refcard.tex   [plain text]

% Reference Card for GNU Emacs version 22 on Unix systems
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% GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
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% tex refcard.tex
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% Author:
%  Stephen Gildea
%  Internet:
% Thanks to Paul Rubin, Bob Chassell, Len Tower, and Richard Mlynarik
% for their many good ideas.

% If there were room, it would be nice to see a section on Dired.

\def\versionnumber{2.3}         % version of this manual
\def\versionyear{2006}          % year manual was updated
\def\versionemacs{22}           % version of emacs this manual is for
\def\year{2007}                 % copyright year

\def\shortcopyrightnotice{\vskip 1ex plus 2 fill
  \centerline{\small \copyright\ \year\ Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  Permissions on back.  v\versionnumber}}

\vskip 1ex plus 2 fill\begingroup\small
\centerline{Copyright \copyright\ \year\ Free Software Foundation, Inc.}
\centerline{v\versionnumber{} for GNU Emacs version \versionemacs, \versionyear}
\centerline{designed by Stephen Gildea}

Permission is granted to make and distribute copies of
this card provided the copyright notice and this permission notice
are preserved on all copies.

For copies of the GNU Emacs manual, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA


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% threecol - like "key" but with two key names.
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%**end of header

\title{GNU Emacs Reference Card}

\centerline{(for version \versionemacs)}

\section{Starting Emacs}

To enter GNU Emacs \versionemacs, just type its name: \kbd{emacs}

\section{Leaving Emacs}

\key{suspend Emacs (or iconify it under X)}{C-z}
\key{exit Emacs permanently}{C-x C-c}


\key{{\bf read} a file into Emacs}{C-x C-f}
\key{{\bf save} a file back to disk}{C-x C-s}
\key{save {\bf all} files}{C-x s}
\key{{\bf insert} contents of another file into this buffer}{C-x i}
\key{replace this file with the file you really want}{C-x C-v}
\key{write buffer to a specified file}{C-x C-w}
\key{toggle read-only status of buffer}{C-x C-q}

\section{Getting Help}

The help system is simple.  Type \kbd{C-h} (or \kbd{F1}) and follow
the directions.  If you are a first-time user, type \kbd{C-h t} for a
{\bf tutorial}.

\key{remove help window}{C-x 1}
\key{scroll help window}{C-M-v}

\key{apropos: show commands matching a string}{C-h a}
\key{describe the function a key runs}{C-h k}
\key{describe a function}{C-h f}
\key{get mode-specific information}{C-h m}

\section{Error Recovery}

\key{{\bf abort} partially typed or executing command}{C-g}
\metax{{\bf recover} files lost by a system crash}{M-x recover-session}
\metax{{\bf undo} an unwanted change}{C-x u, C-_ {\rm or} C-/}
\metax{restore a buffer to its original contents}{M-x revert-buffer}
\key{redraw garbaged screen}{C-l}

\section{Incremental Search}

\key{search forward}{C-s}
\key{search backward}{C-r}
\key{regular expression search}{C-M-s}
\key{reverse regular expression search}{C-M-r}

\key{select previous search string}{M-p}
\key{select next later search string}{M-n}
\key{exit incremental search}{RET}
\key{undo effect of last character}{DEL}
\key{abort current search}{C-g}

Use \kbd{C-s} or \kbd{C-r} again to repeat the search in either direction.
If Emacs is still searching, \kbd{C-g} cancels only the part not matched.



\paralign to \hsize{#\tabskip=10pt plus 1 fil&#\tabskip=0pt&#\cr
\threecol{{\bf entity to move over}}{{\bf backward}}{{\bf forward}}
\threecol{go to line beginning (or end)}{C-a}{C-e}
\threecol{page}{C-x [}{C-x ]}
\threecol{go to buffer beginning (or end)}{M-<}{M->}

\key{scroll to next screen}{C-v}
\key{scroll to previous screen}{M-v}
\key{scroll left}{C-x <}
\key{scroll right}{C-x >}
\key{scroll current line to center of screen}{C-u C-l}

\section{Killing and Deleting}

\paralign to \hsize{#\tabskip=10pt plus 1 fil&#\tabskip=0pt&#\cr
\threecol{{\bf entity to kill}}{{\bf backward}}{{\bf forward}}
\threecol{character (delete, not kill)}{DEL}{C-d}
\threecol{line (to end of)}{M-0 C-k}{C-k}
\threecol{sentence}{C-x DEL}{M-k}
\threecol{sexp}{M-- C-M-k}{C-M-k}

\key{kill {\bf region}}{C-w}
\key{copy region to kill ring}{M-w}
\key{kill through next occurrence of {\it char}}{M-z {\it char}}

\key{yank back last thing killed}{C-y}
\key{replace last yank with previous kill}{M-y}


