NEWS.21   [plain text]

GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.  2006-05-31

Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007
Free Software Foundation, Inc.
See the end of the file for license conditions.

This file is about changes in emacs version 21.

* Emacs 21.4 is a bug-fix release with no user-visible changes.

* Installation changes in Emacs 21.3

** Support for GNU/Linux on little-endian MIPS and on IBM S390 has

* Changes in Emacs 21.3

** The obsolete C mode (c-mode.el) has been removed to avoid problems
with Custom.

** UTF-16 coding systems are available, encoding the same characters
as mule-utf-8.

** There is a new language environment for UTF-8 (set up automatically
in UTF-8 locales).

** Translation tables are available between equivalent characters in
different Emacs charsets -- for instance e with acute' coming from the
Latin-1 and Latin-2 charsets.  User options unify-8859-on-encoding-mode'
and unify-8859-on-decoding-mode' respectively turn on translation
between ISO 8859 character sets (unification') on encoding
(e.g. writing a file) and decoding (e.g. reading a file).  Note that
unify-8859-on-encoding-mode' is useful and safe, but
unify-8859-on-decoding-mode' can cause text to change when you read
it and write it out again without edits, so it is not generally advisable.
By default unify-8859-on-encoding-mode' is turned on.

** In Emacs running on the X window system, the default value of
selection-coding-system' is now compound-text-with-extensions'.

If you want the old behavior, set selection-coding-system to
compound-text, which may be significantly more efficient.  Using
compound-text-with-extensions seems to be necessary only for decoding
text from applications under XFree86 4.2, whose behavior is actually
contrary to the compound text specification.

* Installation changes in Emacs 21.2

** Support for BSD/OS 5.0 has been added.

** Support for AIX 5.1 was added.

* Changes in Emacs 21.2

** Emacs now supports compound-text extended segments in X selections.

X applications can use extended segments' to encode characters in
compound text that belong to character sets which are not part of the
list of approved standard encodings for X, e.g. Big5.  To paste
selections with such characters into Emacs, use the new coding system
compound-text-with-extensions as the value of selection-coding-system.

** The default values of tooltip-delay' and tooltip-hide-delay'
were changed.

** On terminals whose erase-char is ^H (Backspace), Emacs
now uses normal-erase-is-backspace-mode.

** When the *scratch* buffer is recreated, its mode is set from
initial-major-mode, which normally is lisp-interaction-mode,

** The new option Info-scroll-prefer-subnodes' causes Info to behave
like the stand-alone Info reader (from the GNU Texinfo package) as far
as motion between nodes and their subnodes is concerned.  If it is t
(the default), Emacs behaves as before when you type SPC in a menu: it
visits the subnode pointed to by the first menu entry.  If this option
is nil, SPC scrolls to the end of the current node, and only then goes

This change was already in Emacs 21.1, but wasn't advertised in the
NEWS.

* Lisp Changes in Emacs 21.2

** The meanings of scroll-up-aggressively and scroll-down-aggressively
have been interchanged, so that the former now controls scrolling up,
and the latter now controls scrolling down.

** The variable compilation-parse-errors-filename-function' can
be used to transform filenames found in compilation output.

* Installation Changes in Emacs 21.1

See the INSTALL file for information on installing extra libraries and
fonts to take advantage of the new graphical features and extra
charsets in this release.

** Support for GNU/Linux on IA64 machines has been added.

** Support for LynxOS has been added.

** There are new configure options associated with the support for
images and toolkit scrollbars.  Use the --help option in configure'
to list them.

** You can build a 64-bit Emacs for SPARC/Solaris systems which
support 64-bit executables and also on Irix 6.5.  This increases the
maximum buffer size.  See etc/MACHINES for instructions.  Changes to
build on other 64-bit systems should be straightforward modulo any
necessary changes to unexec.

** There is a new configure option --disable-largefile' to omit
Unix-98-style support for large files if that is available.

** There is a new configure option --without-xim' that instructs
Emacs to not use X Input Methods (XIM), if these are available.

** movemail' defaults to supporting POP.  You can turn this off using
the --without-pop configure option, should that be necessary.

** This version can be built for the Macintosh, but does not implement
all of the new display features described below.  The port currently
lacks unexec, asynchronous processes, and networking support.  See the
"Emacs and the Mac OS" appendix in the Emacs manual, for the
description of aspects specific to the Mac.

** Note that the MS-Windows port does not yet implement various of the
new display features described below.

* Changes in Emacs 21.1

** Emacs has a new redisplay engine.

The new redisplay handles characters of variable width and height.
Italic text can be used without redisplay problems.  Fonts containing
oversized characters, i.e. characters larger than the logical height
of a font can be used.  Images of various formats can be displayed in
the text.

** Emacs has a new face implementation.

The new faces no longer fundamentally use X font names to specify the
font.  Instead, each face has several independent attributes--family,
height, width, weight and slant--that it may or may not specify.
These attributes can be merged from various faces, and then together
specify a font.

Faces are supported on terminals that can display color or fonts.
These terminal capabilities are auto-detected.  Details can be found
under Lisp changes, below.

** Emacs can display faces on TTY frames.

Emacs automatically detects terminals that are able to display colors.
Faces with a weight greater than normal are displayed extra-bright, if
the terminal supports it.  Faces with a weight less than normal and
italic faces are displayed dimmed, if the terminal supports it.
Underlined faces are displayed underlined if possible.  Other face
attributes such as overline', strike-through', and box' are ignored
on terminals.

The command-line options -fg COLOR', -bg COLOR', and -rv' are now
supported on character terminals.

Emacs automatically remaps all X-style color specifications to one of
the colors supported by the terminal.  This means you could have the
same color customizations that work both on a windowed display and on
a TTY or when Emacs is invoked with the -nw option.

** New default font is Courier 12pt under X.

** Sound support

Emacs supports playing sound files on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD (Voxware
driver and native BSD driver, a.k.a. Luigi's driver).  Currently
supported file formats are RIFF-WAVE (*.wav) and Sun Audio (*.au).
You must configure Emacs with the option --with-sound=yes' to enable
sound support.

** Emacs now resizes mini-windows if appropriate.

If a message is longer than one line, or minibuffer contents are
longer than one line, Emacs can resize the minibuffer window unless it
is on a frame of its own.  You can control resizing and the maximum
minibuffer window size by setting the following variables:

- User option: max-mini-window-height

Maximum height for resizing mini-windows.  If a float, it specifies a
fraction of the mini-window frame's height.  If an integer, it
specifies a number of lines.

Default is 0.25.

- User option: resize-mini-windows

How to resize mini-windows.  If nil, don't resize.  If t, always
resize to fit the size of the text.  If grow-only', let mini-windows
grow only, until they become empty, at which point they are shrunk
again.

Default is grow-only'.

** LessTif support.

Emacs now runs with the LessTif toolkit (see
<http://www.lesstif.org>).  You will need version 0.92.26, or later.

** LessTif/Motif file selection dialog.

When Emacs is configured to use LessTif or Motif, reading a file name
from a menu will pop up a file selection dialog if use-dialog-box' is
non-nil.

** File selection dialog on MS-Windows is supported.

When a file is visited by clicking File->Open, the MS-Windows version
now pops up a standard file selection dialog where you can select a
file to visit.  File->Save As also pops up that dialog.

** Toolkit scroll bars.

Emacs now uses toolkit scroll bars if available.  When configured for
LessTif/Motif, it will use that toolkit's scroll bar.  Otherwise, when
configured for Lucid and Athena widgets, it will use the Xaw3d scroll
bar if Xaw3d is available.  You can turn off the use of toolkit scroll
bars by specifying --with-toolkit-scroll-bars=no' when configuring
Emacs.

When you encounter problems with the Xaw3d scroll bar, watch out how
Xaw3d is compiled on your system.  If the Makefile generated from
Xaw3d's Imakefile contains a -DNARROWPROTO' compiler option, and your
Emacs system configuration file s/your-system.h' does not contain a
define for NARROWPROTO, you might consider adding it.  Take
s/freebsd.h' as an example.

Alternatively, if you don't have access to the Xaw3d source code, take
a look at your system's imake configuration file, for example in the
directory /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/config' (paths are different on
different systems).  You will find files *.cf' there.  If your
system's cf-file contains a line like #define NeedWidePrototypes NO',

The reason for this is that one Xaw3d function uses double' or
float' function parameters depending on the setting of NARROWPROTO.
This is not a problem when Imakefiles are used because each system's
imake configuration file contains the necessary information.  Since
Emacs doesn't use imake, this has do be done manually.

** Tool bar support.

Emacs supports a tool bar at the top of a frame under X.  For details
of how to define a tool bar, see the page describing Lisp-level
changes.  Tool-bar global minor mode controls whether or not it is
displayed and is on by default.  The appearance of the bar is improved
if Emacs has been built with XPM image support.  Otherwise monochrome
icons will be used.

To make the tool bar more useful, we need contributions of extra icons
for specific modes (with copyright assignments).

** Tooltips.

Tooltips are small X windows displaying a help string at the current
mouse position.  The Lisp package tooltip' implements them.  You can
turn them off via the user option tooltip-mode'.

Tooltips also provides support for GUD debugging.  If activated,
variable values can be displayed in tooltips by pointing at them with
the mouse in source buffers.  You can customize various aspects of the
tooltip display in the group tooltip'.

** Automatic Hscrolling

Horizontal scrolling now happens automatically if
automatic-hscrolling' is set (the default).  This setting can be
customized.

If a window is scrolled horizontally with set-window-hscroll, or
scroll-left/scroll-right (C-x <, C-x >), this serves as a lower bound
for automatic horizontal scrolling.  Automatic scrolling will scroll
the text more to the left if necessary, but won't scroll the text more
to the right than the column set with set-window-hscroll etc.

** When using a windowing terminal, each Emacs window now has a cursor
of its own.  By default, when a window is selected, the cursor is
solid; otherwise, it is hollow.  The user-option
cursor-in-non-selected-windows' controls how to display the
cursor in non-selected windows.  If nil, no cursor is shown, if
non-nil a hollow box cursor is shown.

** Fringes to the left and right of windows are used to display
truncation marks, continuation marks, overlay arrows and alike.  The
foreground, background, and stipple of these areas can be changed by
customizing face fringe'.

** The mode line under X is now drawn with shadows by default.
You can change its appearance by modifying the face mode-line'.
In particular, setting the :box' attribute to nil turns off the 3D
appearance of the mode line.  (The 3D appearance makes the mode line
occupy more space, and thus might cause the first or the last line of
the window to be partially obscured.)

The variable mode-line-inverse-video', which was used in older
versions of emacs to make the mode-line stand out, is now deprecated.
However, setting it to nil will cause the mode-line' face to be
ignored, and mode-lines to be drawn using the default text face.

** Mouse-sensitive mode line.

Different parts of the mode line have been made mouse-sensitive on all
systems which support the mouse.  Moving the mouse to a
mouse-sensitive part in the mode line changes the appearance of the
mouse pointer to an arrow, and help about available mouse actions is
displayed either in the echo area, or in the tooltip window if you
have enabled one.

Currently, the following actions have been defined:

- Mouse-1 on the buffer name in the mode line goes to the next buffer.

- Mouse-3 on the buffer-name goes to the previous buffer.

- Mouse-2 on the read-only or modified status in the mode line (%' or
*') toggles the status.

- Mouse-3 on the major mode name displays a major mode menu.

- Mouse-3 on the mode name displays a minor-mode menu.

** Hourglass pointer

Emacs can optionally display an hourglass pointer under X.  You can
turn the display on or off by customizing group cursor'.

terminals having terminal capabilities vi', vs', and ve'.  Blinking
and related parameters like frequency and delay can be customized in
the group cursor'.

** New font-lock support mode jit-lock-mode'.

This support mode is roughly equivalent to lazy-lock' but is
generally faster.  It supports stealth and deferred fontification.
See the documentation of the function jit-lock-mode' for more
details.

Font-lock uses jit-lock-mode as default support mode, so you don't
have to do anything to activate it.

** The default binding of the Delete key has changed.

The new user-option normal-erase-is-backspace' can be set to
determine the effect of the Delete and Backspace function keys.

On window systems, the default value of this option is chosen
according to the keyboard used.  If the keyboard has both a Backspace
key and a Delete key, and both are mapped to their usual meanings, the
option's default value is set to t, so that Backspace can be used to
delete backward, and Delete can be used to delete forward.  On
keyboards which either have only one key (usually labeled DEL), or two
keys DEL and BS which produce the same effect, the option's value is
set to nil, and these keys delete backward.

If not running under a window system, setting this option accomplishes
a similar effect by mapping C-h, which is usually generated by the
Backspace key, to DEL, and by mapping DEL to C-d via
keyboard-translate'.  The former functionality of C-h is available on
the F1 key.  You should probably not use this setting on a text-only
terminal if you don't have both Backspace, Delete and F1 keys.

Programmatically, you can call function normal-erase-is-backspace-mode
to toggle the behavior of the Delete and Backspace keys.

** The default for user-option next-line-add-newlines' has been
changed to nil, i.e. C-n will no longer add newlines at the end of a
buffer by default.

** The <home> and <end> keys now move to the beginning or end of the
current line, respectively.  C-<home> and C-<end> move to the
beginning and end of the buffer.

** Emacs now checks for recursive loads of Lisp files.  If the
recursion depth exceeds recursive-load-depth-limit', an error is
signaled.

** When an error is signaled during the loading of the user's init
file, Emacs now pops up the *Messages* buffer.

** Emacs now refuses to load compiled Lisp files which weren't
compiled with Emacs.  Set load-dangerous-libraries' to t to change
this behavior.

The reason for this change is an incompatible change in XEmacs's byte
compiler.  Files compiled with XEmacs can contain byte codes that let
Emacs dump core.

When compiled with LessTif (or Motif) support, Emacs uses toolkit
Lucid, Emacs draws radio buttons and toggle buttons similar to Motif.

** The menu bar configuration has changed.  The new configuration is
more CUA-compliant.  The most significant change is that Options is
now a separate menu-bar item, with Mule and Customize as its submenus.

** Item Save Options on the Options menu allows saving options set

** Highlighting of trailing whitespace.

When show-trailing-whitespace' is non-nil, Emacs displays trailing
whitespace in the face trailing-whitespace'.  Trailing whitespace is
defined as spaces or tabs at the end of a line.  To avoid busy
highlighting when entering new text, trailing whitespace is not
displayed if point is at the end of the line containing the
whitespace.

** C-x 5 1 runs the new command delete-other-frames which deletes
all frames except the selected one.

** The new user-option confirm-kill-emacs' can be customized to
let Emacs ask for confirmation before exiting.

** The header line in an Info buffer is now displayed as an emacs
header-line (which is like a mode-line, but at the top of the window),
so that it remains visible even when the buffer has been scrolled.
This behavior may be disabled by customizing the option
Info-use-header-line'.

** Polish, Czech, German, and French translations of Emacs' reference card
have been added.  They are named pl-refcard.tex', cs-refcard.tex',
de-refcard.tex' and fr-refcard.tex'.  Postscript files are included.

** An Emacs Survival Guide', etc/survival.tex, is available.

** A reference card for Dired has been added.  Its name is
dired-ref.tex'.  A French translation is available in
fr-drdref.tex'.

** C-down-mouse-3 is bound differently.  Now if the menu bar is not
displayed it pops up a menu containing the items which would be on the
menu bar.  If the menu bar is displayed, it pops up the major mode

** Variable load-path' is no longer customizable through Customize.

You can no longer use M-x customize-variable' to customize load-path'
because it now contains a version-dependent component.  You can still
use add-to-list' and setq' to customize this variable in your
~/.emacs' init file or to modify it from any Lisp program in general.

** C-u C-x = provides detailed information about the character at
point in a pop-up window.

** Emacs can now support 'wheeled' mice (such as the MS IntelliMouse)
under XFree86.  To enable this, use the mouse-wheel-mode' command, or
customize the variable mouse-wheel-mode'.

The variables mouse-wheel-follow-mouse' and mouse-wheel-scroll-amount'
determine where and by how much buffers are scrolled.

** Emacs' auto-save list files are now by default stored in a
sub-directory .emacs.d/auto-save-list/' of the user's home directory.
(On MS-DOS, this subdirectory's name is _emacs.d/auto-save.list/'.)
You can customize auto-save-list-file-prefix' to change this location.

** The function getenv' is now callable interactively.

** The new user-option even-window-heights' can be set to nil
to prevent display-buffer' from evening out window heights.

** The new command M-x delete-trailing-whitespace RET will delete the
trailing whitespace within the current restriction.  You can also add
this function to write-file-hooks' or local-write-file-hooks'.

** When visiting a file with M-x find-file-literally, no newlines will
be added to the end of the buffer even if require-final-newline' is
non-nil.

** The new user-option find-file-suppress-same-file-warnings' can be
set to suppress warnings X and Y are the same file'' when visiting a
file that is already visited under a different name.

** The new user-option electric-help-shrink-window' can be set to
nil to prevent adjusting the help window size to the buffer size.

** New command M-x describe-character-set reads a character set name

** The new variable auto-mode-interpreter-regexp' contains a regular
expression matching interpreters, for file mode determination.

This regular expression is matched against the first line of a file to
determine the file's mode in set-auto-mode' when Emacs can't deduce a
mode from the file's name.  If it matches, the file is assumed to be
interpreted by the interpreter matched by the second group of the
regular expression.  The mode is then determined as the mode
associated with that interpreter in interpreter-mode-alist'.

** New function executable-make-buffer-file-executable-if-script-p is
suitable as an after-save-hook as an alternative to executable-chmod'.

** The most preferred coding-system is now used to save a buffer if
buffer-file-coding-system is undecided' and it is safe for the buffer
contents.  (The most preferred is set by set-language-environment or
by M-x prefer-coding-system.)  Thus if you visit an ASCII file and
insert a non-ASCII character from your current language environment,
the file will be saved silently with the appropriate coding.
Previously you would be prompted for a safe coding system.

** The many obsolete language setup-...-environment' commands have
been removed -- use set-language-environment'.

** The new Custom option keyboard-coding-system' specifies a coding
system for keyboard input.

** New variable inhibit-iso-escape-detection' determines if Emacs'
coding system detection algorithm should pay attention to ISO2022's
escape sequences.  If this variable is non-nil, the algorithm ignores
such escape sequences.  The default value is nil, and it is
recommended not to change it except for the special case that you
always want to read any escape code verbatim.  If you just want to
read a specific file without decoding escape codes, use C-x RET c
(universal-coding-system-argument').  For instance, C-x RET c latin-1
RET C-x C-f filename RET.

** Variable default-korean-keyboard' is initialized properly from the
environment variable HANGUL_KEYBOARD_TYPE'.

** New command M-x list-charset-chars reads a character set name and
displays all characters in that character set.

** M-x set-terminal-coding-system (C-x RET t) now allows CCL-based
coding systems such as cpXXX and cyrillic-koi8.

** Emacs now attempts to determine the initial language environment
and preferred and locale coding systems systematically from the
LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, and LANG environment variables during startup.

** New language environments Polish', Latin-8' and Latin-9'.
Latin-8 and Latin-9 correspond respectively to the ISO character sets
8859-14 (Celtic) and 8859-15 (updated Latin-1, with the Euro sign).
GNU Intlfonts doesn't support these yet but recent X releases have
8859-15.  See etc/INSTALL for information on obtaining extra fonts.
There are new Leim input methods for Latin-8 and Latin-9 prefix (only)
and Polish slash'.

** New language environments Dutch' and Spanish'.
These new environments mainly select appropriate translations
of the tutorial.

** In Ethiopic language environment, special key bindings for
function keys are changed as follows.  This is to conform to "Emacs
Lisp Coding Convention".

new  command                            old-binding
---  -------                            -----------
f3   ethio-fidel-to-sera-buffer         f5
S-f3 ethio-fidel-to-sera-region         f5
C-f3 ethio-fidel-to-sera-mail-or-marker f5

f4   ethio-sera-to-fidel-buffer         unchanged
S-f4 ethio-sera-to-fidel-region         unchanged
C-f4 ethio-sera-to-fidel-mail-or-marker unchanged

S-f5 ethio-toggle-punctuation           f3
S-f6 ethio-modify-vowel                 f6
S-f7 ethio-replace-space                f7
S-f8 ethio-input-special-character      f8
S-f9 ethio-replace-space                unchanged
C-f9 ethio-toggle-space                 f2

** There are new Leim input methods.
New input methods "turkish-postfix", "turkish-alt-postfix",
"greek-mizuochi", "TeX", and "greek-babel" are now part of the Leim
package.

** The rule of input method "slovak" is slightly changed.  Now the
rules for translating "q" and "Q" to "" (backquote) are deleted, thus
typing them inserts "q" and "Q" respectively.  Rules for translating
"=q", "+q", "=Q", and "+Q" to "" are also deleted.  Now, to input
"", you must type "=q".

** When your terminal can't display characters from some of the ISO
8859 character sets but can display Latin-1, you can display
more-or-less mnemonic sequences of ASCII/Latin-1 characters instead of
empty boxes (under a window system) or question marks (not under a
window system).  Customize the option latin1-display' to turn this
on.

** M-; now calls comment-dwim which tries to do something clever based
on the context.  M-x kill-comment is now an alias to comment-kill,
defined in newcomment.el.  You can choose different styles of region
commenting with the variable comment-style'.

** New user options display-time-mail-face' and
display-time-use-mail-icon' control the appearance of mode-line mail
indicator used by the display-time package.  On a suitable display the
indicator can be an icon and is mouse-sensitive.

** On window-systems, additional space can be put between text lines
on the display using several methods

- By setting frame parameter line-spacing' to PIXELS.  PIXELS must be
a positive integer, and specifies that PIXELS number of pixels should
be put below text lines on the affected frame or frames.

- By setting X resource lineSpacing', class LineSpacing'.  This is
equivalent to specifying the frame parameter.

- By specifying --line-spacing=N' or -lsp N' on the command line.

- By setting buffer-local variable line-spacing'.  The meaning is
the same, but applies to the a particular buffer only.

** The new command clone-indirect-buffer' can be used to create
an indirect buffer that is a twin copy of the current buffer.  The
command clone-indirect-buffer-other-window', bound to C-x 4 c,
does the same but displays the indirect buffer in another window.

** New user options backup-directory-alist' and
make-backup-file-name-function' control the placement of backups,
typically in a single directory or in an invisible sub-directory.

** New commands iso-iso2sgml and iso-sgml2iso convert between Latin-1
characters and the corresponding SGML (HTML) entities.

** New X resources recognized

*** The X resource synchronous', class Synchronous', specifies
whether Emacs should run in synchronous mode.  Synchronous mode
is useful for debugging X problems.

Example:

emacs.synchronous: true

*** The X resource visualClass, class VisualClass', specifies the
visual Emacs should use.  The resource's value should be a string of
the form CLASS-DEPTH', where CLASS is the name of the visual class,
and DEPTH is the requested color depth as a decimal number.  Valid
visual class names are

TrueColor
PseudoColor
DirectColor
StaticColor
GrayScale
StaticGray

Visual class names specified as X resource are case-insensitive, i.e.
pseudocolor', Pseudocolor' and PseudoColor' all have the same
meaning.

The program xdpyinfo' can be used to list the visual classes
supported on your display, and which depths they have.  If
visualClass' is not specified, Emacs uses the display's default
visual.

Example:

emacs.visualClass: TrueColor-8

*** The X resource privateColormap', class PrivateColormap',
specifies that Emacs should use a private colormap if it is using the
default visual, and that visual is of class PseudoColor.  Recognized
resource values are true' or on'.

Example:

emacs.privateColormap: true

** Faces and frame parameters.

There are four new faces scroll-bar', border', cursor' and mouse'.
Setting the frame parameters scroll-bar-foreground' and
scroll-bar-background' sets foreground and background color of face
scroll-bar' and vice versa.  Setting frame parameter border-color'
sets the background color of face border' and vice versa.  Likewise
for frame parameters cursor-color' and face cursor', and frame
parameter mouse-color' and face mouse'.

Changing frame parameter font' sets font-related attributes of the
default' face and vice versa.  Setting frame parameters
foreground-color' or background-color' sets the colors of the
default' face and vice versa.

** New face menu'.

The face menu' can be used to change colors and font of Emacs' menus.

** New frame parameter screen-gamma' for gamma correction.

The new frame parameter screen-gamma' specifies gamma-correction for
colors.  Its value may be nil, the default, in which case no gamma
correction occurs, or a number > 0, usually a float, that specifies
the screen gamma of a frame's display.

PC monitors usually have a screen gamma of 2.2.  smaller values result
in darker colors.  You might want to try a screen gamma of 1.5 for LCD
color displays.  The viewing gamma Emacs uses is 0.4545. (1/2.2).

The X resource name of this parameter is screenGamma', class
ScreenGamma'.

** Tabs and variable-width text.

Tabs are now displayed with stretch properties; the width of a tab is
defined as a multiple of the normal character width of a frame, and is
independent of the fonts used in the text where the tab appears.
Thus, tabs can be used to line up text in different fonts.

** Enhancements of the Lucid menu bar

*** The Lucid menu bar now supports the resource "margin".

The default margin is 4 which makes the menu bar appear like the
LessTif/Motif one.

*** Arrows that indicate sub-menus are now drawn with shadows, as in
LessTif and Motif.

** A block cursor can be drawn as wide as the glyph under it under X.

As an example: if a block cursor is over a tab character, it will be
drawn as wide as that tab on the display.  To do this, set
x-stretch-cursor' to a non-nil value.

** Empty display lines at the end of a buffer may be marked with a
bitmap (this is similar to the tilde displayed by vi and Less).

This behavior is activated by setting the buffer-local variable
indicate-empty-lines' to a non-nil value.  The default value of this
variable is found in default-indicate-empty-lines'.

** There is a new "aggressive" scrolling method.

When scrolling up because point is above the window start, if the
value of the buffer-local variable scroll-up-aggressively' is a
number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
fraction of the window's height from the top of the window.

When scrolling down because point is below the window end, if the
value of the buffer-local variable scroll-down-aggressively' is a
number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
fraction of the window's height from the bottom of the window.

** You can now easily create new *Info* buffers using either
M-x clone-buffer, C-u m <entry> RET or C-u g <entry> RET.
M-x clone-buffer can also be used on *Help* and several other special
buffers.

** The command Info-search' now uses a search history.

** Listing buffers with M-x list-buffers (C-x C-b) now shows
abbreviated file names.  Abbreviations can be customized by changing
directory-abbrev-alist'.

** A new variable, backup-by-copying-when-privileged-mismatch, gives
the highest file uid for which backup-by-copying-when-mismatch will be
forced on.  The assumption is that uids less than or equal to this
value are special uids (root, bin, daemon, etc.--not real system
users) and that files owned by these users should not change ownership,
even if your system policy allows users other than root to edit them.

The default is 200; set the variable to nil to disable the feature.

** The rectangle commands now avoid inserting undesirable spaces,
notably at the end of lines.

All these functions have been rewritten to avoid inserting unwanted
spaces, and an optional prefix now allows them to behave the old way.

** The function replace-rectangle' is an alias for string-rectangle'.

** The new command M-x string-insert-rectangle is like string-rectangle',
but inserts text instead of replacing it.

** The new command M-x query-replace-regexp-eval acts like
query-replace-regexp, but takes a Lisp expression which is evaluated
after each match to get the replacement text.

** M-x query-replace recognizes a new command e' (or E') that lets
you edit the replacement string.

** The new command mail-abbrev-complete-alias, bound to M-TAB'
(if you load the library mailabbrev'), lets you complete mail aliases
in the text, analogous to lisp-complete-symbol.

** The variable echo-keystrokes' may now have a floating point value.

** If your init file is compiled (.emacs.elc), user-init-file' is set

** The help string specified for a menu-item whose definition contains
the property :help HELP' is now displayed under X, on MS-Windows, and
MS-DOS, either in the echo area or with tooltips.  Many standard menus
displayed by Emacs now have help strings.

--
** New user option read-mail-command' specifies a command to use to

** The environment variable EMACSLOCKDIR' is no longer used on MS-Windows.
This environment variable was used when creating lock files.  Emacs on
MS-Windows does not use this variable anymore.  This change was made
before Emacs 21.1, but wasn't documented until now.

** Highlighting of mouse-sensitive regions is now supported in the
MS-DOS version of Emacs.

** The new command msdos-set-mouse-buttons' forces the MS-DOS version
of Emacs to behave as if the mouse had a specified number of buttons.
This comes handy with mice that don't report their number of buttons
correctly.  One example is the wheeled mice, which report 3 buttons,
but clicks on the middle button are not passed to the MS-DOS version
of Emacs.

** Customize changes

State' menu to add comments, or give a prefix argument to
M-x customize-set-variable or M-x customize-set-value.  Note that
customization comments will cause the customizations to fail in
earlier versions of Emacs.

*** The new option custom-buffer-done-function' says whether to kill
Custom buffers when you've done with them or just bury them (the
default).

*** If Emacs was invoked with the -q' or --no-init-file' options, it
does not allow you to save customizations in your ~/.emacs' init
file.  This is because saving customizations from such a session would
wipe out all the other customizationss you might have on your init
file.

** If Emacs was invoked with the -q' or --no-init-file' options, it
does not save disabled and enabled commands for future sessions, to
avoid overwriting existing customizations of this kind that are

** New features in evaluation commands

*** The commands to evaluate Lisp expressions, such as C-M-x in Lisp
modes, C-j in Lisp Interaction mode, and M-:, now bind the variables
print-level, print-length, and debug-on-error based on the new
customizable variables eval-expression-print-level,
eval-expression-print-length, and eval-expression-debug-on-error.

The default values for the first two of these variables are 12 and 4
respectively, which means that eval-expression' now prints at most
the first 12 members of a list and at most 4 nesting levels deep (if
the list is longer or deeper than that, an ellipsis ...'  is
printed).

<RET> or <mouse-2> on the printed text toggles between an abbreviated
printed representation and an unabbreviated one.

The default value of eval-expression-debug-on-error is t, so any error
during evaluation produces a backtrace.

*** The function eval-defun' (C-M-x) now loads Edebug and instruments
code when called with a prefix argument.

** CC mode changes.

Note: This release contains changes that might not be compatible with
current user setups (although it's believed that these
incompatibilities will only show in very uncommon circumstances).
However, since the impact is uncertain, these changes may be rolled
back depending on user feedback.  Therefore there's no forward
compatibility guarantee wrt the new features introduced in this
release.

*** The hardcoded switch to "java" style in Java mode is gone.
CC Mode used to automatically set the style to "java" when Java mode
is entered.  This has now been removed since it caused too much
confusion.

However, to keep backward compatibility to a certain extent, the
default value for c-default-style now specifies the "java" style for
java-mode, but "gnu" for all other modes (as before).  So you won't
notice the change if you haven't touched that variable.

*** New cleanups, space-before-funcall and compact-empty-funcall.
Two new cleanups have been added to c-cleanup-list:

space-before-funcall causes a space to be inserted before the opening
parenthesis of a function call, which gives the style "foo (bar)".

compact-empty-funcall causes any space before a function call opening
parenthesis to be removed if there are no arguments to the function.
It's typically useful together with space-before-funcall to get the
style "foo (bar)" and "foo()".

*** Some keywords now automatically trigger reindentation.
Keywords like "else", "while", "catch" and "finally" have been made
"electric" to make them reindent automatically when they continue an
earlier statement.  An example:

for (i = 0; i < 17; i++)
if (a[i])
res += a[i]->offset;
else

Here, the "else" should be indented like the preceding "if", since it
continues that statement. CC Mode will automatically reindent it after
the "else" has been typed in full, since it's not until then it's
possible to decide whether it's a new statement or a continuation of
the preceding "if".

CC Mode uses Abbrev mode to achieve this, which is therefore turned on
by default.

*** M-a and M-e now moves by sentence in multiline strings.
Previously these two keys only moved by sentence in comments, which
meant that sentence movement didn't work in strings containing
documentation or other natural language text.

The reason it's only activated in multiline strings (i.e. strings that
contain a newline, even when escaped by a '\') is to avoid stopping in
the short strings that often reside inside statements.  Multiline
strings almost always contain text in a natural language, as opposed
to other strings that typically contain format specifications,
commands, etc.  Also, it's not that bothersome that M-a and M-e misses
sentences in single line strings, since they're short anyway.

*** Support for autodoc comments in Pike mode.
Autodoc comments for Pike are used to extract documentation from the
source, like Javadoc in Java.  Pike mode now recognize this markup in
comment prefixes and paragraph starts.

*** The comment prefix regexps on c-comment-prefix may be mode specific.
When c-comment-prefix is an association list, it specifies the comment
line prefix on a per-mode basis, like c-default-style does.  This
change came about to support the special autodoc comment prefix in
Pike mode only.

*** Better handling of syntactic errors.
The recovery after unbalanced parens earlier in the buffer has been
improved; CC Mode now reports them by dinging and giving a message
stating the offending line, but still recovers and indent the
following lines in a sane way (most of the time).  An "else" with no
matching "if" is handled similarly.  If an error is discovered while
indenting a region, the whole region is still indented and the error
is reported afterwards.

*** Lineup functions may now return absolute columns.
A lineup function can give an absolute column to indent the line to by
returning a vector with the desired column as the first element.

*** More robust and warning-free byte compilation.
Although this is strictly not a user visible change (well, depending
on the view of a user), it's still worth mentioning that CC Mode now
can be compiled in the standard ways without causing trouble.  Some
code have also been moved between the subpackages to enhance the
modularity somewhat.  Thanks to Martin Buchholz for doing the
groundwork.

*** c-style-variables-are-local-p now defaults to t.
This is an incompatible change that has been made to make the behavior
of the style system wrt global variable settings less confusing for
non-advanced users.  If you know what this variable does you might
want to set it to nil in your .emacs, otherwise you probably don't
have to bother.

Defaulting c-style-variables-are-local-p to t avoids the confusing
situation that occurs when a user sets some style variables globally
and edits both a Java and a non-Java file in the same Emacs session.
If the style variables aren't buffer local in this case, loading of
the second file will cause the default style (either "gnu" or "java"
by default) to override the global settings made by the user.

*** New initialization procedure for the style system.
When the initial style for a buffer is determined by CC Mode (from the
variable c-default-style), the global values of style variables now
take precedence over the values specified by the chosen style.  This
is different than the old behavior: previously, the style-specific
settings would override the global settings.  This change makes it
possible to do simple configuration in the intuitive way with
Customize or with setq lines in one's .emacs file.

By default, the global value of every style variable is the new
special symbol set-from-style, which causes the value to be taken from
the style system.  This means that in effect, only an explicit setting
of a style variable will cause the "overriding" behavior described
above.

Also note that global settings override style-specific settings *only*
when the initial style of a buffer is chosen by a CC Mode major mode
function.  When a style is chosen in other ways --- for example, by a
call like (c-set-style "gnu") in a hook, or via M-x c-set-style ---
then the style-specific values take precedence over any global style
values.  In Lisp terms, global values override style-specific values
only when the new second argument to c-set-style is non-nil; see the

The purpose of these changes is to make it easier for users,
especially novice users, to do simple customizations with Customize or
with setq in their .emacs files.  On the other hand, the new system is
intended to be compatible with advanced users' customizations as well,
such as those that choose styles in hooks or whatnot.  This new system
is believed to be almost entirely compatible with current
configurations, in spite of the changed precedence between style and
global variable settings when a buffer's default style is set.

(Thanks to Eric Eide for clarifying this explanation a bit.)

**** c-offsets-alist is now a customizable variable.
This became possible as a result of the new initialization behavior.

This variable is treated slightly differently from the other style
variables; instead of using the symbol set-from-style, it will be
completed with the syntactic symbols it doesn't already contain when
the style is first initialized.  This means it now defaults to the
empty list to make all syntactic elements get their values from the
style system.

**** Compatibility variable to restore the old behavior.
In case your configuration doesn't work with this change, you can set
c-old-style-variable-behavior to non-nil to get the old behavior back
as far as possible.

*** Improvements to line breaking and text filling.
CC Mode now handles this more intelligently and seamlessly wrt the
surrounding code, especially inside comments.  For details see the new

**** New variable to recognize comment line prefix decorations.
The variable c-comment-prefix-regexp has been added to properly
recognize the line prefix in both block and line comments.  It's
primarily used to initialize the various paragraph recognition and
adaptive filling variables that the text handling functions uses.

**** New variable c-block-comment-prefix.
This is a generalization of the now obsolete variable
c-comment-continuation-stars to handle arbitrary strings.

**** CC Mode now uses adaptive fill mode.
This to make it adapt better to the paragraph style inside comments.

It's also possible to use other adaptive filling packages inside CC
Mode, notably Kyle E. Jones' Filladapt mode (http://wonderworks.com/).
inside CC Mode.

Note though that the 2.12 version of Filladapt lacks a feature that
causes it to work suboptimally when c-comment-prefix-regexp can match
the empty string (which it commonly does).  A patch for that is
available from the CC Mode web site (http://www.python.org/emacs/
cc-mode/).

**** The variables c-hanging-comment-starter-p' and
c-hanging-comment-ender-p', which controlled how comment starters and
enders were filled, are not used anymore.  The new version of the
function c-fill-paragraph' keeps the comment starters and enders as
they were before the filling.

**** It's now possible to selectively turn off auto filling.
The variable c-ignore-auto-fill is used to ignore auto fill mode in
specific contexts, e.g. in preprocessor directives and in string
literals.

**** New context sensitive line break function c-context-line-break.
It works like newline-and-indent in normal code, and adapts the line
prefix according to the comment style when used inside comments.  If
you're normally using newline-and-indent, you might want to switch to
this function.

*** Fixes to IDL mode.
It now does a better job in recognizing only the constructs relevant
to IDL.  E.g. it no longer matches "class" as the beginning of a
struct block, but it does match the CORBA 2.3 "valuetype" keyword.
Thanks to Eric Eide.

*** Improvements to the Whitesmith style.
It now keeps the style consistently on all levels and both when
opening braces hangs and when they don't.

**** New lineup function c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block.

*** New lineup functions c-lineup-template-args and c-indent-multi-line-block.
See their docstrings for details.  c-lineup-template-args does a
better job of tracking the brackets used as parens in C++ templates,
and is used by default to line up continued template arguments.

*** c-lineup-comment now preserves alignment with a comment on the
the column specified by comment-column.

In comments with a long delimiter line at the start, the indentation
is kept unchanged for lines that start with an empty comment line
prefix.  This is intended for the type of large block comments that
contain documentation with its own formatting.  In these you normally
don't want CC Mode to change the indentation.

*** The c' syntactic symbol is now relative to the comment start
instead of the previous line, to make integers usable as lineup
arguments.

*** All lineup functions have gotten docstrings.

*** More preprocessor directive movement functions.
c-down-conditional does the reverse of c-up-conditional.
c-up-conditional-with-else and c-down-conditional-with-else are
variants of these that also stops at "#else" lines (suggested by Don
Provan).

*** Minor improvements to many movement functions in tricky situations.

** Dired changes

*** New variable dired-recursive-deletes' determines if the delete
command will delete non-empty directories recursively.  The default
is, delete only empty directories.

*** New variable dired-recursive-copies' determines if the copy
command will copy directories recursively.  The default is, do not
copy directories recursively.

*** In command dired-do-shell-command' (usually bound to !') a ?'
in the shell command has a special meaning similar to *', but with
the difference that the command will be run on each file individually.

*** The new command dired-find-alternate-file' (usually bound to a')
replaces the Dired buffer with the buffer for an alternate file or
directory.

*** The new command dired-show-file-type' (usually bound to y') shows
a message in the echo area describing what type of file the point is on.
This command invokes the external program file' do its work, and so
will only work on systems with that program, and will be only as
accurate or inaccurate as it is.

*** Dired now properly handles undo changes of adding/removing -R'
from ls switches.

*** Dired commands that prompt for a destination file now allow the use
of the M-n' command in the minibuffer to insert the source filename,
which the user can then edit.  This only works if there is a single
source file, not when operating on multiple marked files.

** Gnus changes.

The Gnus NEWS entries are short, but they reflect sweeping changes in
four areas: Article display treatment, MIME treatment,
internationalization and mail-fetching.

*** The mail-fetching functions have changed.  See the manual for the
many details.  In particular, all procmail fetching variables are gone.

If you used procmail like in

(setq nnmail-use-procmail t)
(setq nnmail-spool-file 'procmail)
(setq nnmail-procmail-directory "~/mail/incoming/")
(setq nnmail-procmail-suffix "\\.in")

this now has changed to

(setq mail-sources
'((directory :path "~/mail/incoming/"
:suffix ".in")))

More information is available in the info doc at Select Methods ->
Getting Mail -> Mail Sources

*** Gnus is now a MIME-capable reader.  This affects many parts of
Gnus, and adds a slew of new commands.  See the manual for details.
Separate MIME packages like RMIME, mime-compose etc., will probably no
longer work; remove them and use the native facilities.

The FLIM/SEMI package still works with Emacs 21, but if you want to
use the native facilities, you must remove any mailcap.el[c] that was
installed by FLIM/SEMI version 1.13 or earlier.

*** Gnus has also been multilingualized.  This also affects too many
parts of Gnus to summarize here, and adds many new variables.  There
are built-in facilities equivalent to those of gnus-mule.el, which is
now just a compatibility layer.

*** gnus-mule.el is now just a compatibility layer over the built-in
Gnus facilities.

*** gnus-auto-select-first can now be a function to be
called to position point.

*** The user can now decide which extra headers should be included in
summary buffers and NOV files.

*** gnus-article-display-hook' has been removed.  Instead, a number
of variables starting with gnus-treat-' have been added.

*** The Gnus posting styles have been redone again and now work in a
subtly different manner.

*** New web-based backends have been added: nnslashdot, nnwarchive
and nnultimate.  nnweb has been revamped, again, to keep up with
ever-changing layouts.

*** Gnus can now read IMAP mail via nnimap.

*** There is image support of various kinds and some sound support.

** Changes in Texinfo mode.

*** A couple of new key bindings have been added for inserting Texinfo
macros

Key binding	Macro
-------------------------
C-c C-c C-s	@strong
C-c C-c C-e	@emph
C-c C-c u	@uref
C-c C-c q     @quotation
C-c C-c m	@email
C-c C-o       @<block> ... @end <block>
M-RET         @item

*** The " key now inserts either " or  or '' depending on context.

** Changes in Outline mode.

There is now support for Imenu to index headings.  A new command

** Changes to Emacs Server

*** The new option server-kill-new-buffers' specifies what to do
with buffers when done with them.  If non-nil, the default, buffers
are killed, unless they were already present before visiting them with
Emacs Server.  If nil, server-temp-file-regexp' specifies which
buffers to kill, as before.

Please note that only buffers are killed that still have a client,
i.e. buffers visited with emacsclient --no-wait' are never killed in
this way.

** Both emacsclient and Emacs itself now accept command line options
of the form +LINE:COLUMN in addition to +LINE.

** Changes to Show Paren mode.

*** Overlays used by Show Paren mode now use a priority property.
The new user option show-paren-priority specifies the priority to
use.  Default is 1000.

** New command M-x check-parens can be used to find unbalanced paren
groups and strings in buffers in Lisp mode (or other modes).

** Changes to hideshow.el

*** Generalized block selection and traversal

A block is now recognized by its start and end regexps (both strings),
and an integer specifying which sub-expression in the start regexp
serves as the place where a forward-sexp'-like function can operate.
See the documentation of variable hs-special-modes-alist'.

*** During incremental search, if Hideshow minor mode is active,
hidden blocks are temporarily shown.  The variable hs-headline' can
be used in the mode line format to show the line at the beginning of
the open block.

*** User option hs-hide-all-non-comment-function' specifies a
function to be called at each top-level block beginning, instead of
the normal block-hiding function.

*** The command hs-show-region' has been removed.

*** The key bindings have changed to fit the Emacs conventions,
roughly imitating those of Outline minor mode.  Notably, the prefix
for all bindings is now C-c @'.  For details, see the documentation
for hs-minor-mode'.

*** The variable hs-show-hidden-short-form' has been removed, and
hideshow.el now always behaves as if this variable were set to t.

** Changes to Change Log mode and Add-Log functions

*** If you invoke add-change-log-entry' from a backup file, it makes
an entry appropriate for the file's parent.  This is useful for making
log entries by comparing a version with deleted functions.

current buffer.

*** New command M-x change-log-redate fixes any old-style date entries
in a log file.

*** Change Log mode now adds a file's version number to change log
entries if user-option change-log-version-info-enabled' is non-nil.
Unless the file is under version control the search for a file's
version number is performed based on regular expressions from
change-log-version-number-regexp-list' which can be customized.
Version numbers are only found in the first 10 percent of a file.

*** Change Log mode now defines its own faces for font-lock highlighting.

** Changes to cmuscheme

*** The user-option scheme-program-name' has been renamed
cmuscheme-program-name' due to conflicts with xscheme.el.

** Changes in Font Lock

*** The new function font-lock-remove-keywords' can be used to remove
font-lock keywords from the current buffer or from a specific major mode.

*** Multi-line patterns are now supported.  Modes using this, should
set font-lock-multiline to t in their font-lock-defaults.

*** font-lock-syntactic-face-function' allows major-modes to choose
the face used for each string/comment.

*** A new standard face font-lock-doc-face'.

** Changes to Shell mode

*** The shell' command now accepts an optional argument to specify the buffer
to use, which defaults to "*shell*".  When used interactively, a
non-default buffer may be specified by giving the shell' command a
prefix argument (causing it to prompt for the buffer name).

** Comint (subshell) changes

These changes generally affect all modes derived from comint mode, which
include shell-mode, gdb-mode, scheme-interaction-mode, etc.

*** Comint now by default interprets some carriage-control characters.
Comint now removes CRs from CR LF sequences, and treats single CRs and
BSs in the output in a way similar to a terminal (by deleting to the
beginning of the line, or deleting the previous character,
respectively).  This is achieved by adding comint-carriage-motion' to
the comint-output-filter-functions' hook by default.

*** By default, comint no longer uses the variable comint-prompt-regexp'
to distinguish prompts from user-input.  Instead, it notices which
parts of the text were output by the process, and which entered by the
user, and attaches field' properties to allow emacs commands to use
this information.  Common movement commands, notably beginning-of-line,
respect field boundaries in a fairly natural manner.  To disable this
feature, and use the old behavior, customize the user option

*** Comint now includes new features to send commands to running processes
and redirect the output to a designated buffer or buffers.

*** The command M-x comint-redirect-send-command reads a command and
buffer name from the mini-buffer.  The command is sent to the current
buffer's process, and its output is inserted into the specified buffer.

The command M-x comint-redirect-send-command-to-process acts like
the buffer whose process should be used from the mini-buffer.

*** Packages based on comint now highlight user input and program prompts,
and support choosing previous input with mouse-2.  To control these features,
see the user-options comint-highlight-input' and comint-highlight-prompt'.

*** The new command comint-write-output' (usually bound to C-c C-s')
saves the output from the most recent command to a file.  With a prefix
argument, it appends to the file.

*** The command comint-kill-output' has been renamed comint-delete-output'
(usually bound to C-c C-o'); the old name is aliased to it for
compatibility.

ring (history).

*** The new variable comint-input-history-ignore' is a regexp for
identifying history lines that should be ignored, like tcsh time-stamp
strings, starting with a #'.  The default value of this variable is "^#".

** Changes to Rmail mode

*** The new user-option rmail-user-mail-address-regexp can be
set to fine tune the identification of the correspondent when
receiving new mail.  If it matches the address of the sender, the
recipient is taken as correspondent of a mail.  If nil, the default,
user-login-name' and user-mail-address' are used to exclude yourself
as correspondent.

Usually you don't have to set this variable, except if you collect
mails sent by you under different user names.  Then it should be a

*** The new user-option rmail-confirm-expunge controls whether and how
to ask for confirmation before expunging deleted messages from an
Rmail file.  You can choose between no confirmation, confirmation
with y-or-n-p, or confirmation with yes-or-no-p.  Default is to ask
for confirmation with yes-or-no-p.

*** RET is now bound in the Rmail summary to rmail-summary-goto-msg,
like j'.

*** There is a new user option rmail-digest-end-regexps' that
specifies the regular expressions to detect the line that ends a
digest message.

*** The new user option rmail-automatic-folder-directives' specifies
in which folder to put messages automatically.

*** The new function rmail-redecode-body' allows to fix a message
with non-ASCII characters if Emacs happens to decode it incorrectly
due to missing or malformed "charset=" header.

** The new user-option mail-envelope-from' can be used to specify

** The variable mail-specify-envelope-from controls whether to
use the -f option when sending mail.

** The Rmail command o' (rmail-output-to-rmail-file') now writes the
current message in the internal emacs-mule' encoding, rather than in
the encoding taken from the variable buffer-file-coding-system'.
This allows to save messages whose characters cannot be safely encoded
by the buffer's coding system, and makes sure the message will be
displayed correctly when you later visit the target Rmail file.

If you want your Rmail files be encoded in a specific coding system
other than emacs-mule', you can customize the variable
rmail-file-coding-system' to set its value to that coding system.

** Changes to TeX mode

*** The default mode has been changed from plain-tex-mode' to
latex-mode'.

*** latex-mode now has a simple indentation algorithm.

*** M-f and M-p jump around \begin...\end pairs.

** Changes to RefTeX mode

*** RefTeX has new support for index generation.  Index entries can be
created with C-c <', with completion available on index keys.
Pressing C-c /' indexes the word at the cursor with a default
macro.  C-c >' compiles all index entries into an alphabetically
sorted *Index* buffer which looks like the final index.  Entries
can be edited from that buffer.

*** Label and citation key selection now allow to select several
items and reference them together (use m' to mark items, a' or
A' to use all marked entries).

*** reftex.el has been split into a number of smaller files to reduce
memory use when only a part of RefTeX is being used.

*** a new command reftex-view-crossref-from-bibtex' (bound to C-c &'
in BibTeX-mode) can be called in a BibTeX database buffer in order
to show locations in LaTeX documents where a particular entry has
been cited.

** Emacs Lisp mode now allows multiple levels of outline headings.
The level of a heading is determined from the number of leading
semicolons in a heading line.  Toplevel forms starting with a ('
in column 1 are always made leaves.

** The M-x time-stamp command (most commonly used on write-file-hooks)
has the following new features:

*** The patterns for finding the time stamp and for updating a pattern
may match text spanning multiple lines.  For example, some people like
to have the filename and date on separate lines.  The new variable
time-stamp-inserts-lines controls the matching for multi-line patterns.

*** More than one time stamp can be updated in the same file.  This
feature is useful if you need separate time stamps in a program source
file to both include in formatted documentation and insert in the
compiled binary.  The same time-stamp will be written at each matching
pattern.  The variable time-stamp-count enables this new feature; it
defaults to 1.

** Partial Completion mode now completes environment variables in
file names.

** Ispell changes

*** The command ispell' now spell-checks a region if
transient-mark-mode is on, and the mark is active.  Otherwise it
spell-checks the current buffer.

*** Support for synchronous subprocesses - DOS/Windoze - has been

*** An "alignment error" bug was fixed when a manual spelling

*** Italian, Portuguese, and Slovak dictionary definitions have been added.

*** Region skipping performance has been vastly improved in some
cases.

*** Spell checking HTML buffers has been improved and isn't so strict
on syntax errors.

*** The buffer-local words are now always placed on a new line at the
end of the buffer.

*** Spell checking now works in the MS-DOS version of Emacs.

*** The variable ispell-format-word' has been renamed to
ispell-format-word-function'.  The old name is still available as
alias.

** Makefile mode changes

*** The mode now uses the abbrev table makefile-mode-abbrev-table'.

*** Conditionals and include statements are now highlighted when
Fontlock mode is active.

** Isearch changes

*** Isearch now puts a call to isearch-resume' in the command history,
so that searches can be resumed.

*** In Isearch mode, C-M-s and C-M-r are now bound like C-s and C-r,
respectively, i.e. you can repeat a regexp isearch with the same keys
that started the search.

*** In Isearch mode, mouse-2 in the echo area now yanks the current
selection into the search string rather than giving an error.

*** There is a new lazy highlighting feature in incremental search.

Lazy highlighting is switched on/off by customizing variable
isearch-lazy-highlight'.  When active, all matches for the current
search string are highlighted.  The current match is highlighted as
before using face isearch' or region'.  All other matches are
highlighted using face isearch-lazy-highlight-face' which defaults to
secondary-selection'.

The extra highlighting makes it easier to anticipate where the cursor
will end up each time you press C-s or C-r to repeat a pending search.
Highlighting of these additional matches happens in a deferred fashion
using "idle timers," so the cycles needed do not rob isearch of its
usual snappy response.

If isearch-lazy-highlight-cleanup' is set to t, highlights for
matches are automatically cleared when you end the search.  If it is
set to nil, you can remove the highlights manually with M-x
isearch-lazy-highlight-cleanup'.

** VC Changes

VC has been overhauled internally.  It is now modular, making it
easier to plug-in arbitrary version control backends.  (See Lisp
Changes for details on the new structure.)  As a result, the mechanism
to enable and disable support for particular version systems has
changed: everything is now controlled by the new variable
vc-handled-backends'.  Its value is a list of symbols that identify
version systems; the default is '(RCS CVS SCCS).  When finding a file,
each of the backends in that list is tried in order to see whether the
file is registered in that backend.

When registering a new file, VC first tries each of the listed
backends to see if any of them considers itself "responsible" for the
directory of the file (e.g. because a corresponding subdirectory for
master files exists).  If none of the backends is responsible, then
the first backend in the list that could register the file is chosen.
As a consequence, the variable vc-default-back-end' is now obsolete.

The old variable vc-master-templates' is also obsolete, although VC
still supports it for backward compatibility.  To define templates for
RCS or SCCS, you should rather use the new variables
vc-{rcs,sccs}-master-templates.  (There is no such feature under CVS
where it doesn't make sense.)

The variables vc-ignore-vc-files' and vc-handle-cvs' are also
obsolete now, you must set vc-handled-backends' to nil or exclude
CVS' from the list, respectively, to achieve their effect now.

*** General Changes

The variable vc-checkout-carefully' is obsolete: the corresponding
checks are always done now.

VC Dired buffers are now kept up-to-date during all version control
operations.

vc-diff' output is now displayed in diff-mode'.
vc-print-log' uses log-view-mode'.
vc-log-mode' (used for *VC-Log*) has been replaced by log-edit-mode'.

The command C-x v m (vc-merge) now accepts an empty argument as the
first revision number.  This means that any recent changes on the
current branch should be picked up from the repository and merged into
the working file (merge news'').

The commands C-x v s (vc-create-snapshot) and C-x v r
(vc-retrieve-snapshot) now ask for a directory name from which to work
downwards.

*** Multiple Backends

VC now lets you register files in more than one backend.  This is
useful, for example, if you are working with a slow remote CVS
repository.  You can then use RCS for local editing, and occasionally
commit your changes back to CVS, or pick up changes from CVS into your
local RCS archives.

To make this work, the more local'' backend (RCS in our example)
should come first in vc-handled-backends', and the more remote''
backend (CVS) should come later.  (The default value of
vc-handled-backends' already has it that way.)

You can then commit changes to another backend (say, RCS), by typing
C-u C-x v v RCS RET (i.e. vc-next-action now accepts a backend name as
a revision number).  VC registers the file in the more local backend
if that hasn't already happened, and commits to a branch based on the
current revision number from the more remote backend.

If a file is registered in multiple backends, you can switch to
another one using C-x v b (vc-switch-backend).  This does not change
any files, it only changes VC's perspective on the file.  Use this to
pick up changes from CVS while working under RCS locally.

After you are done with your local RCS editing, you can commit your
changes back to CVS using C-u C-x v v CVS RET.  In this case, the
local RCS archive is removed after the commit, and the log entry
buffer is initialized to contain the entire RCS change log of the file.

*** Changes for CVS

There is a new user option, vc-cvs-stay-local'.  If it is t' (the
default), then VC avoids network queries for files registered in
remote repositories.  The state of such files is then only determined
by heuristics and past information.  vc-cvs-stay-local' can also be a
regexp to match against repository hostnames; only files from hosts
that match it are treated locally.  If the variable is nil, then VC
queries the repository just as often as it does for local files.

If vc-cvs-stay-local' is on, then VC also makes local backups of
repository versions.  This means that ordinary diffs (C-x v =) and
revert operations (C-x v u) can be done completely locally, without
any repository interactions at all.  The name of a local version
backup of FILE is FILE.~REV.~, where REV is the repository version
number.  This format is similar to that used by C-x v ~
(vc-version-other-window), except for the trailing dot.  As a matter
of fact, the two features can each use the files created by the other,
the only difference being that files with a trailing .' are deleted
automatically after commit.  (This feature doesn't work on MS-DOS,
since DOS disallows more than a single dot in the trunk of a file
name.)

If vc-cvs-stay-local' is on, and there have been changes in the
repository, VC notifies you about it when you actually try to commit.
If you want to check for updates from the repository without trying to
commit, you can either use C-x v m RET to perform an update on the
current file, or you can use C-x v r RET to get an update for an
entire directory tree.

The new user option vc-cvs-use-edit' indicates whether VC should call
"cvs edit" to make files writeable; it defaults to t'.  (This option
is only meaningful if the CVSREAD variable is set, or if files are
"watched" by other developers.)

The commands C-x v s (vc-create-snapshot) and C-x v r
(vc-retrieve-snapshot) are now also implemented for CVS.  If you give
an empty snapshot name to the latter, that performs a cvs update',
starting at the given directory.

*** Lisp Changes in VC

VC has been restructured internally to make it modular.  You can now
add support for arbitrary version control backends by writing a
library that provides a certain set of backend-specific functions, and
then telling VC to use that library.  For example, to add support for
a version system named SYS, you write a library named vc-sys.el, which
provides a number of functions vc-sys-... (see commentary at the top
of vc.el for a detailed list of them).  To make VC use that library,
you need to put it somewhere into Emacs' load path and add the symbol
SYS' to the list vc-handled-backends'.

** The customizable EDT emulation package now supports the EDT
SUBS command and EDT scroll margins.  It also works with more
terminal/keyboard configurations and it now works under XEmacs.

** New modes and packages

*** The new global minor mode minibuffer-electric-default-mode'
automatically hides the (default ...)' part of minibuffer prompts when
the default is not applicable.

*** Artist is an Emacs lisp package that allows you to draw lines,
rectangles and ellipses by using your mouse and/or keyboard.  The
shapes are made up with the ascii characters |, -, / and \.

Features are:

- Intersecting: When a |' intersects with a -', a +' is
drawn, like this:   |         \ /
--+--        X
|         / \

- Rubber-banding: When drawing lines you can interactively see the
result while holding the mouse button down and moving the mouse.  If
your machine is not fast enough (a 386 is a bit too slow, but a
pentium is well enough), you can turn this feature off.  You will
then see 1's and 2's which mark the 1st and 2nd endpoint of the line
you are drawing.

- Arrows: After having drawn a (straight) line or a (straight)
poly-line, you can set arrows on the line-ends by typing < or >.

- Flood-filling: You can fill any area with a certain character by
flood-filling.

- Cut copy and paste: You can cut, copy and paste rectangular
regions.  Artist also interfaces with the rect package (this can be
turned off if it causes you any trouble) so anything you cut in
artist can be yanked with C-x r y and vice versa.

- Drawing with keys: Everything you can do with the mouse, you can
also do without the mouse.

- Aspect-ratio: You can set the variable artist-aspect-ratio to
reflect the height-width ratio for the font you are using. Squares
and circles are then drawn square/round.  Note, that once your
ascii-file is shown with font with a different height-width ratio,
the squares won't be square and the circles won't be round.

- Drawing operations: The following drawing operations are implemented:

lines		straight-lines
rectangles		squares
poly-lines		straight poly-lines
ellipses		circles
text (see-thru)	text (overwrite)
spray-can		setting size for spraying
vaporize line	vaporize lines
erase characters	erase rectangles

Straight lines are lines that go horizontally, vertically or
diagonally.  Plain lines go in any direction.  The operations in
the right column are accessed by holding down the shift key while
drawing.

It is possible to vaporize (erase) entire lines and connected lines
(rectangles for example) as long as the lines being vaporized are
straight and connected at their endpoints.  Vaporizing is inspired
by the drawrect package by Jari Aalto <jari.aalto@poboxes.com>.

- Picture mode compatibility: Artist is picture mode compatible (this
can be turned off).

*** The new package Eshell is an operating system command shell
implemented entirely in Emacs Lisp.  Use M-x eshell' to invoke it.
It functions similarly to bash and zsh, and allows running of Lisp
functions and external commands using the same syntax.  It supports
history lists, aliases, extended globbing, smart scrolling, etc.  It
will work on any platform Emacs has been ported to.  And since most of
the basic commands -- ls, rm, mv, cp, ln, du, cat, etc. -- have been
rewritten in Lisp, it offers an operating-system independent shell,
all within the scope of your Emacs process.

*** The new package timeclock.el is a mode is for keeping track of time
intervals.  You can use it for whatever purpose you like, but the
typical scenario is to keep track of how much time you spend working
on certain projects.

*** The new package hi-lock.el provides commands to highlight matches
of interactively entered regexps.  For example,

M-x highlight-regexp RET clearly RET RET

will highlight all occurrences of clearly' using a yellow background
face.  New occurrences of clearly' will be highlighted as they are
typed.  M-x unhighlight-regexp RET' will remove the highlighting.
Any existing face can be used for highlighting and a set of
appropriate faces is provided.  The regexps can be written into the
current buffer in a form that will be recognized the next time the
corresponding file is read.  There are commands to highlight matches
to phrases and to highlight entire lines containing a match.

*** The new package zone.el plays games with Emacs' display when
Emacs is idle.

*** The new package tildify.el allows to add hard spaces or other text
fragments in accordance with the current major mode.

*** The new package xml.el provides a simple but generic XML
parser. It doesn't parse the DTDs however.

*** The comment operations are now provided by the newcomment.el
package which allows different styles of comment-region and should
be more robust while offering the same functionality.
comment-region' now doesn't always comment a-line-at-a-time, but only
comments the region, breaking the line at point if necessary.

*** The Ebrowse package implements a C++ class browser and tags
facilities tailored for use with C++.  It is documented in a
separate Texinfo file.

*** The PCL-CVS package available by either running M-x cvs-examine or
by visiting a CVS administrative directory (with a prefix argument)
provides an alternative interface to VC-dired for CVS.  It comes with
log-view-mode' to view RCS and SCCS logs and log-edit-mode' used to
enter check-in log messages.

*** The new package called woman' allows to browse Unix man pages
without invoking external programs.

The command M-x woman' formats manual pages entirely in Emacs Lisp
and then displays them, like M-x manual-entry' does.  Unlike
manual-entry', woman' does not invoke any external programs, so it
is useful on systems such as MS-DOS/MS-Windows where the man' and
Groff or troff' commands are not readily available.

The command M-x woman-find-file' asks for the file name of a man
page, then formats and displays it like M-x woman' does.

*** The new command M-x re-builder offers a convenient interface for
authoring regular expressions with immediate visual feedback.

The buffer from which the command was called becomes the target for
the regexp editor popping up in a separate window.  Matching text in
the target buffer is immediately color marked during the editing.
Each sub-expression of the regexp will show up in a different face so
even complex regexps can be edited and verified on target data in a
single step.

matching parens to make them stand out.  On such a setup you will
probably also want to use the sub-expression mode when the regexp
contains such to get feedback about their respective limits.

*** glasses-mode is a minor mode that makes
actually modifying content of a buffer.

*** The package ebnf2ps translates an EBNF to a syntactic chart in
PostScript.

Currently accepts ad-hoc EBNF, ISO EBNF and Bison/Yacc.

The ad-hoc default EBNF syntax has the following elements:

;		comment (until end of line)
A		non-terminal
"C"		terminal
?C?		special
$A default non-terminal$"C"	default terminal
?C? default special A = B. production (A is the header and B the body) C D sequence (C occurs before D) C | D alternative (C or D occurs) A - B exception (A excluding B, B without any non-terminal) n * A repetition (A repeats n (integer) times) (C) group (expression C is grouped together) [C] optional (C may or not occurs) C+ one or more occurrences of C {C}+ one or more occurrences of C {C}* zero or more occurrences of C {C} zero or more occurrences of C C / D equivalent to: C {D C}* {C || D}+ equivalent to: C {D C}* {C || D}* equivalent to: [C {D C}*] {C || D} equivalent to: [C {D C}*] Please, see ebnf2ps documentation for EBNF syntax and how to use it. *** The package align.el will align columns within a region, using M-x align. Its mode-specific rules, based on regular expressions, determine where the columns should be split. In C and C++, for example, it will align variable names in declaration lists, or the equal signs of assignments. *** paragraph-indent-minor-mode' is a new minor mode supporting paragraphs in the same style as paragraph-indent-text-mode'. *** bs.el is a new package for buffer selection similar to list-buffers or electric-buffer-list. Use M-x bs-show to display a buffer menu with this package. See the Custom group bs'. *** find-lisp.el is a package emulating the Unix find command in Lisp. *** calculator.el is a small calculator package that is intended to replace desktop calculators such as xcalc and calc.exe. Actually, it is not too small - it has more features than most desktop calculators, and can be customized easily to get many more functions. It should not be confused with "calc" which is a much bigger mathematical tool which answers different needs. *** The minor modes cwarn-mode and global-cwarn-mode highlights suspicious C and C++ constructions. Currently, assignments inside expressions, semicolon following if', for' and while' (except, of course, after a do .. while' statement), and C++ functions with reference parameters are recognized. The modes require font-lock mode to be enabled. *** smerge-mode.el provides smerge-mode', a simple minor-mode for files containing diff3-style conflict markers, such as generated by RCS. *** 5x5.el is a simple puzzle game. *** hl-line.el provides hl-line-mode', a minor mode to highlight the current line in the current buffer. It also provides global-hl-line-mode' to provide the same behavior in all buffers. *** ansi-color.el translates ANSI terminal escapes into text-properties. Please note: if ansi-color-for-comint-mode' and global-font-lock-mode' are non-nil, loading ansi-color.el will disable font-lock and add ansi-color-apply' to comint-preoutput-filter-functions' for all shell-mode buffers. This displays the output of "ls --color=yes" using the correct foreground and background colors. *** delphi.el provides a major mode for editing the Delphi (Object Pascal) language. *** quickurl.el provides a simple method of inserting a URL based on the text at point. *** sql.el provides an interface to SQL data bases. *** fortune.el uses the fortune program to create mail/news signatures. *** whitespace.el is a package for warning about and cleaning bogus whitespace in a file. *** PostScript mode (ps-mode) is a new major mode for editing PostScript files. It offers: interaction with a PostScript interpreter, including (very basic) error handling; fontification, easily customizable for interpreter messages; auto-indentation; insertion of EPSF templates and often used code snippets; viewing of BoundingBox; commenting out / uncommenting regions; conversion of 8bit characters to PostScript octal codes. All functionality is accessible through a menu. *** delim-col helps to prettify columns in a text region or rectangle. Here is an example of columns: horse apple bus dog pineapple car EXTRA porcupine strawberry airplane Doing the following settings: (setq delimit-columns-str-before "[ ") (setq delimit-columns-str-after " ]") (setq delimit-columns-str-separator ", ") (setq delimit-columns-separator "\t") Selecting the lines above and typing: M-x delimit-columns-region It results: [ horse , apple , bus , ] [ dog , pineapple , car , EXTRA ] [ porcupine, strawberry, airplane, ] delim-col has the following options: delimit-columns-str-before Specify a string to be inserted before all columns. delimit-columns-str-separator Specify a string to be inserted between each column. delimit-columns-str-after Specify a string to be inserted after all columns. delimit-columns-separator Specify a regexp which separates each column. delim-col has the following commands: delimit-columns-region Prettify all columns in a text region. delimit-columns-rectangle Prettify all columns in a text rectangle. *** Recentf mode maintains a menu for visiting files that were operated on recently. User option recentf-menu-filter specifies a menu filter function to change the menu appearance. For example, the recent file list can be displayed: - organized by major modes, directories or user defined rules. - sorted by file paths, file names, ascending or descending. - showing paths relative to the current default-directory The recentf-filter-changer' menu filter function allows to dynamically change the menu appearance. *** elide-head.el provides a mechanism for eliding boilerplate header text. *** footnote.el provides footnote-mode', a minor mode supporting use of footnotes. It is intended for use with Message mode, but isn't specific to Message mode. *** diff-mode.el provides diff-mode', a major mode for viewing/editing context diffs (patches). It is selected for files with extension .diff', .diffs', .patch' and .rej'. *** EUDC, the Emacs Unified Directory Client, provides a common user interface to access directory servers using different directory protocols. It has a separate manual. *** autoconf.el provides a major mode for editing configure.in files for Autoconf, selected automatically. *** windmove.el provides moving between windows. *** crm.el provides a facility to read multiple strings from the minibuffer with completion. *** todo-mode.el provides management of TODO lists and integration with the diary features. *** autoarg.el provides a feature reported from Twenex Emacs whereby numeric keys supply prefix args rather than self inserting. *** The function turn-off-auto-fill' unconditionally turns off Auto Fill mode. *** pcomplete.el is a library that provides programmable completion facilities for Emacs, similar to what zsh and tcsh offer. The main difference is that completion functions are written in Lisp, meaning they can be profiled, debugged, etc. *** antlr-mode is a new major mode for editing ANTLR grammar files. It is automatically turned on for files whose names have the extension .g'. ** Changes in sort.el The function sort-numeric-fields interprets numbers starting with 0' as octal and numbers starting with 0x' or 0X' as hexadecimal. The new user-option sort-numeric-base can be used to specify a default numeric base. ** Changes to Ange-ftp *** Ange-ftp allows you to specify of a port number in remote file names cleanly. It is appended to the host name, separated by a hash sign, e.g. /foo@bar.org#666:mumble'. (This syntax comes from EFS.) *** If the new user-option ange-ftp-try-passive-mode' is set, passive ftp mode will be used if the ftp client supports that. *** Ange-ftp handles the output of the w32-style clients which output ^M at the end of lines. ** The recommended way of using Iswitchb is via the new global minor mode iswitchb-mode'. ** Just loading the msb package doesn't switch on Msb mode anymore. If you have (require 'msb)' in your .emacs, please replace it with (msb-mode 1)'. ** Changes in Flyspell mode *** Flyspell mode has various new options. See the flyspell' Custom group. *** The variable flyspell-generic-check-word-p' has been renamed to flyspell-generic-check-word-predicate'. The old name is still available as alias. ** The user option backward-delete-char-untabify-method' controls the behavior of backward-delete-char-untabify'. The following values are recognized: untabify' -- turn a tab to many spaces, then delete one space; hungry' -- delete all whitespace, both tabs and spaces; all' -- delete all whitespace, including tabs, spaces and newlines; nil -- just delete one character. Default value is untabify'. [This change was made in Emacs 20.3 but not mentioned then.] ** In Cperl mode cperl-invalid-face' should now be a normal face symbol, not double-quoted. ** Some packages are declared obsolete, to be removed in a future version. They are: auto-show, c-mode, hilit19, hscroll, ooutline, profile, rnews, rnewspost, and sc. Their implementations have been moved to lisp/obsolete. ** auto-compression mode is no longer enabled just by loading jka-compr.el. To control it, set auto-compression-mode' via Custom or use the auto-compression-mode' command. ** browse-url-gnome-moz' is a new option for browse-url-browser-function', invoking Mozilla in GNOME, and browse-url-kde' can be chosen for invoking the KDE browser. ** The user-option browse-url-new-window-p' has been renamed to browse-url-new-window-flag'. ** The functions keep-lines', flush-lines' and how-many' now operate on the active region in Transient Mark mode. ** gnus-user-agent' is a new possibility for mail-user-agent'. It is like message-user-agent', but with all the Gnus paraphernalia. ** The Strokes package has been updated. If your Emacs has XPM support, you can use it for pictographic editing. In Strokes mode, use C-mouse-2 to compose a complex stoke and insert it into the buffer. You can encode or decode a strokes buffer with new commands M-x strokes-encode-buffer and M-x strokes-decode-buffer. There is a new command M-x strokes-list-strokes. ** Hexl contains a new command hexl-insert-hex-string' which inserts a string of hexadecimal numbers read from the mini-buffer. ** Hexl mode allows to insert non-ASCII characters. The non-ASCII characters are encoded using the same encoding as the file you are visiting in Hexl mode. ** Shell script mode changes. Shell script mode (sh-script) can now indent scripts for shells derived from sh and rc. The indentation style is customizable, and sh-script can attempt to "learn" the current buffer's style. ** Etags changes. *** In DOS, etags looks for file.cgz if it cannot find file.c. *** New option --ignore-case-regex is an alternative to --regex. It is now possible to bind a regexp to a language, by prepending the regexp with {lang}, where lang is one of the languages that etags --help' prints out. This feature is useful especially for regex files, where each line contains a regular expression. The manual contains details. *** In C and derived languages, etags creates tags for function declarations when given the --declarations option. *** In C++, tags are created for "operator". The tags have the form "operator+", without spaces between the keyword and the operator. *** You shouldn't generally need any more the -C or -c++ option: etags automatically switches to C++ parsing when it meets the class' or template' keywords. *** Etags now is able to delve at arbitrary deeps into nested structures in C-like languages. Previously, it was limited to one or two brace levels. *** New language Ada: tags are functions, procedures, packages, tasks, and types. *** In Fortran, procedure' is not tagged. *** In Java, tags are created for "interface". *** In Lisp, "(defstruct (foo", "(defun (operator" and similar constructs are now tagged. *** In makefiles, tags the targets. *** In Perl, the --globals option tags global variables. my and local variables are tagged. *** New language Python: def and class at the beginning of a line are tags. *** .ss files are Scheme files, .pdb is Postscript with C syntax, .psw is for PSWrap. ** Changes in etags.el *** The new user-option tags-case-fold-search can be used to make tags operations case-sensitive or case-insensitive. The default is to use the same setting as case-fold-search. *** You can display additional output with M-x tags-apropos by setting the new variable tags-apropos-additional-actions. If non-nil, the variable's value should be a list of triples (TITLE FUNCTION TO-SEARCH). For each triple, M-x tags-apropos processes TO-SEARCH and lists tags from it. TO-SEARCH should be an alist, obarray, or symbol. If it is a symbol, the symbol's value is used. TITLE is a string to use to label the list of tags from TO-SEARCH. FUNCTION is a function to call when an entry is selected in the Tags List buffer. It is called with one argument, the selected symbol. A useful example value for this variable might be something like: '(("Emacs Lisp" Info-goto-emacs-command-node obarray) ("Common Lisp" common-lisp-hyperspec common-lisp-hyperspec-obarray) ("SCWM" scwm-documentation scwm-obarray)) *** The face tags-tag-face can be used to customize the appearance of tags in the output of M-x tags-apropos. *** Setting tags-apropos-verbose to a non-nil value displays the names of tags files in the *Tags List* buffer. *** You can now search for tags that are part of the filename itself. If you have tagged the files topfile.c subdir/subfile.c /tmp/tempfile.c, you can now search for tags "topfile.c", "subfile.c", "dir/sub", "tempfile", "tempfile.c". If the tag matches the file name, point will go to the beginning of the file. *** Compressed files are now transparently supported if auto-compression-mode is active. You can tag (with Etags) and search (with find-tag) both compressed and uncompressed files. *** Tags commands like M-x tags-search no longer change point in buffers where no match is found. In buffers where a match is found, the original value of point is pushed on the marker ring. ** Fortran mode has a new command fortran-strip-sequence-nos' to remove text past column 72. The syntax class of \' in Fortran is now appropriate for C-style escape sequences in strings. ** SGML mode's default sgml-validate-command' is now nsgmls'. ** A new command view-emacs-problems' (C-h P) displays the PROBLEMS file. ** The Dabbrev package has a new user-option dabbrev-ignored-regexps' containing a list of regular expressions. Buffers matching a regular expression from that list, are not checked. ** Emacs can now figure out modification times of remote files. When you do C-x C-f /user@host:/path/file RET and edit the file, and someone else modifies the file, you will be prompted to revert the buffer, just like for the local files. ** The buffer menu (C-x C-b) no longer lists the *Buffer List* buffer. ** When invoked with a prefix argument, the command list-abbrevs' now displays local abbrevs, only. ** Refill minor mode provides preliminary support for keeping paragraphs filled as you modify them. ** The variable double-click-fuzz' specifies how much the mouse may be moved between clicks that are recognized as a pair. Its value is measured in pixels. ** The new global minor mode auto-image-file-mode' allows image files to be visited as images. ** Two new user-options grep-command' and grep-find-command' were added to compile.el. ** Withdrawn packages *** mldrag.el has been removed. mouse.el provides the same functionality with aliases for the mldrag functions. *** eval-reg.el has been obsoleted by changes to edebug.el and removed. *** ph.el has been obsoleted by EUDC and removed. * Incompatible Lisp changes in 21.1 There are a few Lisp changes which are not backwards-compatible and may require changes to existing code. Here is a list for reference. See the sections below for details. ** Since format' preserves text properties, the idiom (format "%s" foo)' no longer works to copy and remove properties. Use copy-sequence' to copy the string, then use set-text-properties' to remove the properties of the copy. ** Since the keymap' text property now has significance, some code which uses both local-map' and keymap' properties (for portability) may, for instance, give rise to duplicate menus when the keymaps from these properties are active. ** The change in the treatment of non-ASCII characters in search ranges may affect some code. ** A non-nil value for the LOCAL arg of add-hook makes the hook buffer-local even if make-local-hook' hasn't been called, which might make a difference to some code. ** The new treatment of the minibuffer prompt might affect code which operates on the minibuffer. ** The new character sets eight-bit-control' and eight-bit-graphic' cause no-conversion' and emacs-mule-unix' coding systems to produce different results when reading files with non-ASCII characters (previously, both coding systems would produce the same results). Specifically, no-conversion' interprets each 8-bit byte as a separate character. This makes no-conversion' inappropriate for reading multibyte text, e.g. buffers written to disk in their internal MULE encoding (auto-saving does that, for example). If a Lisp program reads such files with no-conversion', each byte of the multibyte sequence, including the MULE leading codes such as \201, is treated as a separate character, which prevents them from being interpreted in the buffer as multibyte characters. Therefore, Lisp programs that read files which contain the internal MULE encoding should use emacs-mule-unix'. no-conversion' is only appropriate for reading truly binary files. ** Code that relies on the obsolete before-change-function' and after-change-function' to detect buffer changes will now fail. Use before-change-functions' and after-change-functions' instead. ** Code that uses concat' with integer args now gets an error, as long promised. So does any code that uses derivatives of concat', such as mapconcat'. ** The function base64-decode-string now always returns a unibyte string. ** Not a Lisp incompatibility as such but, with the introduction of extra private charsets, there is now only one slot free for a new dimension-2 private charset. User code which tries to add more than one extra will fail unless you rebuild Emacs with some standard charset(s) removed; that is probably inadvisable because it changes the emacs-mule encoding. Also, files stored in the emacs-mule encoding using Emacs 20 with additional private charsets defined will probably not be read correctly by Emacs 21. ** The variable directory-sep-char' is slated for removal. Not really a change (yet), but a projected one that you should be aware of: The variable directory-sep-char' is deprecated, and should not be used. It was always ignored on GNU/Linux and Unix systems and on MS-DOS, but the MS-Windows port tried to support it by adapting the behavior of certain primitives to the value of this variable. It turned out that such support cannot be reliable, so it was decided to remove this variable in the near future. Lisp programs are well advised not to set it to anything but '/', because any different value will not have any effect when support for this variable is removed. * Lisp changes made after edition 2.6 of the Emacs Lisp Manual, (Display-related features are described in a page of their own below.) ** Function assq-delete-all replaces function assoc-delete-all. ** The new function animate-string, from lisp/play/animate.el allows the animated display of strings. ** The new function interactive-form' can be used to obtain the interactive form of a function. ** The keyword :set-after in defcustom allows to specify dependencies between custom options. Example: (defcustom default-input-method nil "*Default input method for multilingual text (a string). This is the input method activated automatically by the command toggle-input-method' (\\[toggle-input-method])." :group 'mule :type '(choice (const nil) string) :set-after '(current-language-environment)) This specifies that default-input-method should be set after current-language-environment even if default-input-method appears first in a custom-set-variables statement. ** The new hook kbd-macro-termination-hook' is run at the end of function execute-kbd-macro. Functions on this hook are called with no args. The hook is run independent of how the macro was terminated (signal or normal termination). ** Functions butlast' and nbutlast' for removing trailing elements from a list are now available without requiring the CL package. ** The new user-option even-window-heights' can be set to nil to prevent display-buffer' from evening out window heights. ** The user-option face-font-registry-alternatives' specifies alternative font registry names to try when looking for a font. ** Function md5' calculates the MD5 "message digest"/"checksum". ** Function delete-frame' runs delete-frame-hook' before actually deleting the frame. The hook is called with one arg, the frame being deleted. ** add-hook' now makes the hook local if called with a non-nil LOCAL arg. ** The treatment of non-ASCII characters in search ranges has changed. If a range in a regular expression or the arg of skip-chars-forward/backward starts with a unibyte character C and ends with a multibyte character C2, the range is divided into two: one is C..?\377, the other is C1..C2, where C1 is the first character of C2's charset. ** The new function display-message-or-buffer' displays a message in the echo area or pops up a buffer, depending on the length of the message. ** The new macro with-auto-compression-mode' allows evaluating an expression with auto-compression-mode enabled. ** In image specifications, :heuristic-mask' has been replaced with the more general :mask' property. ** Image specifications accept more :conversion's. ** A ?' can be used in a symbol name without escaping it with a backslash. ** Reading from the mini-buffer now reads from standard input if Emacs is running in batch mode. For example, (message "%s" (read t)) will read a Lisp expression from standard input and print the result to standard output. ** The argument of down-list', backward-up-list', up-list', kill-sexp', backward-kill-sexp' and mark-sexp' is now optional. ** If display-buffer-reuse-frames' is set, function display-buffer' will raise frames displaying a buffer, instead of creating a new frame or window. ** Two new functions for removing elements from lists/sequences were added - Function: remove ELT SEQ Return a copy of SEQ with all occurrences of ELT removed. SEQ must be a list, vector, or string. The comparison is done with equal'. - Function: remq ELT LIST Return a copy of LIST with all occurrences of ELT removed. The comparison is done with eq'. ** The function delete' now also works with vectors and strings. ** The meaning of the :weakness WEAK' argument of make-hash-table has been changed: WEAK can now have new values key-or-value' and key-and-value', in addition to nil', key', value', and t'. ** Function aset' stores any multibyte character in any string without signaling "Attempt to change char length of a string". It may convert a unibyte string to multibyte if necessary. ** The value of the help-echo' text property is called as a function or evaluated, if it is not a string already, to obtain a help string. ** Function make-obsolete' now has an optional arg to say when the function was declared obsolete. ** Function plist-member' is renamed from widget-plist-member' (which is retained as an alias). ** Easy-menu's :filter now takes the unconverted form of the menu and the result is automatically converted to Emacs' form. ** The new function window-list' has been defined - Function: window-list &optional FRAME WINDOW MINIBUF Return a list of windows on FRAME, starting with WINDOW. FRAME nil or omitted means use the selected frame. WINDOW nil or omitted means use the selected window. MINIBUF t means include the minibuffer window, even if it isn't active. MINIBUF nil or omitted means include the minibuffer window only if it's active. MINIBUF neither nil nor t means never include the minibuffer window. ** There's a new function get-window-with-predicate' defined as follows - Function: get-window-with-predicate PREDICATE &optional MINIBUF ALL-FRAMES DEFAULT Return a window satisfying PREDICATE. This function cycles through all visible windows using walk-windows', calling PREDICATE on each one. PREDICATE is called with a window as argument. The first window for which PREDICATE returns a non-nil value is returned. If no window satisfies PREDICATE, DEFAULT is returned. Optional second arg MINIBUF t means count the minibuffer window even if not active. MINIBUF nil or omitted means count the minibuffer iff it is active. MINIBUF neither t nor nil means not to count the minibuffer even if it is active. Several frames may share a single minibuffer; if the minibuffer counts, all windows on all frames that share that minibuffer count too. Therefore, if you are using a separate minibuffer frame and the minibuffer is active and MINIBUF says it counts, walk-windows' includes the windows in the frame from which you entered the minibuffer, as well as the minibuffer window. ALL-FRAMES is the optional third argument. ALL-FRAMES nil or omitted means cycle within the frames as specified above. ALL-FRAMES = visible' means include windows on all visible frames. ALL-FRAMES = 0 means include windows on all visible and iconified frames. ALL-FRAMES = t means include windows on all frames including invisible frames. If ALL-FRAMES is a frame, it means include windows on that frame. Anything else means restrict to the selected frame. ** The function single-key-description' now encloses function key and event names in angle brackets. When called with a second optional argument non-nil, angle brackets won't be printed. ** If the variable message-truncate-lines' is bound to t around a call to message', the echo area will not be resized to display that message; it will be truncated instead, as it was done in 20.x. Default value is nil. ** The user option line-number-display-limit' can now be set to nil, meaning no limit. ** The new user option line-number-display-limit-width' controls the maximum width of lines in a buffer for which Emacs displays line numbers in the mode line. The default is 200. ** select-safe-coding-system' now also checks the most preferred coding-system if buffer-file-coding-system is undecided' and DEFAULT-CODING-SYSTEM is not specified, ** The function subr-arity' provides information about the argument list of a primitive. ** where-is-internal' now also accepts a list of keymaps. ** The text property keymap' specifies a key map which overrides the buffer's local map and the map specified by the local-map' property. This is probably what most current uses of local-map' want, rather than replacing the local map. ** The obsolete variables before-change-function' and after-change-function' are no longer acted upon and have been removed. Use before-change-functions' and after-change-functions' instead. ** The function apropos-mode' runs the hook apropos-mode-hook'. ** concat' no longer accepts individual integer arguments, as promised long ago. ** The new function float-time' returns the current time as a float. ** The new variable auto-coding-regexp-alist specifies coding systems for reading specific files, analogous to auto-coding-alist, but patterns are checked against file contents instead of file names. * Lisp changes in Emacs 21.1 (see following page for display-related features) ** The new package rx.el provides an alternative sexp notation for regular expressions. - Function: rx-to-string SEXP Translate SEXP into a regular expression in string notation. - Macro: rx SEXP Translate SEXP into a regular expression in string notation. The following are valid subforms of regular expressions in sexp notation. STRING matches string STRING literally. CHAR matches character CHAR literally. not-newline' matches any character except a newline. . anything' matches any character (any SET)' matches any character in SET. SET may be a character or string. Ranges of characters can be specified as A-Z' in strings. '(in SET)' like any'. (not (any SET))' matches any character not in SET line-start' matches the empty string, but only at the beginning of a line in the text being matched line-end' is similar to line-start' but matches only at the end of a line string-start' matches the empty string, but only at the beginning of the string being matched against. string-end' matches the empty string, but only at the end of the string being matched against. buffer-start' matches the empty string, but only at the beginning of the buffer being matched against. buffer-end' matches the empty string, but only at the end of the buffer being matched against. point' matches the empty string, but only at point. word-start' matches the empty string, but only at the beginning or end of a word. word-end' matches the empty string, but only at the end of a word. word-boundary' matches the empty string, but only at the beginning or end of a word. (not word-boundary)' matches the empty string, but not at the beginning or end of a word. digit' matches 0 through 9. control' matches ASCII control characters. hex-digit' matches 0 through 9, a through f and A through F. blank' matches space and tab only. graphic' matches graphic characters--everything except ASCII control chars, space, and DEL. printing' matches printing characters--everything except ASCII control chars and DEL. alphanumeric' matches letters and digits. (But at present, for multibyte characters, it matches anything that has word syntax.) letter' matches letters. (But at present, for multibyte characters, it matches anything that has word syntax.) ascii' matches ASCII (unibyte) characters. nonascii' matches non-ASCII (multibyte) characters. lower' matches anything lower-case. upper' matches anything upper-case. punctuation' matches punctuation. (But at present, for multibyte characters, it matches anything that has non-word syntax.) space' matches anything that has whitespace syntax. word' matches anything that has word syntax. (syntax SYNTAX)' matches a character with syntax SYNTAX. SYNTAX must be one of the following symbols. whitespace' (\\s- in string notation) punctuation' (\\s.) word' (\\sw) symbol' (\\s_) open-parenthesis' (\\s() close-parenthesis' (\\s)) expression-prefix' (\\s') string-quote' (\\s\") paired-delimiter' (\\s)
escape'			(\\s\\)
character-quote'		(\\s/)
comment-start'		(\\s<)
comment-end'		(\\s>)

(not (syntax SYNTAX))'
matches a character that has not syntax SYNTAX.

(category CATEGORY)'
matches a character with category CATEGORY.  CATEGORY must be
either a character to use for C, or one of the following symbols.

consonant'			(\\c0 in string notation)
base-vowel'			(\\c1)
upper-diacritical-mark'		(\\c2)
lower-diacritical-mark'		(\\c3)
tone-mark'		        (\\c4)
symbol'			        (\\c5)
digit'			        (\\c6)
vowel-modifying-diacritical-mark'	(\\c7)
vowel-sign'			(\\c8)
semivowel-lower'			(\\c9)
not-at-end-of-line'		(\\c<)
not-at-beginning-of-line'		(\\c>)
alpha-numeric-two-byte'		(\\cA)
chinse-two-byte'			(\\cC)
greek-two-byte'			(\\cG)
japanese-hiragana-two-byte'	(\\cH)
indian-two-byte'			(\\cI)
japanese-katakana-two-byte'	(\\cK)
korean-hangul-two-byte'		(\\cN)
cyrillic-two-byte'		(\\cY)
ascii'				(\\ca)
arabic'				(\\cb)
chinese'				(\\cc)
ethiopic'				(\\ce)
greek'				(\\cg)
korean'				(\\ch)
indian'				(\\ci)
japanese'				(\\cj)
japanese-katakana'		(\\ck)
latin'				(\\cl)
lao'				(\\co)
tibetan'				(\\cq)
japanese-roman'			(\\cr)
thai'				(\\ct)
vietnamese'			(\\cv)
hebrew'				(\\cw)
cyrillic'				(\\cy)
can-break'			(\\c|)

(not (category CATEGORY))'
matches a character that has not category CATEGORY.

(and SEXP1 SEXP2 ...)'
matches what SEXP1 matches, followed by what SEXP2 matches, etc.

(submatch SEXP1 SEXP2 ...)'
like and', but makes the match accessible with match-end',
match-beginning', and match-string'.

(group SEXP1 SEXP2 ...)'
another name for submatch'.

(or SEXP1 SEXP2 ...)'
matches anything that matches SEXP1 or SEXP2, etc.  If all
args are strings, use regexp-opt' to optimize the resulting
regular expression.

(minimal-match SEXP)'
produce a non-greedy regexp for SEXP.  Normally, regexps matching
zero or more occurrences of something are \"greedy\" in that they
match as much as they can, as long as the overall regexp can
still match.  A non-greedy regexp matches as little as possible.

(maximal-match SEXP)'
produce a greedy regexp for SEXP.  This is the default.

(zero-or-more SEXP)'
matches zero or more occurrences of what SEXP matches.

(0+ SEXP)'
like zero-or-more'.

(* SEXP)'
like zero-or-more', but always produces a greedy regexp.

(*? SEXP)'
like zero-or-more', but always produces a non-greedy regexp.

(one-or-more SEXP)'
matches one or more occurrences of A.

(1+ SEXP)'
like one-or-more'.

(+ SEXP)'
like one-or-more', but always produces a greedy regexp.

(+? SEXP)'
like one-or-more', but always produces a non-greedy regexp.

(zero-or-one SEXP)'
matches zero or one occurrences of A.

(optional SEXP)'
like zero-or-one'.

(? SEXP)'
like zero-or-one', but always produces a greedy regexp.

(?? SEXP)'
like zero-or-one', but always produces a non-greedy regexp.

(repeat N SEXP)'
matches N occurrences of what SEXP matches.

(repeat N M SEXP)'
matches N to M occurrences of what SEXP matches.

(eval FORM)'
evaluate FORM and insert result.  If result is a string,
regexp-quote' it.

(regexp REGEXP)'
include REGEXP in string notation in the result.

*** The features md5' and overlay' are now provided by default.

*** The special form save-restriction' now works correctly even if the
buffer is widened inside the save-restriction and changes made outside
the original restriction.  Previously, doing this would cause the saved
restriction to be restored incorrectly.

*** The functions find-charset-region' and find-charset-string' include
eight-bit-control' and/or eight-bit-graphic' in the returned list
when they find 8-bit characters.  Previously, they included ascii' in a
multibyte buffer and unknown' in a unibyte buffer.

*** The functions set-buffer-multibyte', string-as-multibyte' and
string-as-unibyte' change the byte sequence of a buffer or a string
if it contains a character from the eight-bit-control' character set.

*** The handling of multibyte sequences in a multibyte buffer is
changed.  Previously, a byte sequence matching the pattern
[\200-\237][\240-\377]+ was interpreted as a single character
regardless of the length of the trailing bytes [\240-\377]+.  Thus, if
the sequence was longer than what the leading byte indicated, the
extra trailing bytes were ignored by Lisp functions.  Now such extra
bytes are independent 8-bit characters belonging to the charset
eight-bit-graphic.

** Fontsets are now implemented using char-tables.

A fontset can now be specified for each independent character, for
a group of characters or for a character set rather than just for a
character set as previously.

*** The arguments of the function set-fontset-font' are changed.
They are NAME, CHARACTER, FONTNAME, and optional FRAME.  The function
modifies fontset NAME to use FONTNAME for CHARACTER.

CHARACTER may be a cons (FROM . TO), where FROM and TO are non-generic
characters.  In that case FONTNAME is used for all characters in the
range FROM and TO (inclusive).  CHARACTER may be a charset.  In that
case FONTNAME is used for all character in the charset.

FONTNAME may be a cons (FAMILY . REGISTRY), where FAMILY is the family
name of a font and REGISTRY is a registry name of a font.

*** Variable x-charset-registry has been deleted.  The default charset
registries of character sets are set in the default fontset
"fontset-default".

*** The function create-fontset-from-fontset-spec' ignores the second
argument STYLE-VARIANT.  It never creates style-variant fontsets.

** The method of composing characters is changed.  Now character
composition is done by a special text property composition' in
buffers and strings.

*** Charset composition is deleted.  Emacs never creates a composite
character' which is an independent character with a unique character
code.  Thus the following functions handling composite characters'
have been deleted: composite-char-component,
composite-char-component-count, composite-char-composition-rule,
composite-char-composition-rule and decompose-composite-char delete.
The variables leading-code-composition and min-composite-char have
also been deleted.

*** Three more glyph reference points are added.  They can be used to
specify a composition rule.  See the documentation of the variable
reference-point-alist' for more detail.

*** The function compose-region' takes new arguments COMPONENTS and
MODIFICATION-FUNC.  With COMPONENTS, you can specify not only a
composition rule but also characters to be composed.  Such characters
may differ between buffer and string text.

*** The function compose-string' takes new arguments START, END,
COMPONENTS, and MODIFICATION-FUNC.

*** The function compose-string' puts text property composition'
directly on the argument STRING instead of returning a new string.
Likewise, the function decompose-string' just removes text property
composition' from STRING.

*** The new function find-composition' returns information about
a composition at a specified position in a buffer or a string.

*** The function decompose-composite-char' is now labeled as
obsolete.

** The new coding system mac-roman' is primarily intended for use on
the Macintosh but may be used generally for Macintosh-encoded text.

** The new character sets mule-unicode-0100-24ff',
mule-unicode-2500-33ff', and mule-unicode-e000-ffff' have been
introduced for Unicode characters in the range U+0100..U+24FF,
U+2500..U+33FF, U+E000..U+FFFF respectively.

Note that the character sets are not yet unified in Emacs, so
characters which belong to charsets such as Latin-2, Greek, Hebrew,
etc. and the same characters in the mule-unicode-*' charsets are
different characters, as far as Emacs is concerned.  For example, text
which includes Unicode characters from the Latin-2 locale cannot be
encoded by Emacs with ISO 8859-2 coding system.

** The new coding system mule-utf-8' has been added.
It provides limited support for decoding/encoding UTF-8 text.  For
details, please see the documentation string of this coding system.

** The new character sets japanese-jisx0213-1' and
japanese-jisx0213-2' have been introduced for the new Japanese
standard JIS X 0213 Plane 1 and Plane 2.

** The new character sets latin-iso8859-14' and latin-iso8859-15'
have been introduced.

** The new character sets eight-bit-control' and eight-bit-graphic'
have been introduced for 8-bit characters in the ranges 0x80..0x9F and
0xA0..0xFF respectively.  Note that the multibyte representation of
eight-bit-control is never exposed; this leads to an exception in the
emacs-mule coding system, which encodes everything else to the
buffer/string internal representation.  Note that to search for
eight-bit-graphic characters in a multibyte buffer, the search string
must be multibyte, otherwise such characters will be converted to
their multibyte equivalent.

** If the APPEND argument of write-region' is an integer, it seeks to
that offset in the file before writing.

** The function add-minor-mode' has been added for convenience and
compatibility with XEmacs (and is used internally by define-minor-mode).

** The function shell-command' now sets the default directory of the
*Shell Command Output*' buffer to the default directory of the buffer
from which the command was issued.

** The functions query-replace', query-replace-regexp',
query-replace-regexp-eval' map-query-replace-regexp',
replace-string', replace-regexp', and perform-replace' take two
additional optional arguments START and END that specify the region to
operate on.

** The new function count-screen-lines' is a more flexible alternative
to window-buffer-height'.

- Function: count-screen-lines &optional BEG END COUNT-FINAL-NEWLINE WINDOW

Return the number of screen lines in the region between BEG and END.
The number of screen lines may be different from the number of actual
lines, due to line breaking, display table, etc.

Optional arguments BEG and END default to point-min' and point-max'
respectively.

If region ends with a newline, ignore it unless optional third argument
COUNT-FINAL-NEWLINE is non-nil.

The optional fourth argument WINDOW specifies the window used for
obtaining parameters such as width, horizontal scrolling, and so
on. The default is to use the selected window's parameters.

Like vertical-motion', count-screen-lines' always uses the current
buffer, regardless of which buffer is displayed in WINDOW. This makes
possible to use count-screen-lines' in any buffer, whether or not it
is currently displayed in some window.

** The new function mapc' is like mapcar' but doesn't collect the
argument function's results.

** The functions base64-decode-region and base64-decode-string now
signal an error instead of returning nil if decoding fails.  Also,
base64-decode-string' now always returns a unibyte string (in Emacs
20, it returned a multibyte string when the result was a valid multibyte
sequence).

** The function sendmail-user-agent-compose now recognizes a body'

** The new function member-ignore-case works like member', but
ignores differences in case and text representation.

** The buffer-local variable cursor-type can be used to specify the
cursor to use in windows displaying a buffer.  Values are interpreted
as follows:

t 		use the cursor specified for the frame (default)
nil		don't display a cursor
bar'		display a bar cursor with default width
(bar . WIDTH)	display a bar cursor with width WIDTH
others	display a box cursor.

** The variable open-paren-in-column-0-is-defun-start controls whether
an open parenthesis in column 0 is considered to be the start of a
defun.  If set, the default, it is considered a defun start.  If not
set, an open parenthesis in column 0 has no special meaning.

** The new function string-to-syntax' can be used to translate syntax
specifications in string form as accepted by modify-syntax-entry' to
the cons-cell form that is used for the values of the syntax-table'
text property, and in font-lock-syntactic-keywords'.

Example:

(string-to-syntax "()")
=> (4 . 41)

other than 10.

*** #BINTEGER' or #bINTEGER' reads INTEGER in binary (radix 2).
INTEGER optionally contains a sign.

#b1111
=> 15
#b-1111
=> -15

*** #OINTEGER' or #oINTEGER' reads INTEGER in octal (radix 8).

#o666
=> 438

*** #XINTEGER' or #xINTEGER' reads INTEGER in hexadecimal (radix 16).

#xbeef
=> 48815

#2R-111
=> -7
#25rah
=> 267

** The function documentation-property' now evaluates the value of
the given property to obtain a string if it doesn't refer to etc/DOC
and isn't a string.

** If called for a symbol, the function documentation' now looks for
a function-documentation' property of that symbol.  If it has a non-nil
value, the documentation is taken from that value.  If the value is
not a string, it is evaluated to obtain a string.

** The last argument of define-key-after' defaults to t for convenience.

** The new function replace-regexp-in-string' replaces all matches
for a regexp in a string.

** mouse-position' now runs the abnormal hook
mouse-position-function'.

** The function string-to-number now returns a float for numbers
that don't fit into a Lisp integer.

** The variable keyword-symbols-constants-flag has been removed.
Keywords are now always considered constants.

** The new function delete-and-extract-region' deletes text and
returns it.

** The function clear-this-command-keys' now also clears the vector
returned by function recent-keys'.

** Variables beginning-of-defun-function' and end-of-defun-function'
can be used to define handlers for the functions that find defuns.
Major modes can define these locally instead of rebinding C-M-a
etc. if the normal conventions for defuns are not appropriate for the
mode.

** easy-mmode-define-minor-mode now takes an additional BODY argument
and is renamed define-minor-mode'.

** If an abbrev has a hook function which is a symbol, and that symbol
has a non-nil no-self-insert' property, the return value of the hook
function specifies whether an expansion has been done or not.  If it
returns nil, abbrev-expand also returns nil, meaning "no expansion has
been performed."

When abbrev expansion is done by typing a self-inserting character,
and the abbrev has a hook with the no-self-insert' property, and the
hook function returns non-nil meaning expansion has been done,
then the self-inserting character is not inserted.

** The function intern-soft' now accepts a symbol as first argument.
In this case, that exact symbol is looked up in the specified obarray,

** The new macro with-syntax-table' can be used to evaluate forms
with the syntax table of the current buffer temporarily set to a
specified table.

(with-syntax-table TABLE &rest BODY)

Evaluate BODY with syntax table of current buffer set to a copy of
TABLE.  The current syntax table is saved, BODY is evaluated, and the
saved table is restored, even in case of an abnormal exit.  Value is
what BODY returns.

** Regular expressions now support intervals \{n,m\} as well as
Perl's shy-groups $$?:...$$ and non-greedy *? +? and ?? operators.
Also back-references like \2 are now considered as an error if the
corresponding subgroup does not exist (or is not closed yet).
Previously it would have been silently turned into 2' (ignoring the \').

** The optional argument BUFFER of function file-local-copy has been
removed since it wasn't used by anything.

** The file name argument of function file-locked-p' is now required

** The new built-in error text-read-only' is signaled when trying to

** New functions and variables for locales.

The new variable locale-coding-system' specifies how to encode and
decode strings passed to low-level message functions like strerror and
time functions like strftime.  The new variables
system-messages-locale' and system-time-locale' give the system
locales to be used when invoking these two types of functions.

The new function set-locale-environment' sets the language
environment, preferred coding system, and locale coding system from
the system locale as specified by the LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, and LANG
environment variables.  Normally, it is invoked during startup and need
not be invoked thereafter.  It uses the new variables
locale-language-names', locale-charset-language-names', and
locale-preferred-coding-systems' to make its decisions.

** syntax tables now understand nested comments.
To declare a comment syntax as allowing nesting, just add an n'
modifier to either of the characters of the comment end and the comment
start sequences.

** The function pixmap-spec-p' has been renamed bitmap-spec-p'
because bitmap' is more in line with the usual X terminology.

** New function propertize'

The new function propertize' can be used to conveniently construct
strings with text properties.

- Function: propertize STRING &rest PROPERTIES

Value is a copy of STRING with text properties assigned as specified
by PROPERTIES.  PROPERTIES is a sequence of pairs PROPERTY VALUE, with
PROPERTY being the name of a text property and VALUE being the
specified value of that property.  Example:

(propertize "foo" 'face 'bold 'read-only t)

** push and pop macros.

Simple versions of the push and pop macros of Common Lisp
are now defined in Emacs Lisp.  These macros allow only symbols
as the place that holds the list to be changed.

(push NEWELT LISTNAME)  add NEWELT to the front of LISTNAME's value.
(pop LISTNAME)          return first elt of LISTNAME, and remove it
(thus altering the value of LISTNAME).

** New dolist and dotimes macros.

Simple versions of the dolist and dotimes macros of Common Lisp
are now defined in Emacs Lisp.

(dolist (VAR LIST [RESULT]) BODY...)
Execute body once for each element of LIST,
using the variable VAR to hold the current element.
Then return the value of RESULT, or nil if RESULT is omitted.

(dotimes (VAR COUNT [RESULT]) BODY...)
Execute BODY with VAR bound to successive integers running from 0,
inclusive, to COUNT, exclusive.
Then return the value of RESULT, or nil if RESULT is omitted.

** Regular expressions now support Posix character classes such as
[:alpha:], [:space:] and so on.  These must be used within a character
class--for instance, [-[:digit:].+] matches digits or a period
or a sign.

[:digit:]  matches 0 through 9
[:cntrl:]  matches ASCII control characters
[:xdigit:]  matches 0 through 9, a through f and A through F.
[:blank:]  matches space and tab only
[:graph:]  matches graphic characters--everything except ASCII control chars,
space, and DEL.
[:print:]  matches printing characters--everything except ASCII control chars
and DEL.
[:alnum:]  matches letters and digits.
(But at present, for multibyte characters,
it matches anything that has word syntax.)
[:alpha:]  matches letters.
(But at present, for multibyte characters,
it matches anything that has word syntax.)
[:ascii:]  matches ASCII (unibyte) characters.
[:nonascii:]  matches non-ASCII (multibyte) characters.
[:lower:]  matches anything lower-case.
[:punct:]  matches punctuation.
(But at present, for multibyte characters,
it matches anything that has non-word syntax.)
[:space:]  matches anything that has whitespace syntax.
[:upper:]  matches anything upper-case.
[:word:]   matches anything that has word syntax.

** Emacs now has built-in hash tables.

The following functions are defined for hash tables:

- Function: make-hash-table ARGS

The argument list ARGS consists of keyword/argument pairs.  All arguments
are optional.  The following arguments are defined:

:test TEST

TEST must be a symbol specifying how to compare keys.  Default is eql'.
Predefined are eq', eql' and equal'.  If TEST is not predefined,
it must have been defined with define-hash-table-test'.

:size SIZE

SIZE must be an integer > 0 giving a hint to the implementation how
many elements will be put in the hash table.  Default size is 65.

:rehash-size REHASH-SIZE

REHASH-SIZE specifies by how much to grow a hash table once it becomes
full.  If REHASH-SIZE is an integer, add that to the hash table's old
size to get the new size.  Otherwise, REHASH-SIZE must be a float >
1.0, and the new size is computed by multiplying REHASH-SIZE with the
old size.  Default rehash size is 1.5.

:rehash-threshold THRESHOLD

THRESHOLD must be a float > 0 and <= 1.0 specifying when to resize the
hash table.  It is resized when the ratio of (number of entries) /
(size of hash table) is >= THRESHOLD.  Default threshold is 0.8.

:weakness WEAK

WEAK must be either nil, one of the symbols key, value',
key-or-value', key-and-value', or t, meaning the same as
key-and-value'.  Entries are removed from weak tables during garbage
collection if their key and/or value are not referenced elsewhere
outside of the hash table.  Default are non-weak hash tables.

- Function: makehash &optional TEST

Similar to make-hash-table, but only TEST can be specified.

- Function: hash-table-p TABLE

Returns non-nil if TABLE is a hash table object.

- Function: copy-hash-table TABLE

Returns a copy of TABLE.  Only the table itself is copied, keys and
values are shared.

- Function: hash-table-count TABLE

Returns the number of entries in TABLE.

- Function: hash-table-rehash-size TABLE

Returns the rehash size of TABLE.

- Function: hash-table-rehash-threshold TABLE

Returns the rehash threshold of TABLE.

- Function: hash-table-rehash-size TABLE

Returns the size of TABLE.

- Function: hash-table-test TABLE

Returns the test TABLE uses to compare keys.

- Function: hash-table-weakness TABLE

Returns the weakness specified for TABLE.

- Function: clrhash TABLE

Clear TABLE.

- Function: gethash KEY TABLE &optional DEFAULT

Look up KEY in TABLE and return its associated VALUE or DEFAULT if

- Function: puthash KEY VALUE TABLE

Associate KEY with VALUE in TABLE.  If KEY is already associated with
another value, replace the old value with VALUE.

- Function: remhash KEY TABLE

Remove KEY from TABLE if it is there.

- Function: maphash FUNCTION TABLE

Call FUNCTION for all elements in TABLE.  FUNCTION must take two
arguments KEY and VALUE.

- Function: sxhash OBJ

Return a hash code for Lisp object OBJ.

- Function: define-hash-table-test NAME TEST-FN HASH-FN

Define a new hash table test named NAME.  If NAME is specified as
a test in make-hash-table', the table created will use TEST-FN for
comparing keys, and HASH-FN to compute hash codes for keys.  Test
and hash function are stored as symbol property hash-table-test'
of NAME with a value of (TEST-FN HASH-FN).

TEST-FN must take two arguments and return non-nil if they are the same.

HASH-FN must take one argument and return an integer that is the hash
code of the argument.  The function should use the whole range of
integer values for hash code computation, including negative integers.

Example: The following creates a hash table whose keys are supposed to
be strings that are compared case-insensitively.

(defun case-fold-string= (a b)
(compare-strings a nil nil b nil nil t))

(defun case-fold-string-hash (a)
(sxhash (upcase a)))

(define-hash-table-test 'case-fold 'case-fold-string=
'case-fold-string-hash))

(make-hash-table :test 'case-fold)

** The Lisp reader handles circular structure.

It now works to use the #N= and #N# constructs to represent
circular structures.  For example, #1=(a . #1#) represents
a cons cell which is its own cdr.

** The Lisp printer handles circular structure.

If you bind print-circle to a non-nil value, the Lisp printer outputs
#N= and #N# constructs to represent circular and shared structure.

** If the second argument to move-to-column' is anything but nil or
t, that means replace a tab with spaces if necessary to reach the
specified column, but do not add spaces at the end of the line if it
is too short to reach that column.

** perform-replace has a new feature:  the REPLACEMENTS argument may
now be a cons cell (FUNCTION . DATA).  This means to call FUNCTION
after each match to get the replacement text.  FUNCTION is called with

If the FROM-STRING contains any upper-case letters,
perform-replace also turns off case-fold-search' temporarily
and inserts the replacement text without altering case in it.

** The function buffer-size now accepts an optional argument
to specify which buffer to return the size of.

** The calendar motion commands now run the normal hook
calendar-move-hook after moving point.

** The new variable small-temporary-file-directory specifies a
directory to use for creating temporary files that are likely to be
small.  (Certain Emacs features use this directory.)  If
small-temporary-file-directory is nil, they use

** The variable inhibit-modification-hooks', if non-nil, inhibits all
the hooks that track changes in the buffer.  This affects
before-change-functions' and after-change-functions', as well as
hooks attached to text properties and overlay properties.

** assq-delete-all is a new function that deletes all the
elements of an alist which have a car eq' to a particular value.

** make-temp-file provides a more reliable way to create a temporary file.

make-temp-file is used like make-temp-name, except that it actually
creates the file before it returns.  This prevents a timing error,
ensuring that no other job can use the same name for a temporary file.

** New exclusive-open feature in write-region'

The optional seventh arg is now called MUSTBENEW.  If non-nil, it insists
on a check for an existing file with the same name.  If MUSTBENEW
is excl', that means to get an error if the file already exists;
never overwrite. If MUSTBENEW is neither nil nor excl', that means
overwrite the file if the user gives confirmation.

If the MUSTBENEW argument in write-region' is excl',
that means to use a special feature in the open' system call
to get an error if the file exists at that time.
The error reported is file-already-exists'.

** Function format' now handles text properties.

Text properties of the format string are applied to the result string.
If the result string is longer than the format string, text properties
ending at the end of the format string are extended to the end of the
result string.

Text properties from string arguments are applied to the result
string where arguments appear in the result string.

Example:

(let ((s1 "hello, %s")
(s2 "world"))
(put-text-property 0 (length s1) 'face 'bold s1)
(put-text-property 0 (length s2) 'face 'italic s2)
(format s1 s2))

results in a bold-face string with an italic world' at the end.

** Messages can now be displayed with text properties.

Text properties are handled as described above for function format'.
The following example displays a bold-face message with an italic
argument in it.

(let ((msg "hello, %s!")
(arg "world"))
(put-text-property 0 (length msg) 'face 'bold msg)
(put-text-property 0 (length arg) 'face 'italic arg)
(message msg arg))

** Sound support

Emacs supports playing sound files on GNU/Linux and the free BSDs
(Voxware driver and native BSD driver, aka as Luigi's driver).

Currently supported file formats are RIFF-WAVE (*.wav) and Sun Audio
(*.au).  You must configure Emacs with the option --with-sound=yes'
to enable sound support.

Sound files can be played by calling (play-sound SOUND).  SOUND is a
list of the form (sound PROPERTY...)'.  The function is only defined
when sound support is present for the system on which Emacs runs.  The
functions runs play-sound-functions' with one argument which is the
sound to play, before playing the sound.

The following sound properties are supported:

- :file FILE'

FILE is a file name.  If FILE isn't an absolute name, it will be
searched relative to data-directory'.

- :data DATA'

DATA is a string containing sound data.  Either :file or :data
may be present, but not both.

- :volume VOLUME'

VOLUME must be an integer in the range 0..100 or a float in the range
0..1.  This property is optional.

- :device DEVICE'

DEVICE is a string specifying the system device on which to play the
sound.  The default device is system-dependent.

Other properties are ignored.

An alternative interface is called as
(play-sound-file FILE &optional VOLUME DEVICE).

** multimedia' is a new Finder keyword and Custom group.

** keywordp is a new predicate to test efficiently for an object being
a keyword symbol.

** Changes to garbage collection

*** The function garbage-collect now additionally returns the number
of live and free strings.

*** There is a new variable strings-consed' holding the number of
strings that have been consed so far.

* Lisp-level Display features added after release 2.6 of the Emacs
Lisp Manual

** The user-option resize-mini-windows' controls how Emacs resizes
mini-windows.

** The function pos-visible-in-window-p' now has a third optional
argument, PARTIALLY.  If a character is only partially visible, nil is
returned, unless PARTIALLY is non-nil.

** On window systems, glyph-table' is no longer used.

** Help strings in menu items are now used to provide help-echo' text.

** The function image-size' can be used to determine the size of an
image.

- Function: image-size SPEC &optional PIXELS FRAME

Return the size of an image as a pair (WIDTH . HEIGHT).

SPEC is an image specification.  PIXELS non-nil means return sizes
measured in pixels, otherwise return sizes measured in canonical
character units (fractions of the width/height of the frame's default
font).  FRAME is the frame on which the image will be displayed.
FRAME nil or omitted means use the selected frame.

** The function image-mask-p' can be used to determine if an image

- Function: image-mask-p SPEC &optional FRAME

Return t if image SPEC has a mask bitmap.
FRAME is the frame on which the image will be displayed.  FRAME nil
or omitted means use the selected frame.

** The function find-image' can be used to find a usable image
satisfying one of a list of specifications.

** The STRING argument of put-image' and insert-image' is now
optional.

** Image specifications may contain the property :ascent center' (see
below).

* New Lisp-level Display features in Emacs 21.1

** The function tty-suppress-bold-inverse-default-colors can be used
to make Emacs avoid displaying text with bold black foreground on TTYs.

Some terminals, notably PC consoles, emulate bold text by displaying
text in brighter colors.  On such a console, a bold black foreground
is displayed in a gray color.  If this turns out to be hard to read on
your monitor---the problem occurred with the mode line on
laptops---you can instruct Emacs to ignore the text's boldness, and to

This situation can't be detected automatically.  You will have to put
a line like

(tty-suppress-bold-inverse-default-colors t)

in your .emacs'.

** New face implementation.

Emacs faces have been reimplemented from scratch.  They don't use XLFD
font names anymore and face merging now works as expected.

*** New faces.

Each face can specify the following display attributes:

1. Font family or fontset alias name.

2. Relative proportionate width, aka character set width or set
width (swidth), e.g. semi-compressed'.

3. Font height in 1/10pt

4. Font weight, e.g. bold'.

5. Font slant, e.g. italic'.

6. Foreground color.

7. Background color.

8. Whether or not characters should be underlined, and in what color.

9. Whether or not characters should be displayed in inverse video.

10. A background stipple, a bitmap.

11. Whether or not characters should be overlined, and in what color.

12. Whether or not characters should be strike-through, and in what
color.

13. Whether or not a box should be drawn around characters, its
color, the width of the box lines, and 3D appearance.

Faces are frame-local by nature because Emacs allows to define the
same named face (face names are symbols) differently for different
frames.  Each frame has an alist of face definitions for all named
faces.  The value of a named face in such an alist is a Lisp vector
with the symbol face' in slot 0, and a slot for each of the face
attributes mentioned above.

There is also a global face alist face-new-frame-defaults'.  Face
definitions from this list are used to initialize faces of newly
created frames.

A face doesn't have to specify all attributes.  Those not specified
have a nil value.  Faces specifying all attributes are called
fully-specified'.

*** Face merging.

The display style of a given character in the text is determined by
combining several faces.  This process is called face merging'.  Any
aspect of the display style that isn't specified by overlays or text
properties is taken from the default' face.  Since it is made sure
that the default face is always fully-specified, face merging always
results in a fully-specified face.

*** Face realization.

After all face attributes for a character have been determined by
merging faces of that character, that face is realized'.  The
realization process maps face attributes to what is physically
available on the system where Emacs runs.  The result is a realized
face' in form of an internal structure which is stored in the face
cache of the frame on which it was realized.

Face realization is done in the context of the charset of the
character to display because different fonts and encodings are used
for different charsets.  In other words, for characters of different
charsets, different realized faces are needed to display them.

Except for composite characters, faces are always realized for a
specific character set and contain a specific font, even if the face
being realized specifies a fontset.  The reason is that the result of
the new font selection stage is better than what can be done with
statically defined font name patterns in fontsets.

In unibyte text, Emacs' charsets aren't applicable; function
char-charset' reports ASCII for all characters, including those >
0x7f.  The X registry and encoding of fonts to use is determined from
the variable face-default-registry' in this case.  The variable is
initialized at Emacs startup time from the font the user specified for
Emacs.

Currently all unibyte text, i.e. all buffers with
enable-multibyte-characters' nil are displayed with fonts of the same
registry and encoding face-default-registry'.  This is consistent
with the fact that languages can also be set globally, only.

**** Clearing face caches.

The Lisp function clear-face-cache' can be called to clear face caches
on all frames.  If called with a non-nil argument, it will also unload
unused fonts.

*** Font selection.

Font selection tries to find the best available matching font for a
given (charset, face) combination.  This is done slightly differently
for faces specifying a fontset, or a font family name.

If the face specifies a fontset name, that fontset determines a
pattern for fonts of the given charset.  If the face specifies a font
family, a font pattern is constructed.  Charset symbols have a
property x-charset-registry' for that purpose that maps a charset to
an XLFD registry and encoding in the font pattern constructed.

Available fonts on the system on which Emacs runs are then matched
against the font pattern.  The result of font selection is the best
match for the given face attributes in this font list.

Font selection can be influenced by the user.

The user can specify the relative importance he gives the face
attributes width, height, weight, and slant by setting
face-font-selection-order (faces.el) to a list of face attribute
names.  The default is (:width :height :weight :slant), and means
that font selection first tries to find a good match for the font
width specified by a face, then---within fonts with that width---tries
to find a best match for the specified font height, etc.

Setting face-font-family-alternatives' allows the user to specify
alternative font families to try if a family specified by a face
doesn't exist.

Setting face-font-registry-alternatives' allows the user to specify
all alternative font registry names to try for a face specifying a
registry.

Please note that the interpretations of the above two variables are
slightly different.

Setting face-ignored-fonts allows the user to ignore specific fonts.

**** Scalable fonts

Emacs can make use of scalable fonts but doesn't do so by default,
since the use of too many or too big scalable fonts may crash XFree86
servers.

To enable scalable font use, set the variable
scalable-fonts-allowed'.  A value of nil, the default, means never use
scalable fonts.  A value of t means any scalable font may be used.
Otherwise, the value must be a list of regular expressions.  A
scalable font may then be used if it matches a regular expression from
that list.  Example:

(setq scalable-fonts-allowed '("muleindian-2")) allows the use of scalable fonts with registry muleindian-2'. *** Functions and variables related to font selection. - Function: x-family-fonts &optional FAMILY FRAME Return a list of available fonts of family FAMILY on FRAME. If FAMILY is omitted or nil, list all families. Otherwise, FAMILY must be a string, possibly containing wildcards ?' and *'. If FRAME is omitted or nil, use the selected frame. Each element of the result is a vector [FAMILY WIDTH POINT-SIZE WEIGHT SLANT FIXED-P FULL REGISTRY-AND-ENCODING]. FAMILY is the font family name. POINT-SIZE is the size of the font in 1/10 pt. WIDTH, WEIGHT, and SLANT are symbols describing the width, weight and slant of the font. These symbols are the same as for face attributes. FIXED-P is non-nil if the font is fixed-pitch. FULL is the full name of the font, and REGISTRY-AND-ENCODING is a string giving the registry and encoding of the font. The result list is sorted according to the current setting of the face font sort order. - Function: x-font-family-list Return a list of available font families on FRAME. If FRAME is omitted or nil, use the selected frame. Value is a list of conses (FAMILY . FIXED-P) where FAMILY is a font family, and FIXED-P is non-nil if fonts of that family are fixed-pitch. - Variable: font-list-limit Limit for font matching. If an integer > 0, font matching functions won't load more than that number of fonts when searching for a matching font. The default is currently 100. *** Setting face attributes. For the most part, the new face implementation is interface-compatible with the old one. Old face attribute related functions are now implemented in terms of the new functions set-face-attribute' and face-attribute'. Face attributes are identified by their names which are keyword symbols. All attributes can be set to unspecified'. The following attributes are recognized: :family' VALUE must be a string specifying the font family, e.g. courier'', or a fontset alias name. If a font family is specified, wild-cards *' and ?' are allowed. :width' VALUE specifies the relative proportionate width of the font to use. It must be one of the symbols ultra-condensed', extra-condensed', condensed', semi-condensed', normal', semi-expanded', expanded', extra-expanded', or ultra-expanded'. :height' VALUE must be either an integer specifying the height of the font to use in 1/10 pt, a floating point number specifying the amount by which to scale any underlying face, or a function, which is called with the old height (from the underlying face), and should return the new height. :weight' VALUE specifies the weight of the font to use. It must be one of the symbols ultra-bold', extra-bold', bold', semi-bold', normal', semi-light', light', extra-light', ultra-light'. :slant' VALUE specifies the slant of the font to use. It must be one of the symbols italic', oblique', normal', reverse-italic', or reverse-oblique'. :foreground', :background' VALUE must be a color name, a string. :underline' VALUE specifies whether characters in FACE should be underlined. If VALUE is t, underline with foreground color of the face. If VALUE is a string, underline with that color. If VALUE is nil, explicitly don't underline. :overline' VALUE specifies whether characters in FACE should be overlined. If VALUE is t, overline with foreground color of the face. If VALUE is a string, overline with that color. If VALUE is nil, explicitly don't overline. :strike-through' VALUE specifies whether characters in FACE should be drawn with a line striking through them. If VALUE is t, use the foreground color of the face. If VALUE is a string, strike-through with that color. If VALUE is nil, explicitly don't strike through. :box' VALUE specifies whether characters in FACE should have a box drawn around them. If VALUE is nil, explicitly don't draw boxes. If VALUE is t, draw a box with lines of width 1 in the foreground color of the face. If VALUE is a string, the string must be a color name, and the box is drawn in that color with a line width of 1. Otherwise, VALUE must be a property list of the form (:line-width WIDTH :color COLOR :style STYLE)'. If a keyword/value pair is missing from the property list, a default value will be used for the value, as specified below. WIDTH specifies the width of the lines to draw; it defaults to 1. COLOR is the name of the color to draw in, default is the foreground color of the face for simple boxes, and the background color of the face for 3D boxes. STYLE specifies whether a 3D box should be draw. If STYLE is released-button', draw a box looking like a released 3D button. If STYLE is pressed-button' draw a box that appears like a pressed button. If STYLE is nil, the default if the property list doesn't contain a style specification, draw a 2D box. :inverse-video' VALUE specifies whether characters in FACE should be displayed in inverse video. VALUE must be one of t or nil. :stipple' If VALUE is a string, it must be the name of a file of pixmap data. The directories listed in the x-bitmap-file-path' variable are searched. Alternatively, VALUE may be a list of the form (WIDTH HEIGHT DATA) where WIDTH and HEIGHT are the size in pixels, and DATA is a string containing the raw bits of the bitmap. VALUE nil means explicitly don't use a stipple pattern. For convenience, attributes :family', :width', :height', :weight', and :slant' may also be set in one step from an X font name: :font' Set font-related face attributes from VALUE. VALUE must be a valid XLFD font name. If it is a font name pattern, the first matching font is used--this is for compatibility with the behavior of previous versions of Emacs. For compatibility with Emacs 20, keywords :bold' and :italic' can be used to specify that a bold or italic font should be used. VALUE must be t or nil in that case. A value of unspecified' is not allowed." Please see also the documentation of set-face-attribute' and defface'. :inherit' VALUE is the name of a face from which to inherit attributes, or a list of face names. Attributes from inherited faces are merged into the face like an underlying face would be, with higher priority than underlying faces. *** Face attributes and X resources The following X resource names can be used to set face attributes from X resources: Face attribute X resource class ----------------------------------------------------------------------- :family attributeFamily . Face.AttributeFamily :width attributeWidth Face.AttributeWidth :height attributeHeight Face.AttributeHeight :weight attributeWeight Face.AttributeWeight :slant attributeSlant Face.AttributeSlant foreground attributeForeground Face.AttributeForeground :background attributeBackground . Face.AttributeBackground :overline attributeOverline Face.AttributeOverline :strike-through attributeStrikeThrough Face.AttributeStrikeThrough :box attributeBox Face.AttributeBox :underline attributeUnderline Face.AttributeUnderline :inverse-video attributeInverse Face.AttributeInverse :stipple attributeStipple Face.AttributeStipple or attributeBackgroundPixmap Face.AttributeBackgroundPixmap :font attributeFont Face.AttributeFont :bold attributeBold Face.AttributeBold :italic attributeItalic . Face.AttributeItalic :font attributeFont Face.AttributeFont *** Text property face'. The value of the face' text property can now be a single face specification or a list of such specifications. Each face specification can be 1. A symbol or string naming a Lisp face. 2. A property list of the form (KEYWORD VALUE ...) where each KEYWORD is a face attribute name, and VALUE is an appropriate value for that attribute. Please see the doc string of set-face-attribute' for face attribute names. 3. Conses of the form (FOREGROUND-COLOR . COLOR) or (BACKGROUND-COLOR . COLOR) where COLOR is a color name. This is for compatibility with previous Emacs versions. ** Support functions for colors on text-only terminals. The function tty-color-define' can be used to define colors for use on TTY and MSDOS frames. It maps a color name to a color number on the terminal. Emacs defines a couple of common color mappings by default. You can get defined colors with a call to defined-colors'. The function tty-color-clear' can be used to clear the mapping table. ** Unified support for colors independent of frame type. The new functions defined-colors', color-defined-p', color-values', and display-color-p' work for any type of frame. On frames whose type is neither x nor w32, these functions transparently map X-style color specifications to the closest colors supported by the frame display. Lisp programs should use these new functions instead of the old x-defined-colors', x-color-defined-p', x-color-values', and x-display-color-p'. (The old function names are still available for compatibility; they are now aliases of the new names.) Lisp programs should no more look at the value of the variable window-system to modify their color-related behavior. The primitives color-gray-p' and color-supported-p' also work for any frame type. ** Platform-independent functions to describe display capabilities. The new functions display-mouse-p', display-popup-menus-p', display-graphic-p', display-selections-p', display-screens', display-pixel-width', display-pixel-height', display-mm-width', display-mm-height', display-backing-store', display-save-under', display-planes', display-color-cells', display-visual-class', and display-grayscale-p' describe the basic capabilities of a particular display. Lisp programs should call these functions instead of testing the value of the variables window-system' or system-type', or calling platform-specific functions such as x-display-pixel-width'. The new function display-images-p' returns non-nil if a particular display can display image files. ** The minibuffer prompt is now actually inserted in the minibuffer. This makes it possible to scroll through the prompt, if you want to. To disallow this completely (like previous versions of emacs), customize the variable minibuffer-prompt-properties', and turn on the Inviolable' option. The function minibuffer-prompt-end' returns the current position of the end of the minibuffer prompt, if the minibuffer is current. Otherwise, it returns (point-min)'. ** New field' abstraction in buffers. There is now code to support an abstraction called fields' in emacs buffers. A field is a contiguous region of text with the same field' property (which can be a text property or an overlay). Many emacs functions, such as forward-word, forward-sentence, forward-paragraph, beginning-of-line, etc., stop moving when they come to the boundary between fields; beginning-of-line and end-of-line will not let the point move past the field boundary, but other movement commands continue into the next field if repeated. Stopping at field boundaries can be suppressed programmatically by binding inhibit-field-text-motion' to a non-nil value around calls to these functions. Now that the minibuffer prompt is inserted into the minibuffer, it is in a separate field from the user-input part of the buffer, so that common editing commands treat the user's text separately from the prompt. The following functions are defined for operating on fields: - Function: constrain-to-field NEW-POS OLD-POS &optional ESCAPE-FROM-EDGE ONLY-IN-LINE INHIBIT-CAPTURE-PROPERTY Return the position closest to NEW-POS that is in the same field as OLD-POS. A field is a region of text with the same field' property. If NEW-POS is nil, then the current point is used instead, and set to the constrained position if that is different. If OLD-POS is at the boundary of two fields, then the allowable positions for NEW-POS depends on the value of the optional argument ESCAPE-FROM-EDGE: If ESCAPE-FROM-EDGE is nil, then NEW-POS is constrained to the field that has the same field' char-property as any new characters inserted at OLD-POS, whereas if ESCAPE-FROM-EDGE is non-nil, NEW-POS is constrained to the union of the two adjacent fields. Additionally, if two fields are separated by another field with the special value boundary', then any point within this special field is also considered to be on the boundary'. If the optional argument ONLY-IN-LINE is non-nil and constraining NEW-POS would move it to a different line, NEW-POS is returned unconstrained. This useful for commands that move by line, like C-n or C-a, which should generally respect field boundaries only in the case where they can still move to the right line. If the optional argument INHIBIT-CAPTURE-PROPERTY is non-nil, and OLD-POS has a non-nil property of that name, then any field boundaries are ignored. Field boundaries are not noticed if inhibit-field-text-motion' is non-nil. - Function: delete-field &optional POS Delete the field surrounding POS. A field is a region of text with the same field' property. If POS is nil, the value of point is used for POS. - Function: field-beginning &optional POS ESCAPE-FROM-EDGE Return the beginning of the field surrounding POS. A field is a region of text with the same field' property. If POS is nil, the value of point is used for POS. If ESCAPE-FROM-EDGE is non-nil and POS is at the beginning of its field, then the beginning of the *previous* field is returned. - Function: field-end &optional POS ESCAPE-FROM-EDGE Return the end of the field surrounding POS. A field is a region of text with the same field' property. If POS is nil, the value of point is used for POS. If ESCAPE-FROM-EDGE is non-nil and POS is at the end of its field, then the end of the *following* field is returned. - Function: field-string &optional POS Return the contents of the field surrounding POS as a string. A field is a region of text with the same field' property. If POS is nil, the value of point is used for POS. - Function: field-string-no-properties &optional POS Return the contents of the field around POS, without text-properties. A field is a region of text with the same field' property. If POS is nil, the value of point is used for POS. ** Image support. Emacs can now display images. Images are inserted into text by giving strings or buffer text a display' text property containing one of (AREA IMAGE) or IMAGE. The display of the display' property value replaces the display of the characters having that property. If the property value has the form (AREA IMAGE), AREA must be one of (margin left-margin)', (margin right-margin)' or (margin nil)'. If AREA is (margin nil)', IMAGE will be displayed in the text area of a window, otherwise it will be displayed in the left or right marginal area. IMAGE is an image specification. *** Image specifications Image specifications are lists of the form (image PROPS)' where PROPS is a property list whose keys are keyword symbols. Each specifications must contain a property :type TYPE' with TYPE being a symbol specifying the image type, e.g. xbm'. Properties not described below are ignored. The following is a list of properties all image types share. :ascent ASCENT' ASCENT must be a number in the range 0..100, or the symbol center'. If it is a number, it specifies the percentage of the image's height to use for its ascent. If not specified, ASCENT defaults to the value 50 which means that the image will be centered with the base line of the row it appears in. If ASCENT is center' the image is vertically centered around a centerline which is the vertical center of text drawn at the position of the image, in the manner specified by the text properties and overlays that apply to the image. :margin MARGIN' MARGIN must be either a number >= 0 specifying how many pixels to put as margin around the image, or a pair (X . Y) with X specifying the horizontal margin and Y specifying the vertical margin. Default is 0. :relief RELIEF' RELIEF is analogous to the :relief' attribute of faces. Puts a relief around an image. :conversion ALGO' Apply an image algorithm to the image before displaying it. ALGO laplace' or emboss' means apply a Laplace or emboss'' edge-detection algorithm to the image. ALGO (edge-detection :matrix MATRIX :color-adjust ADJUST)' means apply a general edge-detection algorithm. MATRIX must be either a nine-element list or a nine-element vector of numbers. A pixel at position x/y in the transformed image is computed from original pixels around that position. MATRIX specifies, for each pixel in the neighborhood of x/y, a factor with which that pixel will influence the transformed pixel; element 0 specifies the factor for the pixel at x-1/y-1, element 1 the factor for the pixel at x/y-1 etc. as shown below. (x-1/y-1 x/y-1 x+1/y-1 x-1/y x/y x+1/y x-1/y+1 x/y+1 x+1/y+1) The resulting pixel is computed from the color intensity of the color resulting from summing up the RGB values of surrounding pixels, multiplied by the specified factors, and dividing that sum by the sum of the factors' absolute values. Laplace edge-detection currently uses a matrix of (1 0 0 0 0 0 9 9 -1) Emboss edge-detection uses a matrix of ( 2 -1 0 -1 0 1 0 1 -2) ALGO disabled' means transform the image so that it looks disabled''. :mask MASK' If MASK is heuristic' or (heuristic BG)', build a clipping mask for the image, so that the background of a frame is visible behind the image. If BG is not specified, or if BG is t, determine the background color of the image by looking at the 4 corners of the image, assuming the most frequently occurring color from the corners is the background color of the image. Otherwise, BG must be a list (RED GREEN BLUE)' specifying the color to assume for the background of the image. If MASK is nil, remove a mask from the image, if it has one. Images in some formats include a mask which can be removed by specifying :mask nil'. :file FILE' Load image from FILE. If FILE is not absolute after expanding it, search for the image in data-directory'. Some image types support building images from data. When this is done, no :file' property may be present in the image specification. :data DATA' Get image data from DATA. (As of this writing, this is not yet supported for image type postscript'). Either :file or :data may be present in an image specification, but not both. All image types support strings as DATA, some types allow additional types of DATA. *** Supported image types **** XBM, image type xbm'. XBM images don't require an external library. Additional image properties supported are: :foreground FG' FG must be a string specifying the image foreground color, or nil meaning to use the default. Default is the frame's foreground color. :background BG' BG must be a string specifying the image background color, or nil meaning to use the default. Default is the frame's background color. XBM images can be constructed from data instead of file. In this case, the image specification must contain the following properties instead of a :file' property. :width WIDTH' WIDTH specifies the width of the image in pixels. :height HEIGHT' HEIGHT specifies the height of the image in pixels. :data DATA' DATA must be either 1. a string large enough to hold the bitmap data, i.e. it must have a size >= (WIDTH + 7) / 8 * HEIGHT 2. a bool-vector of size >= WIDTH * HEIGHT 3. a vector of strings or bool-vectors, one for each line of the bitmap. 4. a string that's an in-memory XBM file. Neither width nor height may be specified in this case because these are defined in the file. **** XPM, image type xpm' XPM images require the external library libXpm', package xpm-3.4k.tar.gz', version 3.4k or later. Make sure the library is found when Emacs is configured by supplying appropriate paths via --x-includes' and --x-libraries'. Additional image properties supported are: :color-symbols SYMBOLS' SYMBOLS must be a list of pairs (NAME . COLOR), with NAME being the name of color as it appears in an XPM file, and COLOR being an X color name. XPM images can be built from memory instead of files. In that case, add a :data' property instead of a :file' property. The XPM library uses libz in its implementation so that it is able to display compressed images. **** PBM, image type pbm' PBM images don't require an external library. Color, gray-scale and mono images are supported. Additional image properties supported for mono images are: :foreground FG' FG must be a string specifying the image foreground color, or nil meaning to use the default. Default is the frame's foreground color. :background FG' BG must be a string specifying the image background color, or nil meaning to use the default. Default is the frame's background color. **** JPEG, image type jpeg' Support for JPEG images requires the external library libjpeg', package jpegsrc.v6a.tar.gz', or later. There are no additional image properties defined. **** TIFF, image type tiff' Support for TIFF images requires the external library libtiff', package tiff-v3.4-tar.gz', or later. There are no additional image properties defined. **** GIF, image type gif' Support for GIF images requires the external library libungif', package libungif-4.1.0', or later. Additional image properties supported are: :index INDEX' INDEX must be an integer >= 0. Load image number INDEX from a multi-image GIF file. If INDEX is too large, the image displays as a hollow box. This could be used to implement limited support for animated GIFs. For example, the following function displays a multi-image GIF file at point-min in the current buffer, switching between sub-images every 0.1 seconds. (defun show-anim (file max) "Display multi-image GIF file FILE which contains MAX subimages." (display-anim (current-buffer) file 0 max t)) (defun display-anim (buffer file idx max first-time) (when (= idx max) (setq idx 0)) (let ((img (create-image file nil nil :index idx))) (save-excursion (set-buffer buffer) (goto-char (point-min)) (unless first-time (delete-char 1)) (insert-image img "x")) (run-with-timer 0.1 nil 'display-anim buffer file (1+ idx) max nil))) **** PNG, image type png' Support for PNG images requires the external library libpng', package libpng-1.0.2.tar.gz', or later. There are no additional image properties defined. **** Ghostscript, image type postscript'. Additional image properties supported are: :pt-width WIDTH' WIDTH is width of the image in pt (1/72 inch). WIDTH must be an integer. This is a required property. :pt-height HEIGHT' HEIGHT specifies the height of the image in pt (1/72 inch). HEIGHT must be a integer. This is an required property. :bounding-box BOX' BOX must be a list or vector of 4 integers giving the bounding box of the PS image, analogous to the BoundingBox' comment found in PS files. This is an required property. Part of the Ghostscript interface is implemented in Lisp. See lisp/gs.el. *** Lisp interface. The variable image-types' contains a list of those image types which are supported in the current configuration. Images are stored in an image cache and removed from the cache when they haven't been displayed for image-cache-eviction-delay seconds. The function clear-image-cache' can be used to clear the image cache manually. Images in the cache are compared with equal', i.e. all images with equal' specifications share the same image. *** Simplified image API, image.el The new Lisp package image.el contains functions that simplify image creation and putting images into text. The function create-image' can be used to create images. The macro defimage' can be used to define an image based on available image types. The functions put-image' and insert-image' can be used to insert an image into a buffer. ** Display margins. Windows can now have margins which are used for special text and images. To give a window margins, either set the buffer-local variables left-margin-width' and right-margin-width', or call set-window-margins'. The function window-margins' can be used to obtain the current settings. To make left-margin-width' and right-margin-width' take effect, you must set them before displaying the buffer in a window, or use set-window-buffer' to force an update of the display margins. You can put text in margins by giving it a display' text property containing a pair of the form (LOCATION . VALUE)', where LOCATION is one of left-margin' or right-margin' or nil. VALUE can be either a string, an image specification or a stretch specification (see later in this file). ** Help display Emacs displays short help messages in the echo area, when the mouse moves over a tool-bar item or a piece of text that has a text property help-echo'. This feature also applies to strings in the mode line that have a help-echo' property. If the value of the help-echo' property is a function, that function is called with three arguments WINDOW, OBJECT and POSITION. WINDOW is the window in which the help was found. If OBJECT is a buffer, POS is the position in the buffer where the help-echo' text property was found. If OBJECT is an overlay, that overlay has a help-echo' property, and POS is the position in the overlay's buffer under the mouse. If OBJECT is a string (an overlay string or a string displayed with the display' property), POS is the position in that string under the mouse. If the value of the help-echo' property is neither a function nor a string, it is evaluated to obtain a help string. For tool-bar and menu-bar items, their key definition is used to determine the help to display. If their definition contains a property :help FORM', FORM is evaluated to determine the help string. For tool-bar items without a help form, the caption of the item is used as help string. The hook show-help-function' can be set to a function that displays the help string differently. For example, enabling a tooltip window causes the help display to appear there instead of in the echo area. ** Vertical fractional scrolling. The display of text in windows can be scrolled smoothly in pixels. This is useful, for example, for making parts of large images visible. The function window-vscroll' returns the current value of vertical scrolling, a non-negative fraction of the canonical character height. The function set-window-vscroll' can be used to set the vertical scrolling value. Here is an example of how these function might be used. (global-set-key [A-down] #'(lambda () (interactive) (set-window-vscroll (selected-window) (+ 0.5 (window-vscroll))))) (global-set-key [A-up] #'(lambda () (interactive) (set-window-vscroll (selected-window) (- (window-vscroll) 0.5))))) ** New hook fontification-functions'. Functions from fontification-functions' are called from redisplay when it encounters a region of text that is not yet fontified. This variable automatically becomes buffer-local when set. Each function is called with one argument, POS. At least one of the hook functions should fontify one or more characters starting at POS in the current buffer. It should mark them as fontified by giving them a non-nil value of the fontified' text property. It may be reasonable for these functions to check for the fontified' property and not put it back on, but they do not have to. ** Tool bar support. Emacs supports a tool bar at the top of a frame under X. The frame parameter tool-bar-lines' (X resource "toolBar", class "ToolBar") controls how may lines to reserve for the tool bar. A zero value suppresses the tool bar. If the value is non-zero and auto-resize-tool-bars' is non-nil the tool bar's size will be changed automatically so that all tool bar items are visible. *** Tool bar item definitions Tool bar items are defined using define-key' with a prefix-key tool-bar'. For example (define-key global-map [tool-bar item1] ITEM)' where ITEM is a list (menu-item CAPTION BINDING PROPS...)'. CAPTION is the caption of the item, If it's not a string, it is evaluated to get a string. The caption is currently not displayed in the tool bar, but it is displayed if the item doesn't have a :help' property (see below). BINDING is the tool bar item's binding. Tool bar items with keymaps as binding are currently ignored. The following properties are recognized: :enable FORM'. FORM is evaluated and specifies whether the tool bar item is enabled or disabled. :visible FORM' FORM is evaluated and specifies whether the tool bar item is displayed. :filter FUNCTION' FUNCTION is called with one parameter, the same list BINDING in which FUNCTION is specified as the filter. The value FUNCTION returns is used instead of BINDING to display this item. :button (TYPE SELECTED)' TYPE must be one of :radio' or :toggle'. SELECTED is evaluated and specifies whether the button is selected (pressed) or not. :image IMAGES' IMAGES is either a single image specification or a vector of four image specifications. If it is a vector, this table lists the meaning of each of the four elements: Index Use when item is ---------------------------------------- 0 enabled and selected 1 enabled and deselected 2 disabled and selected 3 disabled and deselected If IMAGE is a single image specification, a Laplace edge-detection algorithm is used on that image to draw the image in disabled state. :help HELP-STRING'. Gives a help string to display for the tool bar item. This help is displayed when the mouse is moved over the item. The function toolbar-add-item' is a convenience function for adding toolbar items generally, and tool-bar-add-item-from-menu' can be used to define a toolbar item with a binding copied from an item on the menu bar. The default bindings use a menu-item :filter to derive the tool-bar dynamically from variable tool-bar-map' which may be set buffer-locally to override the global map. *** Tool-bar-related variables. If auto-resize-tool-bar' is non-nil, the tool bar will automatically resize to show all defined tool bar items. It will never grow larger than 1/4 of the frame's size. If auto-raise-tool-bar-buttons' is non-nil, tool bar buttons will be raised when the mouse moves over them. You can add extra space between tool bar items by setting tool-bar-button-margin' to a positive integer specifying a number of pixels, or a pair of integers (X . Y) specifying horizontal and vertical margins . Default is 1. You can change the shadow thickness of tool bar buttons by setting tool-bar-button-relief' to an integer. Default is 3. *** Tool-bar clicks with modifiers. You can bind commands to clicks with control, shift, meta etc. on a tool bar item. If (define-key global-map [tool-bar shell] '(menu-item "Shell" shell :image (image :type xpm :file "shell.xpm"))) is the original tool bar item definition, then (define-key global-map [tool-bar S-shell] 'some-command) makes a binding to run some-command' for a shifted click on the same item. ** Mode line changes. *** Mouse-sensitive mode line. The mode line can be made mouse-sensitive by displaying strings there that have a local-map' text property. There are three ways to display a string with a local-map' property in the mode line. 1. The mode line spec contains a variable whose string value has a local-map' text property. 2. The mode line spec contains a format specifier (e.g. %12b'), and that format specifier has a local-map' property. 3. The mode line spec contains a list containing :eval FORM'. FORM is evaluated. If the result is a string, and that string has a local-map' property. The same mechanism is used to determine the face' and help-echo' properties of strings in the mode line. See bindings.el' for an example. *** If a mode line element has the form (:eval FORM)', FORM is evaluated and the result is used as mode line element. *** You can suppress mode-line display by setting the buffer-local variable mode-line-format to nil. *** A headerline can now be displayed at the top of a window. This mode line's contents are controlled by the new variable header-line-format' and default-header-line-format' which are completely analogous to mode-line-format' and default-mode-line-format'. A value of nil means don't display a top line. The appearance of top mode lines is controlled by the face header-line'. The function coordinates-in-window-p' returns header-line' for a position in the header-line. ** Text property display' The display' text property is used to insert images into text, replace text with other text, display text in marginal area, and it is also used to control other aspects of how text displays. The value of the display' property should be a display specification, as described below, or a list or vector containing display specifications. *** Replacing text, displaying text in marginal areas To replace the text having the display' property with some other text, use a display specification of the form (LOCATION STRING)'. If LOCATION is (margin left-margin)', STRING is displayed in the left marginal area, if it is (margin right-margin)', it is displayed in the right marginal area, and if LOCATION is (margin nil)' STRING is displayed in the text. In the latter case you can also use the simpler form STRING as property value. *** Variable width and height spaces To display a space of fractional width or height, use a display specification of the form (LOCATION STRECH)'. If LOCATION is (margin left-margin)', the space is displayed in the left marginal area, if it is (margin right-margin)', it is displayed in the right marginal area, and if LOCATION is (margin nil)' the space is displayed in the text. In the latter case you can also use the simpler form STRETCH as property value. The stretch specification STRETCH itself is a list of the form (space PROPS)', where PROPS is a property list which can contain the properties described below. The display of the fractional space replaces the display of the characters having the display' property. - :width WIDTH Specifies that the space width should be WIDTH times the normal character width. WIDTH can be an integer or floating point number. - :relative-width FACTOR Specifies that the width of the stretch should be computed from the first character in a group of consecutive characters that have the same display' property. The computation is done by multiplying the width of that character by FACTOR. - :align-to HPOS Specifies that the space should be wide enough to reach HPOS. The value HPOS is measured in units of the normal character width. Exactly one of the above properties should be used. - :height HEIGHT Specifies the height of the space, as HEIGHT, measured in terms of the normal line height. - :relative-height FACTOR The height of the space is computed as the product of the height of the text having the display' property and FACTOR. - :ascent ASCENT Specifies that ASCENT percent of the height of the stretch should be used for the ascent of the stretch, i.e. for the part above the baseline. The value of ASCENT must be a non-negative number less or equal to 100. You should not use both :height' and :relative-height' together. *** Images A display specification for an image has the form (LOCATION . IMAGE)', where IMAGE is an image specification. The image replaces, in the display, the characters having this display specification in their display' text property. If LOCATION is (margin left-margin)', the image will be displayed in the left marginal area, if it is (margin right-margin)' it will be displayed in the right marginal area, and if LOCATION is (margin nil)' the image will be displayed in the text. In the latter case you can also use the simpler form IMAGE as display specification. *** Other display properties - (space-width FACTOR) Specifies that space characters in the text having that property should be displayed FACTOR times as wide as normal; FACTOR must be an integer or float. - (height HEIGHT) Display text having this property in a font that is smaller or larger. If HEIGHT is a list of the form (+ N)', where N is an integer, that means to use a font that is N steps larger. If HEIGHT is a list of the form (- N)', that means to use a font that is N steps smaller. A step'' is defined by the set of available fonts; each size for which a font is available counts as a step. If HEIGHT is a number, that means to use a font that is HEIGHT times as tall as the frame's default font. If HEIGHT is a symbol, it is called as a function with the current height as argument. The function should return the new height to use. Otherwise, HEIGHT is evaluated to get the new height, with the symbol height' bound to the current specified font height. - (raise FACTOR) FACTOR must be a number, specifying a multiple of the current font's height. If it is positive, that means to display the characters raised. If it is negative, that means to display them lower down. The amount of raising or lowering is computed without taking account of the height' subproperty. *** Conditional display properties All display specifications can be conditionalized. If a specification has the form (when CONDITION . SPEC)', the specification SPEC applies only when CONDITION yields a non-nil value when evaluated. During the evaluation, object' is bound to the string or buffer having the conditional display property; position' and buffer-position' are bound to the position within object' and the buffer position where the display property was found, respectively. Both positions can be different when object is a string. The normal specification consisting of SPEC only is equivalent to (when t . SPEC)'. ** New menu separator types. Emacs now supports more than one menu separator type. Menu items with item names consisting of dashes only (including zero dashes) are treated like before. In addition, the following item names are used to specify other menu separator types. - --no-line' or --space', or --:space', or --:noLine' No separator lines are drawn, but a small space is inserted where the separator occurs. - --single-line' or --:singleLine' A single line in the menu's foreground color. - --double-line' or --:doubleLine' A double line in the menu's foreground color. - --single-dashed-line' or --:singleDashedLine' A single dashed line in the menu's foreground color. - --double-dashed-line' or --:doubleDashedLine' A double dashed line in the menu's foreground color. - --shadow-etched-in' or --:shadowEtchedIn' A single line with 3D sunken appearance. This is the form displayed for item names consisting of dashes only. - --shadow-etched-out' or --:shadowEtchedOut' A single line with 3D raised appearance. - --shadow-etched-in-dash' or --:shadowEtchedInDash' A single dashed line with 3D sunken appearance. - --shadow-etched-out-dash' or --:shadowEtchedOutDash' A single dashed line with 3D raise appearance. - --shadow-double-etched-in' or --:shadowDoubleEtchedIn' Two lines with 3D sunken appearance. - --shadow-double-etched-out' or --:shadowDoubleEtchedOut' Two lines with 3D raised appearance. - --shadow-double-etched-in-dash' or --:shadowDoubleEtchedInDash' Two dashed lines with 3D sunken appearance. - --shadow-double-etched-out-dash' or --:shadowDoubleEtchedOutDash' Two dashed lines with 3D raised appearance. Under LessTif/Motif, the last four separator types are displayed like the corresponding single-line separators. ** New frame parameters for scroll bar colors. The new frame parameters scroll-bar-foreground' and scroll-bar-background' can be used to change scroll bar colors. Their value must be either a color name, a string, or nil to specify that scroll bars should use a default color. For toolkit scroll bars, default colors are toolkit specific. For non-toolkit scroll bars, the default background is the background color of the frame, and the default foreground is black. The X resource name of these parameters are scrollBarForeground' (class ScrollBarForeground) and scrollBarBackground' (class ScrollBarBackground'). Setting these parameters overrides toolkit specific X resource settings for scroll bar colors. ** You can set redisplay-dont-pause' to a non-nil value to prevent display updates from being interrupted when input is pending. ** Changing a window's width may now change its window start if it starts on a continuation line. The new window start is computed based on the window's new width, starting from the start of the continued line as the start of the screen line with the minimum distance from the original window start. ** The variable hscroll-step' and the functions hscroll-point-visible' and hscroll-window-column' have been removed now that proper horizontal scrolling is implemented. ** Windows can now be made fixed-width and/or fixed-height. A window is fixed-size if its buffer has a buffer-local variable window-size-fixed' whose value is not nil. A value of height' makes windows fixed-height, a value of width' makes them fixed-width, any other non-nil value makes them both fixed-width and fixed-height. The following code makes all windows displaying the current buffer fixed-width and fixed-height. (set (make-local-variable 'window-size-fixed) t) A call to enlarge-window on a window gives an error if that window is fixed-width and it is tried to change the window's width, or if the window is fixed-height, and it is tried to change its height. To change the size of a fixed-size window, bind window-size-fixed' temporarily to nil, for example (let ((window-size-fixed nil)) (enlarge-window 10)) Likewise, an attempt to split a fixed-height window vertically, or a fixed-width window horizontally results in a error. ** The cursor-type frame parameter is now supported on MS-DOS terminals. When Emacs starts, it by default changes the cursor shape to a solid box, as it does on Unix. The cursor-type' frame parameter overrides this as it does on Unix, except that the bar cursor is horizontal rather than vertical (since the MS-DOS display doesn't support a vertical-bar cursor). ---------------------------------------------------------------------- This file is part of GNU Emacs. GNU Emacs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later version. GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with GNU Emacs; see the file COPYING. If not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA. Local variables: mode: outline paragraph-separate: "[ ]*"
end: