chpass.1   [plain text]


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.\"     @(#)chpass.1	8.2 (Berkeley) 12/30/93
.\" $FreeBSD: src/usr.bin/chpass/chpass.1,v 1.38.2.1 2005/09/24 01:59:39 keramida Exp $
.\"
.Dd December 30, 1993
.Dt CHPASS 1
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm chpass ,
.Nm chfn ,
.Nm chsh
.\".Nm ypchpass ,
.\".Nm ypchfn ,
.\".Nm ypchsh
.Nd add or change user database information
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.\".Op Fl a Ar list
.\".Op Fl p Ar encpass
.\".Op Fl e Ar expiretime
.Op Fl l Ar location
.Op Fl u Ar authname
.Op Fl s Ar newshell
.Op user
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
utility
allows editing of the user database information associated
with
.Ar user
or, by default, the current user.
.Pp
The
.Nm
utility 
.Em cannot 
change the user's password on Open Directory
systems.  Use the
.Xr passwd 1
utility instead.
.Pp
The
.Nm chfn ,
and
.Nm chsh
.\".Nm ypchpass ,
.\".Nm ypchfn
.\"and
.\".Nm ypchsh
utilities behave identically to
.Nm .
(There is only one program.)
.Pp
The information is formatted and supplied to an editor for changes.
.Pp
Only the information that the user is allowed to change is displayed.
.Pp
The options are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width indent
.\".It Fl a
.\"The super-user is allowed to directly supply a user database
.\"entry, in the format specified by
.\".Xr passwd 5 ,
.\"as an argument.
.\"This argument must be a colon
.\".Pq Dq \&:
.\"separated list of all the
.\"user database fields, although they may be empty.
.\".It Fl p
.\"The super-user is allowed to directly supply an encrypted password field,
.\"in the format used by
.\".Xr crypt 3 ,
.\"as an argument.
.\".It Fl e Ar expiretime
.\"Change the account expire time.
.\"This option is used to set the expire time
.\"from a script as if it were done in the interactive editor.
.It Fl l Ar location
If not specified,
.Nm
will perform a search for the user record on all available
Open Directory nodes.
When specified,
.Nm
will edit the user record on the directory node at the given
.Ar location .
.It Fl u Ar authname
The user name to use when authenticating to the directory node containing the
user.
.It Fl s Ar newshell
Attempt to change the user's shell to
.Ar newshell .
.El
.Pp
Possible display items are as follows:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width "Other Information:" -compact -offset indent
.It Login:
user's login name
.\".It Password:
.\"user's encrypted password
.It Uid:
user's login
.It Gid:
user's login group
.It Generated uid:
user's UUID
.\".It Class:
.\"user's general classification
.\".It Change:
.\"password change time
.\".It Expire:
.\"account expiration time
.It Full Name:
user's real name
.It Office Location:
user's office location
.It Office Phone:
user's office phone
.It Home Phone:
user's home phone
.\".It Other Information:
.\"any locally defined parameters for user
.It Home Directory:
user's home directory
.It Shell:
user's login shell
.Pp
.\".It NOTE(1) -
.\"In the actual master.passwd file, these fields are comma-delimited
.\"fields embedded in the FullName field.
.El
.Pp
The
.Ar login
field is the user name used to access the computer account.
.\".Pp
.\"The
.\".Ar password
.\"field contains the encrypted form of the user's password.
.Pp
The
.Ar uid
field is the number associated with the
.Ar login
field.
Both of these fields should be unique across the system (and often
across a group of systems) as they control file access.
.Pp
While it is possible to have multiple entries with identical login names
and/or identical user id's, it is usually a mistake to do so.
Routines
that manipulate these files will often return only one of the multiple
entries, and that one by random selection.
.Pp
The
.Ar group
field is the group that the user will be placed in at login.
Since
.Bx
supports multiple groups (see
.Xr groups 1 )
this field currently has little special meaning.
This field may be filled in with either a number or a group name (see
.Xr group 5 ) .
.Pp
The
.Ar generated uid
field is the globally unique identifier (UUID) for the user.
.\".Pp
.\"The
.\".Ar class
.\"field references class descriptions in
.\".Pa /etc/login.conf
.\"and is typically used to initialize the user's system resource limits
.\"when they login.
.\".Pp
.\"The
.\".Ar change
.\"field is the date by which the password must be changed.
.\".Pp
.\"The
.\".Ar expire
.\"field is the date on which the account expires.
.\".Pp
.\"Both the
.\".Ar change
.\"and
.\".Ar expire
.\"fields should be entered in the form
.\".Dq month day year
.\"where
.\".Ar month
.\"is the month name (the first three characters are sufficient),
.\".Ar day
.\"is the day of the month, and
.\".Ar year
.\"is the year.
.\".Pp
.\"Five fields are available for storing the user's
.\".Ar full name , office location ,
.\".Ar work
.\"and
.\".Ar home telephone
.\"numbers and finally
.\".Ar other information
.\"which is a single comma delimited string to represent any additional
.\"gcos fields (typically used for site specific user information).
.\"Note that
.\".Xr finger 1
.\"will display the office location and office phone together under the
.\"heading
.\".Ar Office: .
The
.Ar full name
field contains the full name of the user.
.Pp
The user's
.Ar home directory
is the full
.Ux
path name where the user
will be placed at login.
.Pp
The
.Ar shell
field is the command interpreter the user prefers.
If the
.Ar shell
field is empty, the Bourne shell,
.Pa /bin/sh ,
is assumed.
When altering a login shell, and not the super-user, the user
may not change from a non-standard shell or to a non-standard
shell.
Non-standard is defined as a shell not found in
.Pa /etc/shells .
.Pp
The
.Ar picture
field is the path to a picture to be displayed for the user.
.Sh OPEN DIRECTORY
User database entries are under the control of
.Xr DirectoryService 8
and may be physically located in many different places,
including the local Directory Service node, 
and remote LDAP servers.
This version of
.Nm
uses Open Directory to change user database information.
It does not interact with the historic flat file
database
.Pa /etc/master.passwd
.
.Sh ENVIRONMENT
The
.Xr vi 1
editor will be used unless the environment variable
.Ev EDITOR
is set to
an alternate editor.
When the editor terminates, the information is re-read and used to
update the user database itself.
Only the user, or the super-user, may edit the information associated
with the user.
.Sh FILES
.Bl -tag -width /etc/chpass.XXXXXX -compact
.It Pa /etc/chpass.XXXXXX
temporary copy of the data to edit
.It Pa /etc/shells
the list of approved shells
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
.\".Xr finger 1 ,
.Xr login 1 ,
.Xr passwd 1 ,
.Xr getusershell 3 ,
.Xr passwd 5
.Rs
.%A Robert Morris
.%A Ken Thompson
.%T "UNIX Password security"
.Re
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
utility appeared in
.Bx 4.3 Reno .