we need).
     ssl_cert_instantiate becomes obsolete by this change.
     As soon as we've got the new code right (possibly it already is?),
     we have solved a couple of bugs of the earlier code where s->cert
     was used as if it could not have been shared with other SSL structures.

     Note that using the SSL API in certain dirty ways now will result
     in different behaviour than observed with earlier library versions:
     Changing settings for an SSL_CTX *ctx after having done s = SSL_new(ctx)
     does not influence s as it used to.
     In order to clean up things more thoroughly, inside SSL_SESSION
     we don't use CERT any longer, but a new structure SESS_CERT
     that holds per-session data (if available); currently, this is
     the peer's certificate chain and, for clients, the server's certificate
     and temporary key.  CERT holds only those values that can have
     meaningful defaults in an SSL_CTX.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New function X509V3_EXT_i2d() to create an X509_EXTENSION structure
     from the internal representation. Various PKCS#7 fixes: remove some
     evil casts and set the enc_dig_alg field properly based on the signing
     key type.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Allow PKCS#12 password to be set from the command line or the
     environment. Let 'ca' get its config file name from the environment
     variables "OPENSSL_CONF" or "SSLEAY_CONF" (for consistency with 'req'
     and 'x509').
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Allow certificate policies extension to use an IA5STRING for the
     organization field. This is contrary to the PKIX definition but
     VeriSign uses it and IE5 only recognises this form. Document 'x509'
     extension option.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add PEDANTIC compiler flag to allow compilation with gcc -pedantic,
     without disallowing inline assembler and the like for non-pedantic builds.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Support Borland C++ builder.
     [Janez Jere <>, modified by Ulf Möller]

  *) Support Mingw32.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) SHA-1 cleanups and performance enhancements.
     [Andy Polyakov <>]

  *) Sparc v8plus assembler for the bignum library.
     [Andy Polyakov <>]

  *) Accept any -xxx and +xxx compiler options in Configure.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Update HPUX configuration.
  *) Add missing sk_<type>_unshift() function to safestack.h
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) New function SSL_CTX_use_certificate_chain_file that sets the
     "extra_cert"s in addition to the certificate.  (This makes sense
     only for "PEM" format files, as chains as a whole are not
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Support verify_depth from the SSL API.
     x509_vfy.c had what can be considered an off-by-one-error:
     Its depth (which was not part of the external interface)
     was actually counting the number of certificates in a chain;
     now it really counts the depth.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Bugfix in crypto/x509/x509_cmp.c: The SSLerr macro was used
     instead of X509err, which often resulted in confusing error
     messages since the error codes are not globally unique
     (e.g. an alleged error in ssl3_accept when a certificate
     didn't match the private key).

  *) New function SSL_CTX_set_session_id_context that allows to set a default
     value (so that you don't need SSL_set_session_id_context for each
     connection using the SSL_CTX).
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) OAEP decoding bug fix.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Support INSTALL_PREFIX for package builders, as proposed by
     David Harris.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New Configure options "threads" and "no-threads".  For systems
     where the proper compiler options are known (currently Solaris
     and Linux), "threads" is the default.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New script util/ as a faster substitute for util/
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Install various scripts to $(OPENSSLDIR)/misc, not to
     $(INSTALLTOP)/bin -- they shouldn't clutter directories
     such as /usr/local/bin.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) "make linux-shared" to build shared libraries.
     [Niels Poppe <>]

  *) New Configure option no-<cipher> (rsa, idea, rc5, ...).
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Add the PKCS#12 API documentation to openssl.txt. Preliminary support for
     extension adding in x509 utility.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Remove NOPROTO sections and error code comments.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Partial rewrite of the DEF file generator to now parse the ANSI
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New Configure options --prefix=DIR and --openssldir=DIR.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Complete rewrite of the error code script(s). It is all now handled
     by one script at the top level which handles error code gathering,
     header rewriting and C source file generation. It should be much better
     than the old method: it now uses a modified version of Ulf's parser to
     read the ANSI prototypes in all header files (thus the old K&R definitions
     aren't needed for error creation any more) and do a better job of
     translating function codes into names. The old 'ASN1 error code imbedded
     in a comment' is no longer necessary and it doesn't use .err files which
     have now been deleted. Also the error code call doesn't have to appear all
     on one line (which resulted in some large lines...).
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Change #include filenames from <foo.h> to <openssl/foo.h>.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Change behaviour of ssl2_read when facing length-0 packets: Don't return
     0 (which usually indicates a closed connection), but continue reading.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Fix some race conditions.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Add support for CRL distribution points extension. Add Certificate
     Policies and CRL distribution points documentation.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Move the autogenerated header file parts to crypto/opensslconf.h.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Fix new 56-bit DES export ciphersuites: they were using 7 bytes instead of
     8 of keying material. Merlin has also confirmed interop with this fix
     between OpenSSL and Baltimore C/SSL 2.0 and J/SSL 2.0.
     [Merlin Hughes <>]

  *) Fix lots of warnings.
     [Richard Levitte <>]
  *) In add_cert_dir() in crypto/x509/by_dir.c, break out of the loop if
     the directory spec didn't end with a LIST_SEPARATOR_CHAR.
     [Richard Levitte <>]
  *) Fix problems with sizeof(long) == 8.
     [Andy Polyakov <>]

  *) Change functions to ANSI C.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Fix typos in error codes.
     [Martin Kraemer <Martin.Kraemer@MchP.Siemens.De>, Ulf Möller]

  *) Remove defunct assembler files from Configure.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) SPARC v8 assembler BIGNUM implementation.
     [Andy Polyakov <>]

  *) Support for Certificate Policies extension: both print and set.
     Various additions to support the r2i method this uses.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) A lot of constification, and fix a bug in X509_NAME_oneline() that could
     return a const string when you are expecting an allocated buffer.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add support for ASN1 types UTF8String and VISIBLESTRING, also the CHOICE
     types DirectoryString and DisplayText.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add code to allow r2i extensions to access the configuration database,
     add an LHASH database driver and add several ctx helper functions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix an evil bug in bn_expand2() which caused various BN functions to
     fail when they extended the size of a BIGNUM.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Various utility functions to handle SXNet extension. Modify to
     support typesafe stack.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix typo in SSL_[gs]et_options().
     [Nils Frostberg <>]

  *) Delete various functions and files that belonged to the (now obsolete)
     old X509V3 handling code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New Configure option "rsaref".
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Don't auto-generate pem.h.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Introduce type-safe ASN.1 SETs.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Convert various additional casted stacks to type-safe STACK_OF() variants.
     [Ben Laurie, Ralf S. Engelschall, Steve Henson]

  *) Introduce type-safe STACKs. This will almost certainly break lots of code
     that links with OpenSSL (well at least cause lots of warnings), but fear
     not: the conversion is trivial, and it eliminates loads of evil casts. A
     few STACKed things have been converted already. Feel free to convert more.
     In the fullness of time, I'll do away with the STACK type altogether.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add `openssl ca -revoke <certfile>' facility which revokes a certificate
     specified in <certfile> by updating the entry in the index.txt file.
     This way one no longer has to edit the index.txt file manually for
     revoking a certificate. The -revoke option does the gory details now.
     [Massimiliano Pala <>, Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fix `openssl crl -noout -text' combination where `-noout' killed the
     `-text' option at all and this way the `-noout -text' combination was
     inconsistent in `openssl crl' with the friends in `openssl x509|rsa|dsa'.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Make sure a corresponding plain text error message exists for the
     X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED/23 error number which can occur when a
     verify callback function determined that a certificate was revoked.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Bugfix: In test/testenc, don't test "openssl <cipher>" for
     ciphers that were excluded, e.g. by -DNO_IDEA.  Also, test
     all available cipers including rc5, which was forgotten until now.
     In order to let the testing shell script know which algorithms
     are available, a new (up to now undocumented) command
     "openssl list-cipher-commands" is used.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Bugfix: s_client occasionally would sleep in select() when
     it should have checked SSL_pending() first.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New functions DSA_do_sign and DSA_do_verify to provide access to
     the raw DSA values prior to ASN.1 encoding.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) Tweaks to Configure
     [Niels Poppe <>]

  *) Add support for PKCS#5 v2.0 ASN1 PBES2 structures. No other support,
     [Steve Henson]

  *) New variables $(RANLIB) and $(PERL) in the Makefiles.
     [Ulf Möller]

  *) New config option to avoid instructions that are illegal on the 80386.
     The default code is faster, but requires at least a 486.
     [Ulf Möller]
  *) Got rid of old SSL2_CLIENT_VERSION (inconsistently used) and
     SSL2_SERVER_VERSION (not used at all) macros, which are now the
     same as SSL2_VERSION anyway.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) New "-showcerts" option for s_client.
     [Bodo Moeller]

  *) Still more PKCS#12 integration. Add pkcs12 application to openssl
     application. Various cleanups and fixes.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) More PKCS#12 integration. Add new pkcs12 directory with Makefile.ssl and
     modify error routines to work internally. Add error codes and PBE init
     to library startup routines.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Further PKCS#12 integration. Added password based encryption, PKCS#8 and
     packing functions to asn1 and evp. Changed function names and error
     codes along the way.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) PKCS12 integration: and so it begins... First of several patches to
     slowly integrate PKCS#12 functionality into OpenSSL. Add PKCS#12
     objects to objects.h
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a new 'indent' option to some X509V3 extension code. Initial ASN1
     and display support for Thawte strong extranet extension.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add LinuxPPC support.
     [Jeff Dubrule <>]

  *) Get rid of redundant BN file bn_mulw.c, and rename bn_div64 to
     bn_div_words in alpha.s.
     [Hannes Reinecke <> and Ben Laurie]

