emacs.texi   [plain text]

\input texinfo

@setfilename ../info/emacs
@settitle GNU Emacs Manual

@c The edition number appears in several places in this file
@set EDITION   Sixteenth
@set EMACSVER  22.1

This is the @value{EDITION} edition of the @cite{GNU Emacs Manual},@*
updated for Emacs version @value{EMACSVER}.

Copyright @copyright{} 1985, 1986, 1987, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997,
1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Free Software
Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
Invariant Sections being ``The GNU Manifesto,'' ``Distribution'' and
``GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE,'' with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU
Manual,'' and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the
license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have freedom to copy and modify
this GNU Manual, like GNU software.  Copies published by the Free
Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development.''
@end quotation
@end copying

@dircategory Emacs
* Emacs: (emacs).	The extensible self-documenting text editor.
@end direntry

@c in general, keep the following line commented out, unless doing a
@c copy of this manual that will be published.  the manual should go
@c onto the distribution in the full, 8.5 x 11" size.
@c set smallbook

@ifset smallbook
@end ifset

@c per rms and peterb, use 10pt fonts for the main text, mostly to
@c save on paper cost.
@c Do this inside @tex for now, so current makeinfo does not complain.
@ifset smallbook
@fonttextsize 10
@set EMACSVER 22.1
\global\let\urlcolor=\Black % don't print links in grayscale
@end ifset
\global\hbadness=6666 % don't worry about not-too-underfull boxes
@end tex

@defcodeindex op
@synindex pg cp

@kbdinputstyle code

@shorttitlepage GNU Emacs Manual
@end iftex

@sp 6
@center @titlefont{GNU Emacs Manual}
@sp 4
@center @value{EDITION} Edition, Updated for Emacs Version @value{EMACSVER}.
@sp 5
@center Richard Stallman
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll

@sp 2
Published by the Free Software Foundation @*
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor @*
Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA @*
ISBN 1-882114-86-8

@sp 2
Cover art by Etienne Suvasa.

@end titlepage


@node Top, Distrib, (dir), (dir)
@top The Emacs Editor

Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time
display editor.  This Info file describes how to edit with Emacs and
some of how to customize it; it corresponds to GNU Emacs version

To learn more about the Info documentation system, type @kbd{h}, and
Emacs will take you to a programmed instruction sequence for the Info
@end ifinfo

For information on extending Emacs, see @ref{Top, Emacs Lisp,, elisp, The
Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}.
@end ifnottex

These subcategories have been deleted for simplicity
and to avoid conflicts.
Backup Files
Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters
Text Mode
Outline Mode
@TeX{} Mode
Formatted Text
Shell Command History

The ones for Dired and Rmail have had the items turned into :: items
to avoid conflicts.
Also Running Shell Commands from Emacs
and Sending Mail and Registers and Minibuffer.
@end ignore

* Distrib::	        How to get the latest Emacs distribution.
* Copying::	        The GNU General Public License gives you permission
			  to redistribute GNU Emacs on certain terms;
			  it also explains that there is no warranty.
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
* Intro::	        An introduction to Emacs concepts.
* Glossary::	        The glossary.
* Antinews::	        Information about Emacs version 21.
* Mac OS::              Using Emacs in the Mac.
* Microsoft Windows::   Using Emacs on Microsoft Windows and MS-DOS.
* Manifesto::	        What's GNU?  Gnu's Not Unix!
* Acknowledgments::     Major contributors to GNU Emacs.

Indexes (each index contains a large menu)
* Key Index::	        An item for each standard Emacs key sequence.
* Option Index::        An item for every command-line option.
* Command Index::       An item for each command name.
* Variable Index::      An item for each documented variable.
* Concept Index::       An item for each concept.

Important General Concepts
* Screen::	        How to interpret what you see on the screen.
* User Input::	        Kinds of input events (characters, buttons,
                          function keys).
* Keys::	        Key sequences: what you type to request one
                          editing action.
* Commands::	        Named functions run by key sequences to do editing.
* Text Characters::     Character set for text (the contents of buffers
			  and strings).
* Entering Emacs::      Starting Emacs from the shell.
* Exiting::	        Stopping or killing Emacs.
* Emacs Invocation::    Hairy startup options.

Fundamental Editing Commands
* Basic::	        The most basic editing commands.
* Minibuffer::	        Entering arguments that are prompted for.
* M-x::		        Invoking commands by their names.
* Help::	        Commands for asking Emacs about its commands.

Important Text-Changing Commands
* Mark::	        The mark: how to delimit a ``region'' of text.
* Killing::	        Killing (cutting) text.
* Yanking::	        Recovering killed text.  Moving text. (Pasting.)
* Accumulating Text::   Other ways of copying text.
* Rectangles::	        Operating on the text inside a rectangle on the screen.
* Registers::	        Saving a text string or a location in the buffer.
* Display::	        Controlling what text is displayed.
* Search::	        Finding or replacing occurrences of a string.
* Fixit::	        Commands especially useful for fixing typos.
* Keyboard Macros::	A keyboard macro records a sequence of
			  keystrokes to be replayed with a single command.

Major Structures of Emacs
* Files::	        All about handling files.
* Buffers::	        Multiple buffers; editing several files at once.
* Windows::	        Viewing two pieces of text at once.
* Frames::	        Running the same Emacs session in multiple X windows.
* International::       Using non-@acronym{ASCII} character sets (the MULE features).

Advanced Features
* Major Modes::	        Text mode vs. Lisp mode vs. C mode ...
* Indentation::	        Editing the white space at the beginnings of lines.
* Text::	        Commands and modes for editing English.
* Programs::	        Commands and modes for editing programs.
* Building::	        Compiling, running and debugging programs.
* Maintaining::         Features for maintaining large programs.
* Abbrevs::	        How to define text abbreviations to reduce
			  the number of characters you must type.
* Picture Mode::        Editing pictures made up of characters using
                          the quarter-plane screen model.
@end ifnottex
* Sending Mail::        Sending mail in Emacs.
* Rmail::	        Reading mail in Emacs.
* Dired::	        You can ``edit'' a directory to manage files in it.
* Calendar/Diary::      The calendar and diary facilities.
* Gnus::	        How to read netnews with Emacs.
* Shell::	        Executing shell commands from Emacs.
* Emacs Server::        Using Emacs as an editing server for @code{mail}, etc.
* Printing::	        Printing hardcopies of buffers or regions.
* Sorting::	        Sorting lines, paragraphs or pages within Emacs.
* Narrowing::	        Restricting display and editing to a portion
		          of the buffer.
* Two-Column::	        Splitting apart columns to edit them
		          in side-by-side windows.
* Editing Binary Files::Using Hexl mode to edit binary files.
* Saving Emacs Sessions:: Saving Emacs state from one session to the next.
* Recursive Edit::      A command can allow you to do editing
			  "within the command".  This is called a
			  "recursive editing level".
* Emulation::	        Emulating some other editors with Emacs.
* Hyperlinking::        Following links in buffers.
* Dissociated Press::   Dissociating text for fun.
* Amusements::	        Various games and hacks.
* Customization::       Modifying the behavior of Emacs.
* X Resources::         X resources for customizing Emacs.

Recovery from Problems
* Quitting::	        Quitting and aborting.
* Lossage::	        What to do if Emacs is hung or malfunctioning.
* Bugs::	        How and when to report a bug.
* Contributing::        How to contribute improvements to Emacs.
* Service::	        How to get help for your own Emacs needs.

@c Do NOT modify the following 3 lines!  They must have this form to
@c be correctly identified by `texinfo-multiple-files-update'.  In
@c particular, the detailed menu header line MUST be identical to the
@c value of `texinfo-master-menu-header'.  See texnfo-upd.el.

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Here are some other nodes which are really inferiors of the ones
already listed, mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:

The Organization of the Screen

* Point::	        The place in the text where editing commands operate.
* Echo Area::           Short messages appear at the bottom of the screen.
* Mode Line::	        Interpreting the mode line.
* Menu Bar::            How to use the menu bar.

Basic Editing Commands

* Inserting Text::      Inserting text by simply typing it.
* Moving Point::        How to move the cursor to the place where you want to
			  change something.
* Erasing::	        Deleting and killing text.
* Basic Undo::	        Undoing recent changes in the text.
* Basic Files::         Visiting, creating, and saving files.
* Basic Help::          Asking what a character does.
* Blank Lines::	        Commands to make or delete blank lines.
* Continuation Lines::  Lines too wide for the screen.
* Position Info::       What page, line, row, or column is point on?
* Arguments::	        Numeric arguments for repeating a command.
* Repeating::           A short-cut for repeating the previous command.

The Minibuffer

* Minibuffer File::     Entering file names with the minibuffer.
* Minibuffer Edit::     How to edit in the minibuffer.
* Completion::		An abbreviation facility for minibuffer input.
* Minibuffer History::	Reusing recent minibuffer arguments.
* Repetition::		Re-executing commands that used the minibuffer.


* Example: Completion Example.    Examples of using completion.
* Commands: Completion Commands.  A list of completion commands.
* Strict Completion::             Different types of completion.
* Options: Completion Options.    Options for completion.


* Help Summary::	Brief list of all Help commands.
* Key Help::		Asking what a key does in Emacs.
* Name Help::		Asking about a command, variable or function name.
* Apropos::		Asking what pertains to a given topic.
* Help Mode::           Special features of Help mode and Help buffers.
* Library Keywords::	Finding Lisp libraries by keywords (topics).
* Language Help::       Help relating to international language support.
* Misc Help::		Other help commands.
* Help Files::          Commands to display pre-written help files.
* Help Echo::           Help on active text and tooltips (`balloon help')

The Mark and the Region

* Setting Mark::	Commands to set the mark.
* Transient Mark::	How to make Emacs highlight the region--
			  when there is one.
* Momentary Mark::      Enabling Transient Mark mode momentarily.
* Using Region::	Summary of ways to operate on contents of the region.
* Marking Objects::	Commands to put region around textual units.
* Mark Ring::		Previous mark positions saved so you can go back there.
* Global Mark Ring::	Previous mark positions in various buffers.

Killing and Moving Text

* Deletion::		Commands for deleting small amounts of text and
			  blank areas.
* Killing by Lines::	How to kill entire lines of text at one time.
* Other Kill Commands:: Commands to kill large regions of text and
			  syntactic units such as words and sentences.
* CUA Bindings::        Using @kbd{C-x}, @kbd{C-c}, @kbd{C-v} for copy
                          and paste, with enhanced rectangle support.


* Kill Ring::		Where killed text is stored.  Basic yanking.
* Appending Kills::	Several kills in a row all yank together.
* Earlier Kills::	Yanking something killed some time ago.


* RegPos::      	Saving positions in registers.
* RegText::     	Saving text in registers.
* RegRect::     	Saving rectangles in registers.
* RegConfig::           Saving window configurations in registers.
* RegNumbers::          Numbers in registers.
* RegFiles::    	File names in registers.
* Bookmarks::           Bookmarks are like registers, but persistent.

Controlling the Display

* Scrolling::	           Moving text up and down in a window.
* Auto Scrolling::         Redisplay scrolls text automatically when needed.
* Horizontal Scrolling::   Moving text left and right in a window.
* Follow Mode::            Follow mode lets two windows scroll as one.
* Faces::	           How to change the display style using faces.
* Standard Faces::         Emacs' predefined faces.
* Font Lock::              Minor mode for syntactic highlighting using faces.
* Highlight Interactively:: Tell Emacs what text to highlight.
* Fringes::                Enabling or disabling window fringes.
* Displaying Boundaries::  Displaying top and bottom of the buffer.
* Useless Whitespace::     Showing possibly-spurious trailing whitespace.
* Selective Display::      Hiding lines with lots of indentation.
* Optional Mode Line::     Optional mode line display features.
* Text Display::           How text characters are normally displayed.
* Cursor Display::         Features for displaying the cursor.
* Line Truncation::        Truncating lines to fit the screen width instead
                             of continuing them to multiple screen lines.
* Display Custom::         Information on variables for customizing display.

Searching and Replacement

* Incremental Search::	   Search happens as you type the string.
* Nonincremental Search::  Specify entire string and then search.
* Word Search::		   Search for sequence of words.
* Regexp Search::	   Search for match for a regexp.
* Regexps::		   Syntax of regular expressions.
* Regexp Backslash::       Regular expression constructs starting with `\'.
* Regexp Example::         A complex regular expression explained.
* Search Case::		   To ignore case while searching, or not.
* Replace::		   Search, and replace some or all matches.
* Other Repeating Search:: Operating on all matches for some regexp.

Incremental Search

* Basic Isearch::       Basic incremental search commands.
* Repeat Isearch::      Searching for the same string again.
* Error in Isearch::    When your string is not found.
* Special Isearch::     Special input in incremental search.
* Non-ASCII Isearch::   How to search for non-ASCII characters.
* Isearch Yank::        Commands that grab text into the search string
                          or else edit the search string.
* Highlight Isearch::   Isearch highlights the other possible matches.
* Isearch Scroll::      Scrolling during an incremental search.
* Slow Isearch::        Incremental search features for slow terminals.

Replacement Commands

* Unconditional Replace::  Replacing all matches for a string.
* Regexp Replace::	   Replacing all matches for a regexp.
* Replacement and Case::   How replacements preserve case of letters.
* Query Replace::	   How to use querying.

Commands for Fixing Typos

* Undo::                Full details of Emacs undo commands.
* Kill Errors::         Commands to kill a batch of recently entered text.
* Transpose::	        Exchanging two characters, words, lines, lists...
* Fixing Case::         Correcting case of last word entered.
* Spelling::	        Apply spelling checker to a word or a whole buffer.

Keyboard Macros

* Basic Keyboard Macro::     Defining and running keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Ring::      Where previous keyboard macros are saved.
* Keyboard Macro Counter::   Inserting incrementing numbers in macros.
* Keyboard Macro Query::     Making keyboard macros do different things each time.
* Save Keyboard Macro::      Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files.
* Edit Keyboard Macro::      Editing keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Step-Edit:: Interactively executing and editing a keyboard

File Handling

* File Names::          How to type and edit file-name arguments.
* Visiting::            Visiting a file prepares Emacs to edit the file.
* Saving::              Saving makes your changes permanent.
* Reverting::           Reverting cancels all the changes not saved.
* Autorevert::          Auto Reverting non-file buffers.
* Auto Save::           Auto Save periodically protects against loss of data.
* File Aliases::        Handling multiple names for one file.
* Version Control::     Version control systems (RCS, CVS and SCCS).
* Directories::         Creating, deleting, and listing file directories.
* Comparing Files::     Finding where two files differ.
* Diff Mode::           Editing diff output.
* Misc File Ops::       Other things you can do on files.
* Compressed Files::    Accessing compressed files.
* File Archives::       Operating on tar, zip, jar etc. archive files.
* Remote Files::        Accessing files on other sites.
* Quoted File Names::   Quoting special characters in file names.
* File Name Cache::     Completion against a list of files you often use.
* File Conveniences::   Convenience Features for Finding Files.
* Filesets::            Handling sets of files.

