rshd.8   [plain text]


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.\"     @(#)rshd.8	8.1 (Berkeley) 6/4/93
.\" $FreeBSD: src/libexec/rshd/rshd.8,v 1.36 2005/02/13 22:25:14 ru Exp $
.\"
.Dd June 4, 1993
.Dt RSHD 8
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm rshd
.Nd remote shell server
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Op Fl aDLln
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
utility
is the server for the
.Xr rcmd 3
routine and, consequently, for the
.Xr rsh 1
utility.
The server provides remote execution facilities
with authentication based on privileged port numbers from trusted hosts.
.Pp
The
.Nm
utility listens for service requests at the port indicated in
the
.Dq cmd
service specification; see
.Xr services 5 .
When a service request is received the following protocol
is initiated:
.Bl -enum
.It
The server checks the client's source port.
If the port is not in the range 512-1023, the server
aborts the connection.
.It
The server reads characters from the socket up
to a
.Tn NUL
(`\e0') byte.
The resultant string is
interpreted as an
.Tn ASCII
number, base 10.
.It
If the number received in step 2 is non-zero,
it is interpreted as the port number of a secondary
stream to be used for the
.Em stderr .
A second connection is then created to the specified
port on the client's machine.
The source port of this
second connection is also in the range 512-1023.
.It
The server checks the client's source address
and requests the corresponding host name (see
.Xr gethostbyaddr 3 ,
.Xr hosts 5
and
.Xr named 8 ) .
If the hostname cannot be determined or the hostname and address do
not match after verification,
the dot-notation representation of the host address is used.
.It
A null terminated user name of at most 16 characters
is retrieved on the initial socket.
This user name
is interpreted as the user identity on the
.Em client Ns 's
machine.
.It
A null terminated user name of at most 16 characters
is retrieved on the initial socket.
This user name
is interpreted as a user identity to use on the
.Em server Ns 's
machine.
.It
A null terminated command to be passed to a
shell is retrieved on the initial socket.
The length of
the command is limited by the upper bound on the size of
the system's argument list.
.It
The
.Nm
utility then validates the user using
.Xr ruserok 3 ,
which uses the file
.Pa /etc/hosts.equiv
and the
.Pa .rhosts
file found in the user's home directory.
The
.Fl l
option prevents
.Xr ruserok 3
from doing any validation based on the user's
.Pa .rhosts
file,
unless the user is the superuser.
.It
If the file 
.Pa /etc/nologin
exists and the user is not the superuser,
the connection is closed.
.It
A
.Tn NUL
byte is returned on the initial socket
and the command line is passed to the normal login
shell of the user.
The
shell inherits the network connections established
by
.Nm .
.El
.Pp
The options are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl a
This flag is ignored, and is present for compatability purposes.
.It Fl D
Sets the TCP_NODELAY socket option, which improves the performance
of small back-to-back writes at the expense of additional network
traffic.
.It Fl L
Causes all successful accesses to be logged to
.Xr syslogd 8
as
.Li auth.info
messages.
.It Fl l
Do not use the user's
.Pa .rhosts
file for authentication, unless the user is the superuser.
.It Fl n
Turn off transport level keepalive messages.
This will prevent sessions
from timing out if the client crashes or becomes unreachable.
.El
.Sh FILES
.Bl -tag -width /var/run/nologin -compact
.It Pa /etc/hosts
.It Pa /etc/hosts.equiv
.It Pa /etc/login.conf
.It Ev $HOME Ns Pa /.rhosts
.Pp
.It Pa /etc/pam.conf
.Nm
uses
.Pa /etc/pam.conf
entries with service name
.Dq rsh .
Authentication modules requiring passwords (such as
.Nm pam_unix )
are not supported.
.El
.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
Except for the last one listed below,
all diagnostic messages
are returned on the initial socket,
after which any network connections are closed.
An error is indicated by a leading byte with a value of
1 (0 is returned in step 10 above upon successful completion
of all the steps prior to the execution of the login shell).
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Sy Locuser too long.
The name of the user on the client's machine is
longer than 16 characters.
.It Sy Ruser too long.
The name of the user on the remote machine is
longer than 16 characters.
.It Sy Command too long.
The command line passed exceeds the size of the argument
list (as configured into the system).
.It Sy Login incorrect.
No password file entry for the user name existed
or the authentication procedure described above failed.
.It Sy Remote directory.
The
.Xr chdir 2
function to the home directory failed.
./".It Sy Logins not available right now.
./" The
./" .Xr rsh 1
./" utility was attempted outside the allowed hours defined in
./" .Pa /etc/login.conf
./" for the local user's login class.
.It Sy Can't make pipe.
The pipe needed for the
.Em stderr ,
was not created.
.It Sy Can't fork; try again.
A
.Xr fork 2
by the server failed.
.It Sy <shellname>: ...
The user's login shell could not be started.
This message is returned
on the connection associated with the
.Em stderr ,
and is not preceded by a flag byte.
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr rlogin 1 ,
.Xr rsh 1 ,
.Xr gethostbyaddr 3 ,
.Xr rcmd 3 ,
.Xr ruserok 3 ,
.Xr auth.conf 5 ,
.Xr hosts 5 ,
.Xr hosts.equiv 5 ,
.Xr login.conf 5 ,
.Xr services 5 ,
.Xr named 8 ,
.Xr rlogind 8 ,
.Xr syslogd 8
.Sh HISTORY
IPv6 support was added by WIDE/KAME project.
.Sh BUGS
The authentication procedure used here assumes the integrity
of each client machine and the connecting medium.
This is
insecure, but is useful in an
.Dq open
environment.
.Pp
A facility to allow all data exchanges to be encrypted should be
present.
.Pp
./"Post-PAM,
./".Fx
./"also needs the following patch applied besides properly configuring
./".Pa .rhosts :
./".Bd -literal -offset indent
./"--- etc/pam.d/rsh.orig  Wed Dec 17 14:36:20 2003
./"+++ etc/pam.d/rsh       Wed Dec 17 14:30:43 2003
./"@@ -9 +9 @@
./"-auth	required	pam_rhosts.so	no_warn
./"+auth	required	pam_rhosts.so	no_warn	allow_root
./".Ed
.Pp
A more extensible protocol (such as Telnet) should be used.