Jam.html   [plain text]

Jam/MR "jam"
The Jam/MR Executable Program
Jam/MR 2.2
	jam [ -a ] [ -n ] [ -v ] [ -d <I>debug</I> ] [ -f <I>rulesfile</I> ... ] 
	    [ -j <I>jobs</I> ] [ -s <I>var</I>=<I>value</I> ... ] [ -t <I>target</I> ... ] 
	    [  <I>target</I> ... ]

	<B>jam,</B> the Jam/MR executable program,
       recursively  builds  target files  from source files
       using dependency and build specification rules defined 
       in <i>rulesfile</i>.
	<B>jam</B> parses <i>rulesfile</i> to identify targets
	and sources,
	examines the filesystem to determine which
	targets need updating, and issues OS commands to update
 	Normally, <i>rulesfile</i> is compiled into <B>jam</B>,
	allowing <B>jam</B> to be run as a stand-alone program.
	A base set of build rules is provided in the
	file "Jambase", and is described in
	<a href="Jamfile.html">Using Jamfiles and Jambase</A>
	and the
	<a href="Jambase.html">Jambase Reference</a>.
	For general information, refer to the
	<a href="Jamlang.html">Jam/MR Language</A> document.
       If <I>target</I> is provided on the command line, <B>jam</B> attempts to
       build <I>target;</I> otherwise <B>jam</B>  attempts  to  build  the
       target 'all'.

       <b>jam</b> may be invoked with the following options:
       -a     Build all targets anyway, even if they are up-to-date.

       -d&lt;n&gt;  Enable cummulative debugging levels from 1 to &lt;n&gt;.  
	      Interesting values are:

              1 Show actions (the default)
              2 Show "quiet" actions and display all action text
              3 Show dependency analysis, and target/source timestamps/paths 
	      4 Show shell arguments
	      5 Show rule invocations and variable expansions
	      6 Show directory/header file/archive scans
	      7 Show variable settings
	      8 Show variable fetches
	      9 Show variable manipulation, scanner tokens

       -d+&lt;n&gt; Enable debugging level &lt;n&gt;.

       -d0    Turn off all debugging levels.  Only errors are not

              Read &lt;rulesfile&gt; instead of Jambase.

              Run  up to &lt;n&gt; shell commands concurrently (UNIX
              only).  The default is 1.

       -k     Continue after build error.  The default behavior is to 
              exit after the first build failure.

       -n     Don't actually execute the updating actions, but do
              everything else.  This changes the debug level default 
	      to -d2.

              Set  the variable &lt;var&gt; to &lt;value&gt;, overriding both
              internal variables and variables imported from  the

              Rebuild &lt;target&gt;, even if it is up-to-date, and/or build 
	      dependencies of &lt;target&gt; as if &lt;target&gt; were newer.

       -v     Print the version of <B>jam</B> and exit.
       <b>jam</b> has three phases of operation: parsing,  binding,  and
	In the parsing phase, <b>jam</b> reads the rules file(s),
	evaluates variables, identifies and invokes rules, 
	identifies targets, and builds the dependency graph.
	Which rules files get read depends on 
	the site-specific implementation of <b>jam</b>.
	The normal implementation is this: <b>jam</b> reads the Jambase
	rules file, the text of which is stored inside the <b>jam</b>
	executable itself. Jambase may "include" other rules files, and
	the last rule invoked from Jambase is
	"include Jamfile", which reads file "Jamfile" from the current
	directory. Jamfile is expected to specify which targets get
	built from the source files in the current directory.
	(All of this is explained in detail in
	<a href="Jamfile.html">Using Jamfiles and Jambase</a>.)
	If there's no Jamfile in the current directory, <b>jam</b>
	emits a message and exits.
	Environment variable settings are imported into Jam/MR variables.
	To pass a value to a variable on the <b>jam</b> command line,
	overriding the variable's environment value, use the -s option.
	To see variable assignments made during <b>jam</b>'s execution,
	use the -d+7 option.
	Rules are defined in rules files using the Jam/MR language,
	and are invoked in rules files after they are defined.
	Targets are identified by rule invocations. At the completion
	of the parsing phase, all targets are uniquely identified
	and a dependency graph is constructed.
       After parsing, <B>jam</B>  recursively  descends  the  dependency
       graph and binds every file target with a location in the filesystem.
       The existence and modification times of the bound files are 
       used to determine which targets need 
       updating.  If <B>jam</B> detects a  circular
       dependency in the graph, it issues a warning.
	A file target is bound with a location as follows:

	<LI>If $(LOCATE) is set, the target is bound
	    to the path described by the first element in $(LOCATE). 

	<LI>If $(LOCATE) is not set, and the target has any updating
	    actions associated with it, the target is bound to the
	    current directory of the <b>jam</b> invocation.

	<LI>If $(LOCATE) is not set, and the target has no updating
	    actions associated with it, 
	    and $(SEARCH) is set,
	    <b>jam</b> searches the directories in the $(SEARCH) list.
	    The first directory in the list in which the target is
	    found becomes the target's bound path. If the target is
	    not found, it is bound to the current directory of the
	    <b>jam</b> invocation.

        <LI>If neither $(SEARCH) nor $(LOCATE) are set, the target
	    is bound to the current directory of the <b>jam</b> invocation.

	<LI>If the target's identifier contains a rooted pathname,
		none of the above applies, and the target's bound
		location is that path.