Saving Files

* Save Commands::       Commands for saving files.
* Backup::              How Emacs saves the old version of your file.
* Customize Save::      Customizing the saving of files.
* Interlocking::        How Emacs protects against simultaneous editing
                          of one file by two users.
* File Shadowing::      Copying files to "shadows" automatically.
* Time Stamps::         Emacs can update time stamps on saved files.

Backup Files

* One or Many: Numbered Backups. Whether to make one backup file or many.
* Names: Backup Names.		How backup files are named.
* Deletion: Backup Deletion.	Emacs deletes excess numbered backups.
* Copying: Backup Copying.	Backups can be made by copying or renaming.

Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters

* Files: Auto Save Files.       The file where auto-saved changes are
                                  actually made until you save the file.
* Control: Auto Save Control.   Controlling when and how often to auto-save.
* Recover::		        Recovering text from auto-save files.

Version Control

* Introduction to VC::  How version control works in general.
* VC Mode Line::        How the mode line shows version control status.
* Basic VC Editing::    How to edit a file under version control.
* Old Versions::        Examining and comparing old versions.
* Secondary VC Commands:: The commands used a little less frequently.
* Branches::            Multiple lines of development.
* Remote Repositories:: Efficient access to remote CVS servers.
* Snapshots::           Sets of file versions treated as a unit.
* Miscellaneous VC::    Various other commands and features of VC.
* Customizing VC::      Variables that change VC's behavior.

Using Multiple Buffers

* Select Buffer::       Creating a new buffer or reselecting an old one.
* List Buffers::        Getting a list of buffers that exist.
* Misc Buffer::	        Renaming; changing read-onliness; copying text.
* Kill Buffer::	        Killing buffers you no longer need.
* Several Buffers::     How to go through the list of all buffers
			  and operate variously on several of them.
* Indirect Buffers::    An indirect buffer shares the text of another buffer.
* Buffer Convenience::  Convenience and customization features for
                          buffer handling.

Multiple Windows

* Basic Window::        Introduction to Emacs windows.
* Split Window::        New windows are made by splitting existing windows.
* Other Window::        Moving to another window or doing something to it.
* Pop Up Window::       Finding a file or buffer in another window.
* Force Same Window::   Forcing certain buffers to appear in the selected
                          window rather than in another window.
* Change Window::       Deleting windows and changing their sizes.
* Window Convenience::  Convenience functions for window handling.

Frames and Graphical Displays

* Cut and Paste::       Mouse commands for cut and paste.
* Mouse References::    Using the mouse to select an item from a list.
* Menu Mouse Clicks::   Mouse clicks that bring up menus.
* Mode Line Mouse::     Mouse clicks on the mode line.
* Creating Frames::     Creating additional Emacs frames with various contents.
* Frame Commands::      Iconifying, deleting, and switching frames.
* Speedbar::            How to make and use a speedbar frame.
* Multiple Displays::   How one Emacs job can talk to several displays.
* Special Buffer Frames::  You can make certain buffers have their own frames.
* Frame Parameters::    Changing the colors and other modes of frames.
* Scroll Bars::	        How to enable and disable scroll bars; how to use them.
* Wheeled Mice::        Using mouse wheels for scrolling.
* Drag and Drop::       Using drag and drop to open files and insert text.
* Menu Bars::	        Enabling and disabling the menu bar.
* Tool Bars::           Enabling and disabling the tool bar.
* Dialog Boxes::        Controlling use of dialog boxes.
* Tooltips::            Showing "tooltips", AKA "balloon help" for active text.
* Mouse Avoidance::     Moving the mouse pointer out of the way.
* Non-Window Terminals::  Multiple frames on terminals that show only one.
* Text-Only Mouse::     Using the mouse in text-only terminals.

International Character Set Support

* International Chars::     Basic concepts of multibyte characters.
* Enabling Multibyte::      Controlling whether to use multibyte characters.
* Language Environments::   Setting things up for the language you use.
* Input Methods::           Entering text characters not on your keyboard.
* Select Input Method::     Specifying your choice of input methods.
* Multibyte Conversion::    How single-byte characters convert to multibyte.
* Coding Systems::          Character set conversion when you read and
                              write files, and so on.
* Recognize Coding::        How Emacs figures out which conversion to use.
* Specify Coding::          Specifying a file's coding system explicitly.
* Output Coding::           Choosing coding systems for output.
* Text Coding::             Choosing conversion to use for file text.
* Communication Coding::    Coding systems for interprocess communication.
* File Name Coding::        Coding systems for file @emph{names}.
* Terminal Coding::         Specifying coding systems for converting
                              terminal input and output.
* Fontsets::                Fontsets are collections of fonts
                              that cover the whole spectrum of characters.
* Defining Fontsets::       Defining a new fontset.
* Undisplayable Characters::When characters don't display.
* Unibyte Mode::            You can pick one European character set
                              to use without multibyte characters.
* Charsets::                How Emacs groups its internal character codes.

Major Modes

* Choosing Modes::      How major modes are specified or chosen.


* Indentation Commands::  Various commands and techniques for indentation.
* Tab Stops::		  You can set arbitrary "tab stops" and then
			    indent to the next tab stop when you want to.
* Just Spaces::		  You can request indentation using just spaces.

Commands for Human Languages

* Words::	        Moving over and killing words.
* Sentences::	        Moving over and killing sentences.
* Paragraphs::	        Moving over paragraphs.
* Pages::	        Moving over pages.
* Filling::	        Filling or justifying text.
* Case::	        Changing the case of text.
* Text Mode::	        The major modes for editing text files.
* Outline Mode::        Editing outlines.
* TeX Mode::	        Editing input to the formatter TeX.
* HTML Mode::           Editing HTML, SGML, and XML files.
* Nroff Mode::	        Editing input to the formatter nroff.
* Formatted Text::      Editing formatted text directly in WYSIWYG fashion.
* Text Based Tables::   Editing text-based tables in WYSIWYG fashion.

Filling Text

* Auto Fill::	        Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically.
* Refill::              Keeping paragraphs filled.
* Fill Commands::       Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines.
* Fill Prefix::	        Filling paragraphs that are indented
                          or in a comment, etc.
* Adaptive Fill::       How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically.
* Longlines::           Editing text with very long lines.

Outline Mode

* Format: Outline Format.	   What the text of an outline looks like.
* Motion: Outline Motion.	   Special commands for moving through
* Visibility: Outline Visibility.  Commands to control what is visible.
* Views: Outline Views.            Outlines and multiple views.
* Foldout::                        Folding means zooming in on outlines.

@TeX{} Mode

* Editing: TeX Editing.   Special commands for editing in TeX mode.
* LaTeX: LaTeX Editing.   Additional commands for LaTeX input files.
* Printing: TeX Print.    Commands for printing part of a file with TeX.
* Misc: TeX Misc.         Customization of TeX mode, and related features.

Editing Formatted Text

* Requesting Formatted Text::   Entering and exiting Enriched mode.
* Hard and Soft Newlines::      There are two different kinds of newlines.
* Editing Format Info::         How to edit text properties.
* Faces: Format Faces.          Bold, italic, underline, etc.
* Color: Format Colors.         Changing the color of text.
* Indent: Format Indentation.   Changing the left and right margins.
* Justification: Format Justification.
                                Centering, setting text flush with the
                                  left or right margin, etc.
* Other: Format Properties.     The "special" text properties submenu.
* Forcing Enriched Mode::       How to force use of Enriched mode.

Editing Text-based Tables

* Table Definition::    What is a text based table.
* Table Creation::      How to create a table.
* Table Recognition::   How to activate and deactivate tables.
* Cell Commands::       Cell-oriented commands in a table.
* Cell Justification::  Justifying cell contents.
* Row Commands::        Manipulating rows of table cell.
* Column Commands::     Manipulating columns of table cell.
* Fixed Width Mode::    Fixing cell width.
* Table Conversion::    Converting between plain text and tables.
* Measuring Tables::    Analyzing table dimension.
* Table Misc::          Table miscellany.

Editing Programs

* Program Modes::       Major modes for editing programs.
* Defuns::              Commands to operate on major top-level parts
                          of a program.
* Program Indent::      Adjusting indentation to show the nesting.
* Parentheses::         Commands that operate on parentheses.
* Comments::	        Inserting, killing, and aligning comments.
* Documentation::       Getting documentation of functions you plan to call.
* Hideshow::            Displaying blocks selectively.
* Symbol Completion::   Completion on symbol names of your program or language.
* Glasses::             Making identifiersLikeThis more readable.
* Misc for Programs::   Other Emacs features useful for editing programs.
* C Modes::             Special commands of C, C++, Objective-C,
                          Java, and Pike modes.
* Asm Mode::            Asm mode and its special features.
* Fortran::             Fortran mode and its special features.

Top-Level Definitions, or Defuns

* Left Margin Paren::   An open-paren or similar opening delimiter
                          starts a defun if it is at the left margin.
* Moving by Defuns::    Commands to move over or mark a major definition.
* Imenu::               Making buffer indexes as menus.
* Which Function::      Which Function mode shows which function you are in.

Indentation for Programs

* Basic Indent::	Indenting a single line.
* Multi-line Indent::   Commands to reindent many lines at once.
* Lisp Indent::		Specifying how each Lisp function should be indented.
* C Indent::		Extra features for indenting C and related modes.
* Custom C Indent::	Controlling indentation style for C and related modes.

Commands for Editing with Parentheses

* Expressions::         Expressions with balanced parentheses.
* Moving by Parens::    Commands for moving up, down and across
                          in the structure of parentheses.
* Matching::	        Insertion of a close-delimiter flashes matching open.

Manipulating Comments

* Comment Commands::    Inserting, killing, and aligning comments.
* Multi-Line Comments:: Commands for adding and editing multi-line comments.
* Options for Comments::Customizing the comment features.

Documentation Lookup

* Info Lookup::         Looking up library functions and commands
                          in Info files.
* Man Page::            Looking up man pages of library functions and commands.
* Lisp Doc::            Looking up Emacs Lisp functions, etc.

C and Related Modes

* Motion in C::         Commands to move by C statements, etc.
* Electric C::          Colon and other chars can automatically reindent.
* Hungry Delete::       A more powerful DEL command.
* Other C Commands::    Filling comments, viewing expansion of macros,
                          and other neat features.

Compiling and Testing Programs

* Compilation::		Compiling programs in languages other
			  than Lisp (C, Pascal, etc.).
* Compilation Mode::    The mode for visiting compiler errors.
* Compilation Shell::   Customizing your shell properly
                          for use in the compilation buffer.
* Grep Searching::      Searching with grep.
* Flymake::             Finding syntax errors on the fly.
* Debuggers::		Running symbolic debuggers for non-Lisp programs.
* Executing Lisp::	Various modes for editing Lisp programs,
			  with different facilities for running
			  the Lisp programs.
* Lisp Libraries::      Creating Lisp programs to run in Emacs.
* Lisp Eval::		Executing a single Lisp expression in Emacs.
* Lisp Interaction::    Executing Lisp in an Emacs buffer.
* External Lisp::	Communicating through Emacs with a separate Lisp.

Running Debuggers Under Emacs

* Starting GUD::	How to start a debugger subprocess.
* Debugger Operation::	Connection between the debugger and source buffers.
* Commands of GUD::	Key bindings for common commands.
* GUD Customization::	Defining your own commands for GUD.
* GDB Graphical Interface::  An enhanced mode that uses GDB features to
                          implement a graphical debugging environment through

Maintaining Large Programs

* Change Log::	        Maintaining a change history for your program.
* Format of ChangeLog:: What the change log file looks like.
* Tags::	        Go direct to any function in your program in one
			  command.  Tags remembers which file it is in.
* Emerge::              A convenient way of merging two versions of a program.

Tags Tables

* Tag Syntax::		Tag syntax for various types of code and text files.
* Create Tags Table::	Creating a tags table with @code{etags}.
* Etags Regexps::       Create arbitrary tags using regular expressions.
* Select Tags Table::	How to visit a tags table.
* Find Tag::		Commands to find the definition of a specific tag.
* Tags Search::		Using a tags table for searching and replacing.
* List Tags::		Listing and finding tags defined in a file.


* Abbrev Concepts::     Fundamentals of defined abbrevs.
* Defining Abbrevs::    Defining an abbrev, so it will expand when typed.
* Expanding Abbrevs::   Controlling expansion: prefixes, canceling expansion.
* Editing Abbrevs::     Viewing or editing the entire list of defined abbrevs.
* Saving Abbrevs::      Saving the entire list of abbrevs for another session.
* Dynamic Abbrevs::     Abbreviations for words already in the buffer.
* Dabbrev Customization:: What is a word, for dynamic abbrevs.  Case handling.

Editing Pictures

* Basic Picture::         Basic concepts and simple commands of Picture Mode.
* Insert in Picture::     Controlling direction of cursor motion
                            after "self-inserting" characters.
* Tabs in Picture::       Various features for tab stops and indentation.
* Rectangles in Picture:: Clearing and superimposing rectangles.
@end ifnottex

Sending Mail

* Mail Format:: 	Format of the mail being composed.
* Mail Headers::        Details of permitted mail header fields.
* Mail Aliases::        Abbreviating and grouping mail addresses.
* Mail Mode::   	Special commands for editing mail being composed.
* Mail Amusements::     Distract the NSA's attention; add a fortune to a msg.
* Mail Methods::        Using alternative mail-composition methods.

Reading Mail with Rmail

* Rmail Basics::        Basic concepts of Rmail, and simple use.
* Rmail Scrolling::     Scrolling through a message.
* Rmail Motion::        Moving to another message.
* Rmail Deletion::      Deleting and expunging messages.
* Rmail Inbox::         How mail gets into the Rmail file.
* Rmail Files::         Using multiple Rmail files.
* Rmail Output::        Copying message out to files.
* Rmail Labels::        Classifying messages by labeling them.
* Rmail Attributes::    Certain standard labels, called attributes.
* Rmail Reply::         Sending replies to messages you are viewing.
* Rmail Summary::       Summaries show brief info on many messages.
* Rmail Sorting::       Sorting messages in Rmail.
* Rmail Display::       How Rmail displays a message; customization.
* Rmail Coding::        How Rmail handles decoding character sets.
* Rmail Editing::       Editing message text and headers in Rmail.
* Rmail Digest::        Extracting the messages from a digest message.
* Out of Rmail::	Converting an Rmail file to mailbox format.
* Rmail Rot13::         Reading messages encoded in the rot13 code.
* Movemail::            More details of fetching new mail.
* Remote Mailboxes::    Retrieving Mail from Remote Mailboxes.
* Other Mailbox Formats:: Retrieving Mail from Local Mailboxes in
                          Various Formats

Dired, the Directory Editor

* Dired Enter:: 	     How to invoke Dired.
* Dired Navigation::         How to move in the Dired buffer.
* Dired Deletion::           Deleting files with Dired.
* Flagging Many Files::      Flagging files based on their names.
* Dired Visiting::           Other file operations through Dired.
* Marks vs Flags::	     Flagging for deletion vs marking.
* Operating on Files::	     How to copy, rename, print, compress, etc.
			       either one file or several files.
* Shell Commands in Dired::  Running a shell command on the marked files.
* Transforming File Names::  Using patterns to rename multiple files.
* Comparison in Dired::	     Running `diff' by way of Dired.
* Subdirectories in Dired::  Adding subdirectories to the Dired buffer.
* Subdir Switches::          Subdirectory switches in Dired.
* Subdirectory Motion::	     Moving across subdirectories, and up and down.
* Hiding Subdirectories::    Making subdirectories visible or invisible.
* Dired Updating::           Discarding lines for files of no interest.
* Dired and Find::	     Using `find' to choose the files for Dired.
* Wdired::                   Operating on files by editing the Dired buffer.
* Image-Dired::              Viewing image thumbnails in Dired
* Misc Dired Features::      Various other features.

The Calendar and the Diary

* Calendar Motion::     Moving through the calendar; selecting a date.
* Scroll Calendar::     Bringing earlier or later months onto the screen.
* Counting Days::       How many days are there between two dates?
* General Calendar::    Exiting or recomputing the calendar.
* Writing Calendar Files:: Writing calendars to files of various formats.
* Holidays::            Displaying dates of holidays.
* Sunrise/Sunset::      Displaying local times of sunrise and sunset.
* Lunar Phases::        Displaying phases of the moon.
* Other Calendars::     Converting dates to other calendar systems.
* Diary::               Displaying events from your diary.
* Appointments::	Reminders when it's time to do something.
* Importing Diary::     Converting diary events to/from other formats.
* Daylight Saving::    How to specify when daylight saving time is active.
* Time Intervals::      Keeping track of time intervals.
* Advanced Calendar/Diary Usage:: Advanced Calendar/Diary customization.

Movement in the Calendar

* Calendar Unit Motion::      Moving by days, weeks, months, and years.
* Move to Beginning or End::  Moving to start/end of weeks, months, and years.
* Specified Dates::	      Moving to the current date or another
				specific date.

Conversion To and From Other Calendars

* Calendar Systems::	   The calendars Emacs understands
			     (aside from Gregorian).
* To Other Calendar::	   Converting the selected date to various calendars.
* From Other Calendar::	   Moving to a date specified in another calendar.
* Mayan Calendar::	   Moving to a date specified in a Mayan calendar.

The Diary

* Displaying the Diary::   Viewing diary entries and associated calendar dates.
* Format of Diary File::   Entering events in your diary.
* Date Formats::	   Various ways you can specify dates.
* Adding to Diary::	   Commands to create diary entries.
* Special Diary Entries::  Anniversaries, blocks of dates, cyclic entries, etc.


* Buffers of Gnus::	The group, summary, and article buffers.
* Gnus Startup::	What you should know about starting Gnus.
* Summary of Gnus::	A short description of the basic Gnus commands.

Running Shell Commands from Emacs

* Single Shell::	How to run one shell command and return.
* Interactive Shell::	Permanent shell taking input via Emacs.
* Shell Mode::		Special Emacs commands used with permanent shell.
* Shell Prompts::       Two ways to recognize shell prompts.
* Shell History::       Repeating previous commands in a shell buffer.
* Directory Tracking::  Keeping track when the subshell changes directory.
* Shell Options::       Options for customizing Shell mode.
* Terminal emulator::   An Emacs window as a terminal emulator.
* Term Mode::           Special Emacs commands used in Term mode.
* Paging in Term::      Paging in the terminal emulator.
* Remote Host::		Connecting to another computer.

Using Emacs as a Server

* Invoking emacsclient:: Emacs client startup options.

Printing Hard Copies

* PostScript::	         Printing buffers or regions as PostScript.
* PostScript Variables:: Customizing the PostScript printing commands.
* Printing Package::     An optional advanced printing interface.

Hyperlinking and Navigation Features

* Browse-URL::          Following URLs.
* Goto-address::        Activating URLs.
* FFAP::                Finding files etc. at point.


* Minor Modes::		Each minor mode is one feature you can turn on
			  independently of any others.
* Easy Customization::  Convenient way to browse and change user options.
* Variables::		Many Emacs commands examine Emacs variables
			  to decide what to do; by setting variables,
			  you can control their functioning.
* Key Bindings::	The keymaps say what command each key runs.
			  By changing them, you can "redefine keys".
* Syntax::		The syntax table controls how words and
			  expressions are parsed.
* Init File::		How to write common customizations in the
			  @file{.emacs} file.


* Examining::	        Examining or setting one variable's value.
* Hooks::	        Hook variables let you specify programs for parts
		          of Emacs to run on particular occasions.
* Locals::	        Per-buffer values of variables.
* File Variables::      How files can specify variable values.

Customizing Key Bindings

* Keymaps::             Generalities.  The global keymap.
* Prefix Keymaps::      Keymaps for prefix keys.
* Local Keymaps::       Major and minor modes have their own keymaps.
* Minibuffer Maps::     The minibuffer uses its own local keymaps.
* Rebinding::           How to redefine one key's meaning conveniently.
* Init Rebinding::      Rebinding keys with your init file, @file{.emacs}.
* Function Keys::       Rebinding terminal function keys.
* Named ASCII Chars::   Distinguishing @key{TAB} from @kbd{C-i}, and so on.
* Mouse Buttons::       Rebinding mouse buttons in Emacs.
* Disabling::           Disabling a command means confirmation is required
                          before it can be executed.  This is done to protect
                          beginners from surprises.

The Init File, @file{~/.emacs}

* Init Syntax::	        Syntax of constants in Emacs Lisp.
* Init Examples::       How to do some things with an init file.
* Terminal Init::       Each terminal type can have an init file.
* Find Init::	        How Emacs finds the init file.
* Init Non-ASCII::      Using non-@acronym{ASCII} characters in an init file.

Dealing with Emacs Trouble

* DEL Does Not Delete:: What to do if @key{DEL} doesn't delete.
* Stuck Recursive::     `[...]' in mode line around the parentheses.
* Screen Garbled::      Garbage on the screen.
* Text Garbled::        Garbage in the text.
* Memory Full::         How to cope when you run out of memory.
* After a Crash::       Recovering editing in an Emacs session that crashed.
* Emergency Escape::    Emergency escape---
                          What to do if Emacs stops responding.
* Total Frustration::   When you are at your wits' end.

Reporting Bugs

* Bug Criteria::        Have you really found a bug?
* Understanding Bug Reporting::	How to report a bug effectively.
* Checklist::		Steps to follow for a good bug report.
* Sending Patches::	How to send a patch for GNU Emacs.

Command Line Arguments for Emacs Invocation

* Action Arguments::	Arguments to visit files, load libraries,
			  and call functions.
* Initial Options::     Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs.
* Command Example::     Examples of using command line arguments.
* Resume Arguments::	Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
* Environment::         Environment variables that Emacs uses.
* Display X::           Changing the default display and using remote login.
* Font X::	        Choosing a font for text, under X.
* Colors::	        Choosing display colors.
* Window Size X::       Start-up window size, under X.
* Borders X::	        Internal and external borders, under X.
* Title X::             Specifying the initial frame's title.
* Icons X::             Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X.
* Misc X::              Other display options.

Environment Variables

* General Variables::	Environment variables that all versions of Emacs use.
* Misc Variables::	Certain system specific variables.
* MS-Windows Registry:: An alternative to the environment on MS-Windows.

X Options and Resources

* Resources::           Using X resources with Emacs (in general).
* Table of Resources::  Table of specific X resources that affect Emacs.
* Face Resources::      X resources for customizing faces.
* Lucid Resources::     X resources for Lucid menus.
* LessTif Resources::   X resources for LessTif and Motif menus.
* GTK resources::       Resources for GTK widgets.

Emacs and Mac OS

* Mac Input::           Keyboard and mouse input on Mac.
* Mac International::   International character sets on Mac.
* Mac Environment Variables::  Setting environment variables for Emacs.
* Mac Directories::     Volumes and directories on Mac.
* Mac Font Specs::      Specifying fonts on Mac.
* Mac Functions::       Mac-specific Lisp functions.

Emacs and Microsoft Windows/MS-DOS

* Text and Binary::     Text files use CRLF to terminate lines.
* Windows Files::       File-name conventions on Windows.
* ls in Lisp::          Emulation of @code{ls} for Dired.
* Windows HOME::        Where Emacs looks for your @file{.emacs}.
* Windows Keyboard::    Windows-specific keyboard features.
* Windows Mouse::       Windows-specific mouse features.
* Windows Processes::   Running subprocesses on Windows.
* Windows Printing::    How to specify the printer on MS-Windows.
* Windows Misc::        Miscellaneous Windows features.
* MS-DOS::              Using Emacs on MS-DOS (otherwise known as @dfn{MS-DOG}).
@end detailmenu
@end menu

@unnumbered Preface

  This manual documents the use and simple customization of the Emacs
editor.  Simple Emacs customizations do not require you to be a
programmer, but if you are not interested in customizing, you can
ignore the customization hints.

  This is primarily a reference manual, but can also be used as a
primer.  If you are new to Emacs, we recommend you start with
the on-line, learn-by-doing tutorial, before reading the manual.  To
run the tutorial, start Emacs and type @kbd{C-h t}.  The tutorial
describes commands, tells you when to try them, and explains the

  On first reading, just skim chapters 1 and 2, which describe the
notational conventions of the manual and the general appearance of the
Emacs display screen.  Note which questions are answered in these
chapters, so you can refer back later.  After reading chapter 4, you
should practice the commands shown there.  The next few chapters
describe fundamental techniques and concepts that are used constantly.
You need to understand them thoroughly, so experiment with them
until you are fluent.

  Chapters 14 through 19 describe intermediate-level features that are
useful for many kinds of editing.  Chapter 20 and following chapters
describe optional but useful features; read those chapters when you
need them.

  Read the Trouble chapter if Emacs does not seem to be working
properly.  It explains how to cope with several common problems
(@pxref{Lossage}), as well as when and how to report Emacs bugs

  To find the documentation of a particular command, look in the index.
Keys (character commands) and command names have separate indexes.
There is also a glossary, with a cross reference for each term.

  This manual is available as a printed book and also as an Info file.
The Info file is for on-line perusal with the Info program, which is
the principal means of accessing on-line documentation in the GNU
system.  Both the Emacs Info file and an Info reader are included with
GNU Emacs.  The Info file and the printed book contain substantially
the same text and are generated from the same source files, which are
also distributed with GNU Emacs.

  GNU Emacs is a member of the Emacs editor family.  There are many
Emacs editors, all sharing common principles of organization.  For
information on the underlying philosophy of Emacs and the lessons
learned from its development, see @cite{Emacs, the Extensible,
Customizable Self-Documenting Display Editor}, available from

This edition of the manual is intended for use with GNU Emacs
installed on GNU and Unix systems.  GNU Emacs can also be used on VMS,
MS-DOS (also called MS-DOG), Microsoft Windows, and Macintosh systems.
Those systems use different file name syntax; in addition, VMS and
MS-DOS do not support all GNU Emacs features.  @xref{Microsoft
Windows}, for information about using Emacs on Windows.
@xref{Mac OS}, for information about using Emacs on Macintosh.  We
don't try to describe VMS usage in this manual.
@end iftex

@node Distrib, Intro, Top, Top
@unnumbered Distribution

GNU Emacs is @dfn{free software}; this means that everyone is free to
use it and free to redistribute it on certain conditions.  GNU Emacs
is not in the public domain; it is copyrighted and there are
restrictions on its distribution, but these restrictions are designed
to permit everything that a good cooperating citizen would want to do.
What is not allowed is to try to prevent others from further sharing
any version of GNU Emacs that they might get from you.  The precise
conditions are found in the GNU General Public License that comes with
Emacs and also appears in this manual@footnote{This manual is itself
covered by the GNU Free Documentation License.  This license is
similar in spirit to the General Public License, but is more suitable
for documentation.  @xref{GNU Free Documentation License}.}.

One way to get a copy of GNU Emacs is from someone else who has it.
You need not ask for our permission to do so, or tell any one else;
just copy it.  If you have access to the Internet, you can get the
latest distribution version of GNU Emacs by anonymous FTP; see
@url{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs} on our website for more

You may also receive GNU Emacs when you buy a computer.  Computer
manufacturers are free to distribute copies on the same terms that apply to
everyone else.  These terms require them to give you the full sources,
including whatever changes they may have made, and to permit you to
redistribute the GNU Emacs received from them under the usual terms of the
General Public License.  In other words, the program must be free for you
when you get it, not just free for the manufacturer.

You can also order copies of GNU Emacs from the Free Software
Foundation.  This is a convenient and reliable way to get a copy; it is
also a good way to help fund our work.  We also sell hardcopy versions
of this manual and @cite{An Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp},
by Robert J. Chassell.  You can find an order form on our web site at
@url{http://www.gnu.org/order/order.html}.  For further information,
write to

Free Software Foundation
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor
Boston, MA 02110-1301
@end display

The income from distribution fees goes to support the foundation's
purpose: the development of new free software, and improvements to our
existing programs including GNU Emacs.

If you find GNU Emacs useful, please @strong{send a donation} to the
Free Software Foundation to support our work.  Donations to the Free
Software Foundation are tax deductible in the US.  If you use GNU Emacs
at your workplace, please suggest that the company make a donation.  If
company policy is unsympathetic to the idea of donating to charity, you
might instead suggest ordering a CD-ROM from the Foundation
occasionally, or subscribing to periodic updates.

@node Acknowledgments, Intro, Distrib, Top
@unnumberedsec Acknowledgments

Contributors to GNU Emacs include Jari Aalto, Per Abrahamsen, Tomas
Abrahamsson, Jay K.@: Adams, Michael Albinus, Nagy Andras, Ralf
Angeli, Joe Arceneaux, Miles Bader, David Bakhash, Juanma Barranquero,
Eli Barzilay, Steven L.@: Baur, Jay Belanger, Alexander L.@: Belikoff,
Boaz Ben-Zvi, Karl Berry, Anna M.@: Bigatti, Ray Blaak, Jim Blandy, Johan Bockg@aa{}rd,
Per Bothner, Terrence Brannon, Frank Bresz, Peter Breton, Emmanuel
Briot, Kevin Broadey, Vincent Broman, David M.@: Brown, Georges
Brun-Cottan, Joe Buehler, W@l{}odek Bzyl, Bill Carpenter, Per
Cederqvist, Hans Chalupsky, Chris Chase, Bob Chassell, Andrew Choi,
Sacha Chua, James Clark, Mike Clarkson, Glynn Clements, Andrew
Csillag, Doug Cutting, Mathias Dahl, Satyaki Das, Michael DeCorte,
Gary Delp, Matthieu Devin, Eri Ding, Jan Dj@"{a}rv, Carsten Dominik,
Scott Draves, Benjamin Drieu, Viktor Dukhovni, John Eaton, Rolf Ebert,
Paul Eggert, Stephen Eglen, Torbj@"orn Einarsson, Tsugutomo Enami,
Hans Henrik Eriksen, Michael Ernst, Ata Etemadi, Frederick Farnbach,
Oscar Figueiredo, Fred Fish, Karl Fogel, Gary Foster, Romain
Francoise, Noah Friedman, Andreas Fuchs, Hallvard Furuseth, Keith
Gabryelski, Peter S.@: Galbraith, Kevin Gallagher, Kevin Gallo, Juan
Le@'{o}n Lahoz Garc@'{@dotless{i}}a, Howard Gayle, Stephen Gildea, Julien
Gilles, David Gillespie, Bob Glickstein, Deepak Goel, Boris Goldowsky,
Michelangelo Grigni, Odd Gripenstam, Kai Gro@ss{}johann, Michael
Gschwind, Henry Guillaume, Doug Gwyn, Ken'ichi Handa, Lars Hansen,
Chris Hanson, K. Shane Hartman, John Heidemann, Jon K.@: Hellan,
Jesper Harder, Markus Heritsch, Karl Heuer, Manabu Higashida, Anders
Holst, Jeffrey C.@: Honig, Kurt Hornik, Tom Houlder, Joakim Hove,
Denis Howe, Lars Ingebrigtsen, Andrew Innes, Seiichiro Inoue, Pavel
Janik, Paul Jarc, Ulf Jasper, Michael K. Johnson, Kyle Jones, Terry
Jones, Simon Josefsson, Arne J@o{}rgensen, Tomoji Kagatani, Brewster
Kahle, Lute Kamstra, David Kastrup, David Kaufman, Henry Kautz, Taichi
Kawabata, Howard Kaye, Michael Kifer, Richard King, Peter Kleiweg,
Shuhei Kobayashi, Pavel Kobiakov, Larry K.@: Kolodney, David M.@:
Koppelman, Koseki Yoshinori, Robert Krawitz, Sebastian Kremer, Ryszard
Kubiak, Geoff Kuenning, David K@aa{}gedal, Daniel LaLiberte, Mario
Lang, Aaron Larson, James R.@: Larus, Vinicius Jose Latorre, Werner
Lemberg, Frederic Lepied, Peter Liljenberg, Lars Lindberg, Chris
Lindblad, Anders Lindgren, Thomas Link, Juri Linkov, Francis Litterio,
Emilio C. Lopes, Dave Love, Sascha L@"{u}decke, Eric Ludlam,Alan
Mackenzie, Christopher J.@: Madsen, Neil M.@: Mager, Ken Manheimer,
Bill Mann, Brian Marick, Simon Marshall, Bengt Martensson, Charlie
Martin, Thomas May, Roland McGrath, Will Mengarini, David Megginson,
Ben A. Mesander, Wayne Mesard, Brad Miller, Lawrence Mitchell, Richard
Mlynarik, Gerd Moellmann, Stefan Monnier, Morioka Tomohiko, Keith
Moore, Glenn Morris, Diane Murray, Sen Nagata, Erik Naggum, Thomas
Neumann, Thien-Thi Nguyen, Mike Newton, Jurgen Nickelsen, Dan
Nicolaescu, Hrvoje Niksic, Jeff Norden, Andrew Norman, Alexandre
Oliva, Bob Olson, Michael Olson, Takaaki Ota, Pieter E.@: J.@: Pareit,
David Pearson, Jeff Peck, Damon Anton Permezel, Tom Perrine, William
M.@: Perry, Per Persson, Jens Petersen, Daniel Pfeiffer, Richard L.@:
Pieri, Fred Pierresteguy, Christian Plaunt, David Ponce, Francesco
A.@: Potorti, Michael D. Prange, Mukesh Prasad, Ken Raeburn, Marko
Rahamaa, Ashwin Ram, Eric S. Raymond, Paul Reilly, Edward M. Reingold,
Alex Rezinsky, Rob Riepel, David Reitter, Nick Roberts, Roland B.@:
Roberts, John Robinson, Danny Roozendaal, William Rosenblatt,
Guillermo J.@: Rozas, Martin Rudalics, Ivar Rummelhoff, Jason Rumney,
Wolfgang Rupprecht, Kevin Ryde, James B. Salem, Masahiko Sato, Jorgen
Schaefer, Holger Schauer, William Schelter, Ralph Schleicher, Gregor
Schmid, Michael Schmidt, Ronald S. Schnell, Philippe Schnoebelen, Jan
Schormann, Alex Schroeder, Stephen Schoef, Raymond Scholz, Randal
Schwartz, Oliver Seidel, Manuel Serrano, Hovav Shacham, Stanislav
Shalunov, Marc Shapiro, Richard Sharman, Olin Shivers, Espen Skoglund,
Rick Sladkey, Lynn Slater, Chris Smith, David Smith, Paul D.@: Smith,
Andre Spiegel, Michael Staats, William Sommerfeld, Michael Staats,
Reiner Steib, Sam Steingold, Ake Stenhoff, Peter Stephenson, Ken
Stevens, Jonathan Stigelman, Martin Stjernholm, Kim F.@: Storm, Steve
Strassman, Olaf Sylvester, Naoto Takahashi, Steven Tamm, Jean-Philippe
Theberge, Jens T.@: Berger Thielemann, Spencer Thomas, Jim Thompson,
Luc Teirlinck, Tom Tromey, Enami Tsugutomo, Eli Tziperman, Daiki Ueno,
Masanobu Umeda, Rajesh Vaidheeswarran, Neil W.@: Van Dyke, Didier
Verna, Ulrik Vieth, Geoffrey Voelker, Johan Vromans, Inge Wallin, John
Paul Wallington, Colin Walters, Barry Warsaw, Morten Welinder, Joseph
Brian Wells, Rodney Whitby, John Wiegley, Ed Wilkinson, Mike Williams,
Bill Wohler, Steven A. Wood, Dale R.@: Worley, Francis J.@: Wright,
Felix S. T. Wu, Tom Wurgler, Katsumi Yamaoka, Masatake Yamato,
Jonathan Yavner, Ryan Yeske, Chong Yidong, Ilya Zakharevich, Milan
Zamazal, Victor Zandy, Eli Zaretskii, Jamie Zawinski, Shenghuo Zhu,
Ian T.@: Zimmermann, Reto Zimmermann, Neal Ziring, Teodor Zlatanov,
and Detlev Zundel.
@end iftex

@node Intro, Glossary, Distrib, Top
@unnumbered Introduction

  You are reading about GNU Emacs, the GNU incarnation of the
advanced, self-documenting, customizable, extensible editor Emacs.
(The `G' in `GNU' is not silent.)

  We call Emacs advanced because it provides much more than simple
insertion and deletion.  It can control subprocesses, indent programs
automatically, show two or more files at once, and edit formatted
text.  Emacs editing commands operate in terms of characters, words,
lines, sentences, paragraphs, and pages, as well as expressions and
comments in various programming languages.

  @dfn{Self-documenting} means that at any time you can type a special
character, @kbd{Control-h}, to find out what your options are.  You can
also use it to find out what any command does, or to find all the commands
that pertain to a topic.  @xref{Help}.

  @dfn{Customizable} means that you can alter Emacs commands' behavior
in simple ways.  For example, if you use a programming language in
which comments start with @samp{<**} and end with @samp{**>}, you can
tell the Emacs comment manipulation commands to use those strings
(@pxref{Comments}).  Another sort of customization is rearrangement of
the command set.  For example, you can rebind the basic cursor motion
commands (up, down, left and right) to any keys on the keyboard that
you find comfortable.  @xref{Customization}.

  @dfn{Extensible} means that you can go beyond simple customization
and write entirely new commands---programs in the Lisp language to be
run by Emacs's own Lisp interpreter.  Emacs is an ``on-line
extensible'' system, which means that it is divided into many
functions that call each other, any of which can be redefined in the
middle of an editing session.  Almost any part of Emacs can be
replaced without making a separate copy of all of Emacs.  Most of the
editing commands of Emacs are written in Lisp; the few exceptions
could have been written in Lisp but use C instead for efficiency.
Writing an extension is programming, but non-programmers can use it
afterwards.  @xref{Top, Emacs Lisp Intro, Preface, eintr, An
Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp}, if you want to learn Emacs
Lisp programming.

   When running on a graphical display, Emacs provides its own menus
and convenient handling of mouse buttons.  In addition, Emacs provides
many of the benefits of a graphical display even on a text-only
terminal.  For instance, it can highlight parts of a file, display and
edit several files at once, move text between files, and edit files
while running shell commands.

@include screen.texi
@include commands.texi
@include entering.texi
@include basic.texi
@include mini.texi
@include m-x.texi
@include help.texi
@include mark.texi
@include killing.texi
@include regs.texi
@include display.texi
@include search.texi
@include fixit.texi
@include kmacro.texi
@include files.texi
@include buffers.texi
@include windows.texi
@include frames.texi
@include mule.texi
@include major.texi
@include indent.texi
@include text.texi
@include programs.texi
@include building.texi
@include maintaining.texi
@include abbrevs.texi
@include picture-xtra.texi
@end ifnottex
@include sending.texi
@include rmail.texi
@include dired.texi
@include calendar.texi
@include misc.texi
@include custom.texi
@include trouble.texi

@node Copying, GNU Free Documentation License, Service, Top
@center Version 2, June 1991

Copyright @copyright{} 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
@end display

@unnumberedsec Preamble

  The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software---to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
your programs, too.

  When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

  To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

  For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their

  We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.

  Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.

  Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.

  The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.

@end iftex
@end ifnottex

@enumerate 0
This License applies to any program or other work which contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
under the terms of this General Public License.  The ``Program,'' below,
refers to any such program or work, and a ``work based on the Program''
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language.  (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
the term ``modification.'')  Each licensee is addressed as ``you.''

Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.

You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

@enumerate a
You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.

You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
parties under the terms of this License.

If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License.  (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
@end enumerate

These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
sections when you distribute them as separate works.  But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.

In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.

You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:

@enumerate a
Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,

Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or,

Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such
an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
@end enumerate

The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
control compilation and installation of the executable.  However, as a
special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
itself accompanies the executable.

If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.

You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions are
prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.

Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
this License.

If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all.  For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.

If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other

It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.

This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.

If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.

The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and ``any
later version,'' you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software

If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this.  Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

@heading NO WARRANTY
@end iftex
@end ifnottex


@end enumerate

@end iftex
@end ifnottex

@unnumberedsec How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

  If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the ``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

@var{one line to give the program's name and an idea of what it does.}
Copyright (C) @var{yyyy}  @var{name of author}

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA.
@end smallexample

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:

Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) @var{yyyy} @var{name of author}
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
type `show w'.  This is free software, and you are welcome
to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c'
for details.
@end smallexample

The hypothetical commands @samp{show w} and @samp{show c} should show
the appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the
commands you use may be called something other than @samp{show w} and
@samp{show c}; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items---whatever
suits your program.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the program, if
necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:

Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright
interest in the program `Gnomovision'
(which makes passes at compilers) written
by James Hacker.

@var{signature of Ty Coon}, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
@end group
@end smallexample

This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License.

@node GNU Free Documentation License, Emacs Invocation, Copying, Top
@appendix GNU Free Documentation License
@include doclicense.texi

@include cmdargs.texi
@include xresources.texi

@include anti.texi
@include macos.texi
@include msdog.texi
@include gnu.texi
@include glossary.texi
@include ack.texi
@end ifnottex

@c The Option Index is produced only in the on-line version,
@c because the index entries related to command-line options
@c tend to point to the same pages and all begin with a dash.
@c This, and the need to keep the node links consistent, are
@c the reasons for the funky @iftex/@ifnottex dance below.
@c The Option Index is _not_ before Key Index, because that
@c would require changes in the glossary.texi's @node line.
@c It is not after Concept Index for similar reasons.

@node Key Index, Command Index, Glossary, Top
@unnumbered Key (Character) Index
@printindex ky
@end iftex

@node Key Index, Option Index, Glossary, Top
@unnumbered Key (Character) Index
@printindex ky

@node Option Index, Command Index, Key Index, Top
@unnumbered Command-Line Options Index
@printindex op

@node Command Index, Variable Index, Option Index, Top
@unnumbered Command and Function Index
@printindex fn
@end ifnottex

@node Command Index, Variable Index, Key Index, Top
@unnumbered Command and Function Index
@printindex fn
@end iftex

@node Variable Index, Concept Index, Command Index, Top
@unnumbered Variable Index
@printindex vr

@node Concept Index, Acknowledgments, Variable Index, Top
@unnumbered Concept Index
@printindex cp


   arch-tag: ed48740a-410b-46ea-9387-c9a9252a3392
@end ignore