NEWS   [plain text]

GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.

Copyright (C) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007
          Free Software Foundation, Inc.
See the end of the file for license conditions.

Please send Emacs bug reports to
If possible, use M-x report-emacs-bug.

This file is about changes in Emacs version 22.

See files NEWS.21, NEWS.20, NEWS.19, NEWS.18, and NEWS.1-17 for changes
in older Emacs versions.

You can narrow news to a specific version by calling `view-emacs-news'
with a prefix argument or by typing C-u C-h C-n.
* About external Lisp packages

When you upgrade to Emacs 22 from a previous version, some older
versions of external Lisp packages are known to behave badly.
So in general, it is recommended that you upgrade to the latest
versions of any external Lisp packages that you are using.

You should also be aware that many Lisp packages have been included
with Emacs 22 (see the extensive list below), and you should remove
any older versions of these packages to ensure that the Emacs 22
version is used.  You can use M-x list-load-path-shadows to find such
older packages.

Some specific packages that are known to cause problems are:

** Semantic (used by CEDET, ECB, JDEE): upgrade to latest version.

** cua.el, cua-mode.el: remove old versions.

* Installation Changes in Emacs 22.1

** You can build Emacs with Gtk+ widgets by specifying `--with-x-toolkit=gtk'
when you run configure.  This requires Gtk+ 2.4 or newer.  This port
provides a way to display multilingual text in menus (with some caveats).

** The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual is now part of the distribution.

The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual in Info format is built as part of the
Emacs build procedure and installed together with the Emacs User
Manual.  A menu item was added to the menu bar to make it easily
accessible (Help->More Manuals->Emacs Lisp Reference).

** The Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp manual is now part of
the distribution.

This manual is now part of the standard distribution and is installed,
together with the Emacs User Manual, into the Info directory.  A menu
item was added to the menu bar to make it easily accessible
(Help->More Manuals->Introduction to Emacs Lisp).

** Leim is now part of the Emacs distribution.
You no longer need to download a separate tarball in order to build
Emacs with Leim.

** Support for MacOS X was added.
See the files mac/README and mac/INSTALL for build instructions.

** Mac OS 9 port now uses the Carbon API by default.  You can also
create a non-Carbon build by specifying `NonCarbon' as a target.  See
the files mac/README and mac/INSTALL for build instructions.

** Support for a Cygwin build of Emacs was added.

** Support for GNU/Linux systems on X86-64 machines was added.

** Support for GNU/Linux systems on S390 machines was added.

** Support for GNU/Linux systems on Tensilica Xtensa machines was added.

** Support for FreeBSD/Alpha has been added.

** New translations of the Emacs Tutorial are available in the
following languages: Brasilian Portuguese, Bulgarian, Chinese (both
with simplified and traditional characters), French, Russian, and
Italian.  Type `C-u C-h t' to choose one of them in case your language
setup doesn't automatically select the right one.

** New translations of the Emacs reference card are available in the
Brasilian Portuguese and Russian.  The corresponding PostScript files
are also included.

** A French translation of the `Emacs Survival Guide' is available.

** Emacs now supports new configure options `--program-prefix',
`--program-suffix' and `--program-transform-name' that affect the names of
installed programs.

** By default, Emacs now uses a setgid helper program to update game
scores.  The directory ${localstatedir}/games/emacs is the normal
place for game scores to be stored.  You can control this with the
configure option `--with-game-dir'.  The specific user that Emacs uses
to own the game scores is controlled by `--with-game-user'.  If access
to a game user is not available, then scores will be stored separately
in each user's home directory.

** Emacs now includes support for loading image libraries on demand.
(Currently this feature is only used on MS Windows.)  You can configure
the supported image types and their associated dynamic libraries by
setting the variable `image-library-alist'.

** Emacs can now be built without sound support.

** Emacs Lisp source files are compressed by default if `gzip' is available.

** All images used in Emacs have been consolidated in etc/images and subdirs.
See also the changes to `find-image', documented below.

** Emacs comes with a new set of icons.
These icons are displayed on the taskbar and/or titlebar when Emacs
runs in a graphical environment.  Source files for these icons can be
found in etc/images/icons.  (You can't change the icons displayed by
Emacs by changing these files directly.  On X, the icon is compiled
into the Emacs executable; see gnu.h in the source tree.  On MS
Windows, see nt/icons/emacs.ico.)

** The `emacsserver' program has been removed, replaced with Lisp code.

** The `yow' program has been removed.
Use the corresponding Emacs feature instead.

** The Emacs terminal emulation in term.el uses a different terminfo name.
The Emacs terminal emulation in term.el now uses "eterm-color" as its
terminfo name, since term.el now supports color.

** The script etc/emacs-buffer.gdb can be used with gdb to retrieve the
contents of buffers from a core dump and save them to files easily, should
Emacs crash.

** Building with -DENABLE_CHECKING does not automatically build with union
types any more.  Add -DUSE_LISP_UNION_TYPE if you want union types.

** When pure storage overflows while dumping, Emacs now prints how
much pure storage it will approximately need.

* Startup Changes in Emacs 22.1

** Init file changes
If the init file ~/.emacs does not exist, Emacs will try
~/.emacs.d/init.el or ~/.emacs.d/init.elc.  Likewise, if the shell init file
~/.emacs_SHELL is not found, Emacs will try ~/.emacs.d/

** Emacs can now be invoked in full-screen mode on a windowed display.
When Emacs is invoked on a window system, the new command-line options
`--fullwidth', `--fullheight', and `--fullscreen' produce a frame
whose width, height, or both width and height take up the entire
screen size.  (For now, this does not work with some window managers.)

** Emacs now displays a splash screen by default even if command-line
arguments were given.  The new command-line option --no-splash
disables the splash screen; see also the variable
`inhibit-splash-screen' (which is also aliased as

** New user option `inhibit-startup-buffer-menu'.
When loading many files, for instance with `emacs *', Emacs normally
displays a buffer menu.  This option turns the buffer menu off.

** New command line option -nbc or --no-blinking-cursor disables
the blinking cursor on graphical terminals.

** The option --script FILE runs Emacs in batch mode and loads FILE.
It is useful for writing Emacs Lisp shell script files, because they
can start with this line:

   #!/usr/bin/emacs --script

** The -f option, used from the command line to call a function,
now reads arguments for the function interactively if it is
an interactively callable function.

** The option --directory DIR now modifies `load-path' immediately.
Directories are added to the front of `load-path' in the order they
appear on the command line.  For example, with this command line:

  emacs -batch -L .. -L /tmp --eval "(require 'foo)"

Emacs looks for library `foo' in the parent directory, then in /tmp, then
in the other directories in `load-path'.  (-L is short for --directory.)

** When you specify a frame size with --geometry, the size applies to
all frames you create.  A position specified with --geometry only
affects the initial frame.

** Emacs built for MS-Windows now behaves like Emacs on X does,
with respect to its frame position: if you don't specify a position
(in your .emacs init file, in the Registry, or with the --geometry
command-line option), Emacs leaves the frame position to the Windows'
window manager.

** The command line option --no-windows has been changed to
--no-window-system.  The old one still works, but is deprecated.

** If the environment variable DISPLAY specifies an unreachable X display,
Emacs will now startup as if invoked with the --no-window-system option.

** Emacs now reads the standard abbrevs file ~/.abbrev_defs
automatically at startup, if it exists.  When Emacs offers to save
modified buffers, it saves the abbrevs too if they have changed.  It
can do this either silently or asking for confirmation first,
according to the value of `save-abbrevs'.

** New command line option -Q or --quick.
This is like using -q --no-site-file, but in addition it also disables
the fancy startup screen.

** New command line option -D or --basic-display.
Disables the menu-bar, the tool-bar, the scroll-bars, tool tips, and
the blinking cursor.

** The default is now to use a bitmap as the icon.
The command-line options --icon-type, -i have been replaced with
options --no-bitmap-icon, -nbi to turn the bitmap icon off.

** If the environment variable EMAIL is defined, Emacs now uses its value
to compute the default value of `user-mail-address', in preference to
concatenation of `user-login-name' with the name of your host machine.

* Incompatible Editing Changes in Emacs 22.1

** You can now follow links by clicking Mouse-1 on the link.

See below for more details.

** When the undo information of the current command gets really large
(beyond the value of `undo-outer-limit'), Emacs discards it and warns
you about it.

** When Emacs prompts for file names, SPC no longer completes the file name.
This is so filenames with embedded spaces could be input without the
need to quote the space with a C-q.  The underlying changes in the
keymaps that are active in the minibuffer are described below under
"New keymaps for typing file names".

** The completion commands TAB, SPC and ? in the minibuffer apply only
to the text before point.  If there is text in the buffer after point,
it remains unchanged.

** In incremental search, C-w is changed.  M-%, C-M-w and C-M-y are special.

See below under "incremental search changes".

** M-g is now a prefix key.
M-g g and M-g M-g run goto-line.
M-g n and M-g M-n run next-error (like C-x `).
M-g p and M-g M-p run previous-error.

** C-u M-g M-g switches to the most recent previous buffer,
and goes to the specified line in that buffer.

When goto-line starts to execute, if there's a number in the buffer at
point then it acts as the default argument for the minibuffer.

** M-o now is the prefix key for setting text properties;
M-o M-o requests refontification.

** C-x C-f RET (find-file), typing nothing in the minibuffer, is no longer
a special case.

Since the default input is the current directory, this has the effect
of specifying the current directory.  Normally that means to visit the
directory with Dired.

You can get the old behavior by typing C-x C-f M-n RET, which fetches
the actual file name into the minibuffer.

** In Dired's ! command (dired-do-shell-command), `*' and `?' now
control substitution of the file names only when they are surrounded
by whitespace.  This means you can now use them as shell wildcards
too.  If you want to use just plain `*' as a wildcard, type `*""'; the
doublequotes make no difference in the shell, but they prevent
special treatment in `dired-do-shell-command'.

** A prefix argument is no longer required to repeat a jump to a
previous mark if you set `set-mark-command-repeat-pop' to t.  I.e. C-u
C-SPC C-SPC C-SPC ... cycles through the mark ring.  Use C-u C-u C-SPC
to set the mark immediately after a jump.

** The info-search bindings on C-h C-f, C-h C-k and C-h C-i
have been moved to C-h F, C-h K and C-h S.

** `apply-macro-to-region-lines' now operates on all lines that begin
in the region, rather than on all complete lines in the region.

** line-move-ignore-invisible now defaults to t.

** Adaptive filling misfeature removed.
It no longer treats `NNN.' or `(NNN)' as a prefix.

** The old bindings C-M-delete and C-M-backspace have been deleted,
since there are situations where one or the other will shut down
the operating system or your X server.

** The register compatibility key bindings (deprecated since Emacs 19)
have been removed:
  C-x /   point-to-register (Use: C-x r SPC)
  C-x j   jump-to-register  (Use: C-x r j)
  C-x x   copy-to-register  (Use: C-x r s)
  C-x g   insert-register   (Use: C-x r i)

* Editing Changes in Emacs 22.1

** The max size of buffers and integers has been doubled.
On 32bit machines, it is now 256M (i.e. 268435455).

** !MEM FULL! at the start of the mode line indicates that Emacs
cannot get any more memory for Lisp data.  This often means it could
crash soon if you do things that use more memory.  On most systems,
killing buffers will get out of this state.  If killing buffers does
not make !MEM FULL! disappear, you should save your work and start
a new Emacs.

** `undo-only' does an undo which does not redo any previous undo.

** Yanking text now discards certain text properties that can
be inconvenient when you did not expect them.  The variable
`yank-excluded-properties' specifies which ones.  Insertion
of register contents and rectangles also discards these properties.

** New command `kill-whole-line' kills an entire line at once.
By default, it is bound to C-S-<backspace>.

** M-SPC (just-one-space) when given a numeric argument N
converts whitespace around point to N spaces.

** You can now switch buffers in a cyclic order with C-x C-left
(previous-buffer) and C-x C-right (next-buffer).  C-x left and
C-x right can be used as well.  The functions keep a different buffer
cycle for each frame, using the frame-local buffer list.

** C-x 5 C-o displays a specified buffer in another frame
but does not switch to that frame.  It's the multi-frame
analogue of C-x 4 C-o.

** `special-display-buffer-names' and `special-display-regexps' now
understand two new boolean pseudo-frame-parameters `same-frame' and

** New commands to operate on pairs of open and close characters:
`insert-pair', `delete-pair', `raise-sexp'.

** M-x setenv now expands environment variable references.

Substrings of the form `$foo' and `${foo}' in the specified new value
now refer to the value of environment variable foo.  To include a `$'
in the value, use `$$'.

** The default values of paragraph-start and indent-line-function have
been changed to reflect those used in Text mode rather than those used
in Paragraph-Indent Text mode.

** The default for the paper size (variable ps-paper-type) is taken
from the locale.

** Help command changes:

*** Changes in C-h bindings:

C-h e displays the *Messages* buffer.

C-h d runs apropos-documentation.

C-h r visits the Emacs Manual in Info.

C-h followed by a control character is used for displaying files
    that do not change:

C-h C-f displays the FAQ.
C-h C-e displays the PROBLEMS file.

The info-search bindings on C-h C-f, C-h C-k and C-h C-i
have been moved to C-h F, C-h K and C-h S.

C-h c, C-h k, C-h w, and C-h f now handle remapped interactive commands.
- C-h c and C-h k report the actual command (after possible remapping)
  run by the key sequence.
- C-h w and C-h f on a command which has been remapped now report the
  command it is remapped to, and the keys which can be used to run
  that command.

For example, if C-k is bound to kill-line, and kill-line is remapped
to new-kill-line, these commands now report:
- C-h c and C-h k C-k reports:
  C-k runs the command new-kill-line
- C-h w and C-h f kill-line reports:
  kill-line is remapped to new-kill-line which is on C-k, <deleteline>
- C-h w and C-h f new-kill-line reports:
  new-kill-line is on C-k

*** The apropos commands now accept a list of words to match.
When more than one word is specified, at least two of those words must
be present for an item to match.  Regular expression matching is still

*** The new option `apropos-sort-by-scores' causes the matching items
to be sorted according to their score.  The score for an item is a
number calculated to indicate how well the item matches the words or
regular expression that you entered to the apropos command.  The best
match is listed first, and the calculated score is shown for each
matching item.

*** Help commands `describe-function' and `describe-key' now show function
arguments in lowercase italics on displays that support it.  To change the
default, customize face `help-argument-name' or redefine the function

*** C-h v and C-h f commands now include a hyperlink to the C source for
variables and functions defined in C (if the C source is available).

*** Help mode now only makes hyperlinks for faces when the face name is
preceded or followed by the word `face'.  It no longer makes
hyperlinks for variables without variable documentation, unless
preceded by one of the words `variable' or `option'.  It now makes
hyperlinks to Info anchors (or nodes) if the anchor (or node) name is
enclosed in single quotes and preceded by `info anchor' or `Info
anchor' (in addition to earlier `info node' and `Info node').  In
addition, it now makes hyperlinks to URLs as well if the URL is
enclosed in single quotes and preceded by `URL'.

*** The new command `describe-char' (C-u C-x =) pops up a buffer with
description various information about a character, including its
encodings and syntax, its text properties, how to input, overlays, and
widgets at point.  You can get more information about some of them, by
clicking on mouse-sensitive areas or moving there and pressing RET.

*** The command `list-text-properties-at' has been deleted because
C-u C-x = gives the same information and more.

*** New command `display-local-help' displays any local help at point
in the echo area.  It is bound to `C-h .'.  It normally displays the
same string that would be displayed on mouse-over using the
`help-echo' property, but, in certain cases, it can display a more
keyboard oriented alternative.

*** New user option `help-at-pt-display-when-idle' allows you to
automatically show the help provided by `display-local-help' on
point-over, after suitable idle time.  The amount of idle time is
determined by the user option `help-at-pt-timer-delay' and defaults
to one second.  This feature is turned off by default.

** Mark command changes:

*** A prefix argument is no longer required to repeat a jump to a
previous mark, i.e. C-u C-SPC C-SPC C-SPC ... cycles through the
mark ring.  Use C-u C-u C-SPC to set the mark immediately after a jump.

*** Marking commands extend the region when invoked multiple times.

If you type C-M-SPC (mark-sexp), M-@ (mark-word), M-h
(mark-paragraph), or C-M-h (mark-defun) repeatedly, the marked region
extends each time, so you can mark the next two sexps with M-C-SPC
M-C-SPC, for example.  This feature also works for
mark-end-of-sentence, if you bind that to a key.  It also extends the
region when the mark is active in Transient Mark mode, regardless of
the last command.  To start a new region with one of marking commands
in Transient Mark mode, you can deactivate the active region with C-g,
or set the new mark with C-SPC.

*** Some commands do something special in Transient Mark mode when the
mark is active--for instance, they limit their operation to the
region.  Even if you don't normally use Transient Mark mode, you might
want to get this behavior from a particular command.  There are two
ways you can enable Transient Mark mode and activate the mark, for one
command only.

One method is to type C-SPC C-SPC; this enables Transient Mark mode
and sets the mark at point.  The other method is to type C-u C-x C-x.
This enables Transient Mark mode temporarily but does not alter the
mark or the region.

After these commands, Transient Mark mode remains enabled until you
deactivate the mark.  That typically happens when you type a command
that alters the buffer, but you can also deactivate the mark by typing

*** Movement commands `beginning-of-buffer', `end-of-buffer',
`beginning-of-defun', `end-of-defun' do not set the mark if the mark
is already active in Transient Mark mode.

*** M-h (mark-paragraph) now accepts a prefix arg.

With positive arg, M-h marks the current and the following paragraphs;
if the arg is negative, it marks the current and the preceding

** Incremental Search changes:

*** M-% typed in isearch mode invokes `query-replace' or
`query-replace-regexp' (depending on search mode) with the current
search string used as the string to replace.

*** C-w in incremental search now grabs either a character or a word,
making the decision in a heuristic way.  This new job is done by the
command `isearch-yank-word-or-char'.  To restore the old behavior,
bind C-w to `isearch-yank-word' in `isearch-mode-map'.

*** C-y in incremental search now grabs the next line if point is already
at the end of a line.

*** C-M-w deletes and C-M-y grabs a character in isearch mode.
Another method to grab a character is to enter the minibuffer by `M-e'
and to type `C-f' at the end of the search string in the minibuffer.

*** Vertical scrolling is now possible within incremental search.
To enable this feature, customize the new user option
`isearch-allow-scroll'.  User written commands which satisfy stringent
constraints can be marked as "scrolling commands".  See the Emacs manual
for details.

*** Isearch no longer adds `isearch-resume' commands to the command
history by default.  To enable this feature, customize the new
user option `isearch-resume-in-command-history'.

** Replace command changes:

*** When used interactively, the commands `query-replace-regexp' and
`replace-regexp' allow \,expr to be used in a replacement string,
where expr is an arbitrary Lisp expression evaluated at replacement
time.  `\#' in a replacement string now refers to the count of
replacements already made by the replacement command.  All regular
expression replacement commands now allow `\?' in the replacement
string to specify a position where the replacement string can be
edited for each replacement.  `query-replace-regexp-eval' is now
deprecated since it offers no additional functionality.

*** query-replace uses isearch lazy highlighting when the new user option
`query-replace-lazy-highlight' is non-nil.

*** The current match in query-replace is highlighted in new face
`query-replace' which by default inherits from isearch face.

*** New user option `query-replace-skip-read-only': when non-nil,
`query-replace' and related functions simply ignore
a match if part of it has a read-only property.

** Local variables lists:

*** If the local variables list contains any variable-value pairs that
are not known to be safe, Emacs shows a prompt asking whether to apply
the local variables list as a whole.  In earlier versions, a prompt
was only issued for variables explicitly marked as risky (for the
definition of risky variables, see `risky-local-variable-p').

At the prompt, you can choose to save the contents of this local
variables list to `safe-local-variable-values'.  This new customizable
option is a list of variable-value pairs that are known to be safe.
Variables can also be marked as safe with the existing
`safe-local-variable' property (see `safe-local-variable-p').
However, risky variables will not be added to
`safe-local-variable-values' in this way.

*** The variable `enable-local-variables' controls how local variable
lists are handled.  t, the default, specifies the standard querying
behavior.  :safe means use only safe values, and ignore the rest.
:all means set all variables, whether or not they are safe.
nil means ignore them all.  Anything else means always query.

*** The variable `safe-local-eval-forms' specifies a list of forms that
are ok to evaluate when they appear in an `eval' local variables
specification.  Normally Emacs asks for confirmation before evaluating
such a form, but if the form appears in this list, no confirmation is

*** If a function has a non-nil `safe-local-eval-function' property,
that means it is ok to evaluate some calls to that function when it
appears in an `eval' local variables specification.  If the property
is t, then any form calling that function with constant arguments is
ok.  If the property is a function or list of functions, they are called
with the form as argument, and if any returns t, the form is ok to call.

If the form is not "ok to call", that means Emacs asks for
confirmation as before.

*** In processing a local variables list, Emacs strips the prefix and
suffix from every line before processing all the lines.

*** Text properties in local variables.

A file local variables list cannot specify a string with text
properties--any specified text properties are discarded.

** File operation changes:

*** Unquoted `$' in file names do not signal an error any more when
the corresponding environment variable does not exist.
Instead, the `$ENVVAR' text is left as is, so that `$$' quoting
is only rarely needed.

*** C-x C-f RET, typing nothing in the minibuffer, is no longer a special case.

Since the default input is the current directory, this has the effect
of specifying the current directory.  Normally that means to visit the
directory with Dired.

*** C-x s (save-some-buffers) now offers an option `d' to diff a buffer
against its file, so you can see what changes you would be saving.

*** Auto Compression mode is now enabled by default.

*** If the user visits a file larger than `large-file-warning-threshold',
Emacs asks for confirmation.

*** The commands copy-file, rename-file, make-symbolic-link and
add-name-to-file, when given a directory as the "new name" argument,
convert it to a file name by merging in the within-directory part of
the existing file's name.  (This is the same convention that shell
commands cp, mv, and ln follow.)  Thus, M-x copy-file RET ~/foo RET
/tmp RET copies ~/foo to /tmp/foo.

*** require-final-newline now has two new possible values:

`visit' means add a newline (as an undoable change) if it's needed
when visiting the file.

`visit-save' means add a newline (as an undoable change) if it's
needed when visiting the file, and also add a newline if it's needed
when saving the file.

*** The new option mode-require-final-newline controls how certain
major modes enable require-final-newline.  Any major mode that's
designed for a kind of file that should normally end in a newline
sets require-final-newline based on mode-require-final-newline.
So you can customize mode-require-final-newline to control what these
modes do.

*** When you are root, and you visit a file whose modes specify
read-only, the Emacs buffer is now read-only too.  Type C-x C-q if you
want to make the buffer writable.  (As root, you can in fact alter the

*** find-file-read-only visits multiple files in read-only mode,
when the file name contains wildcard characters.

*** find-alternate-file replaces the current file with multiple files,
when the file name contains wildcard characters.  It now asks if you
wish save your changes and not just offer to kill the buffer.

*** When used interactively, `format-write-file' now asks for confirmation
before overwriting an existing file, unless a prefix argument is
supplied.  This behavior is analogous to `write-file'.

*** The variable `auto-save-file-name-transforms' now has a third element that
controls whether or not the function `make-auto-save-file-name' will
attempt to construct a unique auto-save name (e.g. for remote files).

*** The new option `write-region-inhibit-fsync' disables calls to fsync
in `write-region'.  This can be useful on laptops to avoid spinning up
the hard drive upon each file save.  Enabling this variable may result
in data loss, use with care.

** Minibuffer changes:

*** The completion commands TAB, SPC and ? in the minibuffer apply only
to the text before point.  If there is text in the buffer after point,
it remains unchanged.

*** The new file-name-shadow-mode is turned ON by default, so that when
entering a file name, any prefix which Emacs will ignore is dimmed.

*** There's a new face `minibuffer-prompt'.
Emacs adds this face to the list of text properties stored in the
variable `minibuffer-prompt-properties', which is used to display the
prompt string.

*** Enhanced visual feedback in `*Completions*' buffer.

Completions lists use faces to highlight what all completions
have in common and where they begin to differ.

The common prefix shared by all possible completions uses the face
`completions-common-part', while the first character that isn't the
same uses the face `completions-first-difference'.  By default,
`completions-common-part' inherits from `default', and
`completions-first-difference' inherits from `bold'.  The idea of
`completions-common-part' is that you can use it to make the common
parts less visible than normal, so that the rest of the differing
parts is, by contrast, slightly highlighted.

Above fontification is always done when listing completions is
triggered at minibuffer.  If you want to fontify completions whose
listing is triggered at the other normal buffer, you have to pass
the common prefix of completions to `display-completion-list' as
its second argument.

*** File-name completion can now ignore specified directories.
If an element of the list in `completion-ignored-extensions' ends in a
slash `/', it indicates a subdirectory that should be ignored when
completing file names.  Elements of `completion-ignored-extensions'
which do not end in a slash are never considered when a completion
candidate is a directory.

*** New user option `history-delete-duplicates'.
If set to t when adding a new history element, all previous identical
elements are deleted from the history list.

** Redisplay changes:

*** The new face `mode-line-inactive' is used to display the mode line
of non-selected windows.  The `mode-line' face is now used to display
the mode line of the currently selected window.

The new variable `mode-line-in-non-selected-windows' controls whether
the `mode-line-inactive' face is used.

*** The mode line position information now comes before the major mode.
When the file is maintained under version control, that information
appears between the position information and the major mode.

*** You can now customize the use of window fringes.  To control this
for all frames, use M-x fringe-mode or the Show/Hide submenu of the
top-level Options menu, or customize the `fringe-mode' variable.  To
control this for a specific frame, use the command M-x

*** Angle icons in the fringes can indicate the buffer boundaries.  In
addition, up and down arrow bitmaps in the fringe indicate which ways
the window can be scrolled.

This behavior is activated by setting the buffer-local variable
`indicate-buffer-boundaries' to a non-nil value.  The default value of
this variable is found in `default-indicate-buffer-boundaries'.

If value is `left' or `right', both angle and arrow bitmaps are
displayed in the left or right fringe, resp.

The value can also be an alist which specifies the presence and
position of each bitmap individually.

For example, ((top . left) (t .  right)) places the top angle bitmap
in left fringe, the bottom angle bitmap in right fringe, and both
arrow bitmaps in right fringe.  To show just the angle bitmaps in the
left fringe, but no arrow bitmaps, use ((top . left) (bottom . left)).

*** On window systems, lines which are exactly as wide as the window
(not counting the final newline character) are no longer broken into
two lines on the display (with just the newline on the second line).
Instead, the newline now "overflows" into the right fringe, and the
cursor will be displayed in the fringe when positioned on that newline.

The new user option 'overflow-newline-into-fringe' can be set to nil to
revert to the old behavior of continuing such lines.

*** A window can now have individual fringe and scroll-bar settings,
in addition to the individual display margin settings.

Such individual settings are now preserved when windows are split
horizontally or vertically, a saved window configuration is restored,
or when the frame is resized.

*** When a window has display margin areas, the fringes are now
displayed between the margins and the buffer's text area, rather than
outside those margins.

*** New face `escape-glyph' highlights control characters and escape glyphs.

*** Non-breaking space and hyphens are now displayed with a special
face, either nobreak-space or escape-glyph.  You can turn this off or
specify a different mode by setting the variable `nobreak-char-display'.

*** The parameters of automatic hscrolling can now be customized.
The variable `hscroll-margin' determines how many columns away from
the window edge point is allowed to get before automatic hscrolling
will horizontally scroll the window.  The default value is 5.

The variable `hscroll-step' determines how many columns automatic
hscrolling scrolls the window when point gets too close to the
window edge.  If its value is zero, the default, Emacs scrolls the
window so as to center point.  If its value is an integer, it says how
many columns to scroll.  If the value is a floating-point number, it
gives the fraction of the window's width to scroll the window.

The variable `automatic-hscrolling' was renamed to
`auto-hscroll-mode'.  The old name is still available as an alias.

*** Moving or scrolling through images (and other lines) taller than
the window now works sensibly, by automatically adjusting the window's
vscroll property.

*** Preemptive redisplay now adapts to current load and bandwidth.

To avoid preempting redisplay on fast computers, networks, and displays,
the arrival of new input is now performed at regular intervals during
redisplay.  The new variable `redisplay-preemption-period' specifies
the period; the default is to check for input every 0.1 seconds.

*** The %c and %l constructs are now ignored in frame-title-format.
Due to technical limitations in how Emacs interacts with windowing
systems, these constructs often failed to render properly, and could
even cause Emacs to crash.

*** If value of `auto-resize-tool-bars' is `grow-only', the tool bar
will expand as needed, but not contract automatically.  To contract
the tool bar, you must type C-l.

*** New customize option `overline-margin' controls the space between
overline and text.

*** New variable `x-underline-at-descent-line' controls the relative
position of the underline.  When set, it overrides the
`x-use-underline-position-properties' variables.

** New faces:

*** `mode-line-highlight' is the standard face indicating mouse sensitive
elements on mode-line (and header-line) like `highlight' face on text

*** `mode-line-buffer-id' is the standard face for buffer identification
parts of the mode line.

*** `shadow' face defines the appearance of the "shadowed" text, i.e.
the text which should be less noticeable than the surrounding text.
This can be achieved by using shades of grey in contrast with either
black or white default foreground color.  This generic shadow face
allows customization of the appearance of shadowed text in one place,
so package-specific faces can inherit from it.

*** `vertical-border' face is used for the vertical divider between windows.

** Font-Lock (syntax highlighting) changes:

*** All modes now support using M-x font-lock-mode to toggle
fontification, even those such as Occur, Info, and comint-derived
modes that do their own fontification in a special way.

The variable `Info-fontify' is no longer applicable; to disable
fontification in Info, remove `turn-on-font-lock' from

*** New standard font-lock face `font-lock-comment-delimiter-face'.

*** New standard font-lock face `font-lock-preprocessor-face'.

*** Easy to overlook single character negation can now be font-locked.
You can use the new variable `font-lock-negation-char-face' and the face of
the same name to customize this.  Currently the cc-modes, sh-script-mode,
cperl-mode and make-mode support this.

*** Font-Lock mode: in major modes such as Lisp mode, where some Emacs
features assume that an open-paren in column 0 is always outside of
any string or comment, Font-Lock now highlights any such open-paren in
bold-red if it is inside a string or a comment, to indicate that it
can cause trouble.  You should rewrite the string or comment so that
the open-paren is not in column 0.

*** M-o now is the prefix key for setting text properties;
M-o M-o requests refontification.

*** The default settings for JIT stealth lock parameters are changed.
The default value for the user option jit-lock-stealth-time is now nil
instead of 3.  This setting of jit-lock-stealth-time disables stealth
fontification: on today's machines, it may be a bug in font lock
patterns if fontification otherwise noticeably degrades interactivity.
If you find movement in infrequently visited buffers sluggish (and the
major mode maintainer has no better idea), customizing
jit-lock-stealth-time to a non-nil value will let Emacs fontify
buffers in the background when it considers the system to be idle.
jit-lock-stealth-nice is now 0.5 instead of 0.125 which is supposed to
cause less load than the old defaults.

*** jit-lock can now be delayed with `jit-lock-defer-time'.

If this variable is non-nil, its value should be the amount of Emacs
idle time in seconds to wait before starting fontification.  For
example, if you set `jit-lock-defer-time' to 0.25, fontification will
only happen after 0.25s of idle time.

*** contextual refontification is now separate from stealth fontification.

jit-lock-defer-contextually is renamed jit-lock-contextually and
jit-lock-context-time determines the delay after which contextual
refontification takes place.

*** lazy-lock is considered obsolete.

The `lazy-lock' package is superseded by `jit-lock' and is considered
obsolete.  `jit-lock' is activated by default; if you wish to continue
using `lazy-lock', activate it in your ~/.emacs like this:
  (setq font-lock-support-mode 'lazy-lock-mode)

If you invoke `lazy-lock-mode' directly rather than through
`font-lock-support-mode', it now issues a warning:
  "Use font-lock-support-mode rather than calling lazy-lock-mode"

** Menu support:

*** A menu item "Show/Hide" was added to the top-level menu "Options".
This menu allows you to turn various display features on and off (such
as the fringes, the tool bar, the speedbar, and the menu bar itself).
You can also move the vertical scroll bar to either side here or turn
it off completely.  There is also a menu-item to toggle displaying of
current date and time, current line and column number in the mode-line.

*** Speedbar has moved from the "Tools" top level menu to "Show/Hide".

*** The menu item "Open File..." has been split into two items, "New File..."
and "Open File...".  "Open File..." now opens only existing files.  This is
to support existing GUI file selection dialogs better.

*** The file selection dialog for Gtk+, Mac, W32 and Motif/LessTif can be
disabled by customizing the variable `use-file-dialog'.

*** The pop up menus for Lucid now stay up if you do a fast click and can
be navigated with the arrow keys (like Gtk+, Mac and W32).

*** The menu bar for Motif/LessTif/Lucid/Gtk+ can be navigated with keys.
Pressing F10 shows the first menu in the menu bar.  Navigation is done with
the arrow keys, select with the return key and cancel with the escape keys.

*** The Lucid menus can display multilingual text in your locale.  You have
to explicitly specify a fontSet resource for this to work, for example
`-xrm "Emacs*fontSet:  -*-helvetica-medium-r-*--*-120-*-*-*-*-*-*,*"'.

*** Dialogs for Lucid/Athena and LessTif/Motif now pop down on pressing
ESC, like they do for Gtk+, Mac and W32.

*** For the Gtk+ version, you can make Emacs use the old file dialog
by setting the variable `x-gtk-use-old-file-dialog' to t.  Default is to use
the new dialog.

*** You can exit dialog windows and menus by typing C-g.

** Buffer Menu changes:

*** The new options `buffers-menu-show-directories' and
`buffers-menu-show-status' let you control how buffers are displayed
in the menu dropped down when you click "Buffers" from the menu bar.

`buffers-menu-show-directories' controls whether the menu displays
leading directories as part of the file name visited by the buffer.
If its value is `unless-uniquify', the default, directories are
shown unless uniquify-buffer-name-style' is non-nil.  The value of nil
and t turn the display of directories off and on, respectively.

`buffers-menu-show-status' controls whether the Buffers menu includes
the modified and read-only status of the buffers.  By default it is
t, and the status is shown.

Setting these variables directly does not take effect until next time
the Buffers menu is regenerated.

*** New command `Buffer-menu-toggle-files-only' toggles display of file
buffers only in the Buffer Menu.  It is bound to T in Buffer Menu

*** `buffer-menu' and `list-buffers' now list buffers whose names begin
with a space, when those buffers are visiting files.  Normally buffers
whose names begin with space are omitted.

** Mouse changes:

*** You can now follow links by clicking Mouse-1 on the link.

Traditionally, Emacs uses a Mouse-1 click to set point and a Mouse-2
click to follow a link, whereas most other applications use a Mouse-1
click for both purposes, depending on whether you click outside or
inside a link.  Now the behavior of a Mouse-1 click has been changed
to match this context-sensitive dual behavior.  (If you prefer the old
behavior, set the user option `mouse-1-click-follows-link' to nil.)

Depending on the current mode, a Mouse-2 click in Emacs can do much
more than just follow a link, so the new Mouse-1 behavior is only
activated for modes which explicitly mark a clickable text as a "link"
(see the new function `mouse-on-link-p' for details).  The Lisp
packages that are included in release 22.1 have been adapted to do
this, but external packages may not yet support this.  However, there
is no risk in using such packages, as the worst thing that could
happen is that you get the original Mouse-1 behavior when you click
on a link, which typically means that you set point where you click.

If you want to get the original Mouse-1 action also inside a link, you
just need to press the Mouse-1 button a little longer than a normal
click (i.e. press and hold the Mouse-1 button for half a second before
you release it).

Dragging the Mouse-1 inside a link still performs the original
drag-mouse-1 action, typically copy the text.

You can customize the new Mouse-1 behavior via the new user options
`mouse-1-click-follows-link' and `mouse-1-click-in-non-selected-windows'.

*** If you set the new variable `mouse-autoselect-window' to a non-nil
value, windows are automatically selected as you move the mouse from
one Emacs window to another, even within a frame.  A minibuffer window
can be selected only when it is active.

*** On X, when the window manager requires that you click on a frame to
select it (give it focus), the selected window and cursor position
normally changes according to the mouse click position.  If you set
the variable x-mouse-click-focus-ignore-position to t, the selected
window and cursor position do not change when you click on a frame
to give it focus.

*** Emacs normally highlights mouse sensitive text whenever the mouse
is over the text.  By setting the new variable `mouse-highlight', you
can optionally enable mouse highlighting only after you move the
mouse, so that highlighting disappears when you press a key.  You can
also disable mouse highlighting.

*** You can now customize if selecting a region by dragging the mouse
shall not copy the selected text to the kill-ring by setting the new
variable mouse-drag-copy-region to nil.

*** Under X, mouse-wheel-mode is turned on by default.

*** Emacs ignores mouse-2 clicks while the mouse wheel is being moved.

People tend to push the mouse wheel (which counts as a mouse-2 click)
unintentionally while turning the wheel, so these clicks are now
ignored.  You can customize this with the mouse-wheel-click-event and
mouse-wheel-inhibit-click-time variables.

*** mouse-wheels can now scroll a specific fraction of the window
(rather than a fixed number of lines) and the scrolling is `progressive'.

** Multilingual Environment (Mule) changes:

*** You can disable character translation for a file using the -*-
construct.  Include `enable-character-translation: nil' inside the
-*-...-*- to disable any character translation that may happen by
various global and per-coding-system translation tables.  You can also
specify it in a local variable list at the end of the file.  For
shortcut, instead of using this long variable name, you can append the
character "!" at the end of coding-system name specified in -*-
construct or in a local variable list.  For example, if a file has the
following header, it is decoded by the coding system `iso-latin-1'
without any character translation:
;; -*- coding: iso-latin-1!; -*-

*** Language environment and various default coding systems are setup
more correctly according to the current locale name.  If the locale
name doesn't specify a charset, the default is what glibc defines.
This change can result in using the different coding systems as
default in some locale (e.g. vi_VN).

*** The keyboard-coding-system is now automatically set based on your
current locale settings if you are not using a window system.  This
can mean that the META key doesn't work but generates non-ASCII
characters instead, depending on how the terminal (or terminal
emulator) works.  Use `set-keyboard-coding-system' (or customize
keyboard-coding-system) if you prefer META to work (the old default)
or if the locale doesn't describe the character set actually generated
by the keyboard.  See Info node `Unibyte Mode'.

*** The new command `set-file-name-coding-system' (C-x RET F) sets
coding system for encoding and decoding file names.  A new menu item
(Options->Mule->Set Coding Systems->For File Name) invokes this

*** The new command `revert-buffer-with-coding-system' (C-x RET r)
revisits the current file using a coding system that you specify.

*** New command `recode-region' decodes the region again by a specified
coding system.

*** The new command `recode-file-name' changes the encoding of the name
of a file.

*** New command `ucs-insert' inserts a character specified by its

*** New command quail-show-key shows what key (or key sequence) to type
in the current input method to input a character at point.

*** Limited support for character `unification' has been added.
Emacs now knows how to translate between different representations of
the same characters in various Emacs charsets according to standard
Unicode mappings.  This applies mainly to characters in the ISO 8859
sets plus some other 8-bit sets, but can be extended.  For instance,
translation works amongst the Emacs ...-iso8859-... charsets and the
mule-unicode-... ones.

By default this translation happens automatically on encoding.
Self-inserting characters are translated to make the input conformant
with the encoding of the buffer in which it's being used, where

You can force a more complete unification with the user option
unify-8859-on-decoding-mode.  That maps all the Latin-N character sets
into Unicode characters (from the latin-iso8859-1 and
mule-unicode-0100-24ff charsets) on decoding.  Note that this mode
will often effectively clobber data with an iso-2022 encoding.

*** New language environments (set up automatically according to the
locale): Belarusian, Bulgarian, Chinese-EUC-TW, Croatian, Esperanto,
French, Georgian, Italian, Latin-7, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malayalam,
Russian, Russian, Slovenian, Swedish, Tajik, Tamil, UTF-8,Ukrainian,
Welsh,Latin-6, Windows-1255.

*** New input methods: latin-alt-postfix, latin-postfix, latin-prefix,
belarusian, bulgarian-bds, bulgarian-phonetic, chinese-sisheng (for
Chinese Pinyin characters), croatian, dutch, georgian, latvian-keyboard,
lithuanian-numeric, lithuanian-keyboard, malayalam-inscript, rfc1345,
russian-computer, sgml, slovenian, tamil-inscript, ukrainian-computer,
ucs, vietnamese-telex, welsh.

*** There is support for decoding Greek and Cyrillic characters into
either Unicode (the mule-unicode charsets) or the iso-8859 charsets,
when possible.  The latter are more space-efficient.
  This is controlled by user option utf-fragment-on-decoding.

*** Improved Thai support.  A new minor mode `thai-word-mode' (which is
automatically activated if you select Thai as a language
environment) changes key bindings of most word-oriented commands to
versions which recognize Thai words.  Affected commands are
    M-f     (forward-word)
    M-b     (backward-word)
    M-d     (kill-word)
    M-DEL   (backward-kill-word)
    M-t     (transpose-words)
    M-q     (fill-paragraph)

*** Indian support has been updated.
The in-is13194 coding system is now Unicode-based.  CDAC fonts are
assumed.  There is a framework for supporting various Indian scripts,
but currently only Devanagari, Malayalam and Tamil are supported.

*** The utf-8/16 coding systems have been enhanced.
By default, untranslatable utf-8 sequences are simply composed into
single quasi-characters.  User option `utf-translate-cjk-mode' (it is
turned on by default) arranges to translate many utf-8 CJK character
sequences into real Emacs characters in a similar way to the Mule-UCS
system.  As this loads a fairly big data on demand, people who are not
interested in CJK characters may want to customize it to nil.
You can augment/amend the CJK translation via hash tables
`ucs-mule-cjk-to-unicode' and `ucs-unicode-to-mule-cjk'.  The utf-8
coding system now also encodes characters from most of Emacs's
one-dimensional internal charsets, specifically the ISO-8859 ones.
The utf-16 coding system is affected similarly.

*** A UTF-7 coding system is available in the library `utf-7'.

*** A new coding system `euc-tw' has been added for traditional Chinese
in CNS encoding; it accepts both Big 5 and CNS as input; on saving,
Big 5 is then converted to CNS.

*** Many new coding systems are available in the `code-pages' library.
These include complete versions of most of those in codepage.el, based
on Unicode mappings.  `codepage-setup' is now obsolete and is used
only in the MS-DOS port of Emacs.  All coding systems defined in
`code-pages' are auto-loaded.

*** New variable `utf-translate-cjk-unicode-range' controls which
Unicode characters to translate in `utf-translate-cjk-mode'.

*** iso-10646-1 (`Unicode') fonts can be used to display any range of
characters encodable by the utf-8 coding system.  Just specify the
fontset appropriately.

** Customize changes:

*** Custom themes are collections of customize options.  Create a
custom theme with M-x customize-create-theme.  Use M-x load-theme to
load and enable a theme, and M-x disable-theme to disable it.  Use M-x
enable-theme to enable a disabled theme.

*** The commands M-x customize-face and M-x customize-face-other-window
now look at the character after point.  If a face or faces are
specified for that character, the commands by default customize those

*** The face-customization widget has been reworked to be less confusing.
In particular, when you enable a face attribute using the corresponding
check-box, there's no longer a redundant `*' option in value selection
for that attribute; the values you can choose are only those which make
sense for the attribute.  When an attribute is de-selected by unchecking
its check-box, then the (now ignored, but still present temporarily in
case you re-select the attribute) value is hidden.

*** When you set or reset a variable's value in a Customize buffer,
the previous value becomes the "backup value" of the variable.
You can go back to that backup value by selecting "Use Backup Value"
under the "[State]" button.

** Dired mode:

*** In Dired's ! command (dired-do-shell-command), `*' and `?' now
control substitution of the file names only when they are surrounded
by whitespace.  This means you can now use them as shell wildcards
too.  If you want to use just plain `*' as a wildcard, type `*""'; the
double quotes make no difference in the shell, but they prevent
special treatment in `dired-do-shell-command'.

*** The Dired command `dired-goto-file' is now bound to j, not M-g.
This is to avoid hiding the global key binding of M-g.

*** New faces dired-header, dired-mark, dired-marked, dired-flagged,
dired-ignored, dired-directory, dired-symlink, dired-warning
introduced for Dired mode instead of font-lock faces.

*** New Dired command `dired-compare-directories' marks files
with different file attributes in two dired buffers.

*** New Dired command `dired-do-touch' (bound to T) changes timestamps
of marked files with the value entered in the minibuffer.

*** In Dired, the w command now stores the current line's file name
into the kill ring.  With a zero prefix arg, it stores the absolute file name.

*** In Dired-x, Omitting files is now a minor mode, dired-omit-mode.

The mode toggling command is bound to M-o.  A new command
dired-mark-omitted, bound to * O, marks omitted files.  The variable
dired-omit-files-p is obsoleted, use the mode toggling function

*** The variables dired-free-space-program and dired-free-space-args
have been renamed to directory-free-space-program and
directory-free-space-args, and they now apply whenever Emacs puts a
directory listing into a buffer.

** Comint changes:

*** The new INSIDE_EMACS environment variable is set to "t" in subshells
running inside Emacs.  This supersedes the EMACS environment variable,
which will be removed in a future Emacs release.  Programs that need
to know whether they are started inside Emacs should check INSIDE_EMACS
instead of EMACS.

*** The comint prompt can now be made read-only, using the new user
option `comint-prompt-read-only'.  This is not enabled by default,
except in IELM buffers.  The read-only status of IELM prompts can be
controlled with the new user option `ielm-prompt-read-only', which
overrides `comint-prompt-read-only'.

The new commands `comint-kill-whole-line' and `comint-kill-region'
support editing comint buffers with read-only prompts.

`comint-kill-whole-line' is like `kill-whole-line', but ignores both
read-only and field properties.  Hence, it always kill entire
lines, including any prompts.

`comint-kill-region' is like `kill-region', except that it ignores
read-only properties, if it is safe to do so.  This means that if any
part of a prompt is deleted, then the entire prompt must be deleted
and that all prompts must stay at the beginning of a line.  If this is
not the case, then `comint-kill-region' behaves just like
`kill-region' if read-only properties are involved: it copies the text
to the kill-ring, but does not delete it.

*** The new command `comint-insert-previous-argument' in comint-derived
modes (shell-mode, etc.) inserts arguments from previous command lines,
like bash's `ESC .' binding.  It is bound by default to `C-c .', but
otherwise behaves quite similarly to the bash version.

*** `comint-use-prompt-regexp-instead-of-fields' has been renamed
`comint-use-prompt-regexp'.  The old name has been kept as an alias,
but declared obsolete.

** M-x Compile changes:

*** M-x compile has become more robust and reliable

Quite a few more kinds of messages are recognized.  Messages that are
recognized as warnings or informational come in orange or green, instead of
red.  Informational messages are by default skipped with `next-error'
(controlled by `compilation-skip-threshold').

Location data is collected on the fly as the *compilation* buffer changes.
This means you could modify messages to make them point to different files.
This also means you can not go to locations of messages you may have deleted.

The variable `compilation-error-regexp-alist' has now become customizable.  If
you had added your own regexps to this, you'll probably need to include a
leading `^', otherwise they'll match anywhere on a line.  There is now also a
`compilation-mode-font-lock-keywords' and it nicely handles all the checks
that configure outputs and -o options so you see at a glance where you are.

The new file etc/compilation.txt gives examples of each type of message.

*** New user option `compilation-environment'.
This option allows you to specify environment variables for inferior
compilation processes without affecting the environment that all
subprocesses inherit.

*** New user option `compilation-disable-input'.
If this is non-nil, send end-of-file as compilation process input.

*** New options `next-error-highlight' and `next-error-highlight-no-select'
specify the method of highlighting of the corresponding source line
in new face `next-error'.

*** A new minor mode `next-error-follow-minor-mode' can be used in
compilation-mode, grep-mode, occur-mode, and diff-mode (i.e. all the
modes that can use `next-error').  In this mode, cursor motion in the
buffer causes automatic display in another window of the corresponding
matches, compilation errors, etc.  This minor mode can be toggled with
C-c C-f.

*** When the left fringe is displayed, an arrow points to current message in
the compilation buffer.

*** The new variable `compilation-context-lines' controls lines of leading
context before the current message.  If nil and the left fringe is displayed,
it doesn't scroll the compilation output window.  If there is no left fringe,
no arrow is displayed and a value of nil means display the message at the top
of the window.

** Occur mode changes:

*** The new command `multi-occur' is just like `occur', except it can
search multiple buffers.  There is also a new command
`multi-occur-in-matching-buffers' which allows you to specify the
buffers to search by their filenames or buffer names.  Internally,
Occur mode has been rewritten, and now uses font-lock, among other

*** You can now use next-error (C-x `) and previous-error to advance to
the next/previous matching line found by M-x occur.

*** In the *Occur* buffer, `o' switches to it in another window, and
C-o displays the current line's occurrence in another window without
switching to it.

** Grep changes:

*** Grep has been decoupled from compilation mode setup.

There's a new separate package grep.el, with its own submenu and
customization group.

*** `grep-find' is now also available under the name `find-grep' where
people knowing `find-grep-dired' would probably expect it.

*** New commands `lgrep' (local grep) and `rgrep' (recursive grep) are
more user-friendly versions of `grep' and `grep-find', which prompt
separately for the regular expression to match, the files to search,
and the base directory for the search.  Case sensitivity of the
search is controlled by the current value of `case-fold-search'.

These commands build the shell commands based on the new variables
`grep-template' (lgrep) and `grep-find-template' (rgrep).

The files to search can use aliases defined in `grep-files-aliases'.

Subdirectories listed in `grep-find-ignored-directories' such as those
typically used by various version control systems, like CVS and arch,
are automatically skipped by `rgrep'.

*** The grep commands provide highlighting support.

Hits are fontified in green, and hits in binary files in orange.  Grep buffers
can be saved and automatically revisited.

*** New option `grep-highlight-matches' highlights matches in *grep*
buffer.  It uses a special feature of some grep programs which accept
--color option to output markers around matches.  When going to the next
match with `next-error' the exact match is highlighted in the source
buffer.  Otherwise, if `grep-highlight-matches' is nil, the whole
source line is highlighted.

*** New key bindings in grep output window:
SPC and DEL scrolls window up and down.  C-n and C-p moves to next and
previous match in the grep window.  RET jumps to the source line of
the current match.  `n' and `p' shows next and previous match in
other window, but does not switch buffer.  `{' and `}' jumps to the
previous or next file in the grep output.  TAB also jumps to the next

*** M-x grep now tries to avoid appending `/dev/null' to the command line
by using GNU grep `-H' option instead.  M-x grep automatically
detects whether this is possible or not the first time it is invoked.
When `-H' is used, the grep command line supplied by the user is passed
unchanged to the system to execute, which allows more complicated
command lines to be used than was possible before.

*** The new variables `grep-window-height' and `grep-scroll-output' override
the corresponding compilation mode settings, for grep commands only.

** Cursor display changes:

*** Emacs can produce an underscore-like (horizontal bar) cursor.
The underscore cursor is set by putting `(cursor-type . hbar)' in
default-frame-alist.  It supports variable heights, like the `bar'
cursor does.

*** The variable `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' can now be set to any
of the recognized cursor types.

*** Display of hollow cursors now obeys the buffer-local value (if any)
of `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' in the buffer that the cursor
appears in.

*** On text terminals, the variable `visible-cursor' controls whether Emacs
uses the "very visible" cursor (the default) or the normal cursor.

*** The X resource cursorBlink can be used to turn off cursor blinking.

*** On X, MS Windows, and Mac OS, the blinking cursor's "off" state is
now controlled by the variable `blink-cursor-alist'.

** X Windows Support:

*** Emacs now supports drag and drop for X.  Dropping a file on a window
opens it, dropping text inserts the text.  Dropping a file on a dired
buffer copies or moves the file to that directory.

*** Under X11, it is possible to swap Alt and Meta (and Super and Hyper).
The new variables `x-alt-keysym', `x-hyper-keysym', `x-meta-keysym',
and `x-super-keysym' can be used to choose which keysyms Emacs should
use for the modifiers.  For example, the following two lines swap
Meta and Alt:
    (setq x-alt-keysym 'meta)
    (setq x-meta-keysym 'alt)

*** The X resource useXIM can be used to turn off use of XIM, which can
speed up Emacs with slow networking to the X server.

If the configure option `--without-xim' was used to turn off use of
XIM by default, the X resource useXIM can be used to turn it on.

*** The new variable `x-select-request-type' controls how Emacs
requests X selection.  The default value is nil, which means that
Emacs requests X selection with types COMPOUND_TEXT and UTF8_STRING,
and use the more appropriately result.

*** The scrollbar under LessTif or Motif has a smoother drag-scrolling.
On the other hand, the size of the thumb does not represent the actual
amount of text shown any more (only a crude approximation of it).

** Xterm support:

*** If you enable Xterm Mouse mode, Emacs will respond to mouse clicks
on the mode line, header line and display margin, when run in an xterm.

*** Improved key bindings support when running in an xterm.
When Emacs is running in an xterm more key bindings are available.
The following should work:
These key bindings work on xterm from 6.8 (and later versions),
they might not work on some older versions of xterm, or on some
proprietary versions.
The various keys generated by xterm when the "modifyOtherKeys"
resource is set are also supported.

** Character terminal color support changes:

*** The new command-line option --color=MODE lets you specify a standard
mode for a tty color support.  It is meant to be used on character
terminals whose capabilities are not set correctly in the terminal
database, or with terminal emulators which support colors, but don't
set the TERM environment variable to a name of a color-capable
terminal.  "emacs --color" uses the same color commands as GNU `ls'
when invoked with "ls --color", so if your terminal can support colors
in "ls --color", it will support "emacs --color" as well.  See the
user manual for the possible values of the MODE parameter.

*** Emacs now supports several character terminals which provide more
than 8 colors.  For example, for `xterm', 16-color, 88-color, and
256-color modes are supported.  Emacs automatically notes at startup
the extended number of colors, and defines the appropriate entries for
all of these colors.

*** Emacs now uses the full range of available colors for the default
faces when running on a color terminal, including 16-, 88-, and
256-color xterms.  This means that when you run "emacs -nw" on an
88-color or 256-color xterm, you will see essentially the same face
colors as on X.

*** There's a new support for colors on `rxvt' terminal emulator.

** ebnf2ps changes:

*** New option `ebnf-arrow-extra-width' which specify extra width for arrow
shape drawing.
The extra width is used to avoid that the arrowhead and the terminal border
overlap.  It depends on `ebnf-arrow-shape' and `ebnf-line-width'.

*** New option `ebnf-arrow-scale' which specify the arrow scale.
Values lower than 1.0, shrink the arrow.
Values greater than 1.0, expand the arrow.
* New Modes and Packages in Emacs 22.1

** CUA mode is now part of the Emacs distribution.

The new cua package provides CUA-like keybindings using C-x for
cut (kill), C-c for copy, C-v for paste (yank), and C-z for undo.
With cua, the region can be set and extended using shifted movement
keys (like pc-selection-mode) and typed text replaces the active
region (like delete-selection-mode).  Do not enable these modes with
cua-mode.  Customize the variable `cua-mode' to enable cua.

The cua-selection-mode enables the CUA keybindings for the region but
does not change the bindings for C-z/C-x/C-c/C-v. It can be used as a
replacement for pc-selection-mode.

In addition, cua provides unified rectangle support with visible
rectangle highlighting: Use C-return to start a rectangle, extend it
using the movement commands (or mouse-3), and cut or copy it using C-x
or C-c (using C-w and M-w also works).

Use M-o and M-c to `open' or `close' the rectangle, use M-b or M-f, to
fill it with blanks or another character, use M-u or M-l to upcase or
downcase the rectangle, use M-i to increment the numbers in the
rectangle, use M-n to fill the rectangle with a numeric sequence (such
as 10 20 30...), use M-r to replace a regexp in the rectangle, and use
M-' or M-/ to restrict command on the rectangle to a subset of the
rows.  See the commentary in cua-base.el for more rectangle commands.

Cua also provides unified support for registers:  Use a numeric
prefix argument between 0 and 9, i.e. M-0 .. M-9, for C-x, C-c, and
C-v to cut or copy into register 0-9, or paste from register 0-9.

The last text deleted (not killed) is automatically stored in
register 0.  This includes text deleted by typing text.

Finally, cua provides a global mark which is set using S-C-space.
When the global mark is active, any text which is cut or copied is
automatically inserted at the global mark position.  See the
commentary in cua-base.el for more global mark related commands.

The features of cua also works with the standard Emacs bindings for
kill, copy, yank, and undo.  If you want to use cua mode, but don't
want the C-x, C-c, C-v, and C-z bindings, you can customize the
`cua-enable-cua-keys' variable.

Note: This version of cua mode is not backwards compatible with older
versions of cua.el and cua-mode.el.  To ensure proper operation, you
must remove older versions of cua.el or cua-mode.el as well as the
loading and customization of those packages from the .emacs file.

** Tramp is now part of the distribution.

This package is similar to Ange-FTP: it allows you to edit remote
files.  But whereas Ange-FTP uses FTP to access the remote host,
Tramp uses a shell connection.  The shell connection is always used
for filename completion and directory listings and suchlike, but for
the actual file transfer, you can choose between the so-called
`inline' methods (which transfer the files through the shell
connection using base64 or uu encoding) and the `out-of-band' methods
(which invoke an external copying program such as `rcp' or `scp' or
`rsync' to do the copying).

Shell connections can be acquired via `rsh', `ssh', `telnet' and also
`su' and `sudo'.  Ange-FTP is still supported via the `ftp' method.

If you want to disable Tramp you should set

  (setq tramp-default-method "ftp")

Removing Tramp, and re-enabling Ange-FTP, can be achieved by M-x

** The image-dired.el package allows you to easily view, tag and in
other ways manipulate image files and their thumbnails, using dired as
the main interface.  Image-Dired provides functionality to generate
simple image galleries.

** Image files are normally visited in Image mode, which lets you toggle
between viewing the image and viewing the text using C-c C-c.

** The new python.el package is used to edit Python and Jython programs.

** The URL package (which had been part of W3) is now part of Emacs.

** Calc is now part of the Emacs distribution.

Calc is an advanced desk calculator and mathematical tool written in
Emacs Lisp.  The prefix for Calc has been changed to `C-x *' and Calc
can be started with `C-x * *'.  The Calc manual is separate from the
Emacs manual; within Emacs, type "C-h i m calc RET" to read the
manual.  A reference card is available in `etc/calccard.tex' and

** Org mode is now part of the Emacs distribution

Org mode is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining ToDo lists, and
doing project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.
It also contains a plain-text table editor with spreadsheet-like

The Org mode table editor can be integrated into any major mode by
activating the minor Orgtbl-mode.

The documentation for org-mode is in a separate manual; within Emacs,
type "C-h i m org RET" to read that manual.  A reference card is
available in `etc/orgcard.tex' and `etc/'.

** ERC is now part of the Emacs distribution.

ERC is a powerful, modular, and extensible IRC client for Emacs.

To see what modules are available, type
M-x customize-option erc-modules RET.

To start an IRC session with ERC, type M-x erc, and follow the prompts
for server, port, and nick.

** Rcirc is now part of the Emacs distribution.

Rcirc is an Internet relay chat (IRC) client.  It supports
simultaneous connections to multiple IRC servers.  Each discussion
takes place in its own buffer.  For each connection you can join
several channels (many-to-many) and participate in private
(one-to-one) chats.  Both channel and private chats are contained in
separate buffers.

To start an IRC session using the default parameters, type M-x irc.
If you type C-u M-x irc, it prompts you for the server, nick, port and
startup channel parameters before connecting.

** The new package ibuffer provides a powerful, completely
customizable replacement for buff-menu.el.

** Newsticker is now part of the Emacs distribution.

Newsticker asynchronously retrieves headlines (RSS) from a list of news
sites, prepares these headlines for reading, and allows for loading the
corresponding articles in a web browser.  Its documentation is in a
separate manual.

** The wdired.el package allows you to use normal editing commands on Dired
buffers to change filenames, permissions, etc...

** Ido mode is now part of the Emacs distribution.

The ido (interactively do) package is an extension of the iswitchb
package to do interactive opening of files and directories in addition
to interactive buffer switching.  Ido is a superset of iswitchb (with
a few exceptions), so don't enable both packages.

** The new global minor mode `file-name-shadow-mode' modifies the way
filenames being entered by the user in the minibuffer are displayed, so
that it's clear when part of the entered filename will be ignored due to
Emacs' filename parsing rules.  The ignored portion can be made dim,
invisible, or otherwise less visually noticeable.  The display method can
be displayed by customizing the variable `file-name-shadow-properties'.

** Emacs' keyboard macro facilities have been enhanced by the new
kmacro package.

Keyboard macros are now defined and executed via the F3 and F4 keys:
F3 starts a macro, F4 ends the macro, and pressing F4 again executes
the last macro.  While defining the macro, F3 inserts a counter value
which automatically increments every time the macro is executed.

There is now a keyboard macro ring which stores the most recently
defined macros.

The C-x C-k sequence is now a prefix for the kmacro keymap which
defines bindings for moving through the keyboard macro ring,
C-x C-k C-p and C-x C-k C-n, editing the last macro C-x C-k C-e,
manipulating the macro counter and format via C-x C-k C-c,
C-x C-k C-a, and C-x C-k C-f.  See the commentary in kmacro.el
for more commands.

The original macro bindings C-x (, C-x ), and C-x e are still
available, but they now interface to the keyboard macro ring too.

The C-x e command now automatically terminates the current macro
before calling it, if used while defining a macro.

In addition, when ending or calling a macro with C-x e, the macro can
be repeated immediately by typing just the `e'.  You can customize
this behavior via the variables kmacro-call-repeat-key and

Keyboard macros can now be debugged and edited interactively.
C-x C-k SPC steps through the last keyboard macro one key sequence
at a time, prompting for the actions to take.

** The new keypad setup package provides several common bindings for
the numeric keypad which is available on most keyboards.  The numeric
keypad typically has the digits 0 to 9, a decimal point, keys marked
+, -, /, and *, an Enter key, and a NumLock toggle key.  The keypad
package only controls the use of the digit and decimal keys.

By customizing the variables `keypad-setup', `keypad-shifted-setup',
`keypad-numlock-setup', and `keypad-numlock-shifted-setup', or by
using the function `keypad-setup', you can rebind all digit keys and
the decimal key of the keypad in one step for each of the four
possible combinations of the Shift key state (not pressed/pressed) and
the NumLock toggle state (off/on).

The choices for the keypad keys in each of the above states are:
`Plain numeric keypad' where the keys generates plain digits,
`Numeric keypad with decimal key' where the character produced by the
decimal key can be customized individually (for internationalization),
`Numeric Prefix Arg' where the keypad keys produce numeric prefix args
for Emacs editing commands, `Cursor keys' and `Shifted Cursor keys'
where the keys work like (shifted) arrow keys, home/end, etc., and
`Unspecified/User-defined' where the keypad keys (kp-0, kp-1, etc.)
are left unspecified and can be bound individually through the global
or local keymaps.

** The printing package is now part of the Emacs distribution.

If you enable the printing package by including (require 'printing) in
the .emacs file, the normal Print item on the File menu is replaced
with a Print sub-menu which allows you to preview output through
ghostview, use ghostscript to print (if you don't have a PostScript
printer) or send directly to printer a PostScript code generated by
`ps-print' package.  Use M-x pr-help for more information.

** The new package longlines.el provides a minor mode for editing text
files composed of long lines, based on the `use-hard-newlines'
mechanism.  The long lines are broken up by inserting soft newlines,
which are automatically removed when saving the file to disk or
copying into the kill ring, clipboard, etc.  By default, Longlines
mode inserts soft newlines automatically during editing, a behavior
referred to as "soft word wrap" in other text editors.  This is
similar to Refill mode, but more reliable.  To turn the word wrap
feature off, set `longlines-auto-wrap' to nil.

** SES mode (ses-mode) is a new major mode for creating and editing
spreadsheet files.  Besides the usual Emacs features (intuitive command
letters, undo, cell formulas in Lisp, plaintext files, etc.) it also offers
viral immunity and import/export of tab-separated values.

** The new package table.el implements editable, WYSIWYG, embedded
`text tables' in Emacs buffers.  It simulates the effect of putting
these tables in a special major mode.  The package emulates WYSIWYG
table editing available in modern word processors.  The package also
can generate a table source in typesetting and markup languages such
as latex and html from the visually laid out text table.

** Filesets are collections of files.  You can define a fileset in
various ways, such as based on a directory tree or based on
program files that include other program files.

Once you have defined a fileset, you can perform various operations on
all the files in it, such as visiting them or searching and replacing
in them.

** The minor mode Reveal mode makes text visible on the fly as you
move your cursor into hidden regions of the buffer.
It should work with any package that uses overlays to hide parts
of a buffer, such as outline-minor-mode, hs-minor-mode, hide-ifdef-mode, ...

There is also Global Reveal mode which affects all buffers.

** New minor mode, Visible mode, toggles invisibility in the current buffer.
When enabled, it makes all invisible text visible.  When disabled, it
restores the previous value of `buffer-invisibility-spec'.

** The new package flymake.el does on-the-fly syntax checking of program
source files.  See the Flymake's Info manual for more details.

** savehist saves minibuffer histories between sessions.
To use this feature, turn on savehist-mode in your `.emacs' file.

** The ruler-mode.el library provides a minor mode for displaying an
"active" ruler in the header line.  You can use the mouse to visually
change the `fill-column', `window-margins' and `tab-stop-list'

** The file t-mouse.el is now part of Emacs and provides access to mouse
events from the console.  It still requires gpm to work but has been updated
for Emacs 22.  In particular, the mode-line is now position sensitive.

** The new package scroll-lock.el provides the Scroll Lock minor mode
for pager-like scrolling.  Keys which normally move point by line or
paragraph will scroll the buffer by the respective amount of lines
instead and point will be kept vertically fixed relative to window
boundaries during scrolling.

** The new global minor mode `size-indication-mode' (off by default)
shows the size of accessible part of the buffer on the mode line.

** The new package conf-mode.el handles thousands of configuration files, with
varying syntaxes for comments (;, #, //, /* */ or !), assignment (var = value,
var : value, var value or keyword var value) and sections ([section] or
section { }).  Many files under /etc/, or with suffixes like .cf through
.config, .properties (Java), .desktop (KDE/Gnome), .ini and many others are

** GDB-Script-mode is used for files like .gdbinit.

** The new package dns-mode.el adds syntax highlighting of DNS master files.
It is a modern replacement for zone-mode.el, which is now obsolete.

** `cfengine-mode' is a major mode for editing GNU Cfengine
configuration files.

** The TCL package tcl-mode.el was replaced by tcl.el.
This was actually done in Emacs-21.1, and was not documented.
* Changes in Specialized Modes and Packages in Emacs 22.1:

** Changes in Dired

*** Bindings for Image-Dired added.
Several new keybindings, all starting with the C-t prefix, have been
added to Dired.  They are all bound to commands in Image-Dired.  As a
starting point, mark some image files in a dired buffer and do C-t d
to display thumbnails of them in a separate buffer.

** Info mode changes

*** Images in Info pages are supported.

Info pages show embedded images, in Emacs frames with image support.
Info documentation that includes images, processed with makeinfo
version 4.7 or newer, compiles to Info pages with embedded images.

*** `Info-index' offers completion.

*** http and ftp links in Info are now operational: they look like cross
references and following them calls `browse-url'.

*** isearch in Info uses Info-search and searches through multiple nodes.

Before leaving the initial Info node isearch fails once with the error
message [initial node], and with subsequent C-s/C-r continues through
other nodes.  When isearch fails for the rest of the manual, it wraps
around the whole manual to the top/final node.  The user option
`Info-isearch-search' controls whether to use Info-search for isearch,
or the default isearch search function that wraps around the current
Info node.

*** New search commands: `Info-search-case-sensitively' (bound to S),
`Info-search-backward', and `Info-search-next' which repeats the last
search without prompting for a new search string.

*** New command `info-apropos' searches the indices of the known
Info files on your system for a string, and builds a menu of the
possible matches.

*** New command `Info-history-forward' (bound to r and new toolbar icon)
moves forward in history to the node you returned from after using
`Info-history-back' (renamed from `Info-last').

*** New command `Info-history' (bound to L) displays a menu of visited nodes.

*** New command `Info-toc' (bound to T) creates a node with table of contents
from the tree structure of menus of the current Info file.

*** New command `Info-copy-current-node-name' (bound to w) copies
the current Info node name into the kill ring.  With a zero prefix
arg, puts the node name inside the `info' function call.

*** New face `info-xref-visited' distinguishes visited nodes from unvisited
and a new option `Info-fontify-visited-nodes' to control this.

*** A numeric prefix argument of `info' selects an Info buffer
with the number appended to the `*info*' buffer name (e.g. "*info*<2>").

*** Info now hides node names in menus and cross references by default.

If you prefer the old behavior, you can set the new user option
`Info-hide-note-references' to nil.

*** The default value for `Info-scroll-prefer-subnodes' is now nil.

** Emacs server changes

*** You can have several Emacs servers on the same machine.

	% emacs --eval '(setq server-name "foo")' -f server-start &
	% emacs --eval '(setq server-name "bar")' -f server-start &
	% emacsclient -s foo file1
	% emacsclient -s bar file2

*** The `emacsclient' command understands the options `--eval' and
`--display' which tell Emacs respectively to evaluate the given Lisp
expression and to use the given display when visiting files.

*** User option `server-mode' can be used to start a server process.

** Locate changes

*** By default, reverting the *Locate* buffer now just runs the last
`locate' command back over again without offering to update the locate
database (which normally only works if you have root privileges).  If
you prefer the old behavior, set the new customizable option
`locate-update-when-revert' to t.

** Desktop package

*** Desktop saving is now a minor mode, `desktop-save-mode'.

*** The variable `desktop-enable' is obsolete.

Customize `desktop-save-mode' to enable desktop saving.

*** Buffers are saved in the desktop file in the same order as that in the
buffer list.

*** The desktop package can be customized to restore only some buffers
immediately, remaining buffers are restored lazily (when Emacs is

*** New command line option --no-desktop

*** New commands:
  - desktop-revert reverts to the last loaded desktop.
  - desktop-change-dir kills current desktop and loads a new.
  - desktop-save-in-desktop-dir saves desktop in the directory from which
    it was loaded.
  - desktop-lazy-complete runs the desktop load to completion.
  - desktop-lazy-abort aborts lazy loading of the desktop.

*** New customizable variables:
  - desktop-save. Determines whether the desktop should be saved when it is
  - desktop-file-name-format. Format in which desktop file names should be saved.
  - desktop-path. List of directories in which to lookup the desktop file.
  - desktop-locals-to-save. List of local variables to save.
  - desktop-globals-to-clear. List of global variables that `desktop-clear' will clear.
  - desktop-clear-preserve-buffers-regexp. Regexp identifying buffers that `desktop-clear'
    should not delete.
  - desktop-restore-eager. Number of buffers to restore immediately. Remaining buffers are
    restored lazily (when Emacs is idle).
  - desktop-lazy-verbose. Verbose reporting of lazily created buffers.
  - desktop-lazy-idle-delay. Idle delay before starting to create buffers.

*** New hooks:
  - desktop-after-read-hook run after a desktop is loaded.
  - desktop-no-desktop-file-hook run when no desktop file is found.

** Recentf changes

The recent file list is now automatically cleaned up when recentf mode is
enabled.  The new option `recentf-auto-cleanup' controls when to do
automatic cleanup.

The ten most recent files can be quickly opened by using the shortcut
keys 1 to 9, and 0, when the recent list is displayed in a buffer via
the `recentf-open-files', or `recentf-open-more-files' commands.

The `recentf-keep' option replaces `recentf-keep-non-readable-files-p'
and provides a more general mechanism to customize which file names to
keep in the recent list.

With the more advanced option `recentf-filename-handlers', you can
specify functions that successively transform recent file names.  For
example, if set to `file-truename' plus `abbreviate-file-name', the
same file will not be in the recent list with different symbolic
links, and the file name will be abbreviated.

To follow naming convention, `recentf-menu-append-commands-flag'
replaces the misnamed option `recentf-menu-append-commands-p'.  The
old name remains available as alias, but has been marked obsolete.

** Auto-Revert changes

*** You can now use Auto Revert mode to `tail' a file.

If point is at the end of a file buffer before reverting, Auto Revert
mode keeps it at the end after reverting.  Similarly if point is
displayed at the end of a file buffer in any window, it stays at the
end of the buffer in that window.  This allows you to "tail" a file:
just put point at the end of the buffer and it stays there.  This rule
applies to file buffers.  For non-file buffers, the behavior can be
mode dependent.

If you are sure that the file will only change by growing at the end,
then you can tail the file more efficiently by using the new minor
mode Auto Revert Tail mode.  The function `auto-revert-tail-mode'
toggles this mode.

*** Auto Revert mode is now more careful to avoid excessive reverts and
other potential problems when deciding which non-file buffers to
revert.  This matters especially if Global Auto Revert mode is enabled
and `global-auto-revert-non-file-buffers' is non-nil.  Auto Revert
mode only reverts a non-file buffer if the buffer has a non-nil
`revert-buffer-function' and a non-nil `buffer-stale-function', which
decides whether the buffer should be reverted.  Currently, this means
that auto reverting works for Dired buffers (although this may not
work properly on all operating systems) and for the Buffer Menu.

*** If the new user option `auto-revert-check-vc-info' is non-nil, Auto
Revert mode reliably updates version control info (such as the version
control number in the mode line), in all version controlled buffers in
which it is active.  If the option is nil, the default, then this info
only gets updated whenever the buffer gets reverted.

** Changes in Shell Mode

*** Shell output normally scrolls so that the input line is at the
bottom of the window -- thus showing the maximum possible text.  (This
is similar to the way sequential output to a terminal works.)

** Changes in Hi Lock

*** hi-lock-mode now only affects a single buffer, and a new function
`global-hi-lock-mode' enables Hi Lock in all buffers.  By default, if
hi-lock-mode is used in what appears to be the initialization file, a
warning message suggests to use global-hi-lock-mode instead.  However,
if the new variable `hi-lock-archaic-interface-deduce' is non-nil,
using hi-lock-mode in an initialization file will turn on Hi Lock in all
buffers and no warning will be issued (for compatibility with the
behavior in older versions of Emacs).

** Changes in Allout

*** Topic cryptography added, enabling easy gpg topic encryption and
decryption.  Per-topic basis enables interspersing encrypted-text and
clear-text within a single file to your heart's content, using symmetric
and/or public key modes.  Time-limited key caching, user-provided
symmetric key hinting and consistency verification, auto-encryption of
pending topics on save, and more, make it easy to use encryption in
powerful ways.  Encryption behavior customization is collected in the
allout-encryption customization group.

*** Default command prefix was changed to "\C-c " (control-c space), to
avoid intruding on user's keybinding space.  Customize the
`allout-command-prefix' variable to your preference.

*** Some previously rough topic-header format edge cases are reconciled.
Level 1 topics use the mode's comment format, and lines starting with the
asterisk - for instance, the comment close of some languages (eg, c's "*/"
or mathematica's "*)") - at the beginning of line are no longer are
interpreted as level 1 topics in those modes.

*** Many or most commonly occurring "accidental" topics are disqualified.
Text in item bodies that looks like a low-depth topic is no longer mistaken
for one unless its first offspring (or that of its next sibling with
offspring) is only one level deeper.

For example, pasting some text with a bunch of leading asterisks into a
topic that's followed by a level 3 or deeper topic will not cause the
pasted text to be mistaken for outline structure.

The same constraint is applied to any level 2 or 3 topics.

This settles an old issue where typed or pasted text needed to be carefully
reviewed, and sometimes doctored, to avoid accidentally disrupting the
outline structure.  Now that should be generally unnecessary, as the most
prone-to-occur accidents are disqualified.

*** Allout now refuses to create "containment discontinuities", where a
topic is shifted deeper than the offspring-depth of its container.  On the
other hand, allout now operates gracefully with existing containment
discontinuities, revealing excessively contained topics rather than either
leaving them hidden or raising an error.

*** Navigation within an item is easier.  Repeated beginning-of-line and
end-of-line key commands (usually, ^A and ^E) cycle through the
beginning/end-of-line and then beginning/end of topic, etc.  See new
customization vars `allout-beginning-of-line-cycles' and

*** New or revised allout-mode activity hooks enable creation of
cooperative enhancements to allout mode without changes to the mode,

See `allout-exposure-change-hook', `allout-structure-added-hook',
`allout-structure-deleted-hook', and `allout-structure-shifted-hook'.

`allout-exposure-change-hook' replaces the existing
`allout-view-change-hook', which is being deprecated.  Both are still
invoked, but `allout-view-change-hook' will eventually be ignored.
`allout-exposure-change-hook' is called with explicit arguments detailing
the specifics of each change (as are the other new hooks), making it easier
to use than the old version.

There is a new mode deactivation hook, `allout-mode-deactivate-hook', for
coordinating with deactivation of allout-mode.  Both that and the mode
activation hook, `allout-mode-hook' are now run after the `allout-mode'
variable is changed, rather than before.

*** Allout now uses text overlay's `invisible' property for concealed text,
instead of selective-display.  This simplifies the code, in particular
avoiding the need for kludges for isearch dynamic-display, discretionary
handling of edits of concealed text, undo concerns, etc.

*** There are many other fixes and refinements, including:

   - repaired inhibition of inadvertent edits to concealed text, without
     inhibiting undo; we now reveal undo changes within concealed text.
   - auto-fill-mode is now left inactive when allout-mode starts, if it
     already was inactive.  also, `allout-inhibit-auto-fill' custom
     configuration variable makes it easy to disable auto fill in allout
     outlines in general or on a per-buffer basis.
   - allout now tolerates fielded text in outlines without disruption.
   - hot-spot navigation now is modularized with a new function,
     `allout-hotspot-key-handler', enabling easier use and enhancement of
     the functionality in allout addons.
   - repaired retention of topic body hanging indent upon topic depth shifts
   - bulleting variation is simpler and more accommodating, both in the
     default behavior and in ability to vary when creating new topics
   - mode deactivation now does cleans up effectively, more properly
     restoring affected variables and hooks to former state, removing
     overlays, etc.  see `allout-add-resumptions' and
     `allout-do-resumptions', which replace the old `allout-resumptions'.
   - included a few unit-tests for interior functionality.  developers can
     have them automatically run at the end of module load by customizing
     the option `allout-run-unit-tests-on-load'.
   - many, many other, more minor tweaks, fixes, and refinements.
   - version number incremented to 2.2

** Hideshow mode changes

*** New variable `hs-set-up-overlay' allows customization of the overlay
used to effect hiding for hideshow minor mode.  Integration with isearch
handles the overlay property `display' specially, preserving it during
temporary overlay showing in the course of an isearch operation.

*** New variable `hs-allow-nesting' non-nil means that hiding a block does
not discard the hidden state of any "internal" blocks; when the parent
block is later shown, the internal blocks remain hidden.  Default is nil.

** FFAP changes

*** New ffap commands and keybindings:

C-x C-r (`ffap-read-only'),
C-x C-v (`ffap-alternate-file'), C-x C-d (`ffap-list-directory'),
C-x 4 r (`ffap-read-only-other-window'), C-x 4 d (`ffap-dired-other-window'),
C-x 5 r (`ffap-read-only-other-frame'), C-x 5 d (`ffap-dired-other-frame').

*** FFAP accepts wildcards in a file name by default.

C-x C-f passes the file name to `find-file' with non-nil WILDCARDS
argument, which visits multiple files, and C-x d passes it to `dired'.

** Changes in Skeleton

*** In skeleton.el, `-' marks the `skeleton-point' without interregion interaction.

`@' has reverted to only setting `skeleton-positions' and no longer
sets `skeleton-point'.  Skeletons which used @ to mark
`skeleton-point' independent of `_' should now use `-' instead.  The
updated `skeleton-insert' docstring explains these new features along
with other details of skeleton construction.

*** The variables `skeleton-transformation', `skeleton-filter', and
`skeleton-pair-filter' have been renamed to
`skeleton-transformation-function', `skeleton-filter-function', and
`skeleton-pair-filter-function'.  The old names are still available
as aliases.

** HTML/SGML changes

*** Emacs now tries to set up buffer coding systems for HTML/XML files

*** SGML mode has indentation and supports XML syntax.
The new variable `sgml-xml-mode' tells SGML mode to use XML syntax.
When this option is enabled, SGML tags are inserted in XML style,
i.e., there is always a closing tag.
By default, its setting is inferred on a buffer-by-buffer basis
from the file name or buffer contents.

*** The variable `sgml-transformation' has been renamed to
`sgml-transformation-function'.  The old name is still available as

*** `xml-mode' is now an alias for `sgml-mode', which has XML support.

** TeX modes

*** New major mode Doctex mode, for *.dtx files.

*** C-c C-c prompts for a command to run, and tries to offer a good default.

*** The user option `tex-start-options-string' has been replaced
by two new user options: `tex-start-options', which should hold
command-line options to feed to TeX, and `tex-start-commands' which should hold
TeX commands to use at startup.

*** verbatim environments are now highlighted in courier by font-lock
and super/sub-scripts are made into super/sub-scripts.

** RefTeX mode changes

*** Changes to RefTeX's table of contents

The new command keys "<" and ">" in the TOC buffer promote/demote the
section at point or all sections in the current region, with full
support for multifile documents.

The new command `reftex-toc-recenter' (`C-c -') shows the current
section in the TOC buffer without selecting the TOC window.
Recentering can happen automatically in idle time when the option
`reftex-auto-recenter-toc' is turned on.  The highlight in the TOC
buffer stays when the focus moves to a different window.  A dedicated
frame can show the TOC with the current section always automatically
highlighted.  The frame is created and deleted from the toc buffer
with the `d' key.

The toc window can be split off horizontally instead of vertically.
See new option `reftex-toc-split-windows-horizontally'.

Labels can be renamed globally from the table of contents using the
key `M-%'.

The new command `reftex-goto-label' jumps directly to a label

*** Changes related to citations and BibTeX database files

Commands that insert a citation now prompt for optional arguments when
called with a prefix argument.  Related new options are
`reftex-cite-prompt-optional-args' and `reftex-cite-cleanup-optional-args'.

The new command `reftex-create-bibtex-file' creates a BibTeX database
with all entries referenced in the current document.  The keys "e" and
"E" allow to produce a BibTeX database file from entries marked in a
citation selection buffer.

The command `reftex-citation' uses the word in the buffer before the
cursor as a default search string.

The support for chapterbib has been improved.  Different chapters can
now use BibTeX or an explicit `thebibliography' environment.

The macros which specify the bibliography file (like \bibliography)
can be configured with the new option `reftex-bibliography-commands'.

Support for jurabib has been added.

*** Global index matched may be verified with a user function.

During global indexing, a user function can verify an index match.
See new option `reftex-index-verify-function'.

*** Parsing documents with many labels can be sped up.

Operating in a document with thousands of labels can be sped up
considerably by allowing RefTeX to derive the type of a label directly
from the label prefix like `eq:' or `fig:'.  The option
`reftex-trust-label-prefix' needs to be configured in order to enable
this feature.  While the speed-up is significant, this may reduce the
quality of the context offered by RefTeX to describe a label.

*** Miscellaneous changes

The macros which input a file in LaTeX (like \input, \include) can be
configured in the new option `reftex-include-file-commands'.

RefTeX supports global incremental search.

** BibTeX mode

*** The new command `bibtex-url' browses a URL for the BibTeX entry at
point (bound to C-c C-l and mouse-2, RET on clickable fields).

*** The new command `bibtex-entry-update' (bound to C-c C-u) updates
an existing BibTeX entry by inserting fields that may occur but are not

*** New `bibtex-entry-format' option `required-fields', enabled by default.

*** `bibtex-maintain-sorted-entries' can take values `plain',
`crossref', and `entry-class' which control the sorting scheme used
for BibTeX entries.  `bibtex-sort-entry-class' controls the sorting
scheme `entry-class'.  TAB completion for reference keys and
automatic detection of duplicates does not require anymore that
`bibtex-maintain-sorted-entries' is non-nil.

*** The new command `bibtex-complete' completes word fragment before
point according to context (bound to M-tab).

*** In BibTeX mode the command `fill-paragraph' (M-q) fills
individual fields of a BibTeX entry.

*** The new variable `bibtex-autofill-types' contains a list of entry
types for which fields are filled automatically (if possible).

*** The new commands `bibtex-find-entry' and `bibtex-find-crossref'
locate entries and crossref'd entries (bound to C-c C-s and C-c C-x).
Crossref fields are clickable (bound to mouse-2, RET).

*** The new variables `bibtex-files' and `bibtex-file-path' define a set
of BibTeX files that are searched for entry keys.

*** The new command `bibtex-validate-globally' checks for duplicate keys
in multiple BibTeX files.

*** If the new variable `bibtex-autoadd-commas' is non-nil,
automatically add missing commas at end of BibTeX fields.

*** The new command `bibtex-copy-summary-as-kill' pushes summary
of BibTeX entry to kill ring (bound to C-c C-t).

*** If the new variable `bibtex-parse-keys-fast' is non-nil,
use fast but simplified algorithm for parsing BibTeX keys.

*** The new variables bibtex-expand-strings and
bibtex-autokey-expand-strings control the expansion of strings when
extracting the content of a BibTeX field.

*** The variables `bibtex-autokey-name-case-convert' and
`bibtex-autokey-titleword-case-convert' have been renamed to
`bibtex-autokey-name-case-convert-function' and
`bibtex-autokey-titleword-case-convert-function'.  The old names are
still available as aliases.

** GUD changes

*** The new package gdb-ui.el provides an enhanced graphical interface to
GDB.  You can interact with GDB through the GUD buffer in the usual way, but
there are also further buffers which control the execution and describe the
state of your program.  It can separate the input/output of your program from
that of GDB and watches expressions in the speedbar.  It also uses features of
Emacs 21/22 such as the toolbar, and bitmaps in the fringe to indicate

To use this package just type M-x gdb.  See the Emacs manual if you want the
old behaviour.

*** GUD mode has its own tool bar for controlling execution of the inferior
and other common debugger commands.

*** In GUD mode, when talking to GDB, C-x C-a C-j "jumps" the program
counter to the specified source line (the one where point is).

*** The variable tooltip-gud-tips-p has been removed.  GUD tooltips can now be
toggled independently of normal tooltips with the minor mode

*** In graphical mode, with a C program, GUD Tooltips have been extended to
display the #define directive associated with an identifier when program is
not executing.

*** GUD mode improvements for jdb:

**** Search for source files using jdb classpath and class information.
Fast startup since there is no need to scan all source files up front.
There is also no need to create and maintain lists of source
directories to scan.  Look at `gud-jdb-use-classpath' and
`gud-jdb-classpath' customization variables documentation.

**** The previous method of searching for source files has been
preserved in case someone still wants/needs to use it.
Set `gud-jdb-use-classpath' to nil.

**** Supports the standard breakpoint (gud-break, gud-clear)
set/clear operations from Java source files under the classpath, stack
traversal (gud-up, gud-down), and run until current stack finish

**** Supports new jdb (Java 1.2 and later) in addition to oldjdb
(Java 1.1 jdb).

*** Added jdb Customization Variables

**** `gud-jdb-command-name'.  What command line to use to invoke jdb.

**** `gud-jdb-use-classpath'.  Allows selection of java source file searching
method: set to t for new method, nil to scan `gud-jdb-directories' for
java sources (previous method).

**** `gud-jdb-directories'.  List of directories to scan and search for Java
classes using the original gud-jdb method (if `gud-jdb-use-classpath'
is nil).

*** Minor Improvements

**** The STARTTLS wrapper (starttls.el) can now use GNUTLS
instead of the OpenSSL based `starttls' tool.  For backwards
compatibility, it prefers `starttls', but you can toggle
`starttls-use-gnutls' to switch to GNUTLS (or simply remove the
`starttls' tool).

**** Do not allow debugger output history variable to grow without bounds.

** Lisp mode changes

*** Lisp mode now uses `font-lock-doc-face' for doc strings.

*** C-u C-M-q in Emacs Lisp mode pretty-prints the list after point.

*** New features in evaluation commands

**** The function `eval-defun' (C-M-x) called on defface reinitializes
the face to the value specified in the defface expression.

**** Typing C-x C-e twice prints the value of the integer result
in additional formats (octal, hexadecimal, character) specified
by the new function `eval-expression-print-format'.  The same
function also defines the result format for `eval-expression' (M-:),
`eval-print-last-sexp' (C-j) and some edebug evaluation functions.

** Changes to cmuscheme

*** Emacs now offers to start Scheme if the user tries to
evaluate a Scheme expression but no Scheme subprocess is running.

*** If the file ~/.emacs_NAME or ~/.emacs.d/init_NAME.scm (where NAME
is the name of the Scheme interpreter) exists, its contents are sent
to the Scheme subprocess upon startup.

*** There are new commands to instruct the Scheme interpreter to trace
procedure calls (`scheme-trace-procedure') and to expand syntactic forms
(`scheme-expand-current-form').  The commands actually sent to the Scheme
subprocess are controlled by the user options `scheme-trace-command',
`scheme-untrace-command' and `scheme-expand-current-form'.

** Ewoc changes

*** The new function `ewoc-delete' deletes specified nodes.

*** `ewoc-create' now takes optional arg NOSEP, which inhibits insertion of
a newline after each pretty-printed entry and after the header and footer.
This allows you to create multiple-entry ewocs on a single line and to
effect "invisible" nodes by arranging for the pretty-printer to not print
anything for those nodes.

For example, these two sequences of expressions behave identically:

;; NOSEP nil
(defun PP (data) (insert (format "%S" data)))
(ewoc-create 'PP "start\n")

;; NOSEP t
(defun PP (data) (insert (format "%S\n" data)))
(ewoc-create 'PP "start\n\n" "\n" t)

** CC mode changes

*** The CC Mode manual has been extensively revised.
The information about using CC Mode has been separated from the larger
and more difficult chapters about configuration.

*** New Minor Modes
**** Electric Minor Mode toggles the electric action of non-alphabetic keys.
The new command c-toggle-electric-mode is bound to C-c C-l.  Turning the
mode off can be helpful for editing chaotically indented code and for
users new to CC Mode, who sometimes find electric indentation
disconcerting.  Its current state is displayed in the mode line with an
'l', e.g. "C/al".

**** Subword Minor Mode makes Emacs recognize word boundaries at upper case
letters in StudlyCapsIdentifiers.  You enable this feature by C-c C-w.  It can
also be used in non-CC Mode buffers.  :-) Contributed by Masatake YAMATO.

*** Support for the AWK language.
Support for the AWK language has been introduced.  The implementation is
based around GNU AWK version 3.1, but it should work pretty well with
any AWK.  As yet, not all features of CC Mode have been adapted for AWK.
Here is a summary:

**** Indentation Engine
The CC Mode indentation engine fully supports AWK mode.

AWK mode handles code formatted in the conventional AWK fashion: `{'s
which start actions, user-defined functions, or compound statements are
placed on the same line as the associated construct; the matching `}'s
are normally placed under the start of the respective pattern, function
definition, or structured statement.

The predefined line-up functions haven't yet been adapted for AWK
mode, though some of them may work serendipitously.  There shouldn't
be any problems writing custom indentation functions for AWK mode.

**** Font Locking
There is a single level of font locking in AWK mode, rather than the
three distinct levels the other modes have.  There are several
idiosyncrasies in AWK mode's font-locking due to the peculiarities of
the AWK language itself.

**** Comment and Movement Commands
These commands all work for AWK buffers.  The notion of "defun" has
been augmented to include AWK pattern-action pairs - the standard
"defun" commands on key sequences C-M-a, C-M-e, and C-M-h use this
extended definition.

**** "awk" style, Auto-newline Insertion and Clean-ups
A new style, "awk" has been introduced, and this is now the default
style for AWK code.  With auto-newline enabled, the clean-up
c-one-liner-defun (see above) is useful.

*** Font lock support.
CC Mode now provides font lock support for all its languages.  This
supersedes the font lock patterns that have been in the core font lock
package for C, C++, Java and Objective-C.  Like indentation, font
locking is done in a uniform way across all languages (except the new
AWK mode - see below).  That means that the new font locking will be
different from the old patterns in various details for most languages.

The main goal of the font locking in CC Mode is accuracy, to provide a
dependable aid in recognizing the various constructs.  Some, like
strings and comments, are easy to recognize while others like
declarations and types can be very tricky.  CC Mode can go to great
lengths to recognize declarations and casts correctly, especially when
the types aren't recognized by standard patterns.  This is a fairly
demanding analysis which can be slow on older hardware, and it can
therefore be disabled by choosing a lower decoration level with the
variable font-lock-maximum-decoration.

Note that the most demanding font lock level has been tuned with lazy
fontification in mind; Just-In-Time-Lock mode should be enabled for
the highest font lock level (by default, it is).  Fontifying a file
with several thousand lines in one go can take the better part of a

**** The (c|c++|objc|java|idl|pike)-font-lock-extra-types variables
are now used by CC Mode to recognize identifiers that are certain to
be types.  (They are also used in cases that aren't related to font
locking.)  At the maximum decoration level, types are often recognized
properly anyway, so these variables should be fairly restrictive and
not contain patterns for uncertain types.

**** Support for documentation comments.
There is a "plugin" system to fontify documentation comments like
Javadoc and the markup within them.  It's independent of the host
language, so it's possible to e.g. turn on Javadoc font locking in C
buffers.  See the variable c-doc-comment-style for details.

Currently three kinds of doc comment styles are recognized: Sun's
Javadoc, Autodoc (which is used in Pike) and GtkDoc (used in C).  (The
last was contributed by Masatake YAMATO).  This is by no means a
complete list of the most common tools; if your doc comment extractor
of choice is missing then please drop a note to

**** Better handling of C++ templates.
As a side effect of the more accurate font locking, C++ templates are
now handled much better.  The angle brackets that delimit them are
given parenthesis syntax so that they can be navigated like other

This also improves indentation of templates, although there still is
work to be done in that area.  E.g. it's required that multiline
template clauses are written in full and then refontified to be
recognized, and the indentation of nested templates is a bit odd and
not as configurable as it ought to be.

**** Improved handling of Objective-C and CORBA IDL.
Especially the support for Objective-C and IDL has gotten an overhaul.
The special "@" declarations in Objective-C are handled correctly.
All the keywords used in CORBA IDL, PSDL, and CIDL are recognized and
handled correctly, also wrt indentation.

*** Changes in Key Sequences
**** c-toggle-auto-hungry-state is no longer bound to C-c C-t.

**** c-toggle-hungry-state is no longer bound to C-c C-d.
This binding has been taken over by c-hungry-delete-forwards.

**** c-toggle-auto-state (C-c C-t) has been renamed to c-toggle-auto-newline.
c-toggle-auto-state remains as an alias.

**** The new commands c-hungry-backspace and c-hungry-delete-forwards
have key bindings C-c C-DEL (or C-c DEL, for the benefit of TTYs) and
C-c C-d (or C-c C-<delete> or C-c <delete>) respectively.  These
commands delete entire blocks of whitespace with a single
key-sequence.  [N.B. "DEL" is the <backspace> key.]

**** The new command c-toggle-electric-mode is bound to C-c C-l.

**** The new command c-subword-mode is bound to C-c C-w.

*** C-c C-s (`c-show-syntactic-information') now highlights the anchor

*** New syntactic symbols in IDL mode.
The top level constructs "module" and "composition" (from CIDL) are
now handled like "namespace" in C++: They are given syntactic symbols
module-open, module-close, inmodule, composition-open,
composition-close, and incomposition.

*** New functions to do hungry delete without enabling hungry delete mode.
The new functions `c-hungry-backspace' and `c-hungry-delete-forward'
provide hungry deletion without having to toggle a mode.  They are
bound to C-c C-DEL and C-c C-d (and several variants, for the benefit
of different keyboard setups.  See "Changes in key sequences" above).

*** Better control over `require-final-newline'.

The variable `c-require-final-newline' specifies which of the modes
implemented by CC mode should insert final newlines.  Its value is a
list of modes, and only those modes should do it.  By default the list
includes C, C++ and Objective-C modes.

Whichever modes are in this list will set `require-final-newline'
based on `mode-require-final-newline'.

*** Format change for syntactic context elements.

The elements in the syntactic context returned by `c-guess-basic-syntax'
and stored in `c-syntactic-context' has been changed somewhat to allow
attaching more information.  They are now lists instead of single cons
cells.  E.g. a line that previously had the syntactic analysis

((inclass . 11) (topmost-intro . 13))

is now analyzed as

((inclass 11) (topmost-intro 13))

In some cases there are more than one position given for a syntactic

This change might affect code that calls `c-guess-basic-syntax'
directly, and custom lineup functions if they use
`c-syntactic-context'.  However, the argument given to lineup
functions is still a single cons cell with nil or an integer in the

*** API changes for derived modes.

There have been extensive changes "under the hood" which can affect
derived mode writers.  Some of these changes are likely to cause
incompatibilities with existing derived modes, but on the other hand
care has now been taken to make it possible to extend and modify CC
Mode with less risk of such problems in the future.

**** New language variable system.
These are variables whose values vary between CC Mode's different
languages.  See the comment blurb near the top of cc-langs.el.

**** New initialization functions.
The initialization procedure has been split up into more functions to
give better control: `c-basic-common-init', `c-font-lock-init', and

*** Changes in analysis of nested syntactic constructs.
The syntactic analysis engine has better handling of cases where
several syntactic constructs appear nested on the same line.  They are
now handled as if each construct started on a line of its own.

This means that CC Mode now indents some cases differently, and
although it's more consistent there might be cases where the old way
gave results that's more to one's liking.  So if you find a situation
where you think that the indentation has become worse, please report
it to

**** New syntactic symbol substatement-label.
This symbol is used when a label is inserted between a statement and
its substatement.  E.g:

    if (x)

*** Better handling of multiline macros.

**** Syntactic indentation inside macros.
The contents of multiline #define's are now analyzed and indented
syntactically just like other code.  This can be disabled by the new
variable `c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros'.  A new syntactic symbol
`cpp-define-intro' has been added to control the initial indentation
inside `#define's.

**** New lineup function `c-lineup-cpp-define'.

Now used by default to line up macro continuation lines.  The behavior
of this function closely mimics the indentation one gets if the macro
is indented while the line continuation backslashes are temporarily
removed.  If syntactic indentation in macros is turned off, it works
much line `c-lineup-dont-change', which was used earlier, but handles
empty lines within the macro better.

**** Automatically inserted newlines continues the macro if used within one.
This applies to the newlines inserted by the auto-newline mode, and to
`c-context-line-break' and `c-context-open-line'.

**** Better alignment of line continuation backslashes.
`c-backslash-region' tries to adapt to surrounding backslashes.  New
variable `c-backslash-max-column' puts a limit on how far out
backslashes can be moved.

**** Automatic alignment of line continuation backslashes.
This is controlled by the new variable `c-auto-align-backslashes'.  It
affects `c-context-line-break', `c-context-open-line' and newlines
inserted in Auto-Newline mode.

**** Line indentation works better inside macros.
Regardless whether syntactic indentation and syntactic indentation
inