# groff_man.man   [plain text]

.ig
Copyright (C) 1999-2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005
Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the
permission notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this
manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified
versions, except that this permission notice may be included in
translations approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in
the original English.
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.TH GROFF_MAN @MAN7EXT@ "@MDATE@" "Groff Version @VERSION@"
.
.
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.
.SH NAME
.
groff_man \- groff `man' macros to support generation of man pages
.
.
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.
.SH SYNOPSIS
.
.B groff
.B \-man
[
.IR options .\|.\|.\&
]
[
.IR files .\|.\|.\&
]
.br
.B groff
.B \-m\ man
[
.IR options .\|.\|.\&
]
[
.IR files .\|.\|.\&
]
.
.
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.
.SH DESCRIPTION
.
The
.B man
macros used to generate
.I \%man\~pages
with
.I groff
were written by James Clark.
.
This document provides a brief summary of the use of each macro in that
package.
.
.
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.
.SH OPTIONS
.
The
.B man
macros understand the following command line options (which define
various registers).
.
.TP
.B \-rcR=1
This option (the default if in nroff mode) will create a single, very
long page instead of multiple pages.
.
Say
.B \-rcR=0
to disable it.
.
.TP
.B \-rC1
If more than one manual page is given on the command line, number the
pages continuously, rather than starting each at\ 1.
.
.TP
.B \-rD1
Double-sided printing.
.
Footers for even and odd pages are formatted differently.
.
.TP
.BI \-rFT= dist
Set distance of the footer relative to the bottom of the page if
negative or relative to the top if positive.
.
The default is -0.5i.
.
.TP
.BI \-rHY= flags
Set hyphenation flags.
.
Possible values are 1\ to hyphenate without restrictions, 2\ to not
hyphenate the last word on a page, 4\ to not hyphenate the last two
characters of a word, and 8\ to not hyphenate the first two characters
of a word.
.
These values are additive; the default is\ 14.
.
.TP
.BI \-rIN= width
Set body text indentation to
.IR width .
The default is 7n for
.IR nroff ,
7.2n for
.IR troff .
For
.IR nroff ,
this value should always be an integer multiple of unit `n' to get
consistent indentation.
.
.TP
.BI \-rLL= line-length
Set line length.
.
If this option is not given,
the line length is set to respect any value set by a prior `.ll' request,
(which
.I must
be in effect when the `.TH' macro is invoked),
if this differs from the built\-in default for the formatter;
otherwise it defaults to 78n in
.I nroff
mode and 6.5i in
.I troff
mode.
.
.IP
Note that the use of a `.ll' request to initialize the line length
is supported for backward compatibility with some versions of the
.B man
program;
direct initialization of the `LL' register should
.I always
be preferred to the use of such a request.
In particular, note that a `.ll\ 65n' request will
.I not
preserve the normal
.I nroff
default line length,
(the
.B man
default initialization to 78n will prevail),
whereas,
the `-rLL=65n' option, or an equivalent `.nr\ LL\ 65n'
request preceding the use of the `TH' macro,
.I will
set a line length of 65n.
.
.TP
.BI \-rLT= title-length
Set title length.
.
If this option is not given, the title length defaults to the line
length.
.
.TP
.BI \-rP nnn
.I nnn
rather than with\ 1.
.
.TP
.BI \-rS xx
Base document font size is
.I xx
points
.RI ( xx
can be 10, 11, or\ 12) rather than 10\ points.
.
.TP
.BI \-rSN= width
.IR width .
The default is 3n.
.
.TP
.BI \-rX nnn
After page\ \c
.IR nnn ,
number pages as
.IR nnn a,
.IR nnn b,
.IR nnn c,
etc.
.
For example, the option `\-rX2' will produce the following page
numbers: 1, 2, 2a, 2b, 2c, etc.
.
.
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.
.SH USAGE
.
This section describes the available macros for manual pages.
.
For further customization, put additional macros and requests into the
file
.B man.local
which will be loaded immediately after the
.B man
package.
.
.TP
.BI .TH " title section \fB[\fPextra1\fB]\fP \fB[\fPextra2\fB]\fP \fB[\fPextra3\fB]"
Set the title of the
.I \man\~page
to
.I title
and the section to
.IR section ,
which must take on a value between 1 and\ 8.
.
The value
.I section
may also have a string appended, e.g. `.pm', to indicate a specific
subsection of the
.IR \%man\~pages .
Both
.I title
and
.I section
are positioned at the left and right in the header line (with
.I section
in parentheses immediately appended to
.IR title .
.I extra1
will be positioned in the middle of the footer line.
.I extra2
will be positioned at the left in the footer line (or at the left on
even pages and at the right on odd pages if double-sided printing is
active).
.I extra3
is centered in the header line.
.
.IP
For HTML output, headers and footers are completely supressed.
.
.IP
Additionally, this macro starts a new page; the new line number is\ 1
again (except if the `-rC1' option is given on the command line) --
this feature is intended only for formatting multiple
.IR \%man\~pages ;
a single
.I \%man\~page
should contain exactly one
.B TH
macro at the beginning of the file.
.
.TP
.BI ".SH [" "text for a heading" ]
Set up an unnumbered section heading sticking out to the left.
.
Prints out all the text following
.B SH
up to the end of the line (or the text in the next input line if there
is no argument to
.BR SH )
in bold face
(or the font specified by the string
.BR HF ),
one size larger than the base document size.
.
Additionally, the left margin and the indentation for the following
text is reset to the default values.
.
.TP
.BI ".SS [" "text for a heading" ]
Set up a secondary, unnumbered section heading.
.
Prints out all the text following
.B SS
up to the end of the line (or the text in the next input line if there
is no argument to
.BR SS )
in bold face
(or the font specified by the string
.BR HF ),
at the same size as the base document size.
.
Additionally, the left margin and the indentation for the following
text is reset to the default values.
.
.TP
.BI ".TP [" nnn ]
Set up an indented paragraph with label.
.
The indentation is set to
.I nnn
if that argument is supplied (the default unit is `n' if omitted),
otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value specified with
.BR TP ,
.BR IP ,
or
.B HP
(or to the default value if none of them have been used yet).
.
.IP
The first input line of text following this macro is interpreted as a
string to be printed flush-left, as it is appropriate for a label.
.
It is not interpreted as part of a paragraph, so there is no attempt
to fill the first line with text from the following input lines.
.
Nevertheless, if the label is not as wide as the indentation the
paragraph starts at the same line (but indented), continuing on the
following lines.
.
If the label is wider than the indentation the descriptive part of the
paragraph begins on the line following the label, entirely indented.
.
Note that neither font shape nor font size of the label is set to a
default value; on the other hand, the rest of the text will have
default font settings.
.
.IP
The
.B TP
macro is the macro used for the explanations you are just reading.
.
.TP
.B .LP
.TQ
.B .PP
.TQ
.B .P
These macros are mutual aliases.
.
Any of them causes a line break at the current position, followed by a
vertical space downwards by the amount specified by the
.B PD
macro.
.
The font size and shape are reset to the default value (10pt
resp. Roman).
.
Finally, the current left margin and the indentation are restored.
.
.TP
.BI ".IP [" designator "] [" nnn ]
Set up an indented paragraph, using
.I designator
as a tag to mark its beginning.
.
The indentation is set to
.I nnn
if that argument is supplied (the default unit is `n' if omitted),
otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value specified with
.BR TP ,
.BR IP ,
or
.B HP
(or to the default value if none of them have been used yet).
.
Font size and face of the paragraph (but not the designator) are reset
to its default values.
.
.IP
To start an indented paragraph with a particular indentation but
without a designator, use `""' (two doublequotes) as the second
argument.
.
.IP
For example, the following paragraphs were all set up with bullets as
the designator, using `.IP\ \\(bu\ 4'.
.
The whole block has been enclosed with `.RS' and `.RE' to set the left
margin temporarily to the current indentation value.
.
.RS
.IP \(bu 4
.B IP
is one of the three macros used in the
.B man
package to format lists.
.IP \(bu 4
.B HP
is another.
.
This macro produces a paragraph with a left hanging indentation.
.IP \(bu 4
.B TP
is another.
.
This macro produces an unindented label followed by an indented
paragraph.
.RE
.
.TP
.BI ".HP [" nnn ]
Set up a paragraph with hanging left indentation.
.
The indentation is set to
.I nnn
if that argument is supplied (the default unit is `n' if omitted),
otherwise it is set to the previous indentation value specified with
.BR TP ,
.BR IP ,
or
.B HP
(or to the default value if none of them have been used yet).
.
Font size and face are reset to its default values.
.
The following paragraph illustrates the effect of this macro with
hanging indentation set to\ 4 (enclosed by
.B .RS
and
.B .RE
to set the left margin temporarily to the current indentation):
.
.RS
.HP 4
This is a paragraph following an invocation of the
.B HP
macro.
.
As you can see, it produces a paragraph where all lines but the first
are indented.
.RE
.
.TP
.BI ".RS [" nnn ]
This macro moves the left margin to the right by the value
.I nnn
if specified (default unit is `n'); otherwise it is set to the
previous indentation value specified with
.BR TP ,
.BR IP ,
or
.B HP
(or to the default value if none of them have been used yet).
.
The indentation value is then set to the default.
.
.IP
Calls to the
.B RS
macro can be nested.
.
.TP
.BI ".RE [" nnn ]
This macro moves the left margin back to level
.IR nnn ,
restoring the previous left margin.
.
If no argument is given, it moves one level back.
.
The first level (i.e., no call to
.B RS
yet) has number\ 1, and each call to
.B RS
increases the level by\ 1.
.
.PP
To summarize, the following macros cause a line break with the
insertion of vertical space (which amount can be changed with the
.B PD
macro):
.BR SH ,
.BR SS ,
.BR TP ,
.B LP
.RB ( PP ,
.BR P ),
.BR IP ,
and
.BR HP .
The macros
.B RS
and
.B RE
also cause a break but no insertion of vertical space.
.
.
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.
.SH "MACROS TO SET FONTS"
.
The standard font is Roman; the default text size is 10\ point.
.
.TP
.BI ".SM [" text ]
Causes the text on the same line or the text on the next input line to
appear in a font that is one point size smaller than the default font.
.
.TP
.BI ".SB [" text ]
Causes the text on the same line or the text on the next input line to
appear in boldface font, one point size smaller than the default font.
.
.TP
.BI ".BI " text
Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in bold face and
italic.
.
The text must be on the same line as the macro call.
.
Thus
.RS
.IP
\&.BI this "word and" that
.PP
would cause `this' and `that' to appear in bold face, while `word and'
appears in italics.
.RE
.
.TP
.BI ".IB " text
Causes text to appear alternately in italic and bold face.
.
The text must be on the same line as the macro call.
.
.TP
.BI ".RI " text
Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in roman and
italic.
.
The text must be on the same line as the macro call.
.
.TP
.BI ".IR " text
Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in italic and
roman.
.
The text must be on the same line as the macro call.
.
.TP
.BI ".BR " text
Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in bold face and
roman.
.
The text must be on the same line as the macro call.
.
.TP
.BI ".RB " text
Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in roman and bold
face.
.
The text must be on the same line as the macro call.
.
.TP
.BI ".B [" text ]
Causes
.I text
to appear in bold face.
.
If no text is present on the line where the macro is called the text
of the next input line appears in bold face.
.
.TP
.BI ".I [" text ]
Causes
.I text
to appear in italic.
.
If no text is present on the line where the macro is called the text
of the next input line appears in italic.
.
.
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.
.SH "MISCELLANEOUS"
.
The default indentation is 7.2n in troff mode and 7n in nroff mode
except for
.B grohtml
which ignores indentation.
.
.TP
.B .DT
Set tabs every 0.5 inches.
.
Since this macro is always called during a
.B TH
request, it makes sense to call it only if the tab positions have been
changed.
.
.TP
.BI ".PD [" nnn ]
Adjust the empty space before a new paragraph or section.
.
The optional argument gives the amount of space (default unit is `v');
without parameter, the value is reset to its default value (1\ line in
nroff mode, 0.4v\ otherwise).
.
This affects the macros
.BR SH ,
.BR SS ,
.BR TP ,
.B LP
(resp.\&
.B PP
and
.BR P ),
.BR IP ,
and
.BR HP .
.
.TP
.BI ".AT [" system " [" release ]]
Alter the footer for use with \f[CR]AT&T\f[]
.IR \%man\~pages .
This command exists only for compatibility; don't use it.
.
See the
.I groff
info manual for more.
.
.TP
.BI ".UC [" version ]
Alter the footer for use with \f[CR]BSD\f[]
.IR \%man\~pages .
This command exists only for compatibility; don't use it.
.
See the
.I groff
info manual for more.
.
.TP
.B ".PT"
.
Redefine this macro to get control of the header.
.
.TP
.B ".BT"
Print the footer string.
.
Redefine this macro to get control of the footer.
.
.PP
The following strings are defined:
.TP
.B \e*S
Switch back to the default font size.
.
.TP
.B \e*R
The `registered' sign.
.
.TP
.B \e*(Tm
.
.TP
.B \e*(lq
.TQ
.B \e*(rq
Left and right quote.
.
This is equal to `\e(lq' and `\e(rq', respectively.
.
.TP
.B \e*(HF
.
The default is `B'.
.
.PP
If a preprocessor like
.B @g@tbl
or
.B @g@eqn
is needed, it has become usage to make the first line of the
.I \%man\~page
look like this:
.PP
.RS
.BI .\e"\  word
.RE
.PP
Note the single space character after the double quote.
.I word
consists of letters for the needed preprocessors: `e' for
.BR @g@eqn ,
`r' for
.BR @g@refer ,
and `t' for
.BR @g@tbl .
Modern implementations of the
.B man
program read this first line and automatically call the right
preprocessor(s).
.
.
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.
.SH FILES
.TP
.B man.tmac
.TQ
.B an.tmac
These are wrapper files to call
.BR andoc.tmac .
.TP
.B andoc.tmac
This file checks whether the
.B man
macros or the
.B mdoc
package should be used.
.TP
.B an-old.tmac
All
.B man
macros are contained in this file.
.TP
.B man.local
Local changes and customizations should be put into this file.
.
.
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.
.
Since the
.B man
macros consist of groups of
.I groff
requests, one can, in principle, supplement the functionality of the
.B man
macros with individual
.I groff
requests where necessary.
.
See the
.I groff
info pages for a complete reference of all requests.
.
.PP
.BR @g@tbl (@MAN1EXT@),
.BR @g@eqn (@MAN1EXT@),
.BR @g@refer (@MAN1EXT@),
.BR man (1),
.BR man (7),
.
.
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.
.SH AUTHOR
.
This manual page was originally written for the Debian GNU/Linux
system by Susan G. Kleinmann <sgk@debian.org>, corrected and updated
by Werner Lemberg <wl@gnu.org>, and is now part of the GNU troff
distribution.
.
.\" Local Variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" End: