.\" $NetBSD: stat.1,v 1.11 2003/05/08 13:07:10 wiz Exp $ .\" .\" Copyright (c) 2002 The NetBSD Foundation, Inc. .\" All rights reserved. .\" .\" This code is derived from software contributed to The NetBSD Foundation .\" by Andrew Brown and Jan Schaumann. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software .\" must display the following acknowledgement: .\" This product includes software developed by the NetBSD .\" Foundation, Inc. and its contributors. .\" 4. Neither the name of The NetBSD Foundation nor the names of its .\" contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived .\" from this software without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE NETBSD FOUNDATION, INC. AND CONTRIBUTORS .\" ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED .\" TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR .\" PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FOUNDATION OR CONTRIBUTORS .\" BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR .\" CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF .\" SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS .\" INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN .\" CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) .\" ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE .\" POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" $FreeBSD: src/usr.bin/stat/stat.1,v 1.8 2005/06/14 11:50:53 ru Exp $ .\" .Dd May 8, 2003 .Dt STAT 1 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm readlink , .Nm stat .Nd display file status .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm stat .Op Fl FLnq .Op Fl f Ar format | Fl l | r | s | x .Op Fl t Ar timefmt .Op Ar .Nm readlink .Op Fl n .Op Ar .Sh DESCRIPTION The .Nm stat utility displays information about the file pointed to by .Ar file . Read, write or execute permissions of the named file are not required, but all directories listed in the path name leading to the file must be searchable. If no argument is given, .Nm stat displays information about the file descriptor for standard input. .Pp When invoked as .Nm readlink , only the target of the symbolic link is printed. If the given argument is not a symbolic link, .Nm readlink will print nothing and exit with an error. .Pp The information displayed is obtained by calling .Xr lstat 2 with the given argument and evaluating the returned structure. .Pp The options are as follows: .Bl -tag -width indent .\" ========== .It Fl F As in .Xr ls 1 , display a slash .Pq Ql / immediately after each pathname that is a directory, an asterisk .Pq Ql * after each that is executable, an at sign .Pq Ql @ after each symbolic link, a percent sign .Pq Ql % after each whiteout, an equal sign .Pq Ql = after each socket, and a vertical bar .Pq Ql | after each that is a FIFO. The use of .Fl F implies .Fl l . .\" ========== .It Fl f Ar format Display information using the specified format. See the .Sx FORMATS section for a description of valid formats. .\" ========== .It Fl L Use .Xr stat 2 instead of .Xr lstat 2 . The information reported by .Nm stat will refer to the target of .Ar file , if file is a symbolic link, and not to .Ar file itself. .\" ========== .It Fl l Display output in .Nm ls Fl lT format. .\" ========== .It Fl n Do not force a newline to appear at the end of each piece of output. .\" ========== .It Fl q Suppress failure messages if calls to .Xr stat 2 or .Xr lstat 2 fail. When run as .Nm readlink , error messages are automatically suppressed. .\" ========== .It Fl r Display raw information. That is, for all the fields in the .Vt stat structure, display the raw, numerical value (for example, times in seconds since the epoch, etc.). .\" ========== .It Fl s Display information in .Dq "shell output" , suitable for initializing variables. .\" ========== .It Fl t Ar timefmt Display timestamps using the specified format. This format is passed directly to .Xr strftime 3 . .\" ========== .It Fl x Display information in a more verbose way as known from some .Tn Linux distributions. .El .Ss Formats Format strings are similar to .Xr printf 3 formats in that they start with .Cm % , are then followed by a sequence of formatting characters, and end in a character that selects the field of the .Vt "struct stat" which is to be formatted. If the .Cm % is immediately followed by one of .Cm n , t , % , or .Cm @ , then a newline character, a tab character, a percent character, or the current file number is printed, otherwise the string is examined for the following: .Pp Any of the following optional flags: .Bl -tag -width indent .It Cm # Selects an alternate output form for octal and hexadecimal output. Non-zero octal output will have a leading zero, and non-zero hexadecimal output will have .Dq Li 0x prepended to it. .It Cm + Asserts that a sign indicating whether a number is positive or negative should always be printed. Non-negative numbers are not usually printed with a sign. .It Cm - Aligns string output to the left of the field, instead of to the right. .It Cm 0 Sets the fill character for left padding to the .Ql 0 character, instead of a space. .It space Reserves a space at the front of non-negative signed output fields. A .Sq Cm + overrides a space if both are used. .El .Pp Then the following fields: .Bl -tag -width indent .It Ar size An optional decimal digit string specifying the minimum field width. .It Ar prec An optional precision composed of a decimal point .Sq Cm \&. and a decimal digit string that indicates the maximum string length, the number of digits to appear after the decimal point in floating point output, or the minimum number of digits to appear in numeric output. .It Ar fmt An optional output format specifier which is one of .Cm D , O , U , X , F , or .Cm S . These represent signed decimal output, octal output, unsigned decimal output, hexadecimal output, floating point output, and string output, respectively. Some output formats do not apply to all fields. Floating point output only applies to .Vt timespec fields (the .Cm a , m , and .Cm c fields). .Pp The special output specifier .Cm S may be used to indicate that the output, if applicable, should be in string format. May be used in combination with: .Bl -tag -width indent .It Cm amc Display date in .Xr strftime 3 format. .It Cm dr Display actual device name. .It Cm gu Display group or user name. .It Cm p Display the mode of .Ar file as in .Nm ls Fl lTd . .It Cm N Displays the name of .Ar file . .It Cm T Displays the type of .Ar file . .It Cm Y Insert a .Dq Li " -\*[Gt] " into the output. Note that the default output format for .Cm Y is a string, but if specified explicitly, these four characters are prepended. .El .It Ar sub An optional sub field specifier (high, middle, low). Only applies to the .Cm p , d , r , and .Cm T output formats. It can be one of the following: .Bl -tag -width indent .It Cm H .Dq High \[em] specifies the major number for devices from .Cm r or .Cm d , the .Dq user bits for permissions from the string form of .Cm p , the file .Dq type bits from the numeric forms of .Cm p , and the long output form of .Cm T . .It Cm L .Dq Low \[em] specifies the minor number for devices from .Cm r or .Cm d , the .Dq other bits for permissions from the string form of .Cm p , the .Dq user , .Dq group , and .Dq other bits from the numeric forms of .Cm p , and the .Nm ls Fl F style output character for file type when used with .Cm T (the use of .Cm L for this is optional). .It Cm M .Dq Middle \[em] specifies the .Dq group bits for permissions from the string output form of .Cm p , or the .Dq suid , .Dq sgid , and .Dq sticky bits for the numeric forms of .Cm p . .El .It Ar datum A required field specifier, being one of the following: .Bl -tag -width indent .It Cm d Device upon which .Ar file resides. .It Cm i .Ar file Ns 's inode number. .It Cm p File type and permissions. .It Cm l Number of hard links to .Ar file . .It Cm u , g User ID and group ID of .Ar file Ns 's owner. .It Cm r Device number for character and block device special files. .It Cm a , m , c , B The time .Ar file was last accessed or modified, of when the inode was last changed, or the birth time of the inode. .It Cm z The size of .Ar file in bytes. .It Cm b Number of blocks allocated for .Ar file . .It Cm k Optimal file system I/O operation block size. .It Cm f User defined flags for .Ar file . .It Cm v Inode generation number. .El .Pp The following four field specifiers are not drawn directly from the data in .Vt "struct stat" , but are: .Bl -tag -width indent .It Cm N The name of the file. .It Cm T The file type, either as in .Nm ls Fl F or in a more descriptive form if the .Ar sub field specifier .Cm H is given. .It Cm Y The target of a symbolic link. .It Cm Z Expands to .Dq major,minor from the .Va rdev field for character or block special devices and gives size output for all others. .El .El .Pp Only the .Cm % and the field specifier are required. Most field specifiers default to .Cm U as an output form, with the exception of .Cm p which defaults to .Cm O , .Cm a , m , and .Cm c which default to .Cm D , and .Cm Y , T , and .Cm N which default to .Cm S . .Sh EXIT STATUS .Ex -std stat readlink .Sh EXAMPLES Given a symbolic link .Pa foo that points from .Pa /tmp/foo to .Pa / , you would use .Nm stat as follows: .Bd -literal -offset indent \*[Gt] stat -F /tmp/foo lrwxrwxrwx 1 jschauma cs 1 Apr 24 16:37:28 2002 /tmp/foo@ -\*[Gt] / \*[Gt] stat -LF /tmp/foo drwxr-xr-x 16 root wheel 512 Apr 19 10:57:54 2002 /tmp/foo/ .Ed .Pp To initialize some shell variables, you could use the .Fl s flag as follows: .Bd -literal -offset indent \*[Gt] csh % eval set `stat -s .cshrc` % echo $st_size $st_mtimespec 1148 1015432481 \*[Gt] sh $ eval $(stat -s .profile) $ echo $st_size $st_mtimespec 1148 1015432481 .Ed .Pp In order to get a list of the kind of files including files pointed to if the file is a symbolic link, you could use the following format: .Bd -literal -offset indent $ stat -f "%N: %HT%SY" /tmp/* /tmp/bar: Symbolic Link -\*[Gt] /tmp/foo /tmp/output25568: Regular File /tmp/blah: Directory /tmp/foo: Symbolic Link -\*[Gt] / .Ed .Pp In order to get a list of the devices, their types and the major and minor device numbers, formatted with tabs and linebreaks, you could use the following format: .Bd -literal -offset indent stat -f "Name: %N%n%tType: %HT%n%tMajor: %Hr%n%tMinor: %Lr%n%n" /dev/* [...] Name: /dev/wt8 Type: Block Device Major: 3 Minor: 8 Name: /dev/zero Type: Character Device Major: 2 Minor: 12 .Ed .Pp In order to determine the permissions set on a file separately, you could use the following format: .Bd -literal -offset indent \*[Gt] stat -f "%Sp -\*[Gt] owner=%SHp group=%SMp other=%SLp" . drwxr-xr-x -\*[Gt] owner=rwx group=r-x other=r-x .Ed .Pp In order to determine the three files that have been modified most recently, you could use the following format: .Bd -literal -offset indent \*[Gt] stat -f "%m%t%Sm %N" /tmp/* | sort -rn | head -3 | cut -f2- Apr 25 11:47:00 2002 /tmp/blah Apr 25 10:36:34 2002 /tmp/bar Apr 24 16:47:35 2002 /tmp/foo .Ed .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr file 1 , .Xr ls 1 , .Xr lstat 2 , .Xr readlink 2 , .Xr stat 2 , .Xr printf 3 , .Xr strftime 3 .Sh HISTORY The .Nm stat utility appeared in .Nx 1.6 and .Fx 4.10 . .Sh AUTHORS .An -nosplit The .Nm stat utility was written by .An Andrew Brown .Aq atatat@NetBSD.org . This man page was written by .An Jan Schaumann .Aq jschauma@NetBSD.org .