.\" Copyright (c) 1993 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software .\" must display the following acknowledgement: .\" This product includes software developed by the University of .\" California, Berkeley and its contributors. .\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)lam.1 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/6/93 .\" $FreeBSD: src/usr.bin/lam/lam.1,v 1.13 2004/08/12 11:34:34 tjr Exp $ .\" .Dd August 12, 2004 .Dt LAM 1 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm lam .Nd laminate files .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm .Op Fl f Ar min . Ns Ar max .Op Fl s Ar sepstring .Op Fl t Ar c .Ar .Nm .Op Fl p Ar min . Ns Ar max .Op Fl s Ar sepstring .Op Fl t Ar c .Ar .Sh DESCRIPTION The .Nm utility copies the named files side by side onto the standard output. The .Em n-th input lines from the input .Ar files are considered fragments of the single long .Em n-th output line into which they are assembled. The name `\fB\-\fP' means the standard input, and may be repeated. .Pp Normally, each option affects only the .Ar file after it. If the option letter is capitalized it affects all subsequent files until it appears again uncapitalized. The options are described below: .Bl -tag -width indent .It Fl f Ar min . Ns Ar max Print line fragments according to the format string .Ar min . Ns Ar max , where .Ar min is the minimum field width and .Ar max the maximum field width. If .Ar min begins with a zero, zeros will be added to make up the field width, and if it begins with a `\-', the fragment will be left-adjusted within the field. .It Fl p Ar min . Ns Ar max Like .Fl f , but pad this file's field when end-of-file is reached and other files are still active. .It Fl s Ar sepstring Print .Ar sepstring before printing line fragments from the next file. This option may appear after the last file. .It Fl t Ar c The input line terminator is .Ar c instead of a newline. The newline normally appended to each output line is omitted. .El .Pp To print files simultaneously for easy viewing use .Xr pr 1 . .Sh EXAMPLES The command .Bd -literal lam file1 file2 file3 file4 .Ed .Pp joins 4 files together along each line. To merge the lines from four different files use .Bd -literal lam file1 \-S "\\ " file2 file3 file4 .Ed .Pp Every 2 lines of a file may be joined on one line with .Bd -literal lam \- \- < file .Ed .Pp and a form letter with substitutions keyed by `@' can be done with .Bd -literal lam \-t @ letter changes .Ed .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr join 1 , .Xr paste 1 , .Xr pr 1 , .Xr printf 3 .Sh STANDARDS Some of the functionality of .Nm is standardized as the .Xr paste 1 utility by .St -p1003.2 . .Sh BUGS The .Nm utility does not recognize multibyte characters.