.\" Copyright (c) 1987, 1990, 1993 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software .\" must display the following acknowledgement: .\" This product includes software developed by the University of .\" California, Berkeley and its contributors. .\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" From: @(#)install.1 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/6/93 .\" $FreeBSD: src/usr.bin/xinstall/install.1,v 1.21 2001/05/30 09:45:47 ru Exp $ .\" .Dd May 7, 2001 .Dt INSTALL 1 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm install .Nd install binaries .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm install .Op Fl bCcMpSsv .Op Fl B Ar suffix .Op Fl f Ar flags .Op Fl g Ar group .Op Fl m Ar mode .Op Fl o Ar owner .Ar file1 file2 .Nm install .Op Fl bCcMpSsv .Op Fl B Ar suffix .Op Fl f Ar flags .Op Fl g Ar group .Op Fl m Ar mode .Op Fl o Ar owner .Ar file1 ... fileN directory .Nm install .Fl d .Op Fl v .Op Fl g Ar group .Op Fl m Ar mode .Op Fl o Ar owner .Ar directory ... .Sh DESCRIPTION The file(s) are copied to the target file or directory. If the destination is a directory, then the .Ar file is copied into .Ar directory with its original filename. If the target file already exists, it is either renamed to .Ar file Ns Pa .old if the .Fl b option is given or overwritten if permissions allow. An alternate backup suffix may be specified via the .Fl B option's argument. .Pp The options are as follows: .Bl -tag -width indent .\" ========== .It Fl B Ar suffix Use .Ar suffix as the backup suffix if .Fl b is given. .\" ========== .It Fl b Back up any existing files before overwriting them by renaming them to .Ar file Ns Pa .old . See .Fl B for specifying a different backup suffix. .\" ========== .It Fl C Copy the file. If the target file already exists and the files are the same, then don't change the modification time of the target. .\" ========== .It Fl c Copy the file. This is actually the default. The .Fl c option is only included for backwards compatibility. .\" ========== .It Fl d Create directories. Missing parent directories are created as required. .\" ========== .It Fl f Specify the target's file flags; see .Xr chflags 1 for a list of possible flags and their meanings. .\" ========== .It Fl g Specify a group. A numeric GID is allowed. .\" ========== .It Fl M Disable all use of .Xr mmap 2 . .\" ========== .It Fl m Specify an alternate mode. The default mode is set to rwxr-xr-x (0755). The specified mode may be either an octal or symbolic value; see .Xr chmod 1 for a description of possible mode values. .\" ========== .It Fl o Specify an owner. A numeric UID is allowed. .\" ========== .It Fl p Preserve the modification time. Copy the file, as if the .Fl C (compare and copy) option is specified, except if the target file doesn't already exist or is different, then preserve the modification time of the file. .\" ========== .It Fl S Safe copy. Normally, .Nm install unlinks an existing target before installing the new file. With the .Fl S flag a temporary file is used and then renamed to be the target. The reason this is safer is that if the copy or rename fails, the existing target is left untouched. .\" ========== .It Fl s .Nm install exec's the command .Xr strip 1 to strip binaries so that .Nm install can be portable over a large number of systems and binary types. .\" ========== .It Fl v Causes .Nm install to show when .Fl C actually installs something. .El .Pp By default, .Nm install preserves all file flags, with the exception of the .Dq nodump flag. .Pp The .Nm install utility attempts to prevent moving a file onto itself. .Pp Installing .Pa /dev/null creates an empty file. .Sh DIAGNOSTICS The .Nm install utility exits 0 on success, and 1 otherwise. .Sh FILES .Bl -tag -width INS@XXXX -compact .It Pa INS@XXXX If either .Fl S option is specified, or the .Fl C or .Fl p option is used in conjuction with the .Fl s option, temporary files named .Pa INS@XXXX , where .Pa XXXX is decided by .Xr mkstemp 3 , are created in the target directory. .El .Sh COMPATIBILITY Historically .Nm install moved files by default. The default was changed to copy in .Fx 4.4 . .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr chflags 1 , .Xr chgrp 1 , .Xr chmod 1 , .Xr cp 1 , .Xr mv 1 , .Xr strip 1 , .Xr mmap 2 , .Xr chown 8 .Sh HISTORY The .Nm install utility appeared in .Bx 4.2 . .Sh BUGS Temporary files may be left in the target directory if .Nm install exits abnormally. .Pp File flags cannot be set by .Xr fchflags 2 over a NFS file system. Other file systems do not have a concept of flags. .Nm install will only warn when flags could not be set on a file system that does not support them. .Pp .Nm install with .Fl v falsely says a file is copied when .Fl C snaps hard links.