.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1990, 1993 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software .\" must display the following acknowledgement: .\" This product includes software developed by the University of .\" California, Berkeley and its contributors. .\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)fmt.1 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/6/93 .\" $FreeBSD: src/usr.bin/fmt/fmt.1,v 1.14 2004/08/02 11:12:13 tjr Exp $ .\" .\" Modified by Gareth McCaughan to describe the new version of `fmt' .\" rather than the old one. .Dd August 2, 2004 .Dt FMT 1 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm fmt .Nd simple text formatter .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm fmt .Op Fl cmnps .Op Fl d Ar chars .Op Fl l Ar num .Op Fl t Ar num .Op Ar goal Oo Ar maximum Oc | Fl Ns Ar width | Fl w Ar width .Op Ar .Sh DESCRIPTION The .Nm utility is a simple text formatter which reads the concatenation of input files (or standard input if none are given) and produces on standard output a version of its input with lines as close to the .Ar goal length as possible without exceeding the .Ar maximum . The .Ar goal length defaults to 65 and the .Ar maximum to 10 more than the .Ar goal length. Alternatively, a single .Ar width parameter can be specified either by prepending a hyphen to it or by using .Fl w . For example, .Dq Li fmt -w 72 , .Dq Li fmt -72 , and .Dq Li fmt 72 72 all produce identical output. The spacing at the beginning of the input lines is preserved in the output, as are blank lines and interword spacing. Lines are joined or split only at white space; that is, words are never joined or hyphenated. .Pp The options are as follows: .Bl -tag -width indent .It Fl c Center the text, line by line. In this case, most of the other options are ignored; no splitting or joining of lines is done. .It Fl m Try to format mail header lines contained in the input sensibly. .It Fl n Format lines beginning with a .Ql \&. (dot) character. Normally, .Nm does not fill these lines, for compatibility with .Xr nroff 1 . .It Fl p Allow indented paragraphs. Without the .Fl p flag, any change in the amount of whitespace at the start of a line results in a new paragraph being begun. .It Fl s Collapse whitespace inside lines, so that multiple whitespace characters are turned into a single space. (Or, at the end of a sentence, a double space.) .It Fl d Ar chars Treat the .Ar chars (and no others) as sentence-ending characters. By default the sentence-ending characters are full stop .Pq Ql \&. , question mark .Pq Ql \&? and exclamation mark .Pq Ql \&! . Remember that some characters may need to be escaped to protect them from your shell. .It Fl l Ar number Replace multiple spaces with tabs at the start of each output line, if possible. Each .Ar number spaces will be replaced with one tab. The default is 8. If .Ar number is 0, spaces are preserved. .It Fl t Ar number Assume that the input files' tabs assume .Ar number spaces per tab stop. The default is 8. .El .Pp The .Nm utility is meant to format mail messages prior to sending, but may also be useful for other simple tasks. For instance, within visual mode of the .Xr ex 1 editor (e.g., .Xr vi 1 ) the command .Pp .Dl \&!}fmt .Pp will reformat a paragraph, evening the lines. .Sh ENVIRONMENT The .Ev LANG , LC_ALL and .Ev LC_CTYPE environment variables affect the execution of .Nm as described in .Xr environ 7 . .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr fold 1 , .Xr mail 1 , .Xr nroff 1 .Sh HISTORY The .Nm command appeared in .Bx 3 . .Pp The version described herein is a complete rewrite and appeared in .Fx 4.4 . .Sh AUTHORS .An Kurt Shoens .An Liz Allen (added .Ar goal length concept) .An Gareth McCaughan .Sh BUGS The program was designed to be simple and fast \- for more complex operations, the standard text processors are likely to be more appropriate. .Pp When the first line of an indented paragraph is very long (more than about twice the goal length), the indentation in the output can be wrong. .Pp The .Nm utility is not infallible in guessing what lines are mail headers and what lines are not.