Simultaneous-Use   [plain text]

	FreeRADIUS server and the Simultaneous-Use parameter.


  Lots of people want to limit the number of times one user account can
  login, usually to one. This is hard to do with the radius protocol;
  the nature of the accounting stuff is such that the idea the radius server
  has about the list of logged-in users might be different from the idea
  the terminal server has about it.

  However, most terminal servers have an alternative way to get a list
  of logged-in users. Most support some way through telnet, some have
  a finger-daemon builtin and a lot of them support SNMP. So if the
  radius server thinks that someone is trying to login a second time,
  it is possible to check on the terminal server itself if the first
  login is indeed still active.  Only then access is denied for the
  second login.


  You need to have perl installed.

  For SNMP checks, you have 2 options. You can use the `snmpget' program
  from the cmu-snmp tools. You can probably get precompiled ones,
  maybe even packaged for your system (Debian/Linux, Redhat/Linux, FreeBSD
  ports collection etc). The source code is at The Linux-specific
  version of this is at

  The other option is to install the SNMP_Session and BER modules that
  for example the well known `mrtg' package uses. This is recommended.
  In that case you need no external snmpget program, checkrad will
  speak SNMP directly. See

  The checkroutine for USR/3Com Total Control racks uses the Net::Telnet
  module from CPAN, at least version 3.00. If you need that, obtain it from
  your local CPAN mirror (or see The
  perl script will autodetect if that module is installed.


  It works by adding the `check' parameter "Simultaneous-Use" to the entry
  for a users or DEFAULT in /etc/raddb/users. It should be at least one;
  it defines the maximum number of users logged in with the same account name.
  For example:

  # Simultaneous use restrictions.
  DEFAULT Group == "staff", Simultaneous-Use := 4
          Fall-Through = 1
  DEFAULT Group == "business", Simultaneous-Use := 2
          Fall-Through = 1
  DEFAULT Simultaneous-Use := 1
          Fall-Through = 1

  NOTE!!! The "Simultaneous-Use" parameter is in the "check" A/V pairs,
          and not in the Reply A/V pairs (it _is_ a check).

  For SQL, after creating and populating your schema, you should
  execute the following statement (for MySQL, others may vary):

  INSERT INTO radgroupcheck (GroupName, Attribute, op, Value) values("dialup", "Simultaneous-Use", ":=", "1");

  Once that is done, your users should be limited to only one login at a time.


  The server keeps a list of logged-in users in the /var/log/radutmp file.
  This is also called "the session database". When you execute "radwho",
  all that radwho really does is list the entries in this file in a pretty
  format. Only when someone tries to login who _already_ has an active
  session according to the radutmp file, the server executes the perl
  script /usr/local/sbin/checkrad (or /usr/sbin/checkrad, it checks for
  the presence of both and in that order). This script queries the terminal
  server to see if the user indeed already has an active session.

  The script uses SNMP for Livingston Portmasters and Ciscos, finger for
  Portslave, Computone and Ascend, and Net::Telnet for USR/3Com TC.

  Since the script has been witten in perl, it's easy to adjust for
  any type of terminal server. There are implementations in the script for
  checks using SNMP, finger, and telnet, so it should be easy to add
  your own check routine if your terminal server is not supported yet.

  You can find the script in the file src/

  You need to set the correct type in the file /etc/raddb/naslist so that
  checkrad KNOWS how it should interrogate the terminal server. At this
  time you can define the following types:

  type        Vendor      Uses method     needs               Need naspasswd
  ====        ======      ===========     =====               ==============
  ascend      Lucent      SNMP            SNMP                No
  bay         Nortel      finger          finger command      No
  cisco       Cisco       SNMP            SNMP                Optional  [1]
  computone   Computone   finger          finger command      No
  cvx         Nortel      SNMP            SNMP                No
  digitro     Digitro     rusers          rusers command      No
  livingston  Livingston  SNMP            SNMP                No	[2]
  max40xx     Lucent      finger          finger command      No
  netserver   USR/3com    telnet          CPAN Net::Telnet    Yes
  pathras     Cyclades    telnet          CPAN Net::Telnet    Yes
  patton      Patton      SNMP            SNMP                No
  portslave   ?           finger          finger command      No
  pr3000      Cyclades    SNMP            snmpwalk command    No
  pr4000      Cyclades    SNMP            snmpwalk command    No
  tc          USR/3com    telnet          CPAN Net::Telnet    Yes
  usrhyper    USR/3com    SNMP            SNMP                No	[3]
  versanet    VersaNet    SNMP            SNMP                No

  other       none        N/A             -                   No

  [1] In naspasswd file: set username to SNMP, password is community.
  [2] Needs at least ComOS 3.5, SNMP enabled.
  [3] Set "Reported Port Density" to 256 (default)

  "other" means "don't bother checking, I believe what radutmp says".
  This really is not recommended, if a user has a "stuck" entry in the
  session database she will not be able to login again - hence the
  extra check that "checkrad" does.


  Note that you need to add the Simultaneous-Use parameter to the
  check item (first line), not the reply item, using the ':=' operator.

  You can edit the `checkrad' perl script and turn on debugging. Then
  watch the debug file. The `radius.log' file also gives some hints.

  You can also run the "checkrad" script manually, use the "-d"
  switch to get debug output on standard output instead of in the log.

  See also:

  which has a good discussion of the use of Simultaneous-Use.


  This solution checks the radutmp file. This file is kept up-to-date from
  the Accounting records the NAS sends. Since some NASes delay these records
  for quite some time, it is possible to get a double login by logging in
  twice at _exactly_ the same time (plus or minus the mentioned delay time),
  since neither of the logins are registered yet.

  The solution would be to create a small 1-minute cache of Authentication
  records, that is also checked for double login attempts. Perhaps in the
  next version.

  When implementing this one thing was considered the most important: when
  trying to detect double logins, we always try to err on the safe side. So
  in rare cases, a double login is possible but we try never to limit access
  for a legitimate login.


  Our PM3, with 2 ISDN-30 lines coming into it, had the habit of sometimes
  dropping connections. In a few cases, the portmaster thought the session was
  still alive so if the user tried to login again, he or she was denied access.
  In our case, this problem was caused by a bad PRI line from the phone

  We tried to compensate this by setting the Idle-Timeout to 15 minutes. That
  way, even if a user did get locked out the portmaster would clear the rogue
  session within 15 minutes and the user could login again.