# org.texi   [plain text]

\input texinfo
@setfilename ../info/org
@settitle Org Mode Manual

@set VERSION 4.67
@set DATE February 2007

@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* Org Mode: (org).      Outline-based notes management and organizer
@end direntry

@c Version and Contact Info
@set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik/Tools/org/,maintainers webpage}
@set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
@set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
@set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{dominik at science dot uva dot nl}
@set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:dominik at science dot uva dot nl,contact the maintainer}
@finalout

@c Macro definitions

@ifinfo
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
@item @b{\text\}
@end ifnotinfo
@end macro

@copying
This manual is for Org-mode (version @value{VERSION}).

@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being A GNU Manual,''
and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the
license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: You have freedom to copy and modify
Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development.''
@end quotation
@end copying

@titlepage
@title Org Mode Manual

@subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
@author by Carsten Dominik

@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage

@contents

@ifnottex
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@top Org Mode Manual

@insertcopying
@end ifnottex

* Introduction::                Getting started
* Document structure::          A tree works like your brain
* Tables::                      Pure magic for quick formatting
* TODO items::                  Every tree branch can be a TODO item
* Timestamps::                  Assign date and time to items
* Tags::                        Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
* Agenda views::                Collecting information into views
* Embedded LaTeX::              LaTeX fragments and formulas
* Exporting::                   Sharing and publishing of notes
* Publishing::                  Create a web site of linked Org-mode files
* Miscellaneous::               All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
* Extensions and Hacking::      It is possible to write add-on code
* History and Acknowledgments::  How Org-mode came into being
* Index::                       The fast road to specific information
* Key Index::                   Key bindings and where they are described

--- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Introduction

* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org-mode does
* Activation::                  How to activate Org-mode for certain buffers.
* Feedback::                    Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.

Document Structure

* Outlines::                    Org-mode is based on outline-mode
* Visibility cycling::          Show and hide, much simplified
* Motion::                      Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::           Changing sequence and level of headlines
* Archiving::                   Move done task trees to a different place
* Sparse trees::                Matches embedded in context
* Plain lists::                 Additional structure within an entry

Archiving

* ARCHIVE tag::                 Marking a tree as inactive
* Moving subtrees::             Moving a tree to an archive file

Tables

* Built-in table editor::       Simple tables
* Narrow columns::              Stop wasting space in tables
* orgtbl-mode::                 The table editor as minor mode

* References::                  How to refer to another field or range
* Formula syntax for Calc::     Using Calc to compute stuff
* Formula syntax for Lisp::     Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
* Field formulas::              Formulas valid for a single field
* Column formulas::             Formulas valid for an entire column
* Editing and debugging formulas::  Fixing formulas
* Updating the table::          Recomputing all dependent fields
* Advanced features::           Field names, parameters and automatic recalc

* Handling links::              Creating, inserting and following
* Search options::              Linking to a specific location
* Custom searches::             When the default search is not enough
* Remember::                    Org-trees store quick notes

Remember

* Setting up remember::         Some code for .emacs to get things going
* Remember templates::          Define the outline of different note types
* Storing notes::               Directly get the note to where it belongs

TODO items

* TODO basics::                 Marking and displaying TODO entries
* TODO extensions::             Workflow and assignments
* Priorities::                  Some things are more important than others
* Checkboxes::                  Tick-off lists

Extended use of TODO keywords

* Workflow states::             From TODO to DONE in steps
* TODO types::                  I do this, Fred the rest
* Per file keywords::           Different files, different requirements

Timestamps

* Time stamps::                 Assigning a time to a tree entry
* Creating timestamps::         Commands which insert timestamps
* Custom time format::          If you cannot work with the ISO format
* Repeating items::             Deadlines that come back again and again
* Progress logging::            Documenting when what work was done.

Creating timestamps

* The date/time prompt::        How org-mode helps you entering date and time

Progress Logging

* Tracking TODO state changes::  When did the status change?
* Clocking work time::          When exactly did you work on this item?

Tags

* Tag inheritance::             Tags use the tree structure of the outline
* Setting tags::                How to assign tags to a headline
* Tag searches::                Searching for combinations of tags

Agenda Views

* Agenda files::                Files being searched for agenda information
* Built-in agenda views::       What is available out of the box?
* Presentation and sorting::    How agenda items are prepared for display
* Agenda commands::             Remote editing of org trees
* Custom agenda views::         Defining special searches and views

The built-in agenda views

* Weekly/Daily agenda::         The calendar page with current tasks
* Global TODO list::            All unfinished action items
* Matching headline tags::      Structured information with fine-tuned search
* Timeline::                    Time-sorted view for single file
* Stuck projects::              Find projects you need to review

Presentation and sorting

* Categories::                  Not all tasks are equal
* Time-of-day specifications::  How the agenda knows the time
* Sorting of agenda items::     The order of things

Custom agenda views

* Storing searches::            Type once, use often
* Block agenda::                All the stuff you need in a single buffer
* Setting Options::             Changing the rules
* Batch processing::            Agenda views from the command line

Embedded LaTeX

* Math symbols::                TeX macros for symbols and Greek letters
* Subscripts and Superscripts::  Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
* LaTeX fragments::             Complex formulas made easy
* Processing LaTeX fragments::  Previewing LaTeX processing
* CDLaTeX mode::                Speed up entering of formulas

Exporting

* ASCII export::                Exporting to plain ASCII
* HTML export::                 Exporting to HTML
* XOXO export::                 Exporting to XOXO
* iCalendar export::            Exporting in iCalendar format
* Text interpretation::         How the exporter looks at the file

HTML export

* Export commands::             How to invode HTML export
* Quoting HTML tags::           Using direct HTML in Org-mode
* Images::                      To inline or not to inline?
* CSS support::                 Style specifications

Text interpretation by the exporter

* Comment lines::               Some lines will not be exported
* Enhancing text::              Subscripts, symbols and more
* Export options::              How to influence the export settings

Publishing

* Configuration::               Defining projects
* Sample configuration::        Example projects
* Triggering publication::      Publication commands

Configuration

* Project alist::               The central configuration variable
* Sources and destinations::    From here to there
* Selecting files::             What files are part of the project?
* Publishing action::           Setting the function doing the publishing
* Publishing options::          Tweaking HTML export
* Project page index::          Publishing a list of project files

Sample configuration

* Simple example::              One-component publishing
* Complex example::             A multi-component publishing example

Miscellaneous

* Completion::                  M-TAB knows what you need
* In-buffer settings::          Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
* The very busy C-c C-c key::   When in doubt, press C-c C-c
* Clean view::                  Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
* TTY keys::                    Using Org-mode on a tty
* Interaction::                 Other Emacs packages
* Bugs::                        Things which do not work perfectly

Interaction with other packages

* Cooperation::                 Packages Org-mode cooperates with
* Conflicts::                   Packages that lead to conflicts

Extensions, Hooks and Hacking

* Extensions::                  Existing 3rd-part extensions
* Tables in arbitrary syntax::  Orgtbl for LaTeX and other programs
* Dynamic blocks::              Automatically filled blocks
* Special agenda views::        Customized views

Tables in arbitrary syntax

* Radio tables::                Sending and receiving
* A LaTeX example::             Step by step, almost a tutorial
* Translator functions::        Copy and modify

@node Introduction, Document structure, Top, Top
@chapter Introduction
@cindex introduction

* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org-mode does
* Activation::                  How to activate Org-mode for certain buffers.
* Feedback::                    Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.

@node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
@section Summary
@cindex summary

Org-mode is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining ToDo lists, and doing
project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.

Org-mode develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
lists or information about projects as plain text.  Org-mode is
implemented on top of outline-mode, which makes it possible to keep the
content of large files well structured.  Visibility cycling and
structure editing help to work with the tree.  Tables are easily created
with a built-in table editor.  Org-mode supports ToDo items, deadlines,
time stamps, and scheduling.  It dynamically compiles entries into an
agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
and diary.  Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
For printing and sharing of notes, an Org-mode file can be exported as a
structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (todo and agenda items only) as an
iCalendar file.  It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of

An important design aspect that distinguishes Org-mode from for example
Planner/Muse is that it encourages to store every piece of information
only once.  In Planner, you have project pages, day pages and possibly
other files, duplicating some information such as tasks.  In Org-mode,
you only have notes files.  In your notes you mark entries as tasks,
label them with tags and timestamps.  All necessary lists like a
schedule for the day, the agenda for a meeting, tasks lists selected by
tags etc are created dynamically when you need them.

Org-mode keeps simple things simple.  When first fired up, it should
feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner.  Complexity is not
imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
it.  Org-mode can be used on different levels and in different ways, for
example as:

@example
@r{@bullet{} outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
@r{@bullet{} ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
@r{@bullet{} ASCII table editor with spreadsheet-like capabilities}
@r{@bullet{} TODO list editor}
@r{@bullet{} full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
@r{@bullet{} environment to implement David Allen's GTD system}
@r{@bullet{} simple hypertext system, with HTML export}
@r{@bullet{} publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
@end example

Org-mode's automatic, context sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
minor Orgtbl-mode.  Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
tables in arbitray file types, for example in LaTeX.

@cindex FAQ
There is a website for Org-mode which provides links to the newest
@uref{http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik/Tools/org/}.

@page

@node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
@section Installation
@cindex installation
@cindex XEmacs

@b{Important:} @i{If Org-mode is part of the Emacs distribution or an
XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly to
@ref{Activation}.}

If you have downloaded Org-mode from the Web, you must take the
following steps to install it: Go into the Org-mode distribution
directory and edit the top section of the file @file{Makefile}.  You
must set the name of the Emacs binary (likely either @file{emacs} or
@file{xemacs}), and the paths to the directories where local Lisp and
Info files are kept.  If you don't have access to the system-wide
directories, create your own two directories for these files, enter them
into the Makefile, and make sure Emacs finds the Lisp files by adding
the following line to @file{.emacs}:

@example
@end example

@b{XEmacs users now need to install the file @file{noutline.el} from
the @file{xemacs} subdirectory of the Org-mode distribution.  Use the
command:}

@example
@b{make install-noutline}
@end example

@noindent Now byte-compile and install the Lisp files with the shell
commands:

@example
make
make install
@end example

@noindent If you want to install the info documentation, use this command:

@example
make install-info
@end example

@lisp
;; This line only if org-mode is not part of the X/Emacs distribution.
(require 'org-install)
@end lisp

@node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
@section Activation
@cindex activation
@cindex global keybindings
@cindex keybindings, global

@iftex
@b{Important:} @i{If you use copy-and-paste to copy lisp code from the
PDF documentation to your .emacs file, the single quote character comes
out incorrectly and the code will not work.  You need to fix the single
quotes by hand, or copy from Info documentation.}
@end iftex

Add the following lines to your @file{.emacs} file.  The last two lines
define @emph{global} keys for the commands @command{org-store-link} and
@command{org-agenda} - please choose suitable keys yourself.

@lisp
;; The following lines are always needed.  Choose your own keys.
(add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org" . org-mode)) (define-key global-map "\C-cl" 'org-store-link) (define-key global-map "\C-ca" 'org-agenda) @end lisp Furthermore, you must activate @code{font-lock-mode} in org-mode buffers, because significant functionality depends on font-locking being active. You can do this with either one of the following two lines (XEmacs user must use the second option): @lisp (global-font-lock-mode 1) ; for all buffers (add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock) ; org-mode buffers only @end lisp @cindex org-mode, turning on With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put into Org-mode. As an alternative, make the first line of a file look like this: @example MY PROJECTS -*- mode: org; -*- @end example @noindent which will select Org-mode for this buffer no matter what the file's name is. See also the variable @code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}. @node Feedback, , Activation, Introduction @section Feedback @cindex feedback @cindex bug reports @cindex maintainer @cindex author If you find problems with Org-mode, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas about it, please contact the maintainer @value{MAINTAINER} at @value{MAINTAINEREMAIL}. For bug reports, please provide as much information as possible, including the version information of Emacs (@kbd{C-h v emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org-mode (@kbd{C-h v org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org-mode related setup in @file{.emacs}. If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to create one). Often a small example file helps, along with clear information about: @enumerate @item What exactly did you do? @item What did you expect to happen? @item What happened instead? @end enumerate @noindent Thank you for helping to improve this mode. @subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace @cindex backtrace of an error If working with Org-mode produces an error with a message you don't understand, you may have hit a bug. The best way to report this is by providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{Backtrace}. This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the error occurred. Here is how to produce a useful backtrace: @enumerate @item Start a fresh Emacs or XEmacs, and make sure that it will load the original Lisp code in @file{org.el} instead of the compiled version in @file{org.elc}. The backtrace contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code. To do this, either rename @file{org.elc} to something else before starting Emacs, or ask Emacs explicitly to load @file{org.el} by using the command line @example emacs -l /path/to/org.el @end example @item Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error} (XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu). @item Do whatever you have to do to hit the error. Don't forget to document the steps you take. @item When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the screen. Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and attach it to your bug report. @end enumerate @node Document structure, Tables, Introduction, Top @chapter Document Structure @cindex document structure @cindex structure of document Org-mode is based on outline mode and provides flexible commands to edit the structure of the document. @menu * Outlines:: Org-mode is based on outline-mode * Headlines:: How to typeset org-tree headlines * Visibility cycling:: Show and hide, much simplified * Motion:: Jumping to other headlines * Structure editing:: Changing sequence and level of headlines * Archiving:: Move done task trees to a different place * Sparse trees:: Matches embedded in context * Plain lists:: Additional structure within an entry @end menu @node Outlines, Headlines, Document structure, Document structure @section Outlines @cindex outlines @cindex outline-mode Org-mode is implemented on top of outline-mode. Outlines allow to organize a document in a hierarchical structure, which (at least for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts. Overview over this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the document to show only the general document structure and the parts currently being worked on. Org-mode greatly simplifies the use of outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single command @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key. @node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document structure @section Headlines @cindex headlines @cindex outline tree Headlines define the structure of an outline tree. The headlines in Org-mode start with one or more stars, on the left margin. For example: @example * Top level headline ** Second level *** 3rd level some text *** 3rd level more text * Another top level headline @end example @noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline starters. @ref{Clean view} describes a setup to realize this. @node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document structure @section Visibility cycling @cindex cycling, visibility @cindex visibility cycling @cindex trees, visibility @cindex show hidden text @cindex hide text Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer. Org-mode uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer. @cindex subtree visibility states @cindex subtree cycling @cindex folded, subtree visibility state @cindex children, subtree visibility state @cindex subtree, subtree visibility state @table @kbd @kindex @key{TAB} @item @key{TAB} @emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree between the states @example ,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --. '-----------------------------------' @end example The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however, the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}. When the cursor is at the beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then @key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}. Also when called with a prefix argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked. @cindex global visibility states @cindex global cycling @cindex overview, global visibility state @cindex contents, global visibility state @cindex show all, global visibility state @kindex S-@key{TAB} @item S-@key{TAB} @itemx C-u @key{TAB} @emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer between the states @example ,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --. '--------------------------------------' @end example When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numerical prefix N, the CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown. Note that inside tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field. @cindex show all, command @kindex C-c C-a @item C-c C-a Show all. @kindex C-c C-r @item C-c C-r Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading and the hierarchy above. Useful for working near a location exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command (@pxref{Agenda commands}). With prefix arg show, on each level, all sibling headings. @kindex C-c C-x b @item C-c C-x b Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect buffer (@pxref{Indirect Buffers,Indirect Buffers,Indirect Buffers,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual}) will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current tree. Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer, but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}. With numerical prefix ARG, go up to this level and then take that tree. If ARG is negative, go up that many levels. With @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove the previously used indirect buffer. @end table When Emacs first visits an Org-mode file, the global state is set to OVERVIEW, i.e. only the top level headlines are visible. This can be configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the buffer: @example #+STARTUP: overview #+STARTUP: content #+STARTUP: showall @end example @node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document structure @section Motion @cindex motion, between headlines @cindex jumping, to headlines @cindex headline navigation The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer. @table @kbd @kindex C-c C-n @item C-c C-n Next heading. @kindex C-c C-p @item C-c C-p Previous heading. @kindex C-c C-f @item C-c C-f Next heading same level. @kindex C-c C-b @item C-c C-b Previous heading same level. @kindex C-c C-u @item C-c C-u Backward to higher level heading. @kindex C-c C-j @item C-c C-j Jump to a different place without changing the current outline visibility. Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where you can use visibility cycling (@key{TAB}) to find your destination. After pressing @key{RET}, the cursor moves to the selected location in the original buffer, and the headings hierarchy above it is made visible. @end table @node Structure editing, Archiving, Motion, Document structure @section Structure editing @cindex structure editing @cindex headline, promotion and demotion @cindex promotion, of subtrees @cindex demotion, of subtrees @cindex subtree, cut and paste @cindex pasting, of subtrees @cindex cutting, of subtrees @cindex copying, of subtrees @cindex subtrees, cut and paste @table @kbd @kindex M-@key{RET} @item M-@key{RET} Insert new heading with same level as current. If the cursor is in a plain list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}). To force creation of a new headline, use a prefix arg, or first press @key{RET} to get to the beginning of the next line. When this command is used in the middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes the new headline. If the command is used at the beginning of a headline, the new headline is created before the current line. If at the beginning of any other line, the content of that line is made the new heading. If the command is used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e. behind the ellipses at the end of a headline), then a headline like the current one will be inserted after the end of the subtree. @kindex M-S-@key{RET} @item M-S-@key{RET} Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading. @kindex M-@key{left} @item M-@key{left} Promote current heading by one level. @kindex M-@key{right} @item M-@key{right} Demote current heading by one level. @kindex M-S-@key{left} @item M-S-@key{left} Promote the current subtree by one level. @kindex M-S-@key{right} @item M-S-@key{right} Demote the current subtree by one level. @kindex M-S-@key{up} @item M-S-@key{up} Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same level). @kindex M-S-@key{down} @item M-S-@key{down} Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level). @kindex C-c C-x C-w @kindex C-c C-x C-k @item C-c C-x C-w @itemx C-c C-x C-k Kill subtree, i.e. remove it from buffer but save in kill ring. @kindex C-c C-x M-w @item C-c C-x M-w Copy subtree to kill ring. @kindex C-c C-x C-y @item C-c C-x C-y Yank subtree from kill ring. This does modify the level of the subtree to make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position. The yank level can also be specified with a prefix arg, or by yanking after a headline marker like @samp{****}. @kindex C-c ^ @item C-c ^ Sort same-level entries. When there is an active region, all entries in the region will be sorted. Otherwise the children of the current headline are sorted. The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be alphabetically, numerically, by time (using the first time stamp in each entry), and each of these in reverse order. With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, sorting will be case-sensitive. With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes, duplicate entries will also be removed. @end table @cindex region, active @cindex active region @cindex transient-mark-mode When there is an active region (transient-mark-mode), promotion and demotion work on all headlines in the region. To select a region of headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line just after the last headline to change. Note that when the cursor is inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different functionality. @node Archiving, Sparse trees, Structure editing, Document structure @section Archiving @cindex archiving When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the agenda. Org-mode knows two ways of archiving. You can mark a tree with the ARCHIVE tag, or you can move an entire (sub)tree to a different location. @menu * ARCHIVE tag:: Marking a tree as inactive * Moving subtrees:: Moving a tree to an archive file @end menu @node ARCHIVE tag, Moving subtrees, Archiving, Archiving @subsection The ARCHIVE tag @cindex internal archiving A headline that is marked with the ARCHIVE tag (@pxref{Tags}) stays at its location in the outline tree, but behaves in the following way: @itemize @minus @item It does not open when you attempt to do so with a visibility cycling command (@pxref{Visibility cycling}). You can force cycling archived subtrees with @kbd{C-@key{TAB}}, or by setting the option @code{org-cycle-open-archived-trees}. Also normal outline commands like @code{show-all} will open archived subtrees. @item During sparse tree construction (@pxref{Sparse trees}), matches in archived subtrees are not exposed, unless you configure the option @code{org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees}. @item During agenda view construction (@pxref{Agenda views}), the content of archived trees is ignored unless you configure the option @code{org-agenda-skip-archived-trees}. @item Archived trees are not exported (@pxref{Exporting}), only the headline is. Configure the details using the variable @code{org-export-with-archived-trees}. @end itemize The following commands help managing the ARCHIVE tag: @table @kbd @kindex C-c C-x C-a @item C-c C-x C-a Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline. When the tag is set, the headline changes to a shadowish face, and the subtree below it is hidden. @kindex C-u C-c C-x C-a @item C-u C-c C-x C-a Check if any direct children of the current headline should be archived. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries. If none are found, the command offers to set the ARCHIVE tag for the child. If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked. @kindex C-@kbd{TAB} @item C-@kbd{TAB} Cycle a tree even if it is tagged with ARCHIVE. @end table @node Moving subtrees, , ARCHIVE tag, Archiving @subsection Moving subtrees @cindex external archiving Once an entire project is finished, you may want to move it to a different location, either in the current file, or even in a different file, the archive file. @table @kbd @kindex C-c C-x C-s @item C-c C-x C-s Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location given by @code{org-archive-location}. @kindex C-u C-c C-x C-s @item C-u C-c C-x C-s Check if any direct children of the current headline could be moved to the archive. To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries. If none are found, the command offers to move it to the archive location. If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked. @end table @cindex archive locations The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the current file name. For information and examples on how to change this, see the documentation string of the variable @code{org-archive-location}. There is also an in-buffer option for setting this variable, for example @example #+ARCHIVE: %s_done:: @end example @noindent You may have several such lines in the buffer, they will then be valid for the entries following the line (the first will also apply to any text before it). @node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Archiving, Document structure @section Sparse trees @cindex sparse trees @cindex trees, sparse @cindex folding, sparse trees @cindex occur, command An important feature of Org-mode is the ability to construct @emph{sparse trees} for selected information in an outline tree. A sparse tree means that the entire document is folded as much as possible, but the selected information is made visible along with the headline structure above it@footnote{See also the variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above}, @code{org-show-following-heading}, and @code{org-show-siblings} for detailed control on how much context is shown around each match.}. Just try it out and you will see immediately how it works. Org-mode contains several commands creating such trees. The most basic one is @command{org-occur}: @table @kbd @kindex C-c / @item C-c / Occur. Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches. If the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible. If the match is in the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible. In order to provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of headlines above the match is shown, as well as the headline following the match. Each match is also highlighted; the highlights disappear when the buffer is changes an editing command, or by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c}. When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous highlights are kept, so several calls to this command can be stacked. @end table @noindent For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast keyboard access to specific sparse trees. These commands will then be accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}). For example: @lisp (setq org-agenda-custom-commands '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME"))) @end lisp @noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}. Other commands use sparse trees as well. For example @kbd{C-c C-v} creates a sparse TODO tree (@pxref{TODO basics}). @kindex C-c C-e v @cindex printing sparse trees @cindex visible text, printing To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command @code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}. Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible part of the document and print the resulting file. @node Plain lists, , Sparse trees, Document structure @section Plain lists @cindex plain lists @cindex lists, plain @cindex lists, ordered @cindex ordered lists Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide additional structure. They also provide a way to create lists of checkboxes (@pxref{Checkboxes}). Org-mode supports editing such lists, and the HTML exporter (@pxref{Exporting}) does parse and format them. Org-mode knows ordered and unordered lists. Unordered list items start with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a bullet, lines must be indented or they will be seen as top-level headlines. Also, when you are hiding leading stars to get a clean outline view, plain list items starting with a star are visually indistinguishable from true headlines. In short: even though @samp{*} is supported, it may be better not to use it for plain list items} as bullets. Ordered list items start with @samp{1.} or @samp{1)}. Items belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first line. In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then the 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers in the list. Indentation also determines the end of a list item. It ends before the next line that is indented like the bullet/number, or less. For example: @example @group ** Lord of the Rings My favorite scenes are (in this order) 1. The attack of the Rohirrim 2. Eowyns fight with the witch king + this was already my favorite scene in the book + I really like Miranda Otto. 3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas - on DVD only He makes a really funny face when it happens. But in the end, not individual scenes matter but the film as a whole. @end group @end example Org-mode supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to deal with them correctly@footnote{Org-mode only changes the filling settings for Emacs. For XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones' @file{filladapt.el}. To turn this on, put into @file{.emacs}: @example (require 'filladapt) @end example }. The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line of an item (the line with the bullet or number). @table @kbd @kindex @key{TAB} @item @key{TAB} Items can be folded just like headline levels if you set the variable @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}. The level of an item is then given by the indentation of the bullet/number. Items are always subordinate to real headlines, however; the hierarchies remain completely separated. @kindex M-@key{RET} @item M-@key{RET} Insert new item at current level. With prefix arg, force a new heading (@pxref{Structure editing}). If this command is used in the middle of a line, the line is @emph{split} and the rest of the line becomes the new item. If this command is executed in the @emph{whitespace before a bullet or number}, the new item is created @emph{before} the current item. If the command is executed in the white space before the text that is part of an item but does not contain the bullet, a bullet is added to the current line. @kindex M-S-@key{RET} @item M-S-@key{RET} Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}). @kindex S-@key{up} @kindex S-@key{down} @item S-@key{up} @itemx S-@key{down} Jump to the previous/next item in the current list. @kindex M-S-@key{up} @kindex M-S-@key{down} @item M-S-@key{up} @itemx M-S-@key{down} Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next item of same indentation). If the list is ordered, renumbering is automatic. @kindex M-S-@key{left} @kindex M-S-@key{right} @item M-S-@key{left} @itemx M-S-@key{right} Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems. Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation. When these commands are executed several times in direct succession, the initially selected region is used, even if the new indentation would imply a different hierarchy. To use the new hierarchy, break the command chain with a cursor motion or so. @kindex C-c C-c @item C-c C-c If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the state of the checkbox. Otherwise, if this is an ordered list, renumber the ordered list at the cursor. @end table @node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document structure, Top @chapter Tables @cindex tables @cindex editing tables Org-mode has a very fast and intuitive table editor built-in. Spreadsheet-like calculations are supported in connection with the Emacs @file{calc} package. @menu * Built-in table editor:: Simple tables * Narrow columns:: Stop wasting space in tables * orgtbl-mode:: The table editor as minor mode * The spreadsheet:: The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities. @end menu @node Built-in table editor, Narrow columns, Tables, Tables @section The built-in table editor @cindex table editor, built-in Org-mode makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII. Any line with @samp{|} as the first non-white character is considered part of a table. @samp{|} is also the column separator. A table might look like this: @example | Name | Phone | Age | |-------+-------+-----| | Peter | 1234 | 17 | | Anna | 4321 | 25 | @end example A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table. @key{TAB} also moves to the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows at the end of the table or before horizontal lines. The indentation of the table is set by the first line. Any line starting with @samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width. So, to create the above table, you would only type @example |Name|Phone|Age| |- @end example @noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in fields. When typing text into a field, Org-mode treats @key{DEL}, @key{Backspace}, and all character keys in a special way, so that inserting and deleting avoids shifting other fields. Also, when typing @emph{immediately after the cursor was moved into a new field with @kbd{@key{TAB}}, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} or @kbd{@key{RET}}}, the field is automatically made blank. If this behavior is too unpredictable for you, configure the variables @code{org-enable-table-editor} and @code{org-table-auto-blank-field}. @table @kbd @tsubheading{Creation and conversion} @kindex C-c | @item C-c | Convert the active region to table. If every line contains at least one TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab separated. If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields. You can use a prefix argument to indicate the minimum number of consecutive spaces required to identify a field separator (default: just one).@* If there is no active region, this command creates an empty Org-mode table. But it's easier just to start typing, like @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}. @tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion} @kindex C-c C-c @item C-c C-c Re-align the table without moving the cursor. @kindex @key{TAB} @item @key{TAB} Re-align the table, move to the next field. Creates a new row if necessary. @kindex S-@key{TAB} @item S-@key{TAB} Re-align, move to previous field. @kindex @key{RET} @item @key{RET} Re-align the table and move down to next row. Creates a new row if necessary. At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table. @tsubheading{Column and row editing} @kindex M-@key{left} @kindex M-@key{right} @item M-@key{left} @itemx M-@key{right} Move the current column left/right. @kindex M-S-@key{left} @item M-S-@key{left} Kill the current column. @kindex M-S-@key{right} @item M-S-@key{right} Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position. @kindex M-@key{up} @kindex M-@key{down} @item M-@key{up} @itemx M-@key{down} Move the current row up/down. @kindex M-S-@key{up} @item M-S-@key{up} Kill the current row or horizontal line. @kindex M-S-@key{down} @item M-S-@key{down} Insert a new row above (with arg: below) the current row. @kindex C-c - @item C-c - Insert a horizontal line below current row. With prefix arg, the line is created above the current line. @kindex C-c ^ @item C-c ^ Sort the table lines in the region. The position of point indicates the column to be used for sorting, and the range of lines is the range between the nearest horizontal separator lines, or the entire table. If point is before the first column, you will be prompted for the sorting column. If there is an active region, the mark specifies the first line and the sorting column, while point should be in the last line to be included into the sorting. The command prompts for the sorting type (alphabetically, numerically, or by time). When called with a prefix argument, alphabetic sorting will be case-sensitive. @tsubheading{Regions} @kindex C-c C-x M-w @item C-c C-x M-w Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard. Point and mark determine edge fields of the rectangle. The process ignores horizontal separator lines. @kindex C-c C-x C-w @item C-c C-x C-w Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and blank all fields in the rectangle. So this is the cut'' operation. @kindex C-c C-x C-y @item C-c C-x C-y Paste a rectangular region into a table. The upper right corner ends up in the current field. All involved fields will be overwritten. If the rectangle does not fit into the present table, the table is enlarged as needed. The process ignores horizontal separator lines. @kindex C-c C-q @item C-c C-q Wrap several fields in a column like a paragraph. If there is an active region, and both point and mark are in the same column, the text in the column is wrapped to minimum width for the given number of lines. A prefix ARG may be used to change the number of desired lines. If there is no region, the current field is split at the cursor position and the text fragment to the right of the cursor is prepended to the field one line down. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix ARG, the current field is made blank, and the content is appended to the field above. @tsubheading{Calculations} @cindex formula, in tables @cindex calculations, in tables @cindex region, active @cindex active region @cindex transient-mark-mode @kindex C-c + @item C-c + Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by the active region. The result is shown in the echo area and can be inserted with @kbd{C-y}. @kindex S-@key{RET} @item S-@key{RET} When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above. When not empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor along with it. Depending on the variable @code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field values will be incremented during copy. This key is also used by CUA-mode (@pxref{Cooperation}). @tsubheading{Miscellaneous} @kindex C-c  @item C-c  Edit the current field in a separate window. This is useful for fields that are not fully visible (@pxref{Narrow columns}). When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, just make the full field visible, so that it can be edited in place. @kindex C-c @key{TAB} @item C-c @key{TAB} This is an alias for @kbd{C-u C-c } to make the current field fully visible. @item M-x org-table-import Import a file as a table. The table should be TAB- or whitespace separated. Useful, for example, to import an Excel table or data from a database, because these programs generally can write TAB-separated text files. This command works by inserting the file into the buffer and then converting the region to a table. Any prefix argument is passed on to the converter, which uses it to determine the separator. @item M-x org-table-export Export the table as a TAB-separated file. Useful for data exchange with, for example, Excel or database programs. @end table If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets in your way on lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn it off with @lisp (setq org-enable-table-editor nil) @end lisp @noindent Then the only table command that still works is @kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align. @node Narrow columns, orgtbl-mode, Built-in table editor, Tables @section Narrow columns @cindex narrow columns in tables The width of columns is automatically determined by the table editor. Sometimes a single field or a few fields need to carry more text, leading to inconveniently wide columns. To limit@footnote{This feature does not work on XEmacs.} the width of a column, one field anywhere in the column may contain just the string @samp{<N>} where @samp{N} is an integer specifying the width of the column in characters. The next re-align will then set the width of this column to no more than this value. @example @group |---+------------------------------| |---+--------| | | | | | <6> | | 1 | one | | 1 | one | | 2 | two | ----\ | 2 | two | | 3 | This is a long chunk of text | ----/ | 3 | This=> | | 4 | four | | 4 | four | |---+------------------------------| |---+--------| @end group @end example @noindent Fields that are wider become clipped and end in the string @samp{=>}. Note that the full text is still in the buffer, it is only invisible. To see the full text, hold the mouse over the field - a tooltip window will show the full content. To edit such a field, use the command @kbd{C-c } (that is @kbd{C-c} followed by the backquote). This will open a new window with the full field. Edit it and finish with @kbd{C-c C-c}. When visiting a file containing a table with narrowed columns, the necessary character hiding has not yet happened, and the table needs to be aligned before it looks nice. Setting the option @code{org-startup-align-all-tables} will realign all tables in a file upon visiting, but also slow down startup. You can also set this option on a per-file basis with: @example #+STARTUP: align #+STARTUP: noalign @end example @node orgtbl-mode, The spreadsheet, Narrow columns, Tables @section The Orgtbl minor mode @cindex orgtbl-mode @cindex minor mode for tables If you like the intuitive way the Org-mode table editor works, you might also want to use it in other modes like text-mode or mail-mode. The minor mode Orgtbl-mode makes this possible. You can always toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}. To turn it on by default, for example in mail mode, use @lisp (add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl) @end lisp Furthermore, with some special setup, it is possible to maintain tables in arbitrary syntax with Orgtbl-mode. For example, it is possible to construct LaTeX tables with the underlying ease and power of Orgtbl-mode, including spreadsheet capabulities. For details, see @ref{Tables in arbitrary syntax}. @node The spreadsheet, , orgtbl-mode, Tables @section The spreadsheet @cindex calculations, in tables @cindex spreadsheet capabilities @cindex @file{calc} package The table editor makes use of the Emacs @file{calc} package to implement spreadsheet-like capabilities. It can also evaluate Emacs Lisp forms to derive fields from other fields. @menu * References:: How to refer to another field or range * Formula syntax for Calc:: Using Calc to compute stuff * Formula syntax for Lisp:: Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp * Field formulas:: Formulas valid for a single field * Column formulas:: Formulas valid for an entire column * Editing and debugging formulas:: Fixing formulas * Updating the table:: Recomputing all dependent fields * Advanced features:: Field names, parameters and automatic recalc @end menu @node References, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet, The spreadsheet @subsection References @cindex references To compute fields in the table from other fields, formulas must reference other fields or ranges. In Org-mode, fields can be referenced by name, by absolute coordinates, and by relative coordinates. To find out what the coordinates of a field are, press @kbd{C-c ?} in that field. @subsubheading Field references @cindex field references @cindex references, to fields Formulas can reference the value of another field with the operator @example @@rowcolumn
@end example

Column references can be absolute like @samp{1}, @samp{2},...@samp{N},
or relative to the current column like @samp{+1} or @samp{-2}.

The row specification only counts data lines and ignores horizontal
separator lines (hlines).  You can use absolute row numbers
@samp{1}...@samp{N}, and row numbers relative to the current row like
@samp{+3} or @samp{-1}.  Or specify the row relative to one of the
hlines: @samp{I} refers to the first hline, @samp{II} to the second etc.
@samp{-I} refers to the first such line above the current line,
@samp{+I} to the first such line below the current line.  You can also
write @samp{III+2} which is the second data line after the third hline
in the table.  Relative row numbers like @samp{-3} will not cross hlines
if the current line is too close to the hline.  Instead, the value
directly at the hline is used.

@samp{0} refers to the current row and column.  Also, if you omit
either the column or the row part of the reference, the current
row/column is implied.

Org-mode's references with @emph{positive} numbers correspond to fixed
references in other spreadsheet programs.  For example, @code{@@3$28} corresponds to @code{$AB$3}. Org-mode's references with @emph{negative} numbers behave similar to non-fixed references in other spreadsheet programs, because when the same formula is used in several fields, different fields are referenced each time. Here are a few examples: @example @@2$3      @r{2nd row, 3rd column}
$5 @r{column 5 in the current row} @@2 @r{current column, row 2} @@-1$-3    @r{the field one row up, three columns to the left}
@@-I$2 @r{field just under hline above current row, column 2} @end example @subsubheading Range references @cindex range references @cindex references, to ranges You may reference a rectangular range of fields by specifying two field references connected by two dots @samp{..}. If both fields are in the current row, you may simply use @samp{$2..$7}, but if at least one field is in a different row, you need to use the general @code{@@row$column}
format at least for the first field (i.e the reference must start with
@samp{@@} in order to be interpreted correctly).  Examples:

@example
$1..$3        @r{First three fields in the current row.}
$P..$Q        @r{Range, using column names (see under Advanced)}
@@2$1..@@4$3    @r{6 fields between these two fields.}
@@-1$-2..@@-1 @r{3 numbers from the column to the left, 2 up to current row} @end example @noindent Range references return a vector of values that can be fed into Calc vector functions. Empty fields in ranges are normally suppressed, so that the vector contains only the non-empty fields (but see the @samp{E} mode switch below). If there are no non-empty fields, @samp{[0]} is returned to avoid syntax errors in formulas. @subsubheading Named references @cindex named references @cindex references, named @cindex name, of column or field @cindex constants, in calculations @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column, parameter or
constant.  Constants are defined globally through the variable
@code{org-table-formula-constants}.  If you have the
@file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve
constants, including natural constants like @samp{$h} for Planck's constant, and units like @samp{$km} for kilometers.  Column names and
parameters can be specified in special table lines.  These are

@node Formula syntax for Calc, Formula syntax for Lisp, References, The spreadsheet
@subsection Formula syntax for Calc
@cindex formula syntax, Calc
@cindex syntax, of formulas

A formula can be any algebraic expression understood by the Emacs
@file{Calc} package.  @b{Note that @file{calc} has the
non-standard convention that @samp{/} has lower precedence than
@samp{*}, so that @samp{a/b*c} is interpreted as @samp{a/(b*c)}.}  Before
evaluation by @code{calc-eval} (@pxref{Calling Calc from
Emacs Calc Manual}),
variable substitution takes place according to the rules described above.
@cindex vectors, in table calculations
The range vectors can be directly fed into the calc vector functions
like @samp{vmean} and @samp{vsum}.

@cindex format specifier
@cindex mode, for @file{calc}
A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon.  This
string consists of flags to influence Calc and other modes during
execution.  By default, Org-mode uses the standard calc modes (precision
12, angular units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off.  The display
format, however, has been changed to @code{(float 5)} to keep tables
compact.  The default settings can be configured using the variable
@code{org-calc-default-modes}.

@example
p20           @r{switch the internal precision to 20 digits}
n3 s3 e2 f4   @r{normal, scientific, engineering, or fixed display format}
D R           @r{angle modes: degrees, radians}
F S           @r{fraction and symbolic modes}
N             @r{interpret all fields as numbers, use 0 for non-numbers}
T             @r{force text interpretation}
E             @r{keep empty fields in ranges}
@end example

@noindent
In addition, you may provide a @code{printf} format specifier to
reformat the final result.  A few examples:

@example
$1+$2                @r{Sum of first and second field}
$1+$2;%.2f           @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
exp($2)+exp($1)      @r{Math functions can be used}
$;%.1f @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal} ($3-32)*5/9          @r{Degrees F -> C conversion}
$c/$1/$cm @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}} tan($1);Dp3s1        @r{Compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
sin($1);Dp3%.1e @r{Same, but use printf specifier for display} vmean($2..$7) @r{Compute column range mean, using vector function} vmean($2..$7);EN @r{Same, but treat empty fields as 0} taylor($3,x=7,2)     @r{taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree} @end example @node Formula syntax for Lisp, Field formulas, Formula syntax for Calc, The spreadsheet @subsection Emacs Lisp forms as formulas @cindex Lisp forms, as table formulas It is also possible to write a formula in Emacs Lisp; this can be useful for string manipulation and control structures. If a formula starts with a single quote followed by an opening parenthesis, then it is evaluated as a lisp form. The evaluation should return either a string or a number. Just as with @file{calc} formulas, you can specify modes and a printf format after a semicolon. A reference will be replaced with a string (in double quotes) containing the field. If you provide the @samp{N} mode switch, all referenced elements will be numbers. Ranges are inserted as space-separated fields, so you can embed them in list or vector syntax. A few examples, note how the @samp{N} mode is used when we do computations in lisp. @example @r{Swap the first two characters of the content of column 1} '(concat (substring$1 1 2) (substring $1 0 1) (substring$1 2))
@r{Add columns 1 and 2, equivalent to the Calc's @code{$1+$2}}
'(+ $1$2);N
@r{Compute the sum of columns 1-4, like Calc's @code{vsum($1..$4)}}
'(apply '+ '($1..$4));N
@end example

@node Field formulas, Column formulas, Formula syntax for Lisp, The spreadsheet
@subsection Field formulas
@cindex field formula
@cindex formula, for individual table field

To assign a formula to a particular field, type it directly into the
field, preceded by @samp{:=}, for example @samp{:=$1+$2}.  When you
press @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in
the field, the formula will be stored as the formula for this field,
evaluated, and the current field replaced with the result.

Formulas are stored in a special line starting with @samp{#+TBLFM:}
directly below the table.  If you typed the equation in the 4th field of
the 3rd data line in the table, the formula will look like
@samp{@@3$2=$1+$2}. When inserting/deleting/swapping column and rows with the appropriate commands, @i{absolute references} (but not relative ones) in stored formulas are modified in order to still reference the same field. Of cause this is not true if you edit the table structure with normal editing commands - then you must go and fix equations yourself. Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the following command @table @kbd @kindex C-u C-c = @item C-u C-c = Install a new formula for the current field. The command prompts for a formula, with default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line, applies it to the current field and stores it. @end table @node Column formulas, Editing and debugging formulas, Field formulas, The spreadsheet @subsection Column formulas @cindex column formula @cindex formula, for table column Often in a table, the same formula should be used for all fields in a particular column. Instead of having to copy the formula to all fields in that column, org-mode allows to assign a single formula to an entire column. To assign a formula to a column, type it directly into any field in the column, preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}. When you press @key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the field, the formula will be stored as the formula for the current column, evaluated and the current field replaced with the result. If the field contains only @samp{=}, the previously stored formula for this column is used. For each column, Org-mode will only remember the most recently used formula. In the @samp{TBLFM:} line, column formulas will look like @samp{$4=$1+$2}.

Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
following command:

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c =
@item C-c =
Install a new formula for the current column and replace current field
with the result of the formula.  The command prompts for a formula, with
default taken from the @samp{#+TBLFM} line, applies it to the current
field and stores it.  With a numerical prefix (e.g. @kbd{C-5 C-c =})
will apply it to that many consecutive fields in the current column.
@end table

@node Editing and debugging formulas, Updating the table, Column formulas, The spreadsheet
@subsection Editing and Debugging formulas
@cindex formula editing
@cindex editing, of table formulas

You can edit individual formulas in the minibuffer or directly in the
field.  Org-mode can also prepare a special buffer with all active
formulas of a table.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c =
@kindex C-u C-c =
@item C-c =
@itemx C-u C-c =
Edit the formula associated with the current column/field in the
minibuffer.  See @ref{Column formulas} and @ref{Field formulas}.
@kindex C-u C-u C-c =
@item C-u C-u C-c =
Re-insert the active formula (either a
field formula, or a column formula) into the current field, so that you
can edit it directly in the field.  The advantage over editing in the
minibuffer is that you can use the command @kbd{C-c ?}.
@kindex C-c ?
@item C-c ?
While editing a formula in a table field, highlight the field(s)
referenced by the reference at the cursor position in the formula.
@kindex C-c '
@item C-c '
Edit all formulas for the current table in a special buffer, where the
formulas will be displayed one per line.
While inside the special buffer, Org-mode will automatically highlight
any field or range reference at the cursor position.  You may edit,
remove and add formulas, and use the following commands:
@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
Exit the buffer and store the modified formulas.  With @kbd{C-u} prefix,
also apply the new formulas to the entire table.
@kindex C-c C-q
@item C-c C-q
Exit the buffer without installing changes.
@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB}
Pretty-print or indent lisp formula at point.  When in a line containing
a lisp formula, format the formula according to Emacs Lisp rules.
Another @key{TAB} collapses the formula back again.  In the open
formula, @key{TAB} re-indents just like in Emacs-lisp-mode.
@kindex M-@key{TAB}
@item M-@key{TAB}
Complete Lisp symbols, just like in Emacs-lisp-mode.
@kindex S-@key{up}
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item S-@key{up}/@key{down}
Move the reference line in the Org-mode buffer up and down.  This is
important for highlighting the references of column formulas for
different rows.
@kindex M-@key{up}
@kindex M-@key{down}
@item M-@key{up}/@key{down}
Scroll the window displaying the table.
@end table
@kindex C-c @}
@item C-c @}
Toggle the display of row and column numbers for a table, using
overlays.  These are uptated each time the table is aligned, you can
force it with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
@kindex C-c @{
@item C-c @{
Toggle the formula debugger on and off.  See below.
@end table

Making a table field blank does not remove the formula associated with
the field, because that is stored in a different line (the @samp{TBLFM}
line) - during the next recalculation the field will be filled again.
To remove a formula from a field, you have to give an empty reply when
prompted for the formula, or to edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} line.

@kindex C-c C-c
You may edit the @samp{#+TBLFM} directly and re-apply the changed
equations with @kbd{C-c C-c} in that line, or with the normal
recalculation commands in the table.

@cindex formula debugging
@cindex debugging, of table formulas
When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}.  If you would like see what is going
on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a bug,
turn on formula debugging in the @code{Tbl} menu and repeat the
calculation, for example by pressing @kbd{C-c = @key{RET}} in a field.
Detailed information will be displayed.

@node Updating the table, Advanced features, Editing and debugging formulas, The spreadsheet
@subsection Updating the Table
@cindex recomputing table fields
@cindex updating, table

Recalculation of a table is normally not automatic, but needs to be
triggered by a command.  See @ref{Advanced features} for a way to make
recalculation at least semi-automatically.

In order to recalculate a line of a table or the entire table, use the
following commands:

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c *
@item C-c *
Recalculate the current row by first applying the stored column formulas
from left to right, and all field formulas in the current row.

@kindex C-u C-c *
@item C-u C-c *
@kindex C-u C-c C-c
@itemx C-u C-c C-c
Recompute the entire table, line by line.  Any lines before the first
hline are left alone, assuming that these are part of the table header.

@kindex C-u C-u C-c *
@item C-u C-u C-c *
Iterate the table by recomputing it until no further changes occur.
This may be necessary if some computed fields use the value of other
fields that are computed @i{later} in the calculation sequence.
@end table

If you want the recalculation of fields to happen automatically, or if
you want to be able to assign @i{names} to fields and columns, you need
to reserve the first column of the table for special marking characters.
@table @kbd
@kindex C-#
@item C-#
Rotate the calculation mark in first column through the states @samp{},
@samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}. The meaning of these characters is discussed below. When there is an active region, change all marks in the region. @end table Here is an example of a table that collects exam results of students and makes use of these features: @example @group |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------| | | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note | |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------| | ! | | P1 | P2 | P3 | Tot | | | # | Maximum | 10 | 15 | 25 | 50 | 10.0 | | ^ | | m1 | m2 | m3 | mt | | |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------| | # | Peter | 10 | 8 | 23 | 41 | 8.2 | | # | Sara | 6 | 14 | 19 | 39 | 7.8 | | # | Sam | 2 | 4 | 3 | 9 | 1.8 | |---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------| | | Average | | | | 29.7 | | | ^ | | | | | at | | |$ | max=50  |        |        |        |       |      |
|---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
#+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f::$at=vmean(@@-II..@@-I);%.1f @end group @end example @noindent @b{Important}: Please note that for these special tables, recalculating the table with @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only affect rows that are marked @samp{#} or @samp{*}, and fields that have a formula assigned to the field itself. The column formulas are not applied in rows with empty first field. @cindex marking characters, tables The marking characters have the following meaning: @table @samp @item ! The fields in this line define names for the columns, so that you may refer to a column as @samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6}. @item ^ This row defines names for the fields @emph{above} the row. With such a definition, any formula in the table may use @samp{$m1} to refer to
the value @samp{10}.  Also, if you assign a formula to a names field, it
will be stored as @samp{$name=...}. @item _ Similar to @samp{^}, but defines names for the fields in the row @emph{below}. @item$
Fields in this row can define @emph{parameters} for formulas.  For
example, if a field in a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then formulas in this table can refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.
Parameters work exactly like constants, only that they can be defined on
a per-table basis.
@item #
Fields in this row are automatically recalculated when pressing
@key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} in this row.  Also, this row
is selected for a global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.  Unmarked
lines will be left alone by this command.
@item *
Selects this line for global recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}, but
not for automatic recalculation.  Use this when automatic
recalculation slows down editing too much.
@item
Unmarked lines are exempt from recalculation with @kbd{C-u C-c *}.
All lines that should be recalculated should be marked with @samp{#}
or @samp{*}.
@item /
Do not export this line.  Useful for lines that contain the narrowing
@samp{<N>} markers.
@end table

Finally, just to whet your appetite on what can be done with the
fantastic @file{calc} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor
series of degree @code{n} at location @code{x} for a couple of functions
(homework: try that with Excel :-)

@example
@group
|---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
|   | Func        | n | x   | Result                               |
|---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
| # | exp(x)      | 1 | x   | 1 + x                                |
| # | exp(x)      | 2 | x   | 1 + x + x^2 / 2                      |
| # | exp(x)      | 3 | x   | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6            |
| # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
| # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2    |
| * | tan(x)      | 3 | x   | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3               |
|---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
#+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
@end group
@end example

@node Hyperlinks, TODO items, Tables, Top

Just like HTML, Org-mode provides links inside a file, and external
links to other files, Usenet articles, emails, and much more.

* Handling links::              Creating, inserting and following
* Search options::              Linking to a specific location
* Custom searches::             When the default search is not enough
* Remember::                    Org-trees store quick notes

Org-mode will recognize plain URL-like links and activate them as

@example
@end example

Once a link in the buffer is complete (all brackets present), Org-mode
will change the display so that @samp{description} is displayed instead
which by default is an underlined face.  You can directly edit the
visible part of a link.  Note that this can be either the @samp{link}
part (if there is no description) or the @samp{description} part.  To
edit also the invisible @samp{link} part, use @kbd{C-c C-l} with the

If you place the cursor at the beginning or just behind the end of the
displayed text and press @key{BACKSPACE}, you will remove the
(invisible) bracket at that location.  This makes the link incomplete
and the internals are again displayed as plain text.  Inserting the
missing bracket hides the link internals again.  To show the

If the link does not look like a URL, it is considered to be internal in
the current file.  Links such as @samp{[[My Target]]} or @samp{[[My
Target][Find my target]]} lead to a text search in the current file.
The link can be followed with @kbd{C-c C-o} when the cursor is on the
match for such a link is a dedicated target: the same string in double
angular brackets.  Targets may be located anywhere; sometimes it is
convenient to put them into a comment line. For example

@example
# <<My Target>>
@end example

@noindent In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such targets will become
named anchors for direct access through @samp{http} links@footnote{Note
that text before the first headline will never be exported, so the first
such target must be after the first headline.}.

If no dedicated target exists, Org-mode will search for the words in the
link.  In the above example the search would be for @samp{my target}.
Links starting with a star like @samp{*My Target} restrict the search to
headlines.  When searching, Org-mode will first try an exact match, but
then move on to more and more lenient searches.  For example, the link
@samp{[[*My Targets]]} will find any of the following:

@example
** My targets
** TODO my targets are bright
** my 20 targets are
@end example

To insert a link targeting a headline, in-buffer completion can be used.
Just type a star followed by a few optional letters into the buffer and
press @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}.  All headlines in the current buffer will be
offered as completions.  @xref{Handling links}, for more commands

Following a link pushes a mark onto Org-mode's own mark ring.  You can
several times in direct succession goes back to positions recorded
earlier.

You can configure Org-mode to link any occurrences of certain target
names in normal text.  So without explicitly creating a link, the text
enclosed by triple angular brackets.  For example, a target
@samp{<<<My Target>>>} causes each occurrence of @samp{my target} in
normal text to become activated as a link.  The Org-mode file is
scanned automatically for radio targets only when the file is first
loaded into Emacs.  To update the target list during editing, press
@kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor on or at a target.

Org-mode supports links to files, websites, Usenet and email messages,
and BBDB database entries.  External links are URL-like locators.  They
start with a short identifying string followed by a colon.  There can be
no space after the colon.  The following list shows examples for each

@example
http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik          @r{on the web}
file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg     @r{file, absolute path}
file:papers/last.pdf                      @r{file, relative path}
vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id      @r{VM on remote machine}
shell:ls *.org                            @r{A shell command}
elisp:(find-file-other-frame "Elisp.org") @r{An elisp form to evaluate}
@end example

A link should be enclosed in double brackets and may contain a
format}), for example:

@example
[[http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/][GNU Emacs]]
@end example

@noindent
If the description is a file name or URL that points to an image, HTML
export (@pxref{HTML export}) will inline the image as a clickable
button.  If there is no description at all and the link points to an
image,
that image will be inlined into the exported HTML file.

Org-mode also finds external links in the normal text and activates them
as links.  If spaces must be part of the link (for example in
@samp{bbdb:Richard Stallman}), or if you need to remove ambiguities

Org-mode provides methods to create a link in the correct syntax, to

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c l
@item C-c l
Store a link to the current location.  This is a @emph{global} command
which can be used in any buffer to create a link.  The link will be
stored for later insertion into an Org-mode buffer (see below).  For
Org-mode files, if there is a @samp{<<target>>} at the cursor, the link
points to the target.  Otherwise it points to the current headline.  For
VM, RMAIL, WANDERLUST, MH-E, GNUS and BBDB buffers, the link will
indicate the current article/entry.  For W3 and W3M buffers, the link
goes to the current URL.  For any other files, the link will point to
the file, with a search string (@pxref{Search options}) pointing to the
contents of the current line.  If there is an active region, the
selected words will form the basis of the search string.  If the
automatically created link is not working correctly or accurately
enough, you can write custom functions to select the search string and
to do the search for particular file types - see @ref{Custom searches}.
The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion - see @ref{Installation}.

@kindex C-c C-l
@item C-c C-l
Insert a link.  This prompts for a link to be inserted into the buffer.
You can just type a link, using text for an internal link, or one of the
during the current session are part of the history for this prompt, so
you can access them with @key{up} and @key{down}, or with
removed from the list of stored links.  To keep it in the list later
use, use a triple @kbd{C-u} prefix to @kbd{C-c C-l}, or configure the
inserted into the buffer, along with a descriptive text.  If some text
was selected when this command is called, the selected text becomes the
default description.@* Note that you don't have to use this command to
insert a link.  Links in Org-mode are plain text, and you can type or
paste them straight into the buffer.  By using this command, the links
are automatically enclosed in double brackets, and you will be asked for
the optional descriptive text.

@c the linked file is located in the same directory as the current file or
@c a subdirectory of it, the path of the file will be inserted relative to
@c the current directory.

@kindex C-u C-c C-l
@cindex file name completion
@cindex completion, of file names
@item C-u C-c C-l
When @kbd{C-c C-l} is called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, a link to
a file will be inserted and you may use file name completion to select
the name of the file.  The path to the file is inserted relative to the
directory of the current org file, if the linked file is in the current
directory or in a subdirectory of it, or if the path is written relative
to the current directory using @samp{../}.  Otherwise an absolute path
is used, if possible with @samp{~/} for your home directory.  You can
force an absolute path with two @kbd{C-u} prefixes.

@item C-c C-l @r{with cursor on existing link}
When the cursor is on an existing link, @kbd{C-c C-l} allows you to edit the

@kindex C-c C-o
@item C-c C-o
Open link at point.  This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
@command{browse-url-at-point}), run vm/mh-e/wanderlust/rmail/gnus/bbdb
for the corresponding links, and execute the command in a shell link.
When the cursor is on an internal link, this commands runs the
corresponding search.  When the cursor is on a TAG list in a headline,
it creates the corresponding TAGS view.  If the cursor is on a time
stamp, it compiles the agenda for that date.  Furthermore, it will visit
text and remote files in @samp{file:} links with Emacs and select a
suitable application for local non-text files.  Classification of files
is based on file extension only.  See option @code{org-file-apps}.  If
you want to override the default application and visit the file with
Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix.

@kindex mouse-2
@kindex mouse-1
@item mouse-2
@itemx mouse-1

@kindex mouse-3
@item mouse-3
Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs, and
internal links to be displayed in another window@footnote{See the

@cindex mark ring
@kindex C-c %
@item C-c %
Push the current position onto the mark ring, to be able to return
easily. Commands following an internal link do this automatically.

@kindex C-c &
@item C-c &
Jump back to a recorded position.  A position is recorded by the
commands following internal links, and by @kbd{C-c %}.  Using this
command several times in direct succession moves through a ring of
previously recorded positions.

@kindex C-c C-x C-n
@kindex C-c C-x C-p
@item C-c C-x C-n
@itemx C-c C-x C-p
Move forward/backward to the next link in the buffer.  At the limit of
the buffer, the search fails once, and then wraps around.  The key
bindings for this are really too long, you might want to bind this also
to @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}
@lisp
(lambda ()
@end lisp
@end table

Long URLs can be cumbersome to type, and often many similar links are
needed in a document.  For this you can use link abbreviations.  An

@example
@end example

@noindent
where the tag is optional.  Such abbreviations are resolved according to
the information in the variable @code{org-link-abbrev-alist} that
relates the linkwords to replacement text.  Here is an example:

@lisp
@group
'(("bugzilla" . "http://10.1.2.9/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=")
nph-abs_connect?author=%s&db_key=AST")))
@end group
@end lisp

If the replacement text contains the string @samp{%s}, it will be
replaced with the tag.  Otherwise the tag will be appended to the string
in order to create the link.  You may also specify a function that will
be called with the tag as the only argument to create the link.

With the above setting, you could link to a specific bug with
@code{[[bugzilla:129]]}, search the web for @samp{OrgMode} with
@code{[[google:OrgMode]]} and find out what the Org-mode author is
doing besides Emacs hacking with @code{[[ads:Dominik,C]]}.

If you need special abbreviations just for a single Org-mode buffer, you
can define them in the file with

@example
@end example

@noindent
In-buffer completion @pxref{Completion} can be used after @samp{[} to

@section Search options in file links
@cindex search option in file links

particular location in the file when following a link.  This can be a
line number or a search option after a double@footnote{For backward
compatibility, line numbers can also follow a single colon.} colon. For
example, when the command @kbd{C-c l} creates a link (@pxref{Handling
links}) to a file, it encodes the words in the current line as a search
string that can be used to find this line back later when following the

Here is the syntax of the different ways to attach a search to a file

@example
[[file:~/code/main.c::255]]
[[file:~/xx.org::My Target]]
[[file:~/xx.org::*My Target]]
[[file:~/xx.org::/regexp/]]
@end example

@table @code
@item 255
@item My Target
Search for a link target @samp{<<My Target>>}, or do a text search for
@samp{my target}, similar to the search in internal links, see
@ref{Internal links}.  In HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), such a file
link will become an HTML reference to the corresponding named anchor in
@item *My Target
In an Org-mode file, restrict search to headlines.
@item /regexp/
Do a regular expression search for @code{regexp}.  This uses the Emacs
command @code{occur} to list all matches in a separate window.  If the
target file is in Org-mode, @code{org-occur} is used to create a
sparse tree with the matches.
@c If the target file is a directory,
@c @code{grep} will be used to search all files in the directory.
@end table

As a degenerate case, a file link with an empty file name can be used
to search the current file.  For example, @code{[[file:::find me]]} does
a search for @samp{find me} in the current file, just as
@samp{[[find me]]} would.

@node Custom searches, Remember, Search options, Hyperlinks
@section Custom Searches
@cindex custom search strings
@cindex search strings, custom

The default mechanism for creating search strings and for doing the
actual search related to a file link may not work correctly in all
cases.  For example, BibTeX database files have many entries like
@samp{year="1993"} which would not result in good search strings,
because the only unique identification for a BibTeX entry is the
citation key.

If you come across such a problem, you can write custom functions to set
the right search string for a particular file type, and to do the search
for the string in the file.  Using @code{add-hook}, these functions need
to be added to the hook variables
@code{org-create-file-search-functions} and
@code{org-execute-file-search-functions}.  See the docstring for these
for Bib@TeX{} database files, and you can use the corresponding code as
an implementation example.  Search for @samp{BibTeX links} in the source
file.

@node Remember,  , Custom searches, Hyperlinks
@section Remember
@cindex @file{remember.el}

Another way to create org entries with links to other files is through
the @i{remember} package by John Wiegley.  @i{Remember} lets you store
quick notes with little interruption of your work flow.  See
@uref{http://www.emacswiki.org/cgi-bin/wiki/RememberMode} for more
information.  The notes produced by @i{Remember} can be stored in
different ways, and Org-mode files are a good target.  Org-mode
significantly expands the possibilities of @i{remember}: You may define
templates for different note types, and to associate target files and
headlines with specific templates.  It also allows you to select the
location where a note should be stored interactively, on the fly.

* Setting up remember::         Some code for .emacs to get things going
* Remember templates::          Define the outline of different note types
* Storing notes::               Directly get the note to where it belongs

@node Setting up remember, Remember templates, Remember, Remember
@subsection Setting up remember

The following customization will tell @i{remember} to use org files as
target, and to create annotations compatible with Org-mode links.

@example
(setq org-directory "~/path/to/my/orgfiles/")
(setq org-default-notes-file "~/.notes")
(setq remember-annotation-functions '(org-remember-annotation))
(setq remember-handler-functions '(org-remember-handler))
@end example

@node Remember templates, Storing notes, Setting up remember, Remember
@subsection Remember templates
@cindex templates, for remember

In combination with Org-mode, you can use templates to generate
different types of @i{remember} notes.  For example, if you would like
to use one template to create general TODO entries, another one for
journal entries, and a third one for collecting random ideas, you could
use:

@example
(setq org-remember-templates
'((?t "* TODO %?\n  %i\n  %a" "~/org/TODO.org")
(?j "* %U %?\n\n  %i\n  %a" "~/org/JOURNAL.org")
(?i "* %^@{Title@}\n  %i\n  %a" "~/org/JOURNAL.org" "New Ideas")))
@end example

@noindent In these entries, the character specifies how to select the
template.  The first string specifies the template.  Two more (optional)
strings give the file in which, and the headline under which the new
note should be stored.  The file defaults to
@code{org-remember-default-headline}.  Both defaults help to get to the
storing location quickly, but you can change the location interactively
while storing the note.

When you call @kbd{M-x remember} (or @kbd{M-x org-remember}) to remember
something, org will prompt for a key to select the template (if you have
more than one template) and then prepare the buffer like
@example
* TODO
[[file:link to where you called remember]]
@end example

@noindent or

@example
* [2006-03-21 Tue 15:37]

[[file:link to where you called remember]]
@end example

@noindent
During expansion of the template, special @kbd{%}-escapes allow dynamic
insertion of content:
@example
%^@{prompt@}  @r{prompt the user for a string and replace this sequence with it.}
%t          @r{time stamp, date only}
%T          @r{time stamp with date and time}
%u, %U      @r{like the above, but inactive time stamps}
%^t         @r{like @code{%t}, but prompt for date.  Similarly @code{%^T}, @code{%^u}, @code{%^U}}
@r{You may define a prompt like @code{%^@{Birthday@}t}}
%n          @r{user name (taken from @code{user-full-name})}
%i          @r{initial content, the region when remember is called with C-u.}
@r{The entire text will be indented like @code{%i} itself.}
%:keyword   @r{specific information for certain link types, see below}
@end example

@noindent
For specific link types, the following keywords will be defined:

@example
-------------------+----------------------------------------------
bbdb               |  %:name %:company
vm, wl, mh, rmail  |  %:type %:subject %:message-id
|  %:fromto @r{(either "to NAME" or "from NAME")@footnote{This will always be the other, not the user.  See the variable @code{org-from-is-user-regexp}.}}
gnus               |  %:group, @r{for messages also all email fields}
w3, w3m            |  %:url
info               |  %:file %:node
calendar           |  %:date"
@end example

@noindent
If you would like to have the cursor in a specific position after the
template has been expanded:

@example
%?          @r{After completing the template, position cursor here.}
@end example

@noindent
If you change you mind about which template to use, call
@code{org-remember} in the remember buffer.  You may then select a new
template that will be filled with the previoous context information.

@node Storing notes,  , Remember templates, Remember
@subsection Storing notes

When you are finished preparing a note with @i{remember}, you have to press
@kbd{C-c C-c} to file the note away.  The handler first prompts for a
target file - if you press @key{RET}, the value specified for the
template is used.  Then the command offers the headings tree of the
selected file, with the cursor position at the default headline (if you
had specified one in the template).  You can either immediately press
@key{RET} to get the note placed there.  Or you can use vertical cursor
motion (@key{up} and @key{down}) and visibility cycling (@key{TAB}) to
find a better place.  Pressing @key{RET} or @key{left} or @key{right}
then leads to the following result.

@multitable @columnfractions 0.2 0.1 0.7
@item @b{Cursor position} @tab @b{Key} @tab @b{Note gets inserted}
@item buffer-start @tab @key{RET} @tab as level 2 heading at end of file
@item on headline @tab @key{RET} @tab as sublevel of the heading at cursor
@item             @tab @key{left}  @tab as same level, before current heading
@item             @tab @key{right} @tab as same level, after current heading
@item not on headline @tab @key{RET}
@tab at cursor position, level taken from context.
Or use prefix arg to specify level manually.
@end multitable

So a fast way to store the note to its default location is to press
@kbd{C-c C-c @key{RET} @key{RET}}.  Even shorter would be @kbd{C-u C-c
C-c}, which does the same without even asking for a file or showing the
tree.

Before inserting the text into a tree, the function ensures that the
text has a headline, i.e. a first line that starts with a @samp{*}.
If not, a headline is constructed from the current date and some
non-nil, the entire text is also indented so that it starts in the
same column as the headline (after the asterisks).

@node TODO items, Timestamps, Hyperlinks, Top
@chapter TODO items
@cindex TODO items

Org-mode does not maintain TODO lists as a separate document.  TODO
items are an integral part of the notes file, because TODO items
usually come up while taking notes!  With Org-mode, you simply mark
any entry in a tree as being a TODO item.  In this way, the
information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the
item emerged is always present when you check.

Of course, this technique causes TODO items to be scattered throughout
your file.  Org-mode provides methods to give you an overview over all
things you have to do.

* TODO basics::                 Marking and displaying TODO entries
* TODO extensions::             Workflow and assignments
* Priorities::                  Some things are more important than others
* Checkboxes::                  Tick-off lists

@node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO items, TODO items
@section Basic TODO functionality

Any headline can become a TODO item by starting it with the word TODO,
for example:

@example
*** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
@end example

@noindent
The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-t
@cindex cycling, of TODO states
@item C-c C-t
Rotate the TODO state of the current item between

@example
,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
'--------------------------------'
@end example

The same rotation can also be done remotely'' from the timeline and
agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
@kindex S-@key{right}
@kindex S-@key{left}
@item S-@key{right}
@itemx S-@key{left}
Select the following/preceding TODO state, similar to cycling.  Mostly
useful if more than two TODO states are possible (@pxref{TODO extensions}).
@kindex C-c C-v
@cindex sparse tree, for TODO
@item C-c C-v
View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}).  Folds
the entire buffer, but shows all TODO items and the headings hierarchy
above them.  With prefix arg, show also the DONE entries.  With
numerical prefix N, show the tree for the Nth keyword in the variable
@code{org-todo-keywords}.
@kindex C-c a t
@item C-c a t
Show the global TODO list.  This collects the TODO items from all
agenda files (@pxref{Agenda views}) into a single buffer.  The buffer is in
@code{agenda-mode}, so there are commands to examine and manipulate
the TODO entries directly from that buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
@c @item @code{org-agenda-include-all-todo}
@c If you would like to have all your TODO items listed as part of your
@c agenda, customize the variable @code{org-agenda-include-all-todo}.
@end table

@node TODO extensions, Priorities, TODO basics, TODO items
@section Extended use of TODO keywords
@cindex extended TODO keywords

The default implementation of TODO entries is just two states: TODO and
DONE.  You can, however, use the TODO feature for more complicated
things by configuring the variables @code{org-todo-keywords} and
@code{org-todo-interpretation}.  Using special setup, you can even use
TODO keywords in different ways in different org files.

Note that @i{tags} are another way to classify headlines in general and
TODO items in particular (@pxref{Tags}).

* Workflow states::             From TODO to DONE in steps
* TODO types::                  I do this, Fred the rest
* Per file keywords::           Different files, different requirements

@node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
@subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
@cindex TODO workflow
@cindex workflow states as TODO keywords

You can use TODO keywords to indicate different states in the process
of working on an item, for example:

@lisp
(setq org-todo-keywords '("TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "DONE")
org-todo-interpretation 'sequence)
@end lisp

@cindex completion, of TODO keywords
Changing these variables only becomes effective in a new Emacs session.
With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from
TODO to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally to DONE.  You may also
use a prefix argument to quickly select a specific state.  For example
@kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
If you define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion (see
@ref{Completion}) to insert these words into the buffer.  Changing a todo
state can be logged with a timestamp, see @ref{Tracking TODO state

@node TODO types, Per file keywords, Workflow states, TODO extensions
@subsection TODO keywords as types
@cindex TODO types
@cindex names as TODO keywords
@cindex types as TODO keywords

The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
types of action items.  For example, you might want to indicate that
items are for work'' or home''.  If you are into David Allen's
@emph{Getting Things DONE}, you might want to use todo types
@samp{NEXTACTION}, @samp{WAITING}, @samp{MAYBE}.  Or, when you work
with several people on a single project, you might want to assign
action items directly to persons, by using their names as TODO
keywords.  This would be set up like this:

@lisp
(setq org-todo-keywords '("Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "Mike" "DONE")
org-todo-interpretation 'type)
@end lisp

In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but
rather different types.  So it is normally not useful to change from
one type to another.  Therefore, in this case the behavior of the
command @kbd{C-c C-t} is changed slightly@footnote{This is also true
for the @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}.  When
used several times in succession, it will still cycle through all
names.  But when you return to the item after some time and execute
@kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from each name directly to DONE.
Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific name.
You can also review the items of a specific TODO type in a sparse tree
by using a numeric prefix to @kbd{C-c C-v}.  For example, to see all
things Lucy has to do, you would use @kbd{C-3 C-c C-v}.  To collect
Lucy's items from all agenda files into a single buffer, you
would use the prefix arg as well when creating the global todo list:
@kbd{C-3 C-c t}.

@node Per file keywords,  , TODO types, TODO extensions
@subsection Setting up TODO keywords for individual files
@cindex keyword options
@cindex per file keywords

It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism
in different files, which is not possible with the global settings
described above.  For file-local settings, you need to add special
lines to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that
file only.  For example, to set one of the two examples discussed
above, you need one of the following lines, starting in column zero
anywhere in the file:

@example
#+SEQ_TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY DONE
#+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike DONE
@end example

@cindex completion, of option keywords
@kindex M-@key{TAB}
@noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
@samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.

@cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
Remember that the last keyword must always mean that the item is DONE
(although you may use a different word).  Also note that in each file,
only one of the two aspects of TODO keywords can be used.  After
changing one of these lines, use @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still
in the line to make the changes known to Org-mode@footnote{Org-mode
parses these lines only when Org-mode is activated after visiting a
file.  @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in a line starting with @samp{#+}
is simply restarting Org-mode for the current buffer.}.

If you want to use very many keywords, for example when working with a
large group of people, you may split the names over several lines:

@example
#+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike
#+TYP_TODO: Luis George Jules Jessica
#+TYP_TODO: Kim Arnold Peter
#+TYP_TODO: DONE
@end example

@node Priorities, Breaking down tasks, TODO extensions, TODO items
@section Priorities
@cindex priorities

If you use Org-mode extensively to organize your work, you may end up
with a number of TODO entries so large that you'd like to prioritize
them.  This can be done by placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the

@example
*** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
@end example

@noindent
With its standard setup, Org-mode supports priorities @samp{A},
@samp{B}, and @samp{C}.  @samp{A} is the highest priority.  An entry
without a cookie is treated as priority @samp{B}.  Priorities make a
difference only in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}).

@table @kbd
@kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
@item @kbd{C-c ,}
Set the priority of the current headline.  The command prompts for a
priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.  When you press
The priorities can also be changed remotely'' from the timeline and
agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).

@kindex S-@key{up}
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item S-@key{up}
@itemx S-@key{down}
Increase/decrease priority of current headline.  Note that these keys
are also used to modify time stamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}).
Furthermore, these keys are also used by CUA-mode (@pxref{Conflicts}).
@end table

@node Breaking down tasks, Checkboxes, Priorities, TODO items

It is often advisable to break down large tasks into smaller, managable
subtasks.  You can do this by creating an outline tree below a TODO
of the global TODO list, see the
@code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels}.}.  Another possibility is the use
of checkboxes to identify (a hierarchy of) a large number of subtasks
(@pxref{Checkboxes}).

@node Checkboxes,  , Breaking down tasks, TODO items
@section Checkboxes
@cindex checkboxes

Every item in a plain list (@pxref{Plain lists}) can be made a checkbox
by starting it with the string @samp{[ ]}.  This feature is similar to
TODO items (@pxref{TODO items}), but more lightweight.  Checkboxes are
not included into the global TODO list, so they are often great to split
a task into a number of simple steps.  Or you can use them in a shopping
list.  To toggle a checkbox, use @kbd{C-c C-c}, or try Piotr Zielinski's
@file{org-mouse.el}.  Here is an example of a checkbox list.

@example
* TODO Organize party [3/6]
- call people [1/3]
- [ ] Peter
- [X] Sarah
- [ ] Sam
- [X] order food
- [ ] think about what music to play
- [X] talk to the neighbors
@end example

@cindex statistics, for checkboxes
@cindex checkbox statistics
The @samp{[3/6]} and @samp{[1/3]} in the first and second line are
cookies indicating how many checkboxes are present in this entry, and
how many of them have been checked off.  This can give you an idea on
how many checkboxes remain, even without opening a folded entry.  The
cookies can be placed into a headline or into (the first line of) a
plain list item. Each cookie covers all checkboxes structurally below
either @samp{[/]} or @samp{[%]}.  In the first case you get an @samp{n
out of m} result, in the second case you get information about the
percentage of checkboxes checked (in the above example, this would be
@samp{[50%]} and @samp{[33%], respectively}).

@noindent The following commands work with checkboxes:

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
Toggle checkbox at point.
@kindex C-c C-x C-b
@item C-c C-x C-b
Toggle checkbox at point.
@itemize @minus
@item
If there is an active region, toggle the first checkbox in the region
and set all remaining boxes to the same status as the first.  If you
want to toggle all boxes in the region independently, use a prefix
argument.
@item
If the cursor is in a headline, toggle checkboxes in the region between
this headline and the next (so @emph{not} the entire subtree).
@item
If there is no active region, just toggle the checkbox at point.
@end itemize
@kindex M-S-@key{RET}
@item M-S-@key{RET}
Insert a new item with a checkbox.
This works only if the cursor is already in a plain list item
(@pxref{Plain lists}).
@kindex C-c #
@item C-c #
Update the checkbox statistics in the current outline entry.  When
called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, update the entire file.  Checkbox
statistic cookies are updated automatically if you toggle checkboxes
with @kbd{C-c C-c} and make new ones with @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}}.  If you
delete boxes or add/change them by hand, use this command to get things
back into synch.  Or simply toggle any checkbox twice with @kbd{C-c C-c}.
@end table

@node Timestamps, Tags, TODO items, Top
@chapter Timestamps
@cindex time stamps
@cindex date stamps

Items can be labeled with timestamps to make them useful for project
planning.

* Time stamps::                 Assigning a time to a tree entry
* Creating timestamps::         Commands which insert timestamps
* Custom time format::          If you cannot work with the ISO format
* Repeating items::             Deadlines that come back again and again
* Progress logging::            Documenting when what work was done.

@node Time stamps, Creating timestamps, Timestamps, Timestamps
@section Time stamps, deadlines and scheduling
@cindex time stamps
@cindex ranges, time
@cindex date stamps
@cindex scheduling

A time stamp is a specification of a date (possibly with time) in a
special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>} or @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue
09:39>}@footnote{This is the standard ISO date/time format.  If you
cannot get used to these, see @ref{Custom time format}}.  A time stamp
can appear anywhere in the headline or body of an org-tree entry.  Its
presence allows entries to be shown on specific dates in the agenda
(@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}).  We distinguish:

@table @var
@item Plain time stamp
@cindex timestamp
A simple time stamp just assigns a date/time to an item.  This is just
like writing down an appointment in a paper agenda, or like writing down
an event in a diary, when you want to take note of when something
happened.  In the timeline and agenda displays, the headline of an entry
associated with a plain time stamp will be shown exactly on that date.

@example
* Meet Peter at the movies <2006-11-01 Wed 19:15>
@end example

@item Inactive time stamp
@cindex timestamp, inactive
@cindex inactive timestamp
Just like a plain time stamp, but with square brackets instead of
angular ones.  These time stamps are inactive in the sense that they do
@emph{not} trigger an entry to show up in the agenda.

@example
* Gillian comes late for the fifth time [2006-11-01 Wed]
@end example

@item Time stamp range
@cindex timerange
Two time stamps connected by @samp{--} denote a time range.  The
headline will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on
any dates that are displayed and fall in the range.  Here is an
example:

@example
** Meeting in Amsterdam
<2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
@end example

@item Time stamp with SCHEDULED keyword
@cindex SCHEDULED keyword
If a time stamp is preceded by the word @samp{SCHEDULED:}, it means you
are planning to start working on that task on the given date. So this is
headline will be listed under the given date@footnote{It will still be
listed on that date after it has been marked DONE.  If you don't like
this, set the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-scheduled-if-done}.}.  In
addition, a reminder that the scheduled date has passed will be present
in the compilation for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE.
I.e., the task will automatically be forwarded until completed.

@example
*** TODO Call Trillian for a date on New Years Eve.
SCHEDULED: <2004-12-25 Sat>
@end example

@item Time stamp with DEADLINE keyword
If a time stamp is preceded by the word @samp{DEADLINE:}, the task
(most likely a TODO item) is supposed to be finished on that date, and
it will be listed then.  In addition, the compilation for @emph{today}
starting @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and
continuing until the entry is marked DONE.  An example:

@example
*** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
The editor in charge is [[bbdb:Ford Prefect]]
@end example
@item Time stamp with CLOSED keyword
@cindex CLOSED keyword
When @code{org-log-done} is non-nil, Org-mode will automatically insert
a special time stamp each time a TODO entry is marked done
(@pxref{Progress logging}).  This time stamp is enclosed in square

@item Time range with CLOCK keyword
@cindex CLOCK keyword
When using the clock to time the work that is being done on specific
items, time ranges preceded by the CLOCK keyword are inserted
automatically into the file.  The time stamps are enclosed in square
brackets instead of angular brackets.  @xref{Clocking work time}.
@end table

@node Creating timestamps, Custom time format, Time stamps, Timestamps
@section Creating timestamps
@cindex creating timestamps
@cindex timestamps, creating

For Org-mode to recognize time stamps, they need to be in the specific
format.  All commands listed below produce time stamps in the correct
format.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c .
@item C-c .
Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding time stamp.  When the
cursor is at a previously used time stamp, it is updated to NOW.  When
this command is used twice in succession, a time range is inserted.

@kindex C-u C-c .
@item C-u C-c .
Like @kbd{C-c .}, but use the alternative format which contains date
and time.  The default time can be rounded to multiples of 5 minutes,
see the option @code{org-time-stamp-rounding-minutes}.

@kindex C-c !
@item C-c !
Like @kbd{C-c .}, but insert an inactive time stamp not triggering the
agenda.

@kindex C-c <
@item C-c <
Insert a time stamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.

@kindex C-c >
@item C-c >
Access the Emacs calendar for the current date.  If there is a
timestamp in the current line, goto the corresponding date

@kindex C-c C-o
@item C-c C-o
Access the agenda for the date given by the time stamp or -range at
point (@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}).

@kindex C-c C-d
@item C-c C-d
Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp.  The insertion will
happen in the line directly following the headline.
@c FIXME Any CLOSED timestamp will be removed.????????

@kindex C-c C-w
@item C-c C-w
Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file.  With a numeric
prefix, check that many days.  For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c C-w} shows

@kindex C-c C-s
@item C-c C-s
Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp.  The insertion will
happen in the line directly following the headline.  Any CLOSED
timestamp will be removed.

@kindex S-@key{left}
@kindex S-@key{right}
@item S-@key{left}
@itemx S-@key{right}
Change date at cursor by one day.  These key bindings conflict with
CUA-mode (@pxref{Conflicts}).

@kindex S-@key{up}
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item S-@key{up}
@itemx S-@key{down}
Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp.  The cursor can be on a
year, month, day, hour or minute.  Note that if the cursor is in a
headline and not at a time stamp, these same keys modify the priority of
an item.  (@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with
CUA-mode (@pxref{Conflicts}).

@kindex C-c C-y
@cindex evaluate time range
@item C-c C-y
Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and
end.  With prefix arg, insert result after the time range (in a table:
into the following column).
@end table

* The date/time prompt::        How org-mode helps you entering date and time

@node The date/time prompt,  , Creating timestamps, Creating timestamps
@subsection The date/time prompt

When Org-mode prompts for a date/time, the prompt suggests to enter an
ISO date.  But it will in fact accept any string containing some date
and/or time information.  You can, for example, use @kbd{C-y} to paste a
(possibly multi-line) string copied from an email message.  Org-mode
will find whatever information is in there and will replace anything not
specified with the current date and time.  For example:

@example
3-2-5         --> 2003-02-05
feb 15        --> currentyear-02-15
sep 12 9      --> 2009-09-12
12:45         --> today 12:45
22 sept 0:34  --> currentyear-09-22 0:34
12            --> currentyear-currentmonth-12
Fri           --> nearest Friday (today or later)
+4            --> 4 days from now (if +N is the only thing given)
@end example

The function understands English month and weekday abbreviations.  If
you want to use unabbreviated names and/or other languages, configure
the variables @code{parse-time-months} and @code{parse-time-weekdays}.

@cindex calendar, for selecting date
Parallel to the minibuffer prompt, a calendar is popped up@footnote{If
you don't need/want the calendar, configure the variable
@code{org-popup-calendar-for-date-prompt}.}.  When you exit the date
prompt, either by clicking on a date in the calendar, or by pressing
@key{RET}, the date selected in the calendar will be combined with the
information entered at the prompt.  You can control the calendar fully
from the minibuffer:

@table @kbd
@kindex <
@item <
Scroll calendar backwards by one month.
@kindex >
@item >
Scroll calendar forwards by one month.
@kindex mouse-1
@item mouse-1
Select date by clicking on it.
@kindex S-@key{right}
@item S-@key{right}
One day forward.
@kindex S-@key{left}
@item S-@key{left}
One day back.
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item S-@key{down}
One week forward.
@kindex S-@key{up}
@item S-@key{up}
One week back.
@kindex M-S-@key{right}
@item M-S-@key{right}
One month forward.
@kindex M-S-@key{left}
@item M-S-@key{left}
One month back.
@kindex @key{RET}
@item @key{RET}
Choose date in calendar (only if nothing was typed into minibuffer).
@end table

@node Custom time format, Repeating items, Creating timestamps, Timestamps
@section Custom time format
@cindex custom date/time format
@cindex time format, custom
@cindex date format, custom

Org-mode uses the standard ISO notation for dates and times as it is
defined in ISO 8601.  If you cannot get used to this and require another
representation of date and time to keep you happy, you can get it by
customizing the variables @code{org-display-custom-times} and
@code{org-time-stamp-custom-formats}.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-x C-t
@item C-c C-x C-t
Toggle the display of custom formats for dates and times.
@end table

@noindent
Org-mode needs the default format for scanning, so the custom date/time
format does not @emph{replace} the default format - instead it is put
@emph{over} the default format using text properties.  This has the
following consequences:
@itemize @bullet
@item
You cannot place the cursor onto a time stamp anymore, only before or
after.
@item
The @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} keys can no longer be used to adjust
each component of a time stamp.  If the cursor is at the beginning of
the stamp, @kbd{S-@key{up}/@key{down}} will change the stamp by one day,
just like @kbd{S-@key{left}/@key{right}}.  At the end of the stamp, the
time will be changed by one minute.
@item
When you delete a time stamp character-by-character, it will only
disappear from the buffer after @emph{all} (invisible) characters
belonging to the ISO timestamp have been removed.
@item
If the custom time stamp format is longer than the default and you are
using dates in tables, table alignment will be messed up.  If the custom
format is shorter, things do work as expected.
@end itemize

@node Repeating items, Progress logging, Custom time format, Timestamps
@section Repeating items
@cindex TODO items, repeating
@cindex scheduling, repeating

Org-mode integrates with the Emacs calendar and diary to display cyclic
appointments, anniversaries and other special entries in the agenda
(@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}).  However, it can be useful to have
a deadline or scheduled item is that the they produce warnings ahead of
time and automatically forward themselves in the agenda until they are
done.  The abstract difference is therefore between cyclic
@i{appointments} and cyclic @i{action items}.  For appointments you
should use the diary, for actions you can uses an org-mode deadline or
scheduling time stamp together with a REPEAT cookie.  For example:

@example
* TODO Replace batteries in smoke detector REPEAT(+18m)
SCHEDULED: <2007-01-01 Mon>

* TODO Get dentist appointment REPEAT(+6m)
SCHEDULED: <2006-12-19 Tue>

* TODO Tax report to IRS REPEAT(+1y)
@end example

Each time you try to mark one of these entries DONE using @kbd{C-c C-t},
they will automatically switch back to the state TODO, and the
deadline/scheduling will be shifted accordingly.  The time units
recognized by org-mode are year (y), month (m), week (w), and day (d).
Org-mode will also prompt you for a note and record the fact that you
have closed this item in a note under the headline.

One unusual property of these repeating items is that only one instance
of each exist at any given time.  So if you look back or ahead in the
agenda, you will not find past and future instances, only the current
one will show up.  Use a cyclic diary entry if you need all past and
future instances to be visible in the agenda.

@node Progress logging,  , Repeating items, Timestamps
@section Progress Logging
@cindex progress logging
@cindex logging, of progress

Org-mode can automatically record a time stamp when you mark a TODO item
as DONE, or even each time when you change the state of a TODO item.
You can also measure precisely the time you spent on specific items in a
project by starting and stopping a clock when you start and stop working
on an aspect of a project.

* Tracking TODO state changes::  When did the status change?
* Clocking work time::          When exactly did you work on this item?

@node Closing items, Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging, Progress logging
@subsection Closing items

If you want to keep track of @emph{when} a certain TODO item was
finished, turn on logging with@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: logdone}}

@lisp
(setq org-log-done t)
@end lisp

@noindent
Then each time you turn a TODO entry into DONE using either @kbd{C-c
C-t} in the Org-mode buffer or @kbd{t} in the agenda buffer, a line
@samp{CLOSED: [timestamp]} will be inserted just after the headline.  If
you turn the entry back into a TODO item through further state cycling,
that line will be removed again.  In the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and
in the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}), you can then use the
@kbd{l} key to display the TODO items closed on each day, giving you an
overview of what has been done on a day.  If you want to record a note
along with the timestamp, use@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer
setting is: @code{#+STARTUP: lognotedone}}

@lisp
(setq org-log-done '(done))
@end lisp

@node Tracking TODO state changes, Clocking work time, Closing items, Progress logging
@subsection Tracking TODO state changes

When TODO keywords are used as workflow states (@pxref{Workflow
states}), you might want to keep track of when a state change occurred,
and you may even want to attach notes to that state change.  With the
setting

@lisp
(setq org-log-done '(state))
@end lisp

@noindent
each state change will prompt you for a note that will be attached to
the current headline.  Very likely you do not want this verbose tracking
all the time, so it is probably better to configure this behavior with
in-buffer options.  For example, if you are tracking purchases, put
these into a separate file that starts with:

@example
#+SEQ_TODO: TODO ORDERED INVOICE PAYED RECEIVED SENT
#+STARTUP: lognotestate
@end example

@node Clocking work time,  , Tracking TODO state changes, Progress logging
@subsection Clocking work time

Org-mode allows you to clock the time you spent on specific tasks in a
project.  When you start working on an item, you can start the clock.
When you stop working on that task, or when you mark the task done, the
clock is stopped and the corresponding time interval is recorded.  It
also computes the total time spent on each subtree of a project.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-x C-i
@item C-c C-x C-i
Start the clock on the current item (clock-in).  This inserts the CLOCK
keyword together with a timestamp.
@kindex C-c C-x C-o
@item C-c C-x C-o
Stop the clock (clock-out).  The inserts another timestamp at the same
location where the clock was last started.  It also directly computes
the resulting time in inserts it after the time range as @samp{=>
HH:MM}.  See the variable @code{org-log-done} for the possibility to
record an additional note together with the clock-out time
stamp@footnote{The corresponding in-buffer setting is: @code{#+STARTUP:
lognoteclock-out}}.
@kindex C-c C-y
@item C-c C-y
Recompute the time interval after changing one of the time stamps.  This
is only necessary if you edit the time stamps directly.  If you change
them with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys, the update is automatic.
@kindex C-c C-t
@item C-c C-t
Changing the TODO state of an item to DONE automatically stops the clock
if it is running in this same item.
@kindex C-c C-x C-x
@item C-c C-x C-x
Cancel the current clock.  This is useful if a clock was started by
mistake, or if you ended up working on something else.
@kindex C-c C-x C-d
@item C-c C-x C-d
Display time summaries for each subtree in the current buffer.  This
puts overlays at the end of each headline, showing the total time
can use visibility cycling to study the tree, but the overlays disappear
when you change the buffer (see variable
@code{org-remove-highlights-with-change}) or press @kbd{C-c C-c}.
@kindex C-c C-x C-r
@item C-c C-x C-r
Insert a dynamic block (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}) containing a clock
report as an org-mode table into the current file.
@example
#+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :emphasize nil

#+END: clocktable
@end example
@noindent
If such a block already exists, its content is replaced by the new
table.  The @samp{BEGIN} line can specify options:
@example
:maxlevels   @r{Maximum level depth to which times are listed in the table.}
:emphasize   @r{When @code{t}, emphasize level one and level two items}
:block       @r{The time block to consider.  This block is specified relative}
@r{to the current time and may be any of these keywords:}
@r{@code{today}, @code{yesterday}, @code{thisweek}, @code{lastweek},}
@r{@code{thismonth}, @code{lastmonth}, @code{thisyear}, or @code{lastyear}}.
:tstart      @r{A time string specifying when to start considering times}
:tend        @r{A time string specifying when to stop considering times}
@end example
So to get a clock summary for the current day, you could write
@example
#+BEGIN: clocktable :maxlevel 2 :block today

#+END: clocktable
@end example
and to use a specific time range you could write@footnote{Note that all
parameters must be specified in a single line - the line is broken here
only to fit it onto the manual.}
@example
#+BEGIN: clocktable :tstart "<2006-08-10 Thu 10:00>"
:tend "<2006-08-10 Thu 12:00>"

#+END: clocktable
@end example
@kindex C-u C-c C-x C-u
@item C-u C-c C-x C-u
Update all dynamic blocks (@pxref{Dynamic blocks}).  This is useful if
you have several clocktable blocks in a buffer.
@end table

The @kbd{l} key may be used in the timeline (@pxref{Timeline}) and in
the agenda (@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}) to show which tasks have been
worked on or closed during a day.

@node Tags, Agenda views, Timestamps, Top
@chapter Tags
@cindex tags
@cindex matching, tags
@cindex sparse tree, tag based

If you wish to implement a system of labels and contexts for
cross-correlating information, an excellent way is to assign @i{tags} to
headlines.  Org-mode has extensive support for using tags.

Every headline can contain a list of tags, at the end of the headline.
Tags are normal words containing letters, numbers, @samp{_}, and
@samp{@@}.  Tags must be preceded and followed by a single colon; like
@samp{:WORK:}.  Several tags can be specified like @samp{:WORK:URGENT:}.

* Tag inheritance::             Tags use the tree structure of the outline
* Setting tags::                How to assign tags to a headline
* Tag searches::                Searching for combinations of tags

@node Tag inheritance, Setting tags, Tags, Tags
@section Tag inheritance
@cindex inheritance, of tags
@cindex sublevels, inclusion into tags match

@i{Tags} make use of the hierarchical structure of outline trees.  If a
heading has a certain tag, all subheadings will inherit the tag as
well.  For example, in the list

@example
* Meeting with the French group      :WORK:
** Summary by Frank                  :BOSS:NOTES:
*** TODO Prepare slides for him      :ACTION:
@end example

@noindent
the final heading will have the tags @samp{:WORK:}, @samp{:BOSS:},
@samp{:NOTES:}, and @samp{:ACTION:}.  When executing tag searches and
Org-mode finds that a certain headline matches the search criterion, it
will not check any sublevel headline, assuming that these likely also
match, and that the list of matches can become very long.  This may
not be what you want, however, and you can influence inheritance and
searching using the variables @code{org-use-tag-inheritance} and
@code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}.

@node Setting tags, Tag searches, Tag inheritance, Tags
@section Setting tags
@cindex setting tags
@cindex tags, setting

@kindex M-@key{TAB}
Tags can simply be typed into the buffer at the end of a headline.
After a colon, @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} offers completion on tags.  There is
also a special command for inserting tags:

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
@cindex completion, of tags
Enter new tags for the current headline.  Org-mode will either offer
completion or a special single-key interface for setting tags, see
below.  After pressing @key{RET}, the tags will be inserted and aligned
to @code{org-tags-column}.  When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all
tags in the current buffer will be aligned to that column, just to make
things look nice.  TAGS are automatically realigned after promotion,
demotion, and TODO state changes (@pxref{TODO basics}).
@end table

Org will support tag insertion based on a @emph{list of tags}.  By
default this list is constructed dynamically, containing all tags
currently used in the buffer.  You may also globally specify a hard list
of tags with the variable @code{org-tag-alist}.  Finally you can set
the default tags for a given file with lines like

@example
#+TAGS: @@WORK @@HOME @@TENNISCLUB
#+TAGS: Laptop Car PC Sailboat
@end example

If you have globally defined your preferred set of tags using the
variable @code{org-tag-alist}, but would like to use a dynamic tag list
in a specific file: Just add an empty TAGS option line to that file:

@example
#+TAGS:
@end example

The default support method for entering tags is minibuffer completion.
However, Org-mode also implements a much better method: @emph{fast tag
selection}.  This method allows to select and deselect tags with a
single key per tag.  To function efficiently, you should assign unique
keys to most tags.  This can be done globally with

@lisp
(setq org-tag-alist '(("@@WORK" . ?w) ("@@HOME" . ?h) ("Laptop" . ?l)))
@end lisp

@noindent or on a per-file basis with

@example
#+TAGS: @@WORK(w)  @@HOME(h)  @@TENNISCLUB(t)  Laptop(l)  PC(p)
@end example

@noindent
You can also group together tags that are mutually exclusive.  With
curly braces@footnote{In @code{org-mode-alist} use
@code{'(:startgroup)} and @code{'(:endgroup)}, respectively.  Several
groups are allowed.}

@example
#+TAGS: @{ @@WORK(w)  @@HOME(h)  @@TENNISCLUB(t) @}  Laptop(l)  PC(p)
@end example

@noindent you indicate that at most one of @samp{@@WORK}, @samp{@@HOME},
and @samp{@@TENNISCLUB} should be selected.

@noindent Don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in one of
these lines to activate any changes.

If at least one tag has a selection key, pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} will
automatically present you with a special interface, listing inherited
tags, the tags of the current headline, and a list of all legal tags
with corresponding keys@footnote{Keys will automatically be assigned to
tags which have no configured keys.}.  In this interface, you can use
the following keys:

@table @kbd
@item a-z...
Pressing keys assigned to tags will add or remove them from the list of
tags in the current line.  Selecting a tag in a group of mutually
exclusive tags will turn off any other tags from that group.
@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB}
Enter a tag in the minibuffer, even if the tag is not in the predefined
list.  You will be able to complete on all tags present in the buffer.
@kindex @key{SPC}
@item @key{SPC}
Clear all tags for this line.
@kindex @key{RET}
@item @key{RET}
Accept the modified set.
@item C-g
Abort without installing changes.
@item q
If @kbd{q} is not assigned to a tag, it aborts like @kbd{C-g}.
@item !
Turn off groups of mutually exclusive tags.  Use this to (as an
exception) assign several tags from such a group.
@item C-c
Toggle auto-exit after the next change (see below).
If you are using expert mode, the first @kbd{C-c} will display the
selection window.
@end table

@noindent
This method lets you assign tags to a headline with very few keys.  With
the above setup, you could clear the current tags and set @samp{@@HOME},
@samp{Laptop} and @samp{PC} tags with just the following keys: @kbd{C-c
C-c @key{SPC} h l p @key{RET}}.  Switching from @samp{@@HOME} to
@samp{@@WORK} would be done with @kbd{C-c C-c w @key{RET}} or
alternatively with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c w}.  Adding the non-predefined tag
@samp{Sarah} could be done with @kbd{C-c C-c @key{TAB} S a r a h
@key{RET} @key{RET}}.

If you find that most of the time, you need only a single keypress to
modify your list of tags, set the variable
@code{org-fast-tag-selection-single-key}.  Then you no longer have to
press @key{RET} to exit fast tag selection - it will immediately exit
after the first change.  If you then occasionally need more keys, press
@kbd{C-c} to turn off auto-exit for the current tag selection process
(in effect: start selection with @kbd{C-c C-c C-c} instead of @kbd{C-c
C-c}).  If you set the variable to the value @code{expert}, the special
window is not even shown for single-key tag selection, it comes up only
when you press an extra @kbd{C-c}.

@node Tag searches,  , Setting tags, Tags
@section Tag searches
@cindex tag searches
@cindex searching for tags

Once a tags system has been set up, it can be used to collect related
information into special lists.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c \
@item C-c \
Create a sparse tree with all headlines matching a tags search.  With a
@kbd{C-u} prefix argument, ignore headlines that are not a TODO line.
@kindex C-c a m
@item C-c a m
Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files.
@kindex C-c a M
@item C-c a M
Create a global list of tag matches from all agenda files, but check
only TODO items and force checking subitems (see variable
@code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).
@end table

@cindex Boolean logic, for tag searches
A @i{tags} search string can use Boolean operators @samp{&} for AND and
@samp{|} for OR.  @samp{&} binds more strongly than @samp{|}.
Parenthesis are currently not implemented.  A tag may also be preceded
by @samp{-}, to select against it, and @samp{+} is syntactic sugar for
positive selection.  The AND operator @samp{&} is optional when @samp{+}
or @samp{-} is present.  Examples:

@table @samp
@item +WORK-BOSS
@samp{:BOSS:}.
@item WORK|LAPTOP
Selects lines tagged @samp{:WORK:} or @samp{:LAPTOP:}.
@item WORK|LAPTOP&NIGHT
Like before, but require the @samp{:LAPTOP:} lines to be tagged also
@samp{NIGHT}.
@end table

@cindex TODO keyword matching, with tags search
If you are using multi-state TODO keywords (@pxref{TODO extensions}), it
can be useful to also match on the TODO keyword.  This can be done by
adding a condition after a slash to a tags match.  The syntax is similar
to the tag matches, but should be applied with consideration: For
example, a positive selection on several TODO keywords can not
meaningfully be combined with boolean AND.  However, @emph{negative
selection} combined with AND can be meaningful.  To make sure that only
lines are checked that actually have any TODO keyword, use @kbd{C-c a
M}, or equivalently start the todo part after the slash with @samp{!}.
Examples:

@table @samp
@item WORK/WAITING
Select @samp{:WORK:}-tagged TODO lines with the specific TODO
keyword @samp{WAITING}.
@item WORK/!-WAITING-NEXT
Select @samp{:WORK:}-tagged TODO lines that are neither @samp{WAITING}
nor @samp{NEXT}
@item WORK/+WAITING|+NEXT
Select @samp{:WORK:}-tagged TODO lines that are either @samp{WAITING} or
@samp{NEXT}.
@end table

@cindex regular expressions, with tags search
Any element of the tag/todo match can be a regular expression - in this
case it must be enclosed in curly braces.  For example,
@samp{WORK+@{^BOSS.*@}} matches headlines that contain the tag
@samp{WORK} and any tag @i{starting} with @samp{BOSS}.

@cindex level, require for tags match
You can also require a headline to be of a certain level, by writing
instead of any TAG an expression like @samp{LEVEL=3}.  For example, a
search @samp{+LEVEL=3+BOSS/-DONE} lists all level three headlines that
have the tag BOSS and are @emph{not} marked with the todo keyword DONE.

@node Agenda views, Embedded LaTeX, Tags, Top
@chapter Agenda Views
@cindex agenda views

Due to the way Org-mode works, TODO items, time-stamped items, and
tagged headlines can be scattered throughout a file or even a number of
files.  To get an overview over open action items, or over events that
are important for a particular date, this information must be collected,
sorted and displayed in an organized way.

Org-mode can select items based on various criteria, and display them
in a separate buffer.  Six different view types are provided:

@itemize @bullet
@item
an @emph{agenda} that is like a calendar and shows information
for specific dates,
@item
a @emph{TODO list} that covers all unfinished
action items,
@item
a @emph{tags view}, showings headlines based on
the tags associated with them,
@item
a @emph{timeline view} that shows all events in a single Org-mode file,
in time-sorted view,
@item
a @emph{stuck projects view} showing projects that currently don't move
along, and
@item
@emph{custom views} that are special tag/keyword searches and
combinations of different views.
@end itemize

@noindent
The extracted information is displayed in a special @emph{agenda
buffer}.  This buffer is read-only, but provides commands to visit the
corresponding locations in the original Org-mode files, and even to
edit these files remotely.

Two variables control how the agenda buffer is displayed and whether the
window configuration is restored when the agenda exits:
@code{org-agenda-window-setup} and
@code{org-agenda-restore-windows-after-quit}.

* Agenda files::                Files being searched for agenda information
* Built-in agenda views::       What is available out of the box?
* Presentation and sorting::    How agenda items are prepared for display
* Agenda commands::             Remote editing of org trees
* Custom agenda views::         Defining special searches and views

@node Agenda files, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda views, Agenda views
@section Agenda files
@cindex agenda files
@cindex files for agenda

The information to be shown is collected from all @emph{agenda files},
the files listed in the variable @code{org-agenda-files}@footnote{If the
value of that variable is not a list, but a single file name, then the
list of agenda files will be maintained in that external file.}.  Thus even
if you only work with a single Org-mode file, this file should be put
into that list@footnote{When using the dispatcher, pressing @kbd{1}
before selecting a command will actually limit the command to the
current file, and ignore @code{org-agenda-files} until the next
dispatcher command.}.  You can customize @code{org-agenda-files}, but
the easiest way to maintain it is through the following commands

@cindex files, adding to agenda list
@table @kbd
@kindex C-c [
@item C-c [
Add current file to the list of agenda files.  The file is added to
the front of the list.  If it was already in the list, it is moved to
the front.  With prefix arg, file is added/moved to the end.
@kindex C-c ]
@item C-c ]
Remove current file from the list of agenda files.
@kindex C-,
@kindex C-'
@item C-,
@itemx C-'
Cycle through agenda file list, visiting one file after the other.
@end table

@noindent
The Org menu contains the current list of files and can be used
to visit any of them.

@node Agenda dispatcher, Built-in agenda views, Agenda files, Agenda views
@section The agenda dispatcher
@cindex agenda dispatcher
@cindex dispatching agenda commands
The views are created through a dispatcher that should be bound to a
global key, for example @kbd{C-c a} (@pxref{Installation}).  In the
following we will assume that @kbd{C-c a} is indeed how the dispatcher
pressing @kbd{C-c a}, an additional letter is required to execute a
command.  The dispatcher offers the following default commands:
@table @kbd
@item a
Create the calendar-like agenda (@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}).
@item t @r{/} T
Create a list of all TODO items (@pxref{Global TODO list}).
@item m @r{/} M
Create a list of headlines matching a TAGS expression (@pxref{Matching
@item L
Create the timeline view for the current buffer (@pxref{Timeline}).
@item # @r{/} !
Create a list of stuck projects (@pxref{Stuck projects}).
@item 1
Restrict an agenda command to the current buffer.  After pressing
@kbd{1}, you still need to press the character selecting the command.
@item 0
If there is an active region, restrict the following agenda command to
the region.  Otherwise, restrict it to the current subtree.  After
pressing @kbd{0}, you still need to press the character selecting the
command.
@end table

You can also define custom commands that will be accessible through the
dispatcher, just like the default commands.  This includes the
possibility to create extended agenda buffers that contain several
blocks together, for example the weekly agenda, the global TODO list and
a number of special tags matches.  @xref{Custom agenda views}.

@node Built-in agenda views, Presentation and sorting, Agenda dispatcher, Agenda views
@section The built-in agenda views

In this section we describe the built-in views.

* Weekly/Daily agenda::         The calendar page with current tasks
* Global TODO list::            All unfinished action items
* Matching headline tags::      Structured information with fine-tuned search
* Timeline::                    Time-sorted view for single file
* Stuck projects::              Find projects you need to review

@node Weekly/Daily agenda, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views, Built-in agenda views
@subsection The weekly/daily agenda
@cindex agenda
@cindex weekly agenda
@cindex daily agenda

The purpose of the weekly/daily @emph{agenda} is to act like a page of a
paper agenda, showing all the tasks for the current week or day.

@table @kbd
@cindex org-agenda, command
@kindex C-c a a
@item C-c a a
Compile an agenda for the current week from a list of org files.  The
agenda shows the entries for each day.  With a @kbd{C-u} prefix (or
when the variable @code{org-agenda-include-all-todo} is @code{t}), all
unfinished TODO items (including those without a date) are also listed at
the beginning of the buffer, before the first date.@*
@end table

Remote editing from the agenda buffer means, for example, that you can
change the dates of deadlines and appointments from the agenda buffer.
The commands available in the Agenda buffer are listed in @ref{Agenda
commands}.

@cindex calendar integration
@cindex diary integration

Emacs contains the calendar and diary by Edward M. Reingold.  The
calendar displays a three-month calendar with holidays from different
countries and cultures.  The diary allows you to keep track of
anniversaries, lunar phases, sunrise/set, recurrent appointments
(weekly, monthly) and more.  In this way, it is quite complementary to
Org-mode.  It can be very useful to combine output from Org-mode with
the diary.

In order to include entries from the Emacs diary into Org-mode's
agenda, you only need to customize the variable

@lisp
(setq org-agenda-include-diary t)
@end lisp

@noindent After that, everything will happen automatically.  All diary
entries including holidays, anniversaries etc will be included in the
agenda buffer created by Org-mode.  @key{SPC}, @key{TAB}, and
@key{RET} can be used from the agenda buffer to jump to the diary
file in order to edit existing diary entries.  The @kbd{i} command to
insert new entries for the current date works in the agenda buffer, as
well as the commands @kbd{S}, @kbd{M}, and @kbd{C} to display
Sunrise/Sunset times, show lunar phases and to convert to other
calendars, respectively.  @kbd{c} can be used to switch back and forth
between calendar and agenda.

@node Global TODO list, Matching headline tags, Weekly/Daily agenda, Built-in agenda views
@subsection The global TODO list
@cindex global TODO list
@cindex TODO list, global

The global TODO list contains all unfinished TODO items, formatted and
collected into a single place.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c a t
@item C-c a t
Show the global TODO list.  This collects the TODO items from all
agenda files (@pxref{Agenda views}) into a single buffer.  The buffer is in
@code{agenda-mode}, so there are commands to examine and manipulate
the TODO entries directly from that buffer (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
@kindex C-c a T
@item C-c a T
@cindex TODO keyword matching
Like the above, but allows selection of a specific TODO keyword.  You can
also do this by specifying a prefix argument to @kbd{C-c a t}.  With a
@kbd{C-u} prefix you are prompted for a keyword.  With a numeric
prefix, the Nth keyword in @code{org-todo-keywords} is selected.
@kindex r
The @kbd{r} key in the agenda buffer regenerates it, and you can give
a prefix argument to this command to change the selected TODO keyword,
for example @kbd{3 r}.  If you often need a search for a specific
keyword, define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).@*
Matching specific TODO keywords can also be done as part of a tags
search (@pxref{Tag searches}).
@end table

Remote editing of TODO items means that you can change the state of a
TODO entry with a single key press.  The commands available in the
TODO list are described in @ref{Agenda commands}.

@cindex sublevels, inclusion into todo list
Normally the global todo list simply shows all headlines with TODO
keywords.  This list can become very long.  There are two ways to keep
it more compact:
@itemize @minus
@item
Some people view a TODO item that has been @emph{scheduled} for
execution (@pxref{Time stamps}) as no longer @emph{open}.  Configure the
variable @code{org-agenda-todo-ignore-scheduled} to exclude scheduled
items from the global TODO list.
@item
TODO items may have sublevels to break up the task into subtasks.  In
such cases it may be enough to list only the highest level TODO headline
and omit the sublevels from the global list.  Configure the variable
@code{org-agenda-todo-list-sublevels} to get this behavior.
@end itemize

@node Matching headline tags, Timeline, Global TODO list, Built-in agenda views
@cindex matching, of tags
@cindex tags view

If headlines in the agenda files are marked with @emph{tags}
(@pxref{Tags}), you can select headlines based on the tags that apply
to them and collect them into an agenda buffer.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c a m
@item C-c a m
Produce a list of all headlines that match a given set of tags.  The
command prompts for a selection criterion, which is a boolean logic
expression with tags, like @samp{+WORK+URGENT-WITHBOSS} or
@samp{WORK|HOME} (@pxref{Tags}).  If you often need a specific search,
define a custom command for it (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
@kindex C-c a M
@item C-c a M
Like @kbd{C-c a m}, but only select headlines that are also TODO items
and force checking subitems (see variable
@code{org-tags-match-list-sublevels}).  Matching specific todo keywords
together with a tags match is also possible, see @ref{Tag searches}.
@end table

The commands available in the tags list are described in @ref{Agenda
commands}.

@node Timeline, Stuck projects, Matching headline tags, Built-in agenda views
@subsection Timeline for a single file
@cindex timeline, single file
@cindex time-sorted view

The timeline summarizes all time-stamped items from a single Org-mode
file in a @emph{time-sorted view}.  The main purpose of this command is
to give an overview over events in a project.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-a a L
@item C-c a L
Show a time-sorted view of the org file, with all time-stamped items.
When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, all unfinished TODO entries
(scheduled or not) are also listed under the current date.
@end table

@noindent
The commands available in the timeline buffer are listed in
@ref{Agenda commands}.

@node Stuck projects,  , Timeline, Built-in agenda views
@subsection Stuck projects

If you are following a system like David Allen's GTD to organize your
work, one of the duties'' you have is a regular review to make sure
that all projects move along.  A @emph{stuck} project is a project that
has no defined next actions, so it will never show up in the TODO lists
Org-mode produces.  During the review, you need to identify such
projects and define next actions for them.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c a #
@item C-c a #
List projects that are stuck.
@kindex C-c a !
@item C-c a !
Customize the variable @code{org-stuck-projects} to define what a stuck
project is and how to find it.
@end table

You almost certainly will have to configure this view before it will
work for you.  The built-in default assumes that all your projects are
level-2 headlines, and that a project is not stuck if it has at least
one entry marked with a todo keyword TODO or NEXT or NEXTACTION.

Lets assume that you, in your own way of using Org-mode, identify
projects with a tag PROJECT, and that you use a todo keyword MAYBE to
indicate a project that should not be considered yet.  Lets further
assume that the todo keyword DONE marks finished projects, and that NEXT
and TODO indicate next actions.  Finally, the tag @@SHOP indicates
shopping and is a next action even without the NEXT tag.  In this case
you would start by identifying eligible projects with a tags/todo match
@samp{+PROJECT/-MAYBE-DONE}, and then check for TODO, NEXT and @@SHOP in
the subtree to identify projects that are not stuck.  The correct
customization for this is

@lisp
(setq org-stuck-projects
("+PROJECT/-MAYBE-DONE" ("NEXT" "TODO") ("@@SHOP")))
@end lisp

@node Presentation and sorting, Agenda commands, Built-in agenda views, Agenda views
@section Presentation and sorting
@cindex presentation, of agenda items

Before displaying items in an agenda view, Org-mode visually prepares
the items and sorts them.  Each item occupies a single line.  The line
starts with a @emph{prefix} that contains the @emph{category}
(@pxref{Categories}) of the item and other important information.  You can
customize the prefix using the option @code{org-agenda-prefix-format}.
The prefix is followed by a cleaned-up version of the outline headline
associated with the item.

* Categories::                  Not all tasks are equal
* Time-of-day specifications::  How the agenda knows the time
* Sorting of agenda items::     The order of things

@node Categories, Time-of-day specifications, Presentation and sorting, Presentation and sorting
@subsection Categories

@cindex category
The category is a broad label assigned to each agenda item.  By default,
the category is simply derived from the file name, but you can also
specify it with a special line in the buffer, like this:

@example
#+CATEGORY: Thesis
@end example

If there are several such lines in a file, each specifies the category
for the text below it (but the first category also applies to any text
before the first CATEGORY line).  The display in the agenda buffer looks
best if the category is not longer than 10 characters.

@node Time-of-day specifications, Sorting of agenda items, Categories, Presentation and sorting
@subsection Time-of-Day Specifications
@cindex time-of-day specification

Org-mode checks each agenda item for a time-of-day specification.  The
time can be part of the time stamp that triggered inclusion into the
agenda, for example as in @w{@samp{<2005-05-10 Tue 19:00>}}.  Time
ranges can be specified with two time stamps, like
@c
@w{@samp{<2005-05-10 Tue 20:30>--<2005-05-10 Tue 22:15>}}.

In the headline of the entry itself, a time(range) may also appear as
plain text (like @samp{12:45} or a @samp{8:30-1pm}.  If the agenda
integrates the Emacs diary (@pxref{Weekly/Daily agenda}), time
specifications in diary entries are recognized as well.

For agenda display, Org-mode extracts the time and displays it in a
standard 24 hour format as part of the prefix.  The example times in
the previous paragraphs would end up in the agenda like this:

@example
8:30-13:00 Arthur Dent lies in front of the bulldozer
12:45...... Ford Prefect arrives and takes Arthur to the pub
19:00...... The Vogon reads his poem
20:30-22:15 Marwin escorts the Hitchhikers to the bridge
@end example

@cindex time grid
If the agenda is in single-day mode, or for the display of today, the
timed entries are embedded in a time grid, like

@example
8:00...... ------------------
8:30-13:00 Arthur Dent lies in front of the bulldozer
10:00...... ------------------
12:00...... ------------------
12:45...... Ford Prefect arrives and takes Arthur to the pub
14:00...... ------------------
16:00...... ------------------
18:00...... ------------------
19:00...... The Vogon reads his poem
20:00...... ------------------
20:30-22:15 Marwin escorts the Hitchhikers to the bridge
@end example

The time grid can be turned on and off with the variable
@code{org-agenda-use-time-grid}, and can be configured with
@code{org-agenda-time-grid}.

@node Sorting of agenda items,  , Time-of-day specifications, Presentation and sorting
@subsection Sorting of agenda items
@cindex sorting, of agenda items
@cindex priorities, of agenda items
Before being inserted into a view, the items are sorted.  How this is
done depends on the type of view.
@itemize @bullet
@item
For the daily/weekly agenda, the items for each day are sorted.  The
default order is to first collect all items containing an explicit
time-of-day specification.  These entries will be shown at the beginning
of the list, as a @emph{schedule} for the day.  After that, items remain
grouped in categories, in the sequence given by @code{org-agenda-files}.
Within each category, items are sorted by priority (@pxref{Priorities}),
which is composed of the base priority (2000 for priority @samp{A}, 1000
for @samp{B}, and 0 for @samp{C}), plus additional increments for
@item
For the TODO list, items remain in the order of categories, but within
each category, sorting takes place according to priority
(@pxref{Priorities}).
@item
For tags matches, items are not sorted at all, but just appear in the
sequence in which they are found in the agenda files.
@end itemize

Sorting can be customized using the variable
@code{org-agenda-sorting-strategy}.

@node Agenda commands, Custom agenda views, Presentation and sorting, Agenda views
@section Commands in the agenda buffer
@cindex commands, in agenda buffer

Entries in the agenda buffer are linked back to the org file or diary
file where they originate.  You are not allowed to edit the agenda
buffer itself, but commands are provided to show and jump to the
original entry location, and to edit the org-files remotely'' from
the agenda buffer.  In this way, all information is stored only once,
removing the risk that your agenda and note files may diverge.

Some commands can be executed with mouse clicks on agenda lines.  For
the other commands, the cursor needs to be in the desired line.

@table @kbd
@cindex motion commands in agenda
@kindex n
@item n
Next line (same as @key{up}).
@kindex p
@item p
Previous line (same as @key{down}).
@kindex mouse-3
@kindex @key{SPC}
@item mouse-3
@itemx @key{SPC}
Display the original location of the item in another window.

@kindex L
@item L
Display original location and recenter that window.

@kindex mouse-2
@kindex mouse-1
@kindex @key{TAB}
@item mouse-2
@itemx mouse-1
@itemx @key{TAB}
Go to the original location of the item in another window.  Under Emacs
22, @kbd{mouse-1} will also works for this.

@kindex @key{RET}
@itemx @key{RET}
Go to the original location of the item and delete other windows.

@kindex f
@item f
Toggle Follow mode.  In Follow mode, as you move the cursor through
the agenda buffer, the other window always shows the corresponding
location in the org file.  The initial setting for this mode in new
agenda buffers can be set with the variable
@code{org-agenda-start-with-follow-mode}.

@kindex b
@item b
Display the entire subtree of the current item in an indirect buffer.
With numerical prefix ARG, go up to this level and then take that tree.
If ARG is negative, go up that many levels.  With @kbd{C-u} prefix, do
not remove the previously used indirect buffer.

@kindex l
@item l
Toggle Logbook mode.  In Logbook mode, entries that where marked DONE while
logging was on (variable @code{org-log-done}) are shown in the agenda,
as are entries that have been clocked on that day.

@cindex display changing, in agenda
@kindex o
@item o
Delete other windows.

@kindex w
@item w
Switch to weekly view (7 days displayed together).

@kindex d
@item d
Switch to daily view (just one day displayed).

@kindex D
@item D
Toggle the inclusion of diary entries.  See @ref{Weekly/Daily agenda}.

@kindex g
@item g
@code{org-agenda-use-time-grid} and @code{org-agenda-time-grid}.

@kindex r
@item r
Recreate the agenda buffer, for example to reflect the changes
after modification of the time stamps of items with S-@key{left} and
S-@key{right}.  When the buffer is the global todo list, a prefix
argument is interpreted to create a selective list for a specific TODO
keyword.

@kindex s
@item s
Save all Org-mode buffers in the current Emacs session.

@kindex @key{right}
@item @key{right}
Display the following @code{org-agenda-ndays} days.  For example, if
the display covers a week, switch to the following week.  With prefix
arg, go forward that many times @code{org-agenda-ndays} days.

@kindex @key{left}
@item @key{left}
Display the previous dates.

@kindex .
@item .
Goto today.

@cindex remote editing, from agenda

@item 0-9
Digit argument.

@cindex undoing remote-editing events
@cindex remote editing, undo
@kindex C-_
@item C-_
Undo a change due to a remote editing command.  The change is undone
both in the agenda buffer and in the remote buffer.

@kindex t
@item t
Change the TODO state of the item, both in the agenda and in the
original org file.

@kindex C-k
@item C-k
Delete the current agenda item along with the entire subtree belonging
to it in the original Org-mode file.  If the text to be deleted remotely
is longer than one line, the kill needs to be confirmed by the user.  See
variable @code{org-agenda-confirm-kill}.

@kindex $@item$
Archive the subtree corresponding to the current headline.

@kindex T
@item T
Show all tags associated with the current item.  Because of
inheritance, this may be more than the tags listed in the line itself.

@kindex :
@item :
Set tags for the current headline.

@kindex a
@item a
Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline.

@kindex ,
@item ,
Set the priority for the current item.  Org-mode prompts for the
is removed from the entry.

@kindex P
@item P
Display weighted priority of current item.

@kindex +
@kindex S-@key{up}
@item +
@itemx S-@key{up}
Increase the priority of the current item.  The priority is changed in
the original buffer, but the agenda is not resorted.  Use the @kbd{r}
key for this.

@kindex -
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item -
@itemx S-@key{down}
Decrease the priority of the current item.

@kindex C-c C-s
@item C-c C-s
Schedule this item

@kindex C-c C-d
@item C-c C-d
Set a deadline for this item.

@kindex S-@key{right}
@item S-@key{right}
Change the time stamp associated with the current line by one day into
the future.  With prefix argument, change it by that many days.  For
example, @kbd{3 6 5 S-@key{right}} will change it by a year.  The
stamp is changed in the original org file, but the change is not
directly reflected in the agenda buffer.  Use the
@kbd{r} key to update the buffer.

@kindex S-@key{left}
@item S-@key{left}
Change the time stamp associated with the current line by one day
into the past.

@kindex >
@item >
Change the time stamp associated with the current line to today.
The key @kbd{>} has been chosen, because it is the same as @kbd{S-.}
on my keyboard.

@kindex I
@item I
Start the clock on the current item.  If a clock is running already, it
is stopped first.
@kindex O
@item O
Stop the previously started clock.
@kindex X
@item X
Cancel the currently running clock.

@cindex calendar commands, from agenda
@kindex c
@item c
Open the Emacs calendar and move to the date at the agenda cursor.

@item c
When in the calendar, compute and show the Org-mode agenda for the
date at the cursor.

@cindex diary entries, creating from agenda
@kindex i
@item i
Insert a new entry into the diary.  Prompts for the type of entry
(day, weekly, monthly, yearly, anniversary, cyclic) and creates a new
entry in the diary, just as @kbd{i d} etc. would do in the calendar.
The date is taken from the cursor position.

@kindex M
@item M
Show the phases of the moon for the three months around current date.

@kindex S
@item S
Show sunrise and sunset times.  The geographical location must be set
with calendar variables, see documentation of the Emacs calendar.

@kindex C
@item C
Convert the date at cursor into many other cultural and historic
calendars.

@kindex H
@item H
Show holidays for three month around the cursor date.

@c FIXME:  This should be a different key.
@kindex C-c C-x C-c
@item C-c C-x C-c
Export a single iCalendar file containing entries from all agenda files.

@kindex q
@item q
Quit agenda, remove the agenda buffer.

@kindex x
@cindex agenda files, removing buffers
@item x
Exit agenda, remove the agenda buffer and all buffers loaded by Emacs
for the compilation of the agenda.  Buffers created by the user to
visit org files will not be removed.

@end table

@node Custom agenda views,  , Agenda commands, Agenda views
@section Custom agenda views
@cindex custom agenda views
@cindex agenda views, custom

Custom agenda commands serve two purposes: to store and quickly access
frequently used TODO and tags searches, and to create special composite
agenda buffers.  Custom agenda commands will be accessible through the
dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}), just like the default commands.

* Storing searches::            Type once, use often
* Block agenda::                All the stuff you need in a single buffer
* Setting Options::             Changing the rules
* Batch processing::            Agenda views from the command line

@node Storing searches, Block agenda, Custom agenda views, Custom agenda views
@subsection Storing searches

The first application of custom searches is the definition of keyboard
shortcuts for frequently used searches, either creating an agenda
buffer, or a sparse tree (the latter covering of course only the current
buffer).
@kindex C-c a C
Custom commands are configured in the variable
@code{org-agenda-custom-commands}.  You can customize this variable, for
example by pressing @kbd{C-c a C}.  You can also directly set it with
Emacs Lisp in @file{.emacs}.  The following example contains all valid
search types:

@lisp
@group
(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
'(("w" todo "WAITING")
("W" todo-tree "WAITING")
("u" tags "+BOSS-URGENT")
("v" tags-todo "+BOSS-URGENT")
("U" tags-tree "+BOSS-URGENT")
("f" occur-tree "\\<FIXME\\>")))
@end group
@end lisp

@noindent
The initial single-character string in each entry defines the character
you have to press after the dispatcher command @kbd{C-c a} in order to
access the command.   The second parameter is the search type, followed
by the string or regular expression to be used for the matching.  The
example above will therefore define:

@table @kbd
@item C-c a w
as a global search for TODO entries with @samp{WAITING} as the TODO
keyword
@item C-c a W
as the same search, but only in the current buffer and displaying the
results as a sparse tree
@item C-c a u
as a global tags search for headlines marked @samp{:BOSS:} but not
@samp{:URGENT:}
@item C-c a v
as the same search as @kbd{C-c a u}, but limiting the search to
headlines that are also TODO items
@item C-c a U
as the same search as @kbd{C-c a u}, but only in the current buffer and
displaying the result as a sparse tree
@item C-c a f
to create a sparse tree (again: current buffer only) with all entries
containing the word @samp{FIXME}.
@end table

@node Block agenda, Setting Options, Storing searches, Custom agenda views
@subsection Block agenda
@cindex block agenda
@cindex agenda, with block views

Another possibility is the construction of agenda views that comprise
the results of @emph{several} commands, each of which creates a block in
the agenda buffer.  The available commands include @code{agenda} for the
daily or weekly agenda (as created with @kbd{C-c a a}), @code{alltodo}
for the global todo list (as constructed with @kbd{C-c a t}), and the
matching commands discussed above: @code{todo}, @code{tags}, and
@code{tags-todo}.  Here are two examples:

@lisp
@group
(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
((agenda)
(tags-todo "HOME")
(tags "GARDEN")))
((agenda)
(tags-todo "WORK")
(tags "OFFICE")))))
@end group
@end lisp

@noindent
This will define @kbd{C-c a h} to create a multi-block view for stuff
you need to attend to at home.  The resulting agenda buffer will contain
your agenda for the current week, all TODO items that carry the tag
@samp{HOME}, and also all lines tagged with @samp{GARDEN}.  Finally the
command @kbd{C-c a o} provides a similar view for office tasks.

@node Setting Options, Batch processing, Block agenda, Custom agenda views
@subsection Setting Options for custom commands
@cindex options, for custom agenda views

Org-mode contains a number of variables regulating agenda construction
and display.  The global variables define the behavior for all agenda
commands, including the custom commands.  However, if you want to change
some settings just for a single custom view, you can do so.  Setting
options requires inserting a list of variable names and values at the
right spot in @code{org-agenda-custom-commands}.  For example:

@lisp
@group
(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
'(("w" todo "WAITING"
((org-agenda-sorting-strategy '(priority-down))
(org-agenda-prefix-format "  Mixed: ")))
("U" tags-tree "+BOSS-URGENT"
(org-show-hierarchy-above nil)))))
@end group
@end lisp

@noindent
Now the @kbd{C-c a w} command will sort the collected entries only by
priority, and the prefix format is modified to just say @samp{  Mixed:}
instead of giving the category of the entry.  The sparse tags tree of
@kbd{C-c a U} will now turn out ultra-compact, because neither the
will be shown.

For command sets creating a block agenda,
@code{org-agenda-custom-commands} has two separate spots for setting
options.  You can add options that should be valid for just a single
command in the set, and options that should be valid for all commands in
the set.  The former are just added to the command entry, the latter
must come after the list of command entries.  Going back to the block
agenda example (@pxref{Block agenda}), let's change the sorting strategy
for the @kbd{C-c a h} commands to @code{priority-down}, but let's sort
the results for GARDEN tags query in the opposite order,
@code{priority-up}.  This would look like this:

@lisp
@group
(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
((agenda)
(tags-todo "HOME")
(tags "GARDEN" ((org-agenda-sorting-strategy '(priority-up)))))
((org-agenda-sorting-strategy '(priority-down))))
((agenda)
(tags-todo "WORK")
(tags "OFFICE")))))
@end group
@end lisp

As you see, the values and parenthesis setting is a little complex.
When in doubt, use the customize interface to set this variable - it
fully supports its structure.  Just one caveat: When setting options in
this interface, the @emph{values} are just lisp expressions.  So if the
value is a string, you need to add the double quotes around the value
yourself.

@node Batch processing,  , Setting Options, Custom agenda views
@subsection Creating agenda views in batch processing
@cindex agenda, batch production

If you want to print or otherwise reprocess agenda views, it can be
useful to create an agenda from the command line.  This is the purpose
of the function @code{org-batch-agenda}.  It takes as a parameter one of
the strings that are the keys in @code{org-agenda-custom-commands}.  For
example, to directly print the current TODO list, you could use

@example
emacs -batch -l ~/.emacs -eval '(org-batch-agenda "t")' | lpr
@end example

@noindent
You may also modify parameters on the fly like this:

@example
emacs -batch -l ~/.emacs                                      \
-eval '(org-batch-agenda "a"                               \
org-agenda-ndays 300                              \
org-agenda-include-diary nil                      \
org-agenda-files (quote ("~/org/project.org")))'  \
| lpr
@end example

@noindent
which will produce a 300 day agenda, fully restricted to the Org file
@file{~/org/projects.org}, not even including the diary.

@node Embedded LaTeX, Exporting, Agenda views, Top
@chapter Embedded LaTeX
@cindex @TeX{} interpretation
@cindex La@TeX{} interpretation

Plain ASCII is normally sufficient for almost all note taking.  One
exception, however, are scientific notes which need to be able to
contain mathematical symbols and the occasional formula.
La@TeX{}@footnote{La@TeX{} is a macro system based on Donald E. Knuth's
@TeX{} system.  Many of the features described here as La@TeX{}'' are
really from @TeX{}, but for simplicity I am blurring this distinction.}
is widely used to typeset scientific documents. Org-mode supports
embedding La@TeX{} code into its files, because many academics are used
to read La@TeX{} source code, and because it can be readily processed
into images for HTML production.

It is not necessary to mark La@TeX{} macros and code in any special way.
If you observe a few conventions, Org-mode knows how to find it and what
to do with it.

* Math symbols::                TeX macros for symbols and Greek letters
* Subscripts and Superscripts::  Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
* LaTeX fragments::             Complex formulas made easy
* Processing LaTeX fragments::  Previewing LaTeX processing
* CDLaTeX mode::                Speed up entering of formulas

@node Math symbols, Subscripts and Superscripts, Embedded LaTeX, Embedded LaTeX
@section Math symbols
@cindex math symbols
@cindex TeX macros

You can use La@TeX{} macros to insert special symbols like @samp{\alpha}
to indicate the Greek letter, or @samp{\to} to indicate an arrow.
Completion for these macros is available, just type @samp{\} and maybe a
few letters, and press @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to see possible completions.
Unlike La@TeX{} code, Org-mode allows these macros to be present
without surrounding math delimiters, for example:

@example
Angles are written as Greek letters \alpha, \beta and \gamma.
@end example

During HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), these symbols are translated
into the proper syntax for HTML, for the above examples this is
@samp{&alpha;} and @samp{&rarr;}, respectively.

@node Subscripts and Superscripts, LaTeX fragments, Math symbols, Embedded LaTeX
@section Subscripts and Superscripts
@cindex subscript
@cindex superscript

Just like in La@TeX{}, @samp{^} and @samp{_} are used to indicate super-
and subscripts.  Again, these can be used without embedding them in
math-mode delimiters.  To increase the readability of ASCII text, it is
not necessary (but OK) to surround multi-character sub- and superscripts
with curly braces.  For example

@example
The mass if the sun is M_sun = 1.989 x 10^30 kg.  The radius of
the sun is R_@{sun@} = 6.96 x 10^8 m.
@end example

To avoid interpretation as raised or lowered text, you can quote
@samp{^} and @samp{_} with a backslash: @samp{\_} and @samp{\^}.

During HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), subscript and superscripts
are surrounded with @code{<sub>} and @code{<sup>} tags, respectively.

@node LaTeX fragments, Processing LaTeX fragments, Subscripts and Superscripts, Embedded LaTeX
@section LaTeX fragments
@cindex LaTeX fragments

With symbols, sub- and superscripts, HTML is pretty much at its end when
it comes to representing mathematical formulas@footnote{Yes, there is
MathML, but that is not yet fully supported by many browsers, and there
is no decent converter for turning LaTeX of ASCII representations of
formulas into MathML.  So for the time being, converting formulas into
images seems the way to go.}.  More complex
expressions need a dedicated formula processor.  To this end, Org-mode
can contain arbitrary La@TeX{} fragments.  It provides commands to
preview the typeset result of these fragments, and upon export to HTML,
all fragments will be converted to images and inlined into the HTML
document.  For this to work you need to be on a system with a working
La@TeX{} installation.  You also need the @file{dvipng} program,
available at @url{http://sourceforge.net/projects/dvipng/}.

La@TeX{} fragments don't need any special marking at all.  The following
snippets will be identified as LaTeX source code:
@itemize @bullet
@item
Environments of any kind.  The only requirement is that the
@code{\begin} statement appears on a new line, preceded by only
whitespace.
@item
Text within the usual La@TeX{} math delimiters.  To avoid conflicts with
currency specifications, single @samp{$} characters are only recognized as math delimiters if the enclosed text contains at most two line breaks, is directly attached to the @samp{$} characters with no whitespace in
between, and if the closing @samp{$} is followed by whitespace or punctuation. For the other delimiters, there is no such restriction, so when in doubt, use @samp{$$...$$} as inline math delimiters. @end itemize @noindent For example: @example \begin@{equation@} % arbitrary environments, x=\sqrt@{b@} % even tables, figures \end@{equation@} % etc If$a^2=band $$b=2$$, then the solution must be either $$a=+\sqrt@{2@}$$ or $a=-\sqrt@{2@}$. @end example @noindent If you need any of the delimiter ASCII sequences for other purposes, you can configure the option @code{org-format-latex-options} to deselect the ones you do not wish to have interpreted by the La@TeX{} converter. @node Processing LaTeX fragments, CDLaTeX mode, LaTeX fragments, Embedded LaTeX @section Processing LaTeX fragments @cindex LaTeX fragments, preview La@TeX{} fragments can be processed to produce a preview images of the typeset expressions: @table @kbd @kindex C-c C-x C-l @item C-c C-x C-l Produce a preview image of the La@TeX{} fragment at point and overlay it over the source code. If there is no fragment at point, process all fragments in the current entry (between two headlines). When called with a prefix argument, process the entire subtree. When called with two prefix arguments, or when the cursor is before the first headline, process the entire buffer. @kindex C-c C-c @item C-c C-c Remove the overlay preview images. @end table During HTML export (@pxref{HTML export}), all La@TeX{} fragments are converted into images and inlined into the document if the following setting is active: @lisp (setq org-export-with-LaTeX-fragments t) @end lisp @node CDLaTeX mode, , Processing LaTeX fragments, Embedded LaTeX @section Using CDLaTeX to enter math @cindex CDLaTeX CDLaTeX-mode is a minor mode that is normally used in combination with a major LaTeX mode like AUCTeX in order to speed-up insertion of environments and math templates. Inside Org-mode, you can make use of some of the features of cdlatex-mode. You need to install @file{cdlatex.el} and @file{texmathp.el} (the latter comes also with AUCTeX) from @url{http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik/Tools/cdlatex}. Don't turn cdlatex-mode itself under Org-mode, but use the light version @code{org-cdlatex-mode} that comes as part of Org-mode. Turn it on for the current buffer with @code{M-x org-cdlatex-mode}, or for all Org-mode files with @lisp (add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-org-cdlatex) @end lisp When this mode is enabled, the following features are present (for more details see the documentation of cdlatex-mode): @itemize @bullet @kindex C-c @{ @item Environment templates can be inserted with @kbd{C-c @{}. @item @kindex @key{TAB} The @key{TAB} key will do template expansion if the cursor is inside a LaTeX fragment@footnote{Org-mode has a method to test if the cursor is inside such a fragment, see the documentation of the function @code{org-inside-LaTeX-fragment-p}.}. For example, @key{TAB} will expand @code{fr} to @code{\frac@{@}@{@}} and position the cursor correctly inside the first brace. Another @key{TAB} will get you into the second brace. Even outside fragments, @key{TAB} will expand environment abbreviations at the beginning of a line. For example, if you write @samp{equ} at the beginning of a line and press @key{TAB}, this abbreviation will be expanded to an @code{equation} environment. To get a list of all abbreviations, type @kbd{M-x cdlatex-command-help}. @item @kindex _ @kindex ^ Pressing @kbd{_} and @kbd{^} inside a LaTeX fragment will insert these characters together with a pair of braces. If you use @key{TAB} to move out of the braces, and if the braces surround only a single character or macro, they are removed again (depending on the variable @code{cdlatex-simplify-sub-super-scripts}). @item @kindex  Pressing the backquote @kbd{} followed by a character inserts math macros, also outside LaTeX fragments. If you wait more than 1.5 seconds after the backquote, a help window will pop up. @item @kindex ' Pressing the normal quote @kbd{'} followed by another character modifies the symbol before point with an accent or a font. If you wait more than 1.5 seconds after the backquote, a help window will pop up. Character modification will work only inside La@TeX{} fragments, outside the quote is normal. @end itemize @node Exporting, Publishing, Embedded LaTeX, Top @chapter Exporting @cindex exporting Org-mode documents can be exported into a variety of other formats. For printing and sharing of notes, ASCII export produces a readable and simple version of an Org-mode file. HTML export allows you to publish a notes file on the web, while the XOXO format provides a solid base for exchange with a broad range of other applications. To incorporate entries with associated times like deadlines or appointments into a desktop calendar program like iCal, Org-mode can also produce extracts in the iCalendar format. Currently Org-mode only supports export, not import of these different formats. When exporting, Org-mode uses special conventions to enrich the output produced. @xref{Text interpretation}, for more details. @table @kbd @kindex C-c C-e @item C-c C-e Dispatcher for export and publishing commands. Displays a help-window listing the additional key(s) needed to launch an export or publishing command. @end table @menu * ASCII export:: Exporting to plain ASCII * HTML export:: Exporting to HTML * XOXO export:: Exporting to XOXO * iCalendar export:: Exporting in iCalendar format * Text interpretation:: How the exporter looks at the file @end menu @node ASCII export, HTML export, Exporting, Exporting @section ASCII export @cindex ASCII export ASCII export produces a simple and very readable version of an Org-mode file. @cindex region, active @cindex active region @cindex transient-mark-mode @table @kbd @kindex C-c C-e a @item C-c C-e a Export as ASCII file. If there is an active region, only the region will be exported. For an org file @file{myfile.org}, the ASCII file will be @file{myfile.txt}. The file will be overwritten without warning. @kindex C-c C-e v a @item C-c C-e v a Export only the visible part of the document. @end table @cindex headline levels, for exporting In the exported version, the first 3 outline levels will become headlines, defining a general document structure. Additional levels will be exported as itemized lists. If you want that transition to occur at a different level, specify it with a prefix argument. For example, @example @kbd{C-1 C-c C-e a} @end example @noindent creates only top level headlines and does the rest as items. When headlines are converted to items, the indentation of the text following the headline is changed to fit nicely under the item. This is done with the assumption that the first bodyline indicates the base indentation of the body text. Any indentation larger than this is adjusted to preserve the layout relative to the first line. Should there be lines with less indentation than the first, these are left alone. @node HTML export, XOXO export, ASCII export, Exporting @section HTML export @cindex HTML export Org-mode contains an HTML (XHTML 1.0 strict) exporter with extensive HTML formatting, in ways similar to John Grubers @emph{markdown} language, but with additional support for tables. @menu * Export commands:: How to invode HTML export * Quoting HTML tags:: Using direct HTML in Org-mode * Links:: How hyperlinks get transferred to HTML * Images:: To inline or not to inline? * CSS support:: Style specifications @end menu @node Export commands, Quoting HTML tags, HTML export, HTML export @subsection HTML export commands @cindex region, active @cindex active region @cindex transient-mark-mode @table @kbd @kindex C-c C-e h @item C-c C-e h Export as HTML file @file{myfile.html}. @kindex C-c C-e b @item C-c C-e b Export as HTML file and open it with a browser. @kindex C-c C-e v h @kindex C-c C-e v b @item C-c C-e v h @item C-c C-e v b Export only the visible part of the document. @end table @cindex headline levels, for exporting In the exported version, the first 3 outline levels will become headlines, defining a general document structure. Additional levels will be exported as itemized lists. If you want that transition to occur at a different level, specify it with a prefix argument. For example, @example @kbd{C-2 C-c C-e b} @end example @noindent creates two levels of headings and does the rest as items. @node Quoting HTML tags, Links, Export commands, HTML export @subsection Quoting HTML tags Plain @samp{<} and @samp{>} are always transformed to @samp{&lt;} and @samp{&gt;} in HTML export. If you want to include simple HTML tags which should be interpreted as such, mark them with @samp{@@} as in @samp{@@<b>bold text@@</b>}. Note that this really works only for simple tags. For more extensive HTML that should be copied verbatim to the exported file use either @example #+HTML: Literal HTML code for export @end example @noindent or @example #+BEGIN_HTML All lines between these markers are exported literally #+END_HTML @end example @node Links, Images, Quoting HTML tags, HTML export @subsection Links @cindex links, in HTML export @cindex internal links, in HTML export @cindex external links, in HTML export Internal links (@pxref{Internal links}) will continue to work in HTML files only if they match a dedicated @samp{<<target>>}. Automatic links created by radio targets (@pxref{Radio targets}) will also work in the HTML file. Links to external files will still work if the HTML file is in the same directory as the Org-mode file. Links to other @file{.org} files will be translated into HTML links under the assumption that an HTML version also exists of the linked file. For information related to linking files while publishing them to a publishing directory see @ref{Publishing links}. @node Images, CSS support, Links, HTML export @subsection Images @cindex images, inline in HTML @cindex inlining images in HTML HTML export can inline images given as links in the Org-mode file, and it can make an image the clickable part of a link. By default@footnote{but see the variable @code{org-export-html-inline-images}}, images are inlined if a link does not have a description. So @samp{[[file:myimg.jpg]]} will be inlined, while @samp{[[file:myimg.jpg][the image]]} will just produce a link @samp{the image} that points to the image. If the description part itself is a @code{file:} link or a @code{http:} URL pointing to an image, this image will be inlined and activated so that clicking on the image will activate the link. For example, to include a thumbnail that will link to a high resolution version of the image, you could use: @example [[file:highres.jpg][file:thumb.jpg]] @end example @noindent and you could use @code{http} addresses just as well. @node CSS support, , Images, HTML export @subsection CSS support You can also give style information for the exported file. The HTML exporter assigns the following CSS classes to appropriate parts of the document - your style specifications may change these: @example .todo @r{TODO keywords} .done @r{the DONE keyword} .timestamp @r{time stamp} .timestamp-kwd @r{keyword associated with a time stamp, like SCHEDULED} .tag @r{tag in a headline} .target @r{target for links} @end example The default style specification can be configured through the option @code{org-export-html-style}. If you want to use a file-local style, you may use file variables, best wrapped into a COMMENT section at the end of the outline tree. For example@footnote{Under Emacs 21, the continuation lines for a variable value should have no @samp{#} at the start of the line.}: @example * COMMENT html style specifications # Local Variables: # org-export-html-style: " <style type=\"text/css\"> # p @{font-weight: normal; color: gray; @} # h1 @{color: black; @} # </style>" # End: @end example Remember to execute @kbd{M-x normal-mode} after changing this to make the new style visible to Emacs. This command restarts org-mode for the current buffer and forces Emacs to re-evaluate the local variables section in the buffer. @c FIXME: More about header and footer styles @c FIXME: Talk about links and targets. @node XOXO export, iCalendar export, HTML export, Exporting @section XOXO export @cindex XOXO export Org-mode contains an exporter that produces XOXO-style output. Currently, this exporter only handles the general outline structure and does not interpret any additional Org-mode features. @table @kbd @kindex C-c C-e x @item C-c C-e x Export as XOXO file @file{myfile.html}. @kindex C-c C-e v @item C-c C-e v x Export only the visible part of the document. @end table @node iCalendar export, Text interpretation, XOXO export, Exporting @section iCalendar export @cindex iCalendar export Some people like to use Org-mode for keeping track of projects, but still prefer a standard calendar application for anniversaries and appointments. In this case it can be useful to have deadlines and other time-stamped items in Org-mode files show up in the calendar application. Org-mode can export calendar information in the standard iCalendar format. If you also want to have TODO entries included in the export, configure the variable @code{org-icalendar-include-todo}. @table @kbd @kindex C-c C-e i @item C-c C-e i Create iCalendar entries for the current file and store them in the same directory, using a file extension @file{.ics}. @kindex C-c C-e I @item C-c C-e I Like @kbd{C-c C-e i}, but do this for all files in @code{org-agenda-files}. For each of these files, a separate iCalendar file will be written. @kindex C-c C-e c @item C-c C-e c Create a single large iCalendar file from all files in @code{org-agenda-files} and write it to the file given by @code{org-combined-agenda-icalendar-file}. @end table How this calendar is best read and updated, depends on the application you are using. The FAQ covers this issue. @node Text interpretation, , iCalendar export, Exporting @section Text interpretation by the exporter The exporter backends interpret additional structure in the Org-mode file in order to produce better output. @menu * Comment lines:: Some lines will not be exported * Enhancing text:: Subscripts, symbols and more * Export options:: How to influence the export settings @end menu @node Comment lines, Enhancing text, Text interpretation, Text interpretation @subsection Comment lines @cindex comment lines @cindex exporting, not Lines starting with @samp{#} in column zero are treated as comments and will never be exported. Also entire subtrees starting with the word @samp{COMMENT} will never be exported. Finally, any text before the first headline will not be exported either. @table @kbd @kindex C-c ; @item C-c ; Toggle the COMMENT keyword at the beginning of an entry. @end table @node Enhancing text, Export options, Comment lines, Text interpretation @subsection Enhancing text for export @cindex enhancing text @cindex richer text Some of the export backends of Org-mode allow for sophisticated text formatting, this is true in particular for the HTML backend. Org-mode has a number of typing conventions that allow to produce a richly formatted output. @itemize @bullet @cindex hand-formatted lists @cindex lists, hand-formatted @item Plain lists @samp{-}, @samp{*} or @samp{+} as bullet, or with @samp{1.} or @samp{2)} as enumerator will be recognized and transformed if the backend supports lists. See @xref{Plain lists}. @cindex underlined text @cindex bold text @cindex italic text @item You can make words @b{*bold*}, @i{/italic/}, _underlined_, @code{=code=}, and @samp{+strikethrough+}. @cindex horizontal rules, in exported files @item A line consisting of only dashes, and at least 5 of them, will be exported as a horizontal line (@samp{<hr/>} in HTML). @cindex LaTeX fragments, export @cindex TeX macros, export @item Many @TeX{} macros and entire La@TeX{} fragments are converted into HTML entities or images (@pxref{Embedded LaTeX}). @cindex tables, export @item Tables are transformed into native tables under the exporter, if the export backend supports this. Data fields before the first horizontal separator line will be formatted as table header fields. @cindex fixed width @item If a headline starts with the word @samp{QUOTE}, the text below the headline will be typeset as fixed-width, to allow quoting of computer codes etc. Lines starting with @samp{:} are also typeset in fixed-width font. @table @kbd @kindex C-c : @item C-c : Toggle fixed-width for entry (QUOTE) or region, see below. @end table @cindex linebreak, forced @item A double backslash @emph{at the end of a line} enforces a line break at this position. @end itemize If these conversions conflict with your habits of typing ASCII text, they can all be turned off with corresponding variables (see the customization group @code{org-export-general}, and the following section which explains how to set export options with special lines in a buffer. @node Export options, , Enhancing text, Text interpretation @subsection Export options @cindex options, for export @cindex completion, of option keywords The exporter recognizes special lines in the buffer which provide additional information. These lines may be put anywhere in the file. The whole set of lines can be inserted into the buffer with @kbd{C-c C-e t}. For individual lines, a good way to make sure the keyword is correct is to type @samp{#+} and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion (@pxref{Completion}). @table @kbd @kindex C-c C-e t @item C-c C-e t Insert template with export options, see example below. @end table @example #+TITLE: the title to be shown (default is the buffer name) #+AUTHOR: the author (default taken from @code{user-full-name}) #+EMAIL: his/her email address (default from @code{user-mail-address}) #+LANGUAGE: language for HTML, e.g. @samp{en} (@code{org-export-default-language}) #+TEXT: Some descriptive text to be inserted at the beginning. #+TEXT: Several lines may be given. #+OPTIONS: H:2 num:t toc:t \n:nil @@:t ::t |:t ^:t *:nil TeX:t LaTeX:t @end example @noindent The OPTIONS line is a compact form to specify export settings. Here you can: @cindex headline levels @cindex section-numbers @cindex table of contents @cindex linebreak preservation @cindex quoted HTML tags @cindex fixed-width sections @cindex tables @cindex @TeX{}-like syntax for sub- and superscripts @cindex emphasized text @cindex @TeX{} macros @cindex La@TeX{} fragments @example H: @r{set the number of headline levels for export} num: @r{turn on/off section-numbers} toc: @r{turn on/off table of contents, or set level limit (integer)} \n: @r{turn on/off linebreak-preservation} @@: @r{turn on/off quoted HTML tags} :: @r{turn on/off fixed-width sections} |: @r{turn on/off tables} ^: @r{turn on/off @TeX{}-like syntax for sub- and superscripts.} *: @r{turn on/off emphasized text (bold, italic, underlined)} TeX: @r{turn on/off simple @TeX{} macros in plain text} LaTeX: @r{turn on/off La@TeX{} fragments} @end example @node Publishing, Miscellaneous, Exporting, Top @chapter Publishing @cindex publishing Org-mode includes@footnote{@file{org-publish.el} is not yet part of Emacs, so if you are using @file{org.el} as it comes with Emacs, you need to download this file separately. Also make sure org.el is at least version 4.27.} a publishing management system that allows you to configure automatic HTML conversion of @emph{projects} composed of interlinked org files. This system is called @emph{org-publish}. You can also configure org-publish to automatically upload your exported HTML pages and related attachments, such as images and source code files, to a web server. Org-publish turns org-mode into a web-site authoring tool. Org-publish has been contributed to Org-mode by David O'Toole. @menu * Configuration:: Defining projects * Sample configuration:: Example projects * Triggering publication:: Publication commands @end menu @node Configuration, Sample configuration, Publishing, Publishing @section Configuration Publishing needs significant configuration to specify files, destination and many other properties of a project. @menu * Project alist:: The central configuration variable * Sources and destinations:: From here to there * Selecting files:: What files are part of the project? * Publishing action:: Setting the function doing the publishing * Publishing options:: Tweaking HTML export * Publishing links:: Which links keep working after publishing? * Project page index:: Publishing a list of project files @end menu @node Project alist, Sources and destinations, Configuration, Configuration @subsection The variable @code{org-publish-project-alist} @cindex org-publish-project-alist @cindex projects, for publishing Org-publish is configured almost entirely through setting the value of one variable, called @code{org-publish-project-alist}. Each element of the list configures one project, and may be in one of the two following forms: @lisp ("project-name" :property value :property value ...) @r{or} ("project-name" :components ("project-name" "project-name" ...)) @end lisp In both cases, projects are configured by specifying property values. A project defines the set of files that will be published, as well as the publishing configuration to use when publishing those files. When a project takes the second form listed above, the individual members of the components'' property are taken to be components of the project, which group together files requiring different publishing options. When you publish such a meta-project'' all the components will also publish. @node Sources and destinations, Selecting files, Project alist, Configuration @subsection Sources and destinations for files @cindex directories, for publishing Most properties are optional, but some should always be set. In particular, org-publish needs to know where to look for source files, and where to put published files. @multitable @columnfractions 0.3 0.7 @item @code{:base-directory} @tab Directory containing publishing source files @item @code{:publishing-directory} @tab Directory (possibly remote) where output files will be published. @item @code{:preparation-function} @tab Function called before starting publishing process, for example to run @code{make} for updating files to be published. @end multitable @noindent @node Selecting files, Publishing action, Sources and destinations, Configuration @subsection Selecting files @cindex files, selecting for publishing By default, all files with extension @file{.org} in the base directory are considered part of the project. This can be modified by setting the properties @multitable @columnfractions 0.25 0.75 @item @code{:base-extension} @tab Extension (without the dot!) of source files. This actually is a regular expression. @item @code{:exclude} @tab Regular expression to match file names that should not be published, even though they have been selected on the basis of their extension. @item @code{:include} @tab List of files to be included regardless of @code{:base-extension} and @code{:exclude}. @end multitable @node Publishing action, Publishing options, Selecting files, Configuration @subsection Publishing Action @cindex action, for publishing Publishing means that a file is copied to the destination directory and possibly transformed in the process. The default transformation is to export Org-mode files as HTML files, and this is done by the function @code{org-publish-org-to-html} which calls the HTML exporter (@pxref{HTML export}). Other files like images only need to be copied to the publishing destination. For non-Org-mode files, you need to specify the publishing function. @multitable @columnfractions 0.3 0.7 @item @code{:publishing-function} @tab Function executing the publication of a file. This may also be a list of functions, which will all be called in turn. @end multitable The function must accept two arguments: a property list containing at least a @code{:publishing-directory} property, and the name of the file to be published. It should take the specified file, make the necessary transformation (if any) and place the result into the destination folder. You can write your own publishing function, but @code{org-publish} provides one for attachments (files that only need to be copied): @code{org-publish-attachment}. @node Publishing options, Publishing links, Publishing action, Configuration @subsection Options for the HTML exporter @cindex options, for publishing The property list can be used to set many export options for the HTML exporter. In most cases, these properties correspond to user variables in Org-mode. The table below lists these properties along with the variable they belong to. See the documentation string for the respective variable for details. @multitable @columnfractions 0.3 0.7 @item @code{:language} @tab @code{org-export-default-language} @item @code{:headline-levels} @tab @code{org-export-headline-levels} @item @code{:section-numbers} @tab @code{org-export-with-section-numbers} @item @code{:table-of-contents} @tab @code{org-export-with-toc} @item @code{:archived-trees} @tab @code{org-export-with-archived-trees} @item @code{:emphasize} @tab @code{org-export-with-emphasize} @item @code{:sub-superscript} @tab @code{org-export-with-sub-superscripts} @item @code{:TeX-macros} @tab @code{org-export-with-TeX-macros} @item @code{:LaTeX-fragments} @tab @code{org-export-with-LaTeX-fragments} @item @code{:fixed-width} @tab @code{org-export-with-fixed-width} @item @code{:timestamps} .@tab @code{org-export-with-timestamps} @item @code{:tags} .@tab @code{org-export-with-tags} @item @code{:tables} @tab @code{org-export-with-tables} @item @code{:table-auto-headline} @tab @code{org-export-highlight-first-table-line} @item @code{:style} @tab @code{org-export-html-style} @item @code{:convert-org-links} @tab @code{org-export-html-link-org-files-as-html} @item @code{:inline-images} @tab @code{org-export-html-inline-images} @item @code{:expand-quoted-html} @tab @code{org-export-html-expand} @item @code{:timestamp} @tab @code{org-export-html-with-timestamp} @item @code{:publishing-directory} @tab @code{org-export-publishing-directory} @item @code{:preamble} @tab @code{org-export-html-preamble} @item @code{:postamble} @tab @code{org-export-html-postamble} @item @code{:auto-preamble} @tab @code{org-export-html-auto-preamble} @item @code{:auto-postamble} @tab @code{org-export-html-auto-postamble} @item @code{:author} @tab @code{user-full-name} @item @code{:email} @tab @code{user-mail-address} @end multitable When a property is given a value in org-publish-project-alist, its setting overrides the value of the corresponding user variable (if any) during publishing. options set within a file (@pxref{Export options}), however, override everything. @node Publishing links, Project page index, Publishing options, Configuration @subsection Links between published files @cindex links, publishing To create a link from one Org-mode file to another, you would use something like @samp{[[file:foo.org][The foo]]} or simply @samp{file:foo.org.} (@pxref{Hyperlinks}). Upon publishing this link becomes a link to @file{foo.html}. In this way, you can interlink the pages of your "org web" project and the links will work as expected when you publish them to HTML. You may also link to related files, such as images. Provided you are careful with relative pathnames, and provided you have also configured org-publish to upload the related files, these links will work too. @ref{Complex example} for an example of this usage. Sometime an Org-mode file to be published may contain links that are only valid in your production environment, but not in the publishing location. In this case, use the property @multitable @columnfractions 0.4 0.6 @item @code{:link-validation-function} @tab Function to validate links @end multitable @noindent to define a function for checking link validity. This function must accept two arguments, the file name and a directory relative to which the file name is interpreted in the production environment. If this function returns @code{nil}, then the HTML generator will only insert a description into the HTML file, but no link. One option for this function is @code{org-publish-validate-link} which checks if the given file is part of any project in @code{org-publish-project-alist}. @node Project page index, , Publishing links, Configuration @subsection Project page index @cindex index, of published pages The following properties may be used to control publishing of an index of files or summary page for a given project. @multitable @columnfractions 0.25 0.75 @item @code{:auto-index} @tab When non-nil, publish an index during org-publish-current-project or org-publish-all. @item @code{:index-filename} @tab Filename for output of index. Defaults to @file{index.org} (which becomes @file{index.html}). @item @code{:index-title} @tab Title of index page. Defaults to name of file. @item @code{:index-function} @tab Plugin function to use for generation of index. Defaults to @code{org-publish-org-index}, which generates a plain list of links to all files in the project. @end multitable @node Sample configuration, Triggering publication, Configuration, Publishing @section Sample configuration Below we provide two example configurations. The first one is a simple project publishing only a set of Org-mode files. The second example is more complex, with a multi-component project. @menu * Simple example:: One-component publishing * Complex example:: A multi-component publishing example @end menu @node Simple example, Complex example, Sample configuration, Sample configuration @subsection Example: simple publishing configuration This example publishes a set of Org-mode files to the @file{public_html} directory on the local machine. @lisp (setq org-publish-project-alist '(("org" :base-directory "~/org/" :publishing-directory "~/public_html" :section-numbers nil :table-of-contents nil :style "<link rel=stylesheet href=\"../other/mystyle.css\" type=\"text/css\">"))) @end lisp @node Complex example, , Simple example, Sample configuration @subsection Example: complex publishing configuration This more complicated example publishes an entire website, including org files converted to HTML, image files, emacs lisp source code, and stylesheets. The publishing-directory is remote and private files are excluded. To ensure that links are preserved, care should be taken to replicate your directory structure on the web server, and to use relative file paths. For example, if your org files are kept in @file{~/org} and your publishable images in @file{~/images}, you'd link to an image with @c @example file:../images/myimage.png @end example @c On the web server, the relative path to the image should be the same. You can accomplish this by setting up an "images" folder in the right place on the webserver, and publishing images to it. @lisp (setq org-publish-project-alist '(("orgfiles" :base-directory "~/org/" :base-extension "org" :publishing-directory "/ssh:user@@host:~/html/notebook/" :publishing-function org-publish-org-to-html :exclude "PrivatePage.org" ;; regexp :headline-levels 3 :section-numbers nil :table-of-contents nil :style "<link rel=stylesheet href=\"../other/mystyle.css\" type=\"text/css\">" :auto-preamble t :auto-postamble nil) ("images" :base-directory "~/images/" :base-extension "jpg\\|gif\\|png" :publishing-directory "/ssh:user@@host:~/html/images/" :publishing-function org-publish-attachment) ("other" :base-directory "~/other/" :base-extension "css\\|el" :publishing-directory "/ssh:user@@host:~/html/other/" :publishing-function org-publish-attachment) ("website" :components ("orgfiles" "images" "other")))) @end lisp @node Triggering publication, , Sample configuration, Publishing @section Triggering publication Once org-publish is properly configured, you can publish with the following functions: @table @kbd @item C-c C-e c Prompt for a specific project and publish all files that belong to it. @item C-c C-e p Publish the project containing the current file. @item C-c C-e f Publish only the current file. @item C-c C-e a Publish all projects. @end table Org uses timestamps to track when a file has changed. The above functions normally only publish changed files. You can override this and force publishing of all files by giving a prefix argument. @node Miscellaneous, Extensions and Hacking, Publishing, Top @chapter Miscellaneous @menu * Completion:: M-TAB knows what you need * Customization:: Adapting Org-mode to your taste * In-buffer settings:: Overview of the #+KEYWORDS * The very busy C-c C-c key:: When in doubt, press C-c C-c * Clean view:: Getting rid of leading stars in the outline * TTY keys:: Using Org-mode on a tty * Interaction:: Other Emacs packages * Bugs:: Things which do not work perfectly @end menu @node Completion, Customization, Miscellaneous, Miscellaneous @section Completion @cindex completion, of @TeX{} symbols @cindex completion, of TODO keywords @cindex completion, of dictionary words @cindex completion, of option keywords @cindex completion, of tags @cindex completion, of link abbreviations @cindex @TeX{} symbol completion @cindex TODO keywords completion @cindex dictionary word completion @cindex option keyword completion @cindex tag completion @cindex link abbreviations, completion of Org-mode supports in-buffer completion. This type of completion does not make use of the minibuffer. You simply type a few letters into the buffer and use the key to complete text right there. @table @kbd @kindex M-@key{TAB} @item M-@key{TAB} Complete word at point @itemize @bullet @item At the beginning of a headline, complete TODO keywords. @item After @samp{\}, complete @TeX{} symbols supported by the exporter. @item After @samp{*}, complete headlines in the current buffer so that they can be used in search links like @samp{[[*find this headline]]}. @item After @samp{:}, complete tags. The list of tags is taken from the variable @code{org-tag-alist} (possibly set through the @samp{#+TAGS} in-buffer option, @pxref{Setting tags}), or it is created dynamically from all tags used in the current buffer. @item After @samp{[}, complete link abbreviations (@pxref{Link abbreviations}). @item After @samp{#+}, complete the special keywords like @samp{TYP_TODO} or @samp{OPTIONS} which set file-specific options for Org-mode. When the option keyword is already complete, pressing @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} again will insert example settings for this keyword. @item In the line after @samp{#+STARTUP: }, complete startup keywords, i.e. valid keys for this line. @item Elsewhere, complete dictionary words using ispell. @end itemize @end table @node Customization, In-buffer settings, Completion, Miscellaneous @section Customization @cindex customization @cindex options, for customization @cindex variables, for customization There are more than 180 variables that can be used to customize Org-mode. For the sake of compactness of the manual, I am not describing the variables here. A structured overview of customization variables is available with @kbd{M-x org-customize}. Or select @code{Browse Org Group} from the @code{Org->Customization} menu. Many settings can also be activated on a per-file basis, by putting special lines into the buffer (@pxref{In-buffer settings}). @node In-buffer settings, The very busy C-c C-c key, Customization, Miscellaneous @section Summary of in-buffer settings @cindex in-buffer settings @cindex special keywords Org-mode uses special lines in the buffer to define settings on a per-file basis. These lines start with a @samp{#+} followed by a keyword, a colon, and then individual words defining a setting. Several setting words can be in the same line, but you can also have multiple lines for the keyword. While these settings are described throughout the manual, here is a summary. After changing any of those lines in the buffer, press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the line to activate the changes immediately. Otherwise they become effective only when the file is visited again in a new Emacs session. @table @kbd @item #+STARTUP: This line sets options to be used at startup of org-mode, when an Org-mode file is being visited. The first set of options deals with the initial visibility of the outline tree. The corresponding variable for global default settings is @code{org-startup-folded}, with a default value @code{t}, which means @code{overview}. @cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword @example overview @r{top-level headlines only} content @r{all headlines} showall @r{no folding at all, show everything} @end example Then there are options for aligning tables upon visiting a file. This is useful in files containing narrowed table columns. The corresponding variable is @code{org-startup-align-all-tables}, with a default value @code{nil}. @cindex @code{align}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{noalign}, STARTUP keyword @example align @r{align all tables} noalign @r{don't align tables on startup} @end example Logging TODO state changes and clock intervals (variable @code{org-log-done}) can be configured using these options. @cindex @code{logdone}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{nologging}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{lognotedone}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{lognoteclock-out}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{lognotestate}, STARTUP keyword @example logging @r{record a timestamp when an item is marked DONE} nologging @r{don't record when items are marked DONE} lognotedone @r{record timestamp and a note when DONE} lognotestate @r{record timestamp, note when TODO state changes} lognoteclock-out @r{record timestamp and a note when clocking out} @end example Here are the options for hiding leading stars in outline headings. The corresponding variables are @code{org-hide-leading-stars} and @code{org-odd-levels-only}, both with a default setting @code{nil} (meaning @code{showstars} and @code{oddeven}). @cindex @code{hidestars}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{showstars}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{odd}, STARTUP keyword @cindex @code{even}, STARTUP keyword @example hidestars @r{make all but one of the stars starting a headline invisible.} showstars @r{show all stars starting a headline} odd @r{allow only odd outline levels (1,3,...)} oddeven @r{allow all outline levels} @end example To turn on custom format overlays over time stamps (variables @code{org-put-time-stamp-overlays} and @code{org-time-stamp-overlay-formats}), use @cindex @code{customtime}, STARTUP keyword @example customtime @r{overlay custom time format} @end example @item #+SEQ_TODO: #+TYP_TODO: These lines set the TODO keywords and their interpretation in the current file. The corresponding variables are @code{org-todo-keywords} and @code{org-todo-interpretation}. @item #+TAGS: TAG1(c1) TAG2(c2) These lines (several such lines are allowed) specify the legal tags in this file, and (potentially) the corresponding @emph{fast tag selection} keys. The corresponding variable is @code{org-tag-alist}. @item #+LINK: linkword replace These lines (several are allowed) specify link abbreviations. @xref{Link abbreviations}. The corresponding variable is @code{org-link-abbrev-alist}. @item #+CATEGORY: This line sets the category for the agenda file. The category applies for all subsequent lines until the next @samp{#+CATEGORY} line, or the end of the file. The first such line also applies to any entries before it. @item #+ARCHIVE: %s_done:: This line sets the archive location for the agenda file. It applies for all subsequent lines until the next @samp{#+CATEGORY} line, or the end of the file. The first such line also applies to any entries before it. The corresponding variable is @code{org-archive-location}. @item #+TBLFM: This line contains the formulas for the table directly above the line. @item #+TITLE:, #+AUTHOR:, #+EMAIL:, #+LANGUAGE:, #+TEXT:, #+OPTIONS: These lines provide settings for exporting files. For more details see @ref{Export options}. @end table @node The very busy C-c C-c key, Clean view, In-buffer settings, Miscellaneous @section The very busy C-c C-c key @kindex C-c C-c @cindex C-c C-c, overview The key @kbd{C-c C-c} has many purposes in org-mode, which are all mentioned scattered throughout this manual. One specific function of this key is to add @emph{tags} to a headline (@pxref{Tags}). In many other circumstances it means something like @emph{Hey Org-mode, look here and update according to what you see here}. Here is a summary of what this means in different contexts. @itemize @minus @item If there are highlights in the buffer from the creation of a sparse tree, or from clock display, remove these highlights. @item If the cursor is in one of the special @code{#+KEYWORD} lines, this triggers scanning the buffer for these lines and updating the information. @item If the cursor is inside a table, realign the table. This command works even if the automatic table editor has been turned off. @item If the cursor is on a @code{#+TBLFM} line, re-apply the formulas to the entire table. @item If the cursor is inside a table created by the @file{table.el} package, activate that table. @item If the current buffer is a remember buffer, close the note and file it. With a prefix argument, file it, without further interaction, to the default location. @item If the cursor is on a @code{<<<target>>>}, update radio targets and corresponding links in this buffer. @item If the cursor is in a plain list item with a checkbox, toggle the status of the checkbox. @item If the cursor is on a numbered item in a plain list, renumber the ordered list. @end itemize @node Clean view, TTY keys, The very busy C-c C-c key, Miscellaneous @section A cleaner outline view @cindex hiding leading stars @cindex clean outline view Some people find it noisy and distracting that the Org-mode headlines are starting with a potentially large number of stars. For example the tree from @ref{Headlines}: @example * Top level headline ** Second level *** 3rd level some text *** 3rd level more text * Another top level headline @end example @noindent Unfortunately this is deeply ingrained into the code of Org-mode and cannot be easily changed. You can, however, modify the display in such a way that all leading stars become invisible and the outline more easy to read. To do this, customize the variable @code{org-hide-leading-stars} like this: @lisp (setq org-hide-leading-stars t) @end lisp @noindent or change this on a per-file basis with one of the lines (anywhere in the buffer) @example #+STARTUP: showstars #+STARTUP: hidestars @end example @noindent Press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in a @samp{STARTUP} line to activate the modifications. With stars hidden, the tree becomes: @example * Top level headline * Second level * 3rd level some text * 3rd level more text * Another top level headline @end example @noindent Note that the leading stars are not truly replaced by whitespace, they are only fontified with the face @code{org-hide} that uses the background color as font color. If you are not using either white or black background, you may have to customize this face to get the wanted effect. Another possibility is to set this font such that the extra stars are @i{almost} invisible, for example using the color @code{grey90} on a white background. Things become cleaner still if you skip all the even levels and use only odd levels 1, 3, 5..., effectively adding two stars to go from one outline level to the next: @example * Top level headline * Second level * 3rd level some text * 3rd level more text * Another top level headline @end example @noindent In order to make the structure editing and export commands handle this convention correctly, use @lisp (setq org-odd-levels-only t) @end lisp @noindent or set this on a per-file basis with one of the following lines (don't forget to press @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in the startup line to activate changes immediately). @example #+STARTUP: odd #+STARTUP: oddeven @end example You can convert an Org-mode file from single-star-per-level to the double-star-per-level convention with @kbd{M-x org-convert-to-odd-levels RET} in that file. The reverse operation is @kbd{M-x org-convert-to-oddeven-levels}. @node TTY keys, Interaction, Clean view, Miscellaneous @section Using org-mode on a tty @cindex tty keybindings Org-mode uses a number of keys that are not accessible on a tty. This applies to most special keys like cursor keys, @key{TAB} and @key{RET}, when these are combined with modifier keys like @key{Meta} and/or @key{Shift}. Org-mode uses these bindings because it needs to provide keys for a large number of commands, and because these keys appeared particularly easy to remember. In order to still be able to access the core functionality of Org-mode on a tty, alternative bindings are provided. Here is a complete list of these bindings, which are obviously more cumbersome to use. Note that sometimes a work-around can be better. For example changing a time stamp is really only fun with @kbd{S-@key{cursor}} keys. On a tty you would rather use @kbd{C-c .} to re-insert the timestamp. @multitable @columnfractions 0.15 0.2 0.2 @item @b{Default} @tab @b{Alternative 1} @tab @b{Alternative 2} @item @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} @tab @kbd{C-u @key{TAB}} @tab @item @kbd{M-@key{left}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x l} @tab @kbd{@key{Esc} @key{left}} @item @kbd{M-S-@key{left}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x L} @tab @item @kbd{M-@key{right}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x r} @tab @kbd{@key{Esc} @key{right}} @item @kbd{M-S-@key{right}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x R} @tab @item @kbd{M-@key{up}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x u} @tab @kbd{@key{Esc} @key{up}} @item @kbd{M-S-@key{up}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x U} @tab @item @kbd{M-@key{down}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x d} @tab @kbd{@key{Esc} @key{down}} @item @kbd{M-S-@key{down}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x D} @tab @item @kbd{S-@key{RET}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x c} @tab @item @kbd{M-@key{RET}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x m} @tab @kbd{@key{Esc} @key{RET}} @item @kbd{M-S-@key{RET}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x M} @tab @item @kbd{S-@key{left}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x @key{left}} @tab @item @kbd{S-@key{right}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x @key{right}} @tab @item @kbd{S-@key{up}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x @key{up}} @tab @item @kbd{S-@key{down}} @tab @kbd{C-c C-x @key{down}} @tab @end multitable @node Interaction, Bugs, TTY keys, Miscellaneous @section Interaction with other packages @cindex packages, interaction with other Org-mode lives in the world of GNU Emacs and interacts in various ways with other code out there. @menu * Cooperation:: Packages Org-mode cooperates with * Conflicts:: Packages that lead to conflicts @end menu @node Cooperation, Conflicts, Interaction, Interaction @subsection Packages that Org-mode cooperates with @table @asis @cindex @file{calc.el} @item @file{calc.el} by Dave Gillespie Org-mode uses the calc package for implementing spreadsheet functionality in its tables (@pxref{The spreadsheet}). Org-mode checks for the availability of calc by looking for the function @code{calc-eval} which should be autoloaded in your setup if calc has been installed properly. As of Emacs 22, calc is part of the Emacs distribution. Another possibility for interaction between the two packages is using calc for embedded calculations. @xref{Embedded Mode, , Embedded Mode, calc, GNU Emacs Calc Manual}. @cindex @file{constants.el} @item @file{constants.el} by Carsten Dominik In a table formula (@pxref{The spreadsheet}), it is possible to use names for natural constants or units. Instead of defining your own constants in the variable @code{org-table-formula-constants}, install the @file{constants} package which defines a large number of constants and units, and lets you use unit prefixes like @samp{M} for @samp{Mega} etc. You will need version 2.0 of this package, available at @url{http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik/Tools}. Org-mode checks for the function @code{constants-get}, which has to be autoloaded in your setup. See the installation instructions in the file @file{constants.el}. @item @file{cdlatex.el} by Carsten Dominik @cindex @file{cdlatex.el} Org-mode can make use of the cdlatex package to efficiently enter La@TeX{} fragments into Org-mode files. See @ref{CDLaTeX mode}. @item @file{remember.el} by John Wiegley @cindex @file{remember.el} Org mode cooperates with remember, see @ref{Remember}. @file{Remember.el} is not part of Emacs, find it on the web. @cindex @file{table.el} @item @file{table.el} by Takaaki Ota @kindex C-c C-c @cindex table editor, @file{table.el} @cindex @file{table.el} Complex ASCII tables with automatic line wrapping, column- and row-spanning, and alignment can be created using the Emacs table package by Takaaki Ota (@uref{http://sourceforge.net/projects/table}, and also part of Emacs 22). When @key{TAB} or @kbd{C-c C-c} is pressed in such a table, Org-mode will call @command{table-recognize-table} and move the cursor into the table. Inside a table, the keymap of Org-mode is inactive. In order to execute Org-mode-related commands, leave the table. @table @kbd @kindex C-c C-c @item C-c C-c Recognize @file{table.el} table. Works when the cursor is in a table.el table. @kindex C-c ~ @item C-c ~ Insert a table.el table. If there is already a table at point, this command converts it between the table.el format and the Org-mode format. See the documentation string of the command @code{org-convert-table} for the restrictions under which this is possible. @end table @file{table.el} is part of Emacs 22. @end table @node Conflicts, , Cooperation, Interaction @subsection Packages that lead to conflicts with Org-mode @table @asis @cindex @file{allout.el} @item @file{allout.el} by Ken Manheimer Startup of Org-mode may fail with the error message @code{(wrong-type-argument keymapp nil)} when there is an outdated version @file{allout.el} on the load path, for example the version distributed with Emacs 21.x. Upgrade to Emacs 22 and this problem will disappear. If for some reason you cannot do this, make sure that org.el is loaded @emph{before} @file{allout.el}, for example by putting @code{(require 'org)} early enough into your @file{.emacs} file. @cindex @file{CUA.el} @item @file{CUA.el} by Kim. F. Storm Keybindings in Org-mode conflict with the @kbd{S-<cursor>} keys used by CUA-mode (as well as pc-select-mode and s-region-mode) to select and extend the region. If you want to use one of these packages along with Org-mode, configure the variable @code{org-CUA-compatible}. When set, Org-mode will move the following keybindings in org-mode files, and in the agenda buffer (but not during date selection). @example S-UP -> M-p S-DOWN -> M-n S-LEFT -> M-- S-RIGHT -> M-+ S-RET -> C-S-RET @end example Yes, these are unfortunately more difficult to remember. If you want to have other replacement keys, look at the variable @code{org-disputed-keys}. @item @file{windmove.el} by Hovav Shacham @cindex @file{windmove.el} Also this package uses the @kbd{S-<cursor>} keys, so everything written in the paragraph above about CUA mode also applies here. @end table @node Bugs, , Interaction, Miscellaneous @section Bugs @cindex bugs Here is a list of things that should work differently, but which I have found too hard to fix. @itemize @bullet @item If a table field starts with a link, and if the corresponding table column is narrowed (@pxref{Narrow columns}) to a width too small to display the link, the field would look entirely empty even though it is not. To prevent this, Org-mode throws an error. The work-around is to make the column wide enough to fit the link, or to add some text (at least 2 characters) before the link in the same field. @item Narrowing table columns does not work on XEmacs, because the @code{format} function does not transport text properties. @item Text in an entry protected with the @samp{QUOTE} keyword should not autowrap. @item When the application called by @kbd{C-c C-o} to open a file link fails (for example because the application does not exist or refuses to open the file), it does so silently. No error message is displayed. @item Recalculating a table line applies the formulas from left to right. If a formula uses @emph{calculated} fields further down the row, multiple recalculation may be needed to get all fields consistent. You may use the command @code{org-table-iterate} (@kbd{C-u C-c *}) to recalculate until convergence. @item A single letter cannot be made bold, for example @samp{*a*}. @item The exporters work well, but could be made more efficient. @end itemize @node Extensions and Hacking, History and Acknowledgments, Miscellaneous, Top @appendix Extensions, Hooks and Hacking This appendix lists extensions for Org-mode written by other authors. It also covers some aspects where users can extend the functionality of Org-mode. @menu * Extensions:: Existing 3rd-part extensions * Tables in arbitrary syntax:: Orgtbl for LaTeX and other programs * Dynamic blocks:: Automatically filled blocks * Special agenda views:: Customized views @end menu @node Extensions, Tables in arbitrary syntax, Extensions and Hacking, Extensions and Hacking @section Third-party extensions for Org-mode @cindex extension, third-party The following extensions for Org-mode have been written by other people: @table @asis @cindex @file{org-publish.el} @item @file{org-publish.el} by David O'Toole This package provides facilities for publishing related sets of Org-mode files together with linked files like images as webpages. It is highly configurable and can be used for other publishing purposes as well. As of Org-mode version 4.30, @file{org-publish.el} is part of the Org-mode distribution. It is not yet part of Emacs, however, a delay caused by the preparations for the 22.1 release. In the mean time, @file{org-publish.el} can be downloaded from David's site: @url{http://dto.freeshell.org/e/org-publish.el}. @cindex @file{org-mouse.el} @item @file{org-mouse.el} by Piotr Zielinski This package implements extended mouse functionality for Org-mode. It allows you to cycle visibility and to edit the document structure with the mouse. Best of all, it provides a context-sensitive menu on @key{mouse-3} that changes depending on the context of a mouse-click. As of Org-mode version 4.53, @file{org-mouse.el} is part of the Org-mode distribution. It is not yet part of Emacs, however, a delay caused by the preparations for the 22.1 release. In the mean time, @file{org-mouse.el} can be downloaded from Piotr's site: @url{http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~pz215/files/org-mouse.el}. @cindex @file{org-blog.el} @item @file{org-blog.el} by David O'Toole A blogging plug-in for @file{org-publish.el}.@* @url{http://dto.freeshell.org/notebook/OrgMode.html}. @cindex @file{blorg.el} @item @file{blorg.el} by Bastien Guerry Publish Org-mode files as blogs. @url{http://www.cognition.ens.fr/~guerry/blorg.html}. @cindex @file{org2rem.el} @item @file{org2rem.el} by Bastien Guerry Translates Org-mode files into something readable by Remind. @url{http://www.cognition.ens.fr/~guerry/u/org2rem.el}. @end table @page @node Tables in arbitrary syntax, Dynamic blocks, Extensions, Extensions and Hacking @section Tables in arbitrary syntax @cindex tables, in other modes @cindex orgtbl-mode Since Orgtbl-mode can be used as a minor mode in arbitrary buffers, a frequent feature request has been to make it work with native tables in specific languages, for example LaTeX. However, this is extremely hard to do in a general way, would lead to a customization nightmare, and would take away much of the simplicity of the Orgtbl-mode table editor. This appendix describes a different approach. We keep the Orgtbl-mode table in its native format (the @i{source table}), and use a custom function to @i{translate} the table to the correct syntax, and to @i{install} it in the right location (the @i{target table}). This puts the burden of writing conversion functions on the user, but it allows for a very flexible system. @menu * Radio tables:: Sending and receiving * A LaTeX example:: Step by step, almost a tutorial * Translator functions:: Copy and modify @end menu @node Radio tables, A LaTeX example, Tables in arbitrary syntax, Tables in arbitrary syntax @subsection Radio tables @cindex radio tables To define the location of the target table, you first need to create two lines that are comments in the current mode, but contain magic words for Orgtbl-mode to find. Orgtbl-mode will insert the translated table between these lines, replacing whatever was there before. For example: @example /* BEGIN RECEIVE ORGTBL table_name */ /* END RECEIVE ORGTBL table_name */ @end example @noindent Just above the source table, we put a special line that tells Orgtbl-mode how to translate this table and where to install it. For example: @example #+ORGTBL: SEND table_name translation_function arguments.... @end example @noindent @code{table_name} is the reference name for the table that is also used in the receiver lines. @code{translation_function} is the Lisp function that does the translation. Furthermore, the line can contain a list of arguments (alternating key and value) at the end. The arguments will be passed as a property list to the translation function for interpretation. A few standard parameters are already recognized and acted upon before the translation function is called: @table @code @item :skip N Skip the first N lines of the table. Hlines do count! @item :skipcols (n1 n2 ...) List of columns that should be skipped. If the table has a column with calculation marks, that column is automatically discarded as well. Please note that the translator function sees the table @emph{after} the removal of these columns, the function never knows that there have been additional columns. @end table @noindent The one problem remaining is how to keep the source table in the buffer without disturbing the normal workings of the file, for example during compilation of a C file or processing of a LaTeX file. There are a number of different solutions: @itemize @bullet @item The table could be placed in a block comment if that is supported by the language. For example, in C-mode you could wrap the table between @samp{/*} and @samp{*/} lines. @item Sometimes it is possible to put the table after some kind of @i{END} statement, for example @samp{\bye} in TeX and @samp{\end@{document@}} in LaTeX. @item You can just comment the table line by line whenever you want to process the file, and uncomment it whenever you need to edit the table. This only sounds tedious - the command @kbd{M-x orgtbl-toggle-comment} does make this comment-toggling very easy, in particular if you bind it to a key. @end itemize @node A LaTeX example, Translator functions, Radio tables, Tables in arbitrary syntax @subsection A LaTeX example @cindex LaTeX, and orgtbl-mode The best way to wrap the source table in LaTeX is to use the @code{comment} environment provided by @file{comment.sty}. It has to be activated by placing @code{\usepackage@{comment@}} into the document header. Orgtbl-mode can insert a radio table skeleton@footnote{By default this works only for LaTeX, HTML, and TeXInfo. Configure the variable @code{orgtbl-radio-tables} to install templates for other modes.} with the command @kbd{M-x orgtbl-insert-radio-table}. You will be prompted for a table name, lets say we use @samp{salesfigures}. You will then get the following template: @example % BEGIN RECEIVE ORGTBL salesfigures % END RECEIVE ORGTBL salesfigures \begin@{comment@} #+ORGTBL: SEND salesfigures orgtbl-to-latex | | | \end@{comment@} @end example @noindent The @code{#+ORGTBL: SEND} line tells orgtbl-mode to use the function @code{orgtbl-to-latex} to convert the table into LaTeX and to put it into the receiver location with name @code{salesfigures}. You may now fill in the table, feel free to use the spreadsheet features@footnote{If the @samp{#+TBLFM} line contains an odd number of dollar characters, this may cause problems with font-lock in latex-mode. As shown in the example you can fix this by adding an extra line inside the @code{comment} environment that is used to balance the dollar expressions. If you are using AUCTeX with the font-latex library, a much better solution is to add the @code{comment} environment to the variable @code{LaTeX-verbatim-environments}.}: @example % BEGIN RECEIVE ORGTBL salesfigures % END RECEIVE ORGTBL salesfigures \begin@{comment@} #+ORGTBL: SEND salesfigures orgtbl-to-latex | Month | Days | Nr sold | per day | |-------+------+---------+---------| | Jan | 23 | 55 | 2.4 | | Feb | 21 | 16 | 0.8 | | March | 22 | 278 | 12.6 | #+TBLFM:4=$3/$2;%.1f
% (optional extra dollar to keep font-lock happy, see footnote) \end@{comment@} @end example @noindent When you are done, press @kbd{C-c C-c} in the table to get the converted table inserted between the two marker lines. Now lets assume you want to make the table header by hand, because you want to control how columns are aligned etc. In this case we make sure that the table translator does skip the first 2 lines of the source table, and tell the command to work as a @i{splice}, i.e. to not produce header and footer commands of the target table: @example \begin@{tabular@}@{lrrr@} Month & \multicolumn@{1@}@{c@}@{Days@} & Nr.\ sold & per day\\ % BEGIN RECEIVE ORGTBL salesfigures % END RECEIVE ORGTBL salesfigures \end@{tabular@} % \begin@{comment@} #+ORGTBL: SEND salesfigures orgtbl-to-latex :splice t :skip 2 | Month | Days | Nr sold | per day | |-------+------+---------+---------| | Jan | 23 | 55 | 2.4 | | Feb | 21 | 16 | 0.8 | | March | 22 | 278 | 12.6 | #+TBLFM:4=$3/$2;%.1f
\end@{comment@}
@end example

The LaTeX translator function @code{orgtbl-to-latex} is already part of
Orgtbl-mode.  It uses a @code{tabular} environment to typeset the table
and marks horizontal lines with @code{\hline}.  Furthermore, it
interprets the following parameters:

@table @code
@item :splice nil/t
When set to t, return only table body lines, don't wrap them into a
tabular environment.  Default is nil.

@item :fmt fmt
A format to be used to wrap each field, should contain @code{%s} for the
original field value.  For example, to wrap each field value in dollars,
you could use @code{:fmt "$%s$"}.  This may also be a property list with
column numbers and formats. for example @code{:fmt (2 "$%s$" 4 "%s\\%%")}.

@item :efmt efmt
Use this format to print numbers with exponentials.  The format should
have @code{%s} twice for inserting mantissa and exponent, for example
@code{"%s\\times10^@{%s@}"}.  The default is @code{"%s\\,(%s)"}.  This
may also be a property list with column numbers and formats, for example
@code{:efmt (2 "$%s\\times10^@{%s@}$" 4 "$%s\\cdot10^@{%s@}$")}.  After
@code{efmt} has been applied to a value, @code{fmt} will also be
applied.
@end table

@node Translator functions,  , A LaTeX example, Tables in arbitrary syntax
@subsection Translator functions
@cindex HTML, and orgtbl-mode
@cindex translator function

Orgtbl-mode has several translator functions built-in:
@code{orgtbl-to-latex}, @code{orgtbl-to-html}, and
@code{orgtbl-to-texinfo}.  Except for @code{orgtbl-to-html}@footnote{The
HTML translator uses the same code that produces tables during HTML
export.}, these all use a generic translator, @code{orgtbl-to-generic}.
For example, @code{orgtbl-to-latex} itself is a very short function that
computes the column definitions for the @code{tabular} environment,
defines a few field and line separators and then hands over to the
generic translator.  Here is the entire code:

@lisp
@group
(defun orgtbl-to-latex (table params)
"Convert the orgtbl-mode TABLE to LaTeX."
(let* ((alignment (mapconcat (lambda (x) (if x "r" "l"))
org-table-last-alignment ""))
(params2
(list
:tstart (concat "\\begin@{tabular@}@{" alignment "@}")
:tend "\\end@{tabular@}"
:lstart "" :lend " \\\\" :sep " & "
:efmt "%s\\,(%s)" :hline "\\hline")))
(orgtbl-to-generic table (org-combine-plists params2 params))))
@end group
@end lisp

As you can see, the properties passed into the function (variable
@var{PARAMS}) are combined with the ones newly defined in the function
(variable @var{PARAMS2}).  The ones passed into the function (i.e. the
ones set by the @samp{ORGTBL SEND} line) take precedence.  So if you
would like to use the LaTeX translator, but wanted the line endings to
be @samp{\\[2mm]} instead of the default @samp{\\}, you could just
overrule the default with

@example
#+ORGTBL: SEND test orgtbl-to-latex :lend " \\\\[2mm]"
@end example

For a new language, you can either write your own converter function in
analogy with the LaTeX translator, or you can use the generic function
directly.  For example, if you have a language where a table is started
with @samp{!BTBL!}, ended with @samp{!ETBL!}, and where table lines are
started with @samp{!BL!}, ended with @samp{!EL!} and where the field
separator is a TAB, you could call the generic translator like this (on
a single line!):

@example
#+ORGTBL: SEND test orgtbl-to-generic :tstart "!BTBL!" :tend "!ETBL!"
:lstart "!BL! " :lend " !EL!" :sep "\t"
@end example

@noindent
Please check the documentation string of the function
@code{orgtbl-to-generic} for a full list of parameters understood by
that function and remember that you can pass each of them into
@code{orgtbl-to-latex}, @code{orgtbl-to-texinfo}, and any other function
using the generic function.

Of course you can also write a completely new function doing complicated
things the generic translator cannot do.  A translator function takes
two arguments.  The first argument is the table, a list of lines, each
line either the symbol @code{hline} or a list of fields.  The second
argument is the property list containing all parameters specified in the
@samp{#+ORGTBL: SEND} line.  The function must return a single string
containing the formatted table.  If you write a generally useful
translator, please post it on @code{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org} so that
others can benefit from your work.

@node Dynamic blocks, Special agenda views, Tables in arbitrary syntax, Extensions and Hacking
@section Dynamic blocks
@cindex dynamic blocks

Org-mode documents can contain @emph{dynamic blocks}.  These are
specially marked regions that are updated by some user-written function.
A good example for such a block is the clock table inserted by the
command @kbd{C-c C-x C-r} (@pxref{Clocking work time}).

Dynamic block are enclosed by a BEGIN-END structure that assigns a name
to the block and can also specify parameters for the function producing
the content of the block.

@example
#+BEGIN: myblock :parameter1 value1 :parameter2 value2 ...

#+END:
@end example

Dynamic blocks are updated with the following commands

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-x C-u
@item C-c C-x C-u
Update dynamic block at point.
@kindex C-u C-c C-x C-u
@item C-u C-c C-x C-u
Update all dynamic blocks in the current file.
@end table

Updating a dynamic block means to remove all the text between BEGIN and
END, parse the BEGIN line for parameters and then call the specific
writer function for this block to insert the new content.  For a block
with name @code{myblock}, the writer function is
@code{org-dblock-write:myblock} with as only parameter a property list
with the parameters given in the begin line.  Here is a trivial example
of a block that keeps track of when the block update function was last
run:

@example
#+BEGIN: block-update-time :format "on %m/%d/%Y at %H:%M"

#+END:
@end example

@noindent
The corresponding block writer function could look like this:

@lisp
(defun org-dblock-write:block-update-time (params)
(let ((fmt (or (plist-get params :format) "%d. %m. %Y")))
(insert "Last block update at: "
(format-time-string fmt (current-time)))))
@end lisp

If you want to make sure that all dynamic blocks are always up-to-date,
you could add the function @code{org-update-all-dblocks} to a hook, for
example @code{before-save-hook}.  @code{org-update-all-dblocks} is
written in a way that is does nothing in buffers that are not in Org-mode.

@node Special agenda views,  , Dynamic blocks, Extensions and Hacking
@section Special Agenda Views
@cindex agenda views, user-defined

Org-mode provides a special hook that can be used to narrow down the
selection made by any of the agenda views.  You may specify a function
that is used at each match to verify if the match should indeed be part
of the agenda view, and if not, how much should be skipped.

Let's say you want to produce a list of projects that contain a WAITING
tag anywhere in the project tree.  Let's further assume that you have
marked all tree headings that define a project with the todo keyword
PROJECT.  In this case you would run a todo search for the keyword
PROJECT, but skip the match unless there is a WAITING tag anywhere in
the subtree belonging to the project line.

To achieve this, you must write a function that searches the subtree for
the tag.  If the tag is found, the function must return @code{nil} to
indicate that this match should not be skipped.  If there is no such
tag, return the location of the end of the subtree, to indicate that
search should continue from there.

@lisp
(defun my-skip-unless-waiting ()
"Skip trees that are not waiting"
(let ((subtree-end (save-excursion (org-end-of-subtree t))))
(if (re-search-forward ":WAITING:" subtree-end t)
nil          ; tag found, do not skip
@end lisp

Furthermore you must write a command that uses @code{let} to temporarily
put this function into the variable @code{org-agenda-skip-function},
sets the header string for the agenda buffer, and calls the todo-list
generator while asking for the specific TODO keyword PROJECT.  The
function must also accept one argument MATCH, but it can choose to
ignore it@footnote{MATCH must be present in case you want to define a
custom command for producing this special list.  Custom commands always
supply the MATCH argument, but it can be empty if you do not specify it
while defining the command(@pxref{Custom agenda
views}).} (as we do in the example below).  Here is the example:

@lisp
(defun my-org-waiting-projects (&optional match)
"Produce a list of projects that contain a WAITING tag.
MATCH is being ignored."
(interactive)
(let ((org-agenda-skip-function 'my-skip-unless-waiting)
(org-agenda-overriding-header "Projects waiting for something: "))
;; make the list
(org-todo-list "PROJECT")))
@end lisp

@node History and Acknowledgments, GNU Free Documentation License, Extensions and Hacking, Top
@appendix History and Acknowledgments
@cindex acknowledgments
@cindex history
@cindex thanks

Org-mode was borne in 2003, out of frustration over the user interface
of the Emacs outline-mode.  I was trying to organize my notes and
projects, and using Emacs seemed to be the natural way to go.  However,
having to remember eleven different commands with two or three keys per
command, only to hide and unhide parts of the outline tree, that seemed
entirely unacceptable to me.  Also, when using outlines to take notes, I
constantly want to restructure the tree, organizing it parallel to my
thoughts and plans.  @emph{Visibility cycling} and @emph{structure
editing} were originally implemented in the package
@file{outline-magic.el}, but quickly moved to the more general
@file{org.el}.  As this environment became comfortable for project
planning, the next step was adding @emph{TODO entries}, basic @emph{time
stamps}, and @emph{table support}.  These areas highlight the two main
goals that Org-mode still has today: To create a new, outline-based,
plain text mode with innovative and intuitive editing features, and to
incorporate project planning functionality directly into a notes file.

Since the first release, hundreds of emails to me or on
@code{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org} have provided a constant stream of bug
reports, feedback, new ideas, and sometimes patches and add-on code.
Many thanks to everyone who has helped to improve this package.  I am
trying to keep here a list of the people who had significant influence
in shaping one or more aspects of Org-mode.  The list may not be
complete, if I have forgotten someone, please accept my apologies and
let me know.

@itemize @bullet

@item
@i{Thomas Baumann} contributed the code for links to the MH-E email
system.
@item
@i{Alex Bochannek} provided a patch for rounding time stamps.
@item
@i{Charles Cave}'s suggestion sparked the implementation of templates
for Remember.
@item
@i{Pavel Chalmoviansky} influenced the agenda treatment of items with
specified time.
@item
@i{Gregory Chernov} patched support for lisp forms into table
calculations and improved XEmacs compatibility, in particular by porting
@file{nouline.el} to XEmacs.
@item
@i{Sacha Chua} suggested to copy some linking code from Planner.
@item
@i{Eddward DeVilla} proposed and tested checkbox statistics.
@item
@i{Kees Dullemond} used to edit projects lists directly in HTML and so
inspired some of the early development, including HTML export.  He also
asked for a way to narrow wide table columns.
@item
@i{Christian Egli} converted the documentation into TeXInfo format,
patched CSS formatting into the HTML exporter, and inspired the agenda.
@item
@i{Nic Ferrier} contributed mailcap and XOXO support.
@item
@i{John Foerch} figured out how to make incremental search show context
around a match in a hidden outline tree.
@item
@i{Niels Giessen} had the idea to automatically archive DONE trees.
@item
@i{Bastien Guerry} provided extensive feedback and some patches, and
translated David O'Toole's tutorial into French.
@item
@i{Kai Grossjohann} pointed out key-binding conflicts with other packages.
@item
@i{Shidai Liu} (Leo'') provided extensive feedback and some patches.
@item
@i{Leon Liu} asked for embedded LaTeX and tested it.
@item
@i{Stefan Monnier} provided a patch to keep the Emacs-Lisp compiler
happy.
@item
@i{Todd Neal} provided patches for links to Info files and elisp forms.
@item
@i{Tim O'Callaghan} suggested in-file links, search options for general
@item
@i{Takeshi Okano} translated the manual and David O'Toole's tutorial
into Japanese.
@item
@i{Oliver Oppitz} suggested multi-state TODO items.
@item
@i{Scott Otterson} sparked the introduction of descriptive text for
@item
@i{Pete Phillips} helped during the development of the TAGS feature, and
provided frequent feedback.
@item
@i{T.V. Raman} reported bugs and suggested improvements.
@item
@i{Matthias Rempe} (Oelde) provided ideas, Windows support, and quality
control.
@item
@i{Kevin Rogers} contributed code to access VM files on remote hosts.
@item
@i{Frank Ruell} solved the mystery of the @code{keymapp nil} bug, a
conflict with @file{allout.el}.
@item
@i{Jason Riedy} sent a patch to fix a bug with export of TODO keywords.
@item
@i{Philip Rooke} created the Org-mode reference card and provided lots
of feedback.
@item
@i{Christian Schlauer} proposed angular brackets around links, among
other things.
@item
Linking to VM/BBDB/GNUS was inspired by @i{Tom Shannon}'s
@file{organizer-mode.el}.
@item
@i{Daniel Sinder} came up with the idea of internal archiving by locking
subtrees.
@item
@item
@i{David O'Toole} wrote @file{org-publish.el} and drafted the manual
@item
in HTML output.
@item
@i{Chris Wallace} provided a patch implementing the @samp{QUOTE}
keyword.
@item
@i{David Wainberg} suggested archiving, and improvements to the linking
system.
@item
@i{John Wiegley} wrote @file{emacs-wiki.el} and @file{planner.el}.  The
development of Org-mode was fully independent, and both systems are
really different beasts in their basic ideas and implementation details.
I later looked at John's code, however, and learned from his
implementation of (i) links where the link itself is hidden and only a
description is shown, and (ii) popping up a calendar to select a date.
@item
@i{Carsten Wimmer} suggested some changes and helped fix a bug in
@item
@i{Roland Winkler} requested additional keybindings to make Org-mode
work on a tty.
@item
@i{Piotr Zielinski} wrote @file{org-mouse.el}, proposed agenda blocks
and contributed various ideas and code snippets.
@end itemize

@node GNU Free Documentation License, Index, History and Acknowledgments, Top

@node Index, Key Index, GNU Free Documentation License, Top
@unnumbered Index

@printindex cp

@node Key Index,  , Index, Top
@unnumbered Key Index

@printindex ky

@bye

@ignore
arch-tag: 7893d1fe-cc57-4d13-b5e5-f494a1bcc7ac
@end ignore