// © 2016 and later: Unicode, Inc. and others.
// License & terms of use: http://www.unicode.org/copyright.html
/*
*******************************************************************************
* Copyright (C) 2001-2014, International Business Machines
* Corporation and others. All Rights Reserved.
*******************************************************************************
* file name: bocsu.h
* encoding: UTF-8
* tab size: 8 (not used)
* indentation:4
*
* Author: Markus W. Scherer
*
* Modification history:
* 05/18/2001 weiv Made into separate module
*/
#ifndef BOCSU_H
#define BOCSU_H
#include "unicode/utypes.h"
#if !UCONFIG_NO_COLLATION
U_NAMESPACE_BEGIN
class ByteSink;
U_NAMESPACE_END
/*
* "BOCSU"
* Binary Ordered Compression Scheme for Unicode
*
* Specific application:
*
* Encode a Unicode string for the identical level of a sort key.
* Restrictions:
* - byte stream (unsigned 8-bit bytes)
* - lexical order of the identical-level run must be
* the same as code point order for the string
* - avoid byte values 0, 1, 2
*
* Method: Slope Detection
* Remember the previous code point (initial 0).
* For each cp in the string, encode the difference to the previous one.
*
* With a compact encoding of differences, this yields good results for
* small scripts and UTF-like results otherwise.
*
* Encoding of differences:
* - Similar to a UTF, encoding the length of the byte sequence in the lead bytes.
* - Does not need to be friendly for decoding or random access
* (trail byte values may overlap with lead/single byte values).
* - The signedness must be encoded as the most significant part.
*
* We encode differences with few bytes if their absolute values are small.
* For correct ordering, we must treat the entire value range -10ffff..+10ffff
* in ascending order, which forbids encoding the sign and the absolute value separately.
* Instead, we split the lead byte range in the middle and encode non-negative values
* going up and negative values going down.
*
* For very small absolute values, the difference is added to a middle byte value
* for single-byte encoded differences.
* For somewhat larger absolute values, the difference is divided by the number
* of byte values available, the modulo is used for one trail byte, and the remainder
* is added to a lead byte avoiding the single-byte range.
* For large absolute values, the difference is similarly encoded in three bytes.
*
* This encoding does not use byte values 0, 1, 2, but uses all other byte values
* for lead/single bytes so that the middle range of single bytes is as large
* as possible.
* Note that the lead byte ranges overlap some, but that the sequences as a whole
* are well ordered. I.e., even if the lead byte is the same for sequences of different
* lengths, the trail bytes establish correct order.
* It would be possible to encode slightly larger ranges for each length (>1) by
* subtracting the lower bound of the range. However, that would also slow down the
* calculation.
*
* For the actual string encoding, an optimization moves the previous code point value
* to the middle of its Unicode script block to minimize the differences in
* same-script text runs.
*/
/* Do not use byte values 0, 1, 2 because they are separators in sort keys. */
#define SLOPE_MIN 3
#define SLOPE_MAX 0xff
#define SLOPE_MIDDLE 0x81
#define SLOPE_TAIL_COUNT (SLOPE_MAX-SLOPE_MIN+1)
#define SLOPE_MAX_BYTES 4
/*
* Number of lead bytes:
* 1 middle byte for 0
* 2*80=160 single bytes for !=0
* 2*42=84 for double-byte values
* 2*3=6 for 3-byte values
* 2*1=2 for 4-byte values
*
* The sum must be <=SLOPE_TAIL_COUNT.
*
* Why these numbers?
* - There should be >=128 single-byte values to cover 128-blocks
* with small scripts.
* - There should be >=20902 single/double-byte values to cover Unihan.
* - It helps CJK Extension B some if there are 3-byte values that cover
* the distance between them and Unihan.
* This also helps to jump among distant places in the BMP.
* - Four-byte values are necessary to cover the rest of Unicode.
*
* Symmetrical lead byte counts are for convenience.
* With an equal distribution of even and odd differences there is also
* no advantage to asymmetrical lead byte counts.
*/
#define SLOPE_SINGLE 80
#define SLOPE_LEAD_2 42
#define SLOPE_LEAD_3 3
#define SLOPE_LEAD_4 1
/* The difference value range for single-byters. */
#define SLOPE_REACH_POS_1 SLOPE_SINGLE
#define SLOPE_REACH_NEG_1 (-SLOPE_SINGLE)
/* The difference value range for double-byters. */
#define SLOPE_REACH_POS_2 (SLOPE_LEAD_2*SLOPE_TAIL_COUNT+(SLOPE_LEAD_2-1))
#define SLOPE_REACH_NEG_2 (-SLOPE_REACH_POS_2-1)
/* The difference value range for 3-byters. */
#define SLOPE_REACH_POS_3 (SLOPE_LEAD_3*SLOPE_TAIL_COUNT*SLOPE_TAIL_COUNT+(SLOPE_LEAD_3-1)*SLOPE_TAIL_COUNT+(SLOPE_TAIL_COUNT-1))
#define SLOPE_REACH_NEG_3 (-SLOPE_REACH_POS_3-1)
/* The lead byte start values. */
#define SLOPE_START_POS_2 (SLOPE_MIDDLE+SLOPE_SINGLE+1)
#define SLOPE_START_POS_3 (SLOPE_START_POS_2+SLOPE_LEAD_2)
#define SLOPE_START_NEG_2 (SLOPE_MIDDLE+SLOPE_REACH_NEG_1)
#define SLOPE_START_NEG_3 (SLOPE_START_NEG_2-SLOPE_LEAD_2)
/*
* Integer division and modulo with negative numerators
* yields negative modulo results and quotients that are one more than
* what we need here.
*/
#define NEGDIVMOD(n, d, m) UPRV_BLOCK_MACRO_BEGIN { \
(m)=(n)%(d); \
(n)/=(d); \
if((m)<0) { \
--(n); \
(m)+=(d); \
} \
} UPRV_BLOCK_MACRO_END
U_CFUNC UChar32
u_writeIdenticalLevelRun(UChar32 prev, const UChar *s, int32_t length, icu::ByteSink &sink);
#endif /* #if !UCONFIG_NO_COLLATION */
#endif