	<LI>Unrooted pathnames used in $(SEARCH), $(LOCATE), or
		target identifiers are relative to the 
		current directory where <B>jam</B> was invoked.

	<LI>Target-specific values of $(SEARCH) and $(LOCATE)
	    always have precedence over global values in binding.


       After binding each target, <B>jam</B> determines whether the target  
       needs updating, and marks the target if necessary for
       the updating phase.  A target is marked for  updating  for
       any of these three reasons:
              It is missing.
              Its  filesystem modification time is older than any
              of its sources.
              Any of its sources are marked for updating.
       For targets of the built-in rules ALWAYS, LEAVES,
       NOCARE, TEMPORARY, NOTFILE, and NOUPDATE, <b>jam</b>'s updating
       behavior is slightly different:
		The target is always updated.
		The  target is only updated if it is missing
                     or if its  leaf  sources  are  newer.   Leaf
                     sources are those dependencies of the target
                     that have no dependencies themselves.
		The target is ignored if it is  missing  and
                     has  no  updating  actions.   Normally,  <B>jam</B>
                     issues a warning  and  skips  other  targets
                     that   depend  on  missing  targets  without
                     updating actions.
                     If the target is missing, then its  source's
                     modification  time  is  used  when comparing
                     against dependencies.
                     The target is only updated  if  any  of  its
                     sources are marked for updating.
                     The target is only updated if it is missing.
                     Also, if it exists, it will appear eternally
                     old;  that  is,  older  than  anything  that
                     depends on it.
       If $(HDRSCAN) is set on a file target,
       <B>jam</B>  scans  the file for header file include lines.
       It scans the file by matching each  line  against  a  
       regexp(3) pattern that has ()'s surrounding the included file
       name.  The pattern is provided by  the  user  through  the
       special variable $(HDRSCAN) (see HDRPATTERN in Jambase for
       an example).  The result of the scan is formed into a rule
       invocation,  with  the  scanned file as the target and the
       found included  file  names  as  the  sources.   The  rule
       invoked  is named by the special variable $(HDRRULE).  <b>jam</b>
       only scans files if $(HDRSCAN) is set, and  $(HDRSCAN)  is
       normally set target-specific.
       Between  binding and updating, <B>jam</B> announces the number of
       targets to be updated.
       After binding, <B>jam</B> again recursively descends  the  dependency  graph,  this  time executing the update actions for
       each target marked for update during  the  binding  phase.
       If  a  target's  updating  actions  fail, then all targets
       which depend on it are skipped.
       The -j flag instructs <B>jam</B> to build more than
       one  target at a time.  If there are multiple actions on a
       single target, they are run sequentially.
       The special variable $(JAMSHELL) gives <B>jam</B> a
       command  execution  shell  to  be used instead of /bin/sh.
       This variable's value must be a multi-element list, 
       corresponding to the argument vector for the command shell.  An
       element "%" is replaced with the command  string  to  execute.   
       An  element  "!" is replaced with the multiprocess
       slot number, which is (inclusively) between 1 and the maximum  
       number of concurrent jobs specified with the -j flag
       (default 1).  If no element of the list is "%",  the  command  
       string  is  tacked  on  as  the  last argument.  The
       default value is: "/bin/sh -c %".
       In addition to generic error messages, <B>jam</B> may emit one of
       the following:
       warning: unknown rule X

              A  rule  was invoked that has not been defined with
              an "actions" or "rule" statement.

       using N temp target(s)

              Targets marked as being temporary (but  nonetheless
              present) have been found.

       updating N target(s)

              Targets are out-of-date and will be updated.

       can't find N target(s)

              Source  files  can't  be  found  and  there  are no
              actions to create them.

       can't make N target(s)

              Due to sources not being found, other targets  cannot be made.

       warning: X depends on itself

              A  target  depends  on  itself  either  directly or
              through its sources.

       don't know how to make X

              A target is not present and no  actions  have  been
              defined to create it.

       X skipped for lack of Y

              A  source failed to build, and thus a target cannot
              be built.

       warning: using independent target X

              A target that does is not a dependency of any other
              target is being referenced with $(&lt;) or $(&gt;).

       X removed

              <b>jam</b>  removed  a  partially built target after being
	The -j flag can cause <B>jam</B> to get confused when
	single actions update more than
	one target at a time. <B>jam</B> may try to execute
	actions to build those targets' dependencies before
	the targets themselves have all been built.
       With the -j flag, errors  from  failed  commands  can  get
       staggeringly  mixed up.  Also, because targets tend to get
       built in a quickest-first ordering, dependency information
       must  be  quite  exact.   Finally, beware of parallelizing
       commands that drop  fixed-named  files  into  the  current
       directory, like yacc(1) does.
       A  poorly  set  $(JAMSHELL)  is likely to result in silent
	<a href="Jambase.html">Using Jamfiles and Jambase</a>
	<a href="Jambase.html">Jambase Reference</a>
	<a href="Jamlang.html">The Jam/MR Language</A>
	Documentation and source are available 
	at <A HREF=http://www.perforce.com/jam/jam.html>www.perforce.com/jam/jam.html</a>.
       Jam/MR's author is Christopher Seiwald (<a href="mailto:seiwald@perforce.com">seiwald@perforce.com)</A>.
	Documentation is provided by 
	<A HREF="http://www.perforce.com">Perforce Software, Inc.</A>

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        Copyright 1997 Perforce Software, Inc.
        Comments to <A HREF="mailto:info@perforce.com">info@perforce.com</A>
        Last updated: Oct 19, 1997