  *) Make sure the RSA OAEP test is skipped under -DRSAref because
     OAEP isn't supported when OpenSSL is built with RSAref.
     [Ulf Moeller <>]

  *) Move definitions of IS_SET/IS_SEQUENCE inside crypto/asn1/asn1.h 
     so they no longer are missing under -DNOPROTO. 
     [Soren S. Jorvang <>]

 Changes between 0.9.1c and 0.9.2b  [22 Mar 1999]

  *) Make SSL_get_peer_cert_chain() work in servers. Unfortunately, it still
     doesn't work when the session is reused. Coming soon!
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix a security hole, that allows sessions to be reused in the wrong
     context thus bypassing client cert protection! All software that uses
     client certs and session caches in multiple contexts NEEDS PATCHING to
     allow session reuse! A fuller solution is in the works.
     [Ben Laurie, problem pointed out by Holger Reif, Bodo Moeller (and ???)]

  *) Some more source tree cleanups (removed obsolete files
     crypto/bf/asm/, test/test.txt and crypto/sha/asm/f.s; changed
     permission on "config" script to be executable) and a fix for the INSTALL
     [Ulf Moeller <>]

  *) Remove some legacy and erroneous uses of malloc, free instead of
     Malloc, Free.
     [Lennart Bang <>, with minor changes by Steve]

  *) Make rsa_oaep_test return non-zero on error.
     [Ulf Moeller <>]

  *) Add support for native Solaris shared libraries. Configure
     solaris-sparc-sc4-pic, make, then run shlib/ It'd be nice
     if someone would make that last step automatic.
     [Matthias Loepfe <Matthias.Loepfe@AdNovum.CH>]

  *) ctx_size was not built with the right compiler during "make links". Fixed.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Change the meaning of 'ALL' in the cipher list. It now means "everything
     except NULL ciphers". This means the default cipher list will no longer
     enable NULL ciphers. They need to be specifically enabled e.g. with
     the string "DEFAULT:eNULL".
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix to RSA private encryption routines: if p < q then it would
     occasionally produce an invalid result. This will only happen with
     externally generated keys because OpenSSL (and SSLeay) ensure p > q.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Be less restrictive and allow also `perl util/
     /path/to/bin/perl' in addition to `perl util/ /path/to/bin',
     because this way one can also use an interpreter named `perl5' (which is
     usually the name of Perl on platforms where an Perl 4.x is still
     installed as `perl').
     [Matthias Loepfe <>]

  *) Let util/ work also with older Perl 5.00x versions.
     [Matthias Loepfe <>]

  *) Fix so CC,CFLAG etc are passed to 'make links' add
     advapi32.lib to Win32 build and change the pem test comparision
     to fc.exe (thanks to Ulrich Kroener <> for the
     suggestion). Fix misplaced ASNI prototypes and declarations in evp.h
     and crypto/des/ede_cbcm_enc.c.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) DES quad checksum was broken on big-endian architectures. Fixed.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Comment out two functions in bio.h that aren't implemented. Fix up the
     Win32 test batch file so it (might) work again. The Win32 test batch file
     is horrible: I feel ill....
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Move various #ifdefs around so NO_SYSLOG, NO_DIRENT etc are now selected
     in e_os.h. Audit of header files to check ANSI and non ANSI
     sections: 10 functions were absent from non ANSI section and not exported
     from Windows DLLs. Fixed up libeay.num for new functions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make `openssl version' output lines consistent.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fix Win32 symbol export lists for BIO functions: Added
     BIO_get_ex_new_index, BIO_get_ex_num, BIO_get_ex_data and BIO_set_ex_data
     to ms/libeay{16,32}.def.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Second round of fixing the OpenSSL perl/ stuff. It now at least compiled
     fine under Unix and passes some trivial tests I've now added. But the
     whole stuff is horribly incomplete, so a README.1ST with a disclaimer was
     added to make sure no one expects that this stuff really works in the
     OpenSSL 0.9.2 release.  Additionally I've started to clean the XS sources
     up and fixed a few little bugs and inconsistencies in OpenSSL.{pm,xs} and
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fix the generation of two part addresses in perl.
     [Kenji Miyake <>, integrated by Ben Laurie]

  *) Add config entry for Linux on MIPS.
     [John Tobey <>]

  *) Make links whenever Configure is run, unless we are on Windoze.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Permit extensions to be added to CRLs using crl_section in openssl.cnf.
     Currently only issuerAltName and AuthorityKeyIdentifier make any sense
     in CRLs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a useful kludge to allow package maintainers to specify compiler and
     other platforms details on the command line without having to patch the
     Configure script everytime: One now can use ``perl Configure
     <id>:<details>'', i.e. platform ids are allowed to have details appended
     to them (seperated by colons). This is treated as there would be a static
     pre-configured entry in Configure's %table under key <id> with value
     <details> and ``perl Configure <id>'' is called.  So, when you want to
     perform a quick test-compile under FreeBSD 3.1 with pgcc and without
     assembler stuff you can use ``perl Configure "FreeBSD-elf:pgcc:-O6:::"''
     now, which overrides the FreeBSD-elf entry on-the-fly.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Disable new TLS1 ciphersuites by default: they aren't official yet.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Allow DSO flags like -fpic, -fPIC, -KPIC etc. to be specified
     on the `perl Configure ...' command line. This way one can compile
     OpenSSL libraries with Position Independent Code (PIC) which is needed
     for linking it into DSOs.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Remarkably, export ciphers were totally broken and no-one had noticed!
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Cleaned up the LICENSE document: The official contact for any license
     questions now is the OpenSSL core team under
     And add a paragraph about the dual-license situation to make sure people
     recognize that _BOTH_ the OpenSSL license _AND_ the SSLeay license apply
     to the OpenSSL toolkit.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) General source tree makefile cleanups: Made `making xxx in yyy...'
     display consistent in the source tree and replaced `/bin/rm' by `rm'.
     Additonally cleaned up the `make links' target: Remove unnecessary
     semicolons, subsequent redundant removes, inline into
     to speed processing and no longer clutter the display with confusing
     stuff. Instead only the actually done links are displayed.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Permit null encryption ciphersuites, used for authentication only. It used
     to be necessary to set the preprocessor define SSL_ALLOW_ENULL to do this.
     It is now necessary to set SSL_FORBID_ENULL to prevent the use of null
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add a bunch of fixes to the PKCS#7 stuff. It used to sometimes reorder
     signed attributes when verifying signatures (this would break them), 
     the detached data encoding was wrong and public keys obtained using
     X509_get_pubkey() weren't freed.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add text documentation for the BUFFER functions. Also added a work around
     to a Win95 console bug. This was triggered by the password read stuff: the
     last character typed gets carried over to the next fread(). If you were 
     generating a new cert request using 'req' for example then the last
     character of the passphrase would be CR which would then enter the first
     field as blank.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Added the new `Includes OpenSSL Cryptography Software' button as
     doc/openssl_button.{gif,html} which is similar in style to the old SSLeay
     button and can be used by applications based on OpenSSL to show the
     relationship to the OpenSSL project.  
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Remove confusing variables in function signatures in files
     ssl/ssl_lib.c and ssl/ssl.h.
     [Lennart Bong <>]

  *) Don't install bss_file.c under PREFIX/include/
     [Lennart Bong <>]

  *) Get the Win32 compile working again. Modify so it can handle
     functions that return function pointers and has support for NT specific
     stuff. Fix and to support NT differences also. Various
     #ifdef WIN32 and WINNTs sprinkled about the place and some changes from
     unsigned to signed types: this was killing the Win32 compile.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new certificate file to stack functions,
     SSL_add_dir_cert_subjects_to_stack() and
     SSL_add_file_cert_subjects_to_stack().  These largely supplant
     SSL_load_client_CA_file(), and can be used to add multiple certs easily
     to a stack (usually this is then handed to SSL_CTX_set_client_CA_list()).
     This means that Apache-SSL and similar packages don't have to mess around
     to add as many CAs as they want to the preferred list.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Experiment with doxygen documentation. Currently only partially applied to
     See, and run doxygen with
     openssl.doxy as the configuration file.
     [Ben Laurie]
  *) Get rid of remaining C++-style comments which strict C compilers hate.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall, pointed out by Carlos Amengual]

  *) Changed BN_RECURSION in bn_mont.c to BN_RECURSION_MONT so it is not
     compiled in by default: it has problems with large keys.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add a bunch of SSL_xxx() functions for configuring the temporary RSA and
     DH private keys and/or callback functions which directly correspond to
     their SSL_CTX_xxx() counterparts but work on a per-connection basis. This
     is needed for applications which have to configure certificates on a
     per-connection basis (e.g. Apache+mod_ssl) instead of a per-context basis
     (e.g. s_server). 
        For the RSA certificate situation is makes no difference, but
     for the DSA certificate situation this fixes the "no shared cipher"
     problem where the OpenSSL cipher selection procedure failed because the
     temporary keys were not overtaken from the context and the API provided
     no way to reconfigure them. 
        The new functions now let applications reconfigure the stuff and they
     are in detail: SSL_need_tmp_RSA, SSL_set_tmp_rsa, SSL_set_tmp_dh,
     SSL_set_tmp_rsa_callback and SSL_set_tmp_dh_callback.  Additionally a new
     non-public-API function ssl_cert_instantiate() is used as a helper
     function and also to reduce code redundancy inside ssl_rsa.c.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Move s_server -dcert and -dkey options out of the undocumented feature
     area because they are useful for the DSA situation and should be
     recognized by the users.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fix the cipher decision scheme for export ciphers: the export bits are
     *not* within SSL_MKEY_MASK or SSL_AUTH_MASK, they are within
     SSL_EXP_MASK.  So, the original variable has to be used instead of the
     already masked variable.
     [Richard Levitte <>]

  *) Fix 'port' variable from `int' to `unsigned int' in crypto/bio/b_sock.c
     [Richard Levitte <>]

  *) Change type of another md_len variable in pk7_doit.c:PKCS7_dataFinal()
     from `int' to `unsigned int' because it's a length and initialized by
     EVP_DigestFinal() which expects an `unsigned int *'.
     [Richard Levitte <>]

  *) Don't hard-code path to Perl interpreter on shebang line of Configure
     script. Instead use the usual Shell->Perl transition trick.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Make `openssl x509 -noout -modulus' functional also for DSA certificates
     (in addition to RSA certificates) to match the behaviour of `openssl dsa
     -noout -modulus' as it's already the case for `openssl rsa -noout
     -modulus'.  For RSA the -modulus is the real "modulus" while for DSA
     currently the public key is printed (a decision which was already done by
     `openssl dsa -modulus' in the past) which serves a similar purpose.
     Additionally the NO_RSA no longer completely removes the whole -modulus
     option; it now only avoids using the RSA stuff. Same applies to NO_DSA
     now, too.
     [Ralf S.  Engelschall]

  *) Add Arne Ansper's reliable BIO - this is an encrypted, block-digested
     BIO. See the source (crypto/evp/bio_ok.c) for more info.
     [Arne Ansper <>]

  *) Dump the old yucky req code that tried (and failed) to allow raw OIDs
     to be added. Now both 'req' and 'ca' can use new objects defined in the
     config file.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add cool BIO that does syslog (or event log on NT).
     [Arne Ansper <>, integrated by Ben Laurie]

  *) Add support for new TLS ciphersuites, TLS_RSA_EXPORT56_WITH_RC4_56_MD5,
     TLS_RSA_EXPORT56_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA, as specified in "56-bit Export Cipher
     Suites For TLS", draft-ietf-tls-56-bit-ciphersuites-00.txt.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add preliminary config info for new extension code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make RSA_NO_PADDING really use no padding.
     [Ulf Moeller <>]

  *) Generate errors when private/public key check is done.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Overhaul for 'crl' utility. New function X509_CRL_print. Partial support
     for some CRL extensions and new objects added.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Really fix the ASN1 IMPLICIT bug this time... Partial support for private
     key usage extension and fuller support for authority key id.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add OAEP encryption for the OpenSSL crypto library. OAEP is the improved
     padding method for RSA, which is recommended for new applications in PKCS
     #1 v2.0 (RFC 2437, October 1998).
     OAEP (Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding) has better theoretical
     foundations than the ad-hoc padding used in PKCS #1 v1.5. It is secure
     against Bleichbacher's attack on RSA.
     [Ulf Moeller <>, reformatted, corrected and integrated by
      Ben Laurie]

  *) Updates to the new SSL compression code
     [Eric A. Young, (from changes to C2Net SSLeay, integrated by Mark Cox)]

  *) Fix so that the version number in the master secret, when passed
     via RSA, checks that if TLS was proposed, but we roll back to SSLv3
     (because the server will not accept higher), that the version number
     is 0x03,0x01, not 0x03,0x00
     [Eric A. Young, (from changes to C2Net SSLeay, integrated by Mark Cox)]

  *) Run extensive memory leak checks on SSL apps. Fixed *lots* of memory
     leaks in ssl/ relating to new X509_get_pubkey() behaviour. Also fixes
     in apps/ and an unrelated leak in crypto/dsa/dsa_vrf.c
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Support for RAW extensions where an arbitrary extension can be
     created by including its DER encoding. See apps/openssl.cnf for
     an example.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make sure latest Perl versions don't interpret some generated C array
     code as Perl array code in the crypto/err/ script.
     [Lars Weber <>]

  *) Modify ms/do_ms.bat to not generate assembly language makefiles since
     not many people have the assembler. Various Win32 compilation fixes and
     update to the INSTALL.W32 file with (hopefully) more accurate Win32
     build instructions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify configure script 'Configure' to automatically create crypto/date.h
     file under Win32 and also build pem.h from New script
     util/ to create the MINFO file on environments that can't do a
     'make files': perl util/ >MINFO should work.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Major rework of DES function declarations, in the pursuit of correctness
     and purity. As a result, many evil casts evaporated, and some weirdness,
     too. You may find this causes warnings in your code. Zapping your evil
     casts will probably fix them. Mostly.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix for a typo in asn1.h. Bug fix to object creation script It considered a zero in an object definition to mean
     "end of object": none of the objects in objects.h have any zeros
     so it wasn't spotted.
     [Steve Henson, reported by Erwann ABALEA <>]

  *) Add support for Triple DES Cipher Block Chaining with Output Feedback
     Masking (CBCM). In the absence of test vectors, the best I have been able
     to do is check that the decrypt undoes the encrypt, so far. Send me test
     vectors if you have them.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Correct calculation of key length for export ciphers (too much space was
     allocated for null ciphers). This has not been tested!
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Modifications to the for Win32 DEF file creation. The usage
     message is now correct (it understands "crypto" and "ssl" on its
     command line). There is also now an "update" option. This will update
     the util/ssleay.num and util/libeay.num files with any new functions.
     If you do a: 
     perl util/ crypto ssl update
     it will update them.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Overhauled the Perl interface (perl/*):
     - ported BN stuff to OpenSSL's different BN library
     - made the perl/ source tree CVS-aware
     - renamed the package from SSLeay to OpenSSL (the files still contain
       their history because I've copied them in the repository)
     - removed obsolete files (the test scripts will be replaced
       by better Test::Harness variants in the future)
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) First cut for a very conservative source tree cleanup:
     1. merge various obsolete readme texts into doc/ssleay.txt
     where we collect the old documents and readme texts.
     2. remove the first part of files where I'm already sure that we no
     longer need them because of three reasons: either they are just temporary
     files which were left by Eric or they are preserved original files where
     I've verified that the diff is also available in the CVS via "cvs diff
     -rSSLeay_0_8_1b" or they were renamed (as it was definitely the case for
     the crypto/md/ stuff).
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) More extension code. Incomplete support for subject and issuer alt
     name, issuer and authority key id. Change the i2v function parameters
     and add an extra 'crl' parameter in the X509V3_CTX structure: guess
     what that's for :-) Fix to ASN1 macro which messed up
     IMPLICIT tag and add f_enum.c which adds a2i, i2a for ENUMERATED.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Preliminary support for ENUMERATED type. This is largely copied from the
     INTEGER code.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add new function, EVP_MD_CTX_copy() to replace frequent use of memcpy.
     [Eric A. Young, (from changes to C2Net SSLeay, integrated by Mark Cox)]

  *) Make sure `make rehash' target really finds the `openssl' program.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall, Matthias Loepfe <>]

  *) Squeeze another 7% of speed out of MD5 assembler, at least on a P2. I'd
     like to hear about it if this slows down other processors.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Add CygWin32 platform information to Configure script.
     [Alan Batie <>]

  *) Fixed ms/32all.bat script: `no_asm' -> `no-asm'
     [Rainer W. Gerling <>]
  *) New program nseq to manipulate netscape certificate sequences
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify crl2pkcs7 so it supports multiple -certfile arguments. Fix a
     few typos.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixes to BN code.  Previously the default was to define BN_RECURSION
     but the BN code had some problems that would cause failures when
     doing certificate verification and some other functions.
     [Eric A. Young, (from changes to C2Net SSLeay, integrated by Mark Cox)]

  *) Add ASN1 and PEM code to support netscape certificate sequences.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add ASN1 and PEM code to support netscape certificate sequences.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add several PKIX and private extended key usage OIDs.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Modify the 'ca' program to handle the new extension code. Modify
     openssl.cnf for new extension format, add comments.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) More X509 V3 changes. Fix typo in v3_bitstr.c. Add support to 'req'
     and add a sample to openssl.cnf so req -x509 now adds appropriate
     CA extensions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Continued X509 V3 changes. Add to other makefiles, integrate with the
     error code, add initial support to X509_print() and x509 application.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Takes a deep breath and start addding X509 V3 extension support code. Add
     files in crypto/x509v3. Move original stuff to crypto/x509v3/old. All this
     stuff is currently isolated and isn't even compiled yet.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Continuing patches for GeneralizedTime. Fix up certificate and CRL
     ASN1 to use ASN1_TIME and modify print routines to use ASN1_TIME_print.
     Removed the versions check from X509 routines when loading extensions:
     this allows certain broken certificates that don't set the version
     properly to be processed.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Deal with irritating shit to do with dependencies, in YAAHW (Yet Another
     Ad Hoc Way) - Makefile.ssls now all contain local dependencies, which
     can still be regenerated with "make depend".
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Spelling mistake in C version of CAST-128.
     [Ben Laurie, reported by Jeremy Hylton <>]

  *) Changes to the error generation code. The perl script 
     now reads in the old error codes and retains the old numbers, only
     adding new ones if necessary. It also only changes the .err files if new
     codes are added. The makefiles have been modified to only insert errors
     when needed (to avoid needlessly modifying header files). This is done
     by only inserting errors if the .err file is newer than the auto generated
     C file. To rebuild all the error codes from scratch (the old behaviour)
     either modify crypto/Makefile.ssl to pass the -regen flag to
     or delete all the .err files.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) CAST-128 was incorrectly implemented for short keys. The C version has
     been fixed, but is untested. The assembler versions are also fixed, but
     new assembler HAS NOT BEEN GENERATED FOR WIN32 - the Makefile needs fixing
     to regenerate it if needed.
     [Ben Laurie, reported (with fix for C version) by Jun-ichiro itojun
      Hagino <>]

  *) File was opened incorrectly in randfile.c.
     [Ulf Möller <>]

  *) Beginning of support for GeneralizedTime. d2i, i2d, check and print
     functions. Also ASN1_TIME suite which is a CHOICE of UTCTime or
     GeneralizedTime. ASN1_TIME is the proper type used in certificates et
     al: it's just almost always a UTCTime. Note this patch adds new error
     codes so do a "make errors" if there are problems.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Correct Linux 1 recognition in config.
     [Ulf Möller <>]

  *) Remove pointless MD5 hash when using DSA keys in ca.
     [Anonymous <>]

  *) Generate an error if given an empty string as a cert directory. Also
     generate an error if handed NULL (previously returned 0 to indicate an
     error, but didn't set one).
     [Ben Laurie, reported by Anonymous <>]

  *) Add prototypes to SSL methods. Make SSL_write's buffer const, at last.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix the dummy function BN_ref_mod_exp() in rsaref.c to have the correct
     parameters. This was causing a warning which killed off the Win32 compile.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Remove C++ style comments from crypto/bn/bn_local.h.
     [Neil Costigan <>]

  *) The function OBJ_txt2nid was broken. It was supposed to return a nid
     based on a text string, looking up short and long names and finally
     "dot" format. The "dot" format stuff didn't work. Added new function
     OBJ_txt2obj to do the same but return an ASN1_OBJECT and rewrote 
     OBJ_txt2nid to use it. OBJ_txt2obj can also return objects even if the
     OID is not part of the table.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add prototypes to X509 lookup/verify methods, fixing a bug in
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Sort openssl functions by name.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Get the gendsa program working (hopefully) and add it to app list. Remove
     encryption from sample DSA keys (in case anyone is interested the password
     was "1234").
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make _all_ *_free functions accept a NULL pointer.
     [Frans Heymans <>]

  *) If a DH key is generated in s3_srvr.c, don't blow it by trying to use
     NULL pointers.
     [Anonymous <>]

  *) s_server should send the CAfile as acceptable CAs, not its own cert.
     [Bodo Moeller <>]

  *) Don't blow it for numeric -newkey arguments to apps/req.
     [Bodo Moeller <>]

  *) Temp key "for export" tests were wrong in s3_srvr.c.
     [Anonymous <>]

  *) Add prototype for temp key callback functions
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Make DH_free() tolerate being passed a NULL pointer (like RSA_free() and
     DSA_free()). Make X509_PUBKEY_set() check for errors in d2i_PublicKey().
     [Steve Henson]

  *) X509_name_add_entry() freed the wrong thing after an error.
     [Arne Ansper <>]

  *) rsa_eay.c would attempt to free a NULL context.
     [Arne Ansper <>]

  *) BIO_s_socket() had a broken should_retry() on Windoze.
     [Arne Ansper <>]

  *) BIO_f_buffer() didn't pass on BIO_CTRL_FLUSH.
     [Arne Ansper <>]

  *) Make sure the already existing X509_STORE->depth variable is initialized
     in X509_STORE_new(), but document the fact that this variable is still
     unused in the certificate verification process.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fix the various library and apps files to free up pkeys obtained from
     X509_PUBKEY_get() et al. Also allow x509.c to handle netscape extensions.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix reference counting in X509_PUBKEY_get(). This makes
     demos/maurice/example2.c work, amongst others, probably.
     [Steve Henson and Ben Laurie]

  *) First cut of a cleanup for apps/. First the `ssleay' program is now named
     `openssl' and second, the shortcut symlinks for the `openssl <command>'
     are no longer created. This way we have a single and consistent command
     line interface `openssl <command>', similar to `cvs <command>'.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall, Paul Sutton and Ben Laurie]

  *) ca.c: move test for DSA keys inside #ifndef NO_DSA. Make pubkey
     BIT STRING wrapper always have zero unused bits.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Add, perl version of, add extended key usage OID.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Make the top-level INSTALL documentation easier to understand.
     [Paul Sutton]

  *) Makefiles updated to exit if an error occurs in a sub-directory
     make (including if user presses ^C) [Paul Sutton]

  *) Make Montgomery context stuff explicit in RSA data structure.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix build order of pem and err to allow for generated pem.h.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix renumbering bug in X509_NAME_delete_entry().
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Enhanced the script so it makes the error library number 
     global and can add a library name. This is needed for external ASN1 and
     other error libraries.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fixed sk_insert which never worked properly.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Fix ASN1 macros so they can handle indefinite length construted 
     EXPLICIT tags. Some non standard certificates use these: they can now
     be read in.
     [Steve Henson]

  *) Merged the various old/obsolete SSLeay documentation files (doc/xxx.doc)
     into a single doc/ssleay.txt bundle. This way the information is still
     preserved but no longer messes up this directory. Now it's new room for
     the new set of documenation files.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) SETs were incorrectly DER encoded. This was a major pain, because they
     shared code with SEQUENCEs, which aren't coded the same. This means that
     almost everything to do with SETs or SEQUENCEs has either changed name or
     number of arguments.
     [Ben Laurie, based on a partial fix by GP Jayan <>]

  *) Fix test data to work with the above.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix the RSA header declarations that hid a bug I fixed in 0.9.0b but
     was already fixed by Eric for 0.9.1 it seems.
     [Ben Laurie - pointed out by Ulf Möller <>]

  *) Autodetect FreeBSD3.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Fix various bugs in Configure. This affects the following platforms:
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Eliminate generated files from CVS. Reorder tests to regenerate files
     before they are needed.
     [Ben Laurie]

  *) Generate Makefile.ssl from (to keep CVS happy).
     [Ben Laurie]

 Changes between 0.9.1b and 0.9.1c  [23-Dec-1998]

  *) Added OPENSSL_VERSION_NUMBER to crypto/crypto.h and 
     changed SSLeay to OpenSSL in version strings.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]
  *) Some fixups to the top-level documents.
     [Paul Sutton]

  *) Fixed the nasty bug where rsaref.h was not found under compile-time
     because the symlink to include/ was missing.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Incorporated the popular no-RSA/DSA-only patches 
     which allow to compile a RSA-free SSLeay.
     [Andrew Cooke / Interrader Ldt., Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Fixed nasty rehash problem under `make -f Makefile.ssl links'
     when "ssleay" is still not found.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Added more platforms to Configure: Cray T3E, HPUX 11, 
     [Ralf S. Engelschall, Beckmann <>]

  *) Updated the README file.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Added various .cvsignore files in the CVS repository subdirs
     to make a "cvs update" really silent.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Recompiled the error-definition header files and added
     missing symbols to the Win32 linker tables.
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Cleaned up the top-level documents;
     o new files: CHANGES and LICENSE
     o merged VERSION, HISTORY* and README* files a CHANGES.SSLeay 
     o merged COPYRIGHT into LICENSE
     o removed obsolete TODO file
     o renamed MICROSOFT to INSTALL.W32
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Removed dummy files from the 0.9.1b source tree: 
     crypto/asn1/x crypto/bio/cd crypto/bio/fg crypto/bio/grep crypto/bio/vi
     crypto/bn/asm/......add.c crypto/bn/asm/a.out crypto/dsa/f crypto/md5/f
     crypto/pem/gmon.out crypto/perlasm/f crypto/pkcs7/build crypto/rsa/f
     crypto/sha/asm/f crypto/threads/f ms/zzz ssl/f ssl/f.mak test/f
     util/f.mak util/pl/f util/pl/f.mak crypto/bf/bf_locl.old apps/f
     [Ralf S. Engelschall]

  *) Added various platform portability fixes.
     [Mark J. Cox]

  *) The Genesis of the OpenSSL rpject:
     We start with the latest (unreleased) SSLeay version 0.9.1b which Eric A.
     Young and Tim J. Hudson created while they were working for C2Net until
     summer 1998.
     [The OpenSSL Project]

 Changes between 0.9.0b and 0.9.1b  [not released]

  *) Updated a few CA certificates under certs/
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Changed some BIGNUM api stuff.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Various platform ports: OpenBSD, Ultrix, IRIX 64bit, NetBSD, 
     DGUX x86, Linux Alpha, etc.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) New COMP library [crypto/comp/] for SSL Record Layer Compression: 
     RLE (dummy implemented) and ZLIB (really implemented when ZLIB is
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Add -strparse option to asn1pars program which parses nested 
     binary structures 
     [Dr Stephen Henson <>]

  *) Added "oid_file" to ssleay.cnf for "ca" and "req" programs.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) DSA fix for "ca" program.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added "-genkey" option to "dsaparam" program.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added RIPE MD160 (rmd160) message digest.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added -a (all) option to "ssleay version" command.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added PLATFORM define which is the id given to Configure.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added MemCheck_XXXX functions to crypto/mem.c for memory checking.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Extended the ASN.1 parser routines.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Extended BIO routines to support REUSEADDR, seek, tell, etc.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added a BN_CTX to the BN library.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Fixed the weak key values in DES library
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Changed API in EVP library for cipher aliases.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added support for RC2/64bit cipher.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Converted the lhash library to the crypto/mem.c functions.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added more recognized ASN.1 object ids.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added more RSA padding checks for SSL/TLS.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added BIO proxy/filter functionality.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added extra_certs to SSL_CTX which can be used
     send extra CA certificates to the client in the CA cert chain sending
     process. It can be configured with SSL_CTX_add_extra_chain_cert().
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Now Fortezza is denied in the authentication phase because
     this is key exchange mechanism is not supported by SSLeay at all.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Additional PKCS1 checks.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Support the string "TLSv1" for all TLS v1 ciphers.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Added function SSL_get_ex_data_X509_STORE_CTX_idx() which gives the
     ex_data index of the SSL context in the X509_STORE_CTX ex_data.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Fixed a few memory leaks.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) Fixed various code and comment typos.
     [Eric A. Young]

  *) A minor bug in ssl/s3_clnt.c where there would always be 4 0 
     bytes sent in the client random.
     [Edward Bishop <>]