\key{set mark here}{C-@ {\rm or} C-SPC}
\key{exchange point and mark}{C-x C-x}

\key{set mark {\it arg\/} {\bf words} away}{M-@}
\key{mark {\bf paragraph}}{M-h}
\key{mark {\bf page}}{C-x C-p}
\key{mark {\bf sexp}}{C-M-@}
\key{mark {\bf function}}{C-M-h}
\key{mark entire {\bf buffer}}{C-x h}

\section{Query Replace}

\key{interactively replace a text string}{M-\%}
% query-replace-regexp is bound to C-M-% but that can't be typed on
% consoles.
\metax{using regular expressions}{M-x query-replace-regexp}

Valid responses in query-replace mode are

\key{{\bf replace} this one, go on to next}{SPC}
\key{replace this one, don't move}{,}
\key{{\bf skip} to next without replacing}{DEL}
\key{replace all remaining matches}{!}
\key{{\bf back up} to the previous match}{^}
\key{{\bf exit} query-replace}{RET}
\key{enter recursive edit (\kbd{C-M-c} to exit)}{C-r}

\section{Multiple Windows}

When two commands are shown, the second is a similar command for a
frame instead of a window.

{\setbox0=\hbox{\kbd{0}}\advance\hsize by 0\wd0
\paralign to \hsize{#\tabskip=10pt plus 1 fil&#\tabskip=0pt&#\cr
\threecol{delete all other windows}{C-x 1\ \ \ \ }{C-x 5 1}
\threecol{split window, above and below}{C-x 2\ \ \ \ }{C-x 5 2}
\threecol{delete this window}{C-x 0\ \ \ \ }{C-x 5 0}
\key{split window, side by side}{C-x 3}

\key{scroll other window}{C-M-v}

{\setbox0=\hbox{\kbd{0}}\advance\hsize by 2\wd0
\paralign to \hsize{#\tabskip=10pt plus 1 fil&#\tabskip=0pt&#\cr
\threecol{switch cursor to another window}{C-x o}{C-x 5 o}

\threecol{select buffer in other window}{C-x 4 b}{C-x 5 b}
\threecol{display buffer in other window}{C-x 4 C-o}{C-x 5 C-o}
\threecol{find file in other window}{C-x 4 f}{C-x 5 f}
\threecol{find file read-only in other window}{C-x 4 r}{C-x 5 r}
\threecol{run Dired in other window}{C-x 4 d}{C-x 5 d}
\threecol{find tag in other window}{C-x 4 .}{C-x 5 .}

\key{grow window taller}{C-x ^}
\key{shrink window narrower}{C-x \{}
\key{grow window wider}{C-x \}}


\key{indent current {\bf line} (mode-dependent)}{TAB}
\key{indent {\bf region} (mode-dependent)}{C-M-\\}
\key{indent {\bf sexp} (mode-dependent)}{C-M-q}
\key{indent region rigidly {\it arg\/} columns}{C-x TAB}

\key{insert newline after point}{C-o}
\key{move rest of line vertically down}{C-M-o}
\key{delete blank lines around point}{C-x C-o}
\key{join line with previous (with arg, next)}{M-^}
\key{delete all white space around point}{M-\\}
\key{put exactly one space at point}{M-SPC}

\key{fill paragraph}{M-q}
\key{set fill column}{C-x f}
\key{set prefix each line starts with}{C-x .}

\key{set face}{M-o}

\section{Case Change}

\key{uppercase word}{M-u}
\key{lowercase word}{M-l}
\key{capitalize word}{M-c}

\key{uppercase region}{C-x C-u}
\key{lowercase region}{C-x C-l}

\section{The Minibuffer}

The following keys are defined in the minibuffer.

\key{complete as much as possible}{TAB}
\key{complete up to one word}{SPC}
\key{complete and execute}{RET}
\key{show possible completions}{?}
\key{fetch previous minibuffer input}{M-p}
\key{fetch later minibuffer input or default}{M-n}
\key{regexp search backward through history}{M-r}
\key{regexp search forward through history}{M-s}
\key{abort command}{C-g}

Type \kbd{C-x ESC ESC} to edit and repeat the last command that used the
minibuffer.  Type \kbd{F10} to activate menu bar items on text terminals.

\title{GNU Emacs Reference Card}


\key{select another buffer}{C-x b}
\key{list all buffers}{C-x C-b}
\key{kill a buffer}{C-x k}


\key{transpose {\bf characters}}{C-t}
\key{transpose {\bf words}}{M-t}
\key{transpose {\bf lines}}{C-x C-t}
\key{transpose {\bf sexps}}{C-M-t}

\section{Spelling Check}

\key{check spelling of current word}{M-\$}
\metax{check spelling of all words in region}{M-x ispell-region}
\metax{check spelling of entire buffer}{M-x ispell-buffer}


\key{find a tag (a definition)}{M-.}
\key{find next occurrence of tag}{C-u M-.}
\metax{specify a new tags file}{M-x visit-tags-table}

\metax{regexp search on all files in tags table}{M-x tags-search}
\metax{run query-replace on all the files}{M-x tags-query-replace}
\key{continue last tags search or query-replace}{M-,}


\key{execute a shell command}{M-!}
\key{run a shell command on the region}{M-|}
\key{filter region through a shell command}{C-u M-|}
\key{start a shell in window \kbd{*shell*}}{M-x shell}


\key{copy rectangle to register}{C-x r r}
\key{kill rectangle}{C-x r k}
\key{yank rectangle}{C-x r y}
\key{open rectangle, shifting text right}{C-x r o}
\key{blank out rectangle}{C-x r c}
\key{prefix each line with a string}{C-x r t}


\key{add global abbrev}{C-x a g}
\key{add mode-local abbrev}{C-x a l}
\key{add global expansion for this abbrev}{C-x a i g}
\key{add mode-local expansion for this abbrev}{C-x a i l}
\key{explicitly expand abbrev}{C-x a e}

\key{expand previous word dynamically}{M-/}

\section{Regular Expressions}

\key{any single character except a newline}{. {\rm(dot)}}
\key{zero or more repeats}{*}
\key{one or more repeats}{+}
\key{zero or one repeat}{?}
\key{quote regular expression special character {\it c\/}}{\\{\it c}}
\key{alternative (``or'')}{\\|}
\key{grouping}{\\( {\rm$\ldots$} \\)}
\key{same text as {\it n\/}th group}{\\{\it n}}
\key{at word break}{\\b}
\key{not at word break}{\\B}

\paralign to \hsize{#\tabskip=10pt plus 1 fil&#\tabskip=0pt&#\cr
\threecol{{\bf entity}}{{\bf match start}}{{\bf match end}}

\threecol{{\bf class of characters}}{{\bf match these}}{{\bf match others}}
\threecol{explicit set}{[ {\rm$\ldots$} ]}{[^ {\rm$\ldots$} ]}
\threecol{word-syntax character}{\\w}{\\W}
\threecol{character with syntax {\it c}}{\\s{\it c}}{\\S{\it c}}

\section{International Character Sets}

\key{specify principal language}{C-x RET l}
\metax{show all input methods}{M-x list-input-methods}
\key{enable or disable input method}{C-\\}
\key{set coding system for next command}{C-x RET c}
\metax{show all coding systems}{M-x list-coding-systems}
\metax{choose preferred coding system}{M-x prefer-coding-system}


\key{enter the Info documentation reader}{C-h i}
\key{find specified function or variable in Info}{C-h S}

Moving within a node:

\key{scroll forward}{SPC}
\key{scroll reverse}{DEL}
\key{beginning of node}{. {\rm (dot)}}

Moving between nodes:

\key{{\bf next} node}{n}
\key{{\bf previous} node}{p}
\key{move {\bf up}}{u}
\key{select menu item by name}{m}
\key{select {\it n\/}th menu item by number (1--9)}{{\it n}}
\key{follow cross reference  (return with \kbd{l})}{f}
\key{return to last node you saw}{l}
\key{return to directory node}{d}
\key{go to top node of Info file}{t}
\key{go to any node by name}{g}


\key{run Info {\bf tutorial}}{h}
\key{look up a subject in the indices}{i}
\key{search nodes for regexp}{s}
\key{{\bf quit} Info}{q}



\key{save region in register}{C-x r s}
\key{insert register contents into buffer}{C-x r i}

\key{save value of point in register}{C-x r SPC}
\key{jump to point saved in register}{C-x r j}

\section{Keyboard Macros}

\key{{\bf start} defining a keyboard macro}{C-x (}
\key{{\bf end} keyboard macro definition}{C-x )}
\key{{\bf execute} last-defined keyboard macro}{C-x e}
\key{append to last keyboard macro}{C-u C-x (}
\metax{name last keyboard macro}{M-x name-last-kbd-macro}
\metax{insert Lisp definition in buffer}{M-x insert-kbd-macro}

\section{Commands Dealing with Emacs Lisp}

\key{eval {\bf sexp} before point}{C-x C-e}
\key{eval current {\bf defun}}{C-M-x}
\metax{eval {\bf region}}{M-x eval-region}
\key{read and eval minibuffer}{M-:}
\metax{load from standard system directory}{M-x load-library}

\section{Simple Customization}

\metax{customize variables and faces}{M-x customize}

% The intended audience here is the person who wants to make simple
% customizations and knows Lisp syntax.

Making global key bindings in Emacs Lisp (examples):

(global-set-key "\\C-cg" 'goto-line)
(global-set-key "\\M-\#" 'query-replace-regexp)

\section{Writing Commands}

(defun \<command-name> (\<args>)
  "\<documentation>" (interactive "\<template>")

An example:

(defun this-line-to-top-of-window (line)
  "Reposition current line to top of window.
With ARG, put point on line ARG."
  (interactive "P")
  (recenter (if (null line)
              (prefix-numeric-value line))))

The \kbd{interactive} spec says how to read arguments interactively.
Type \kbd{C-h f interactive} for more details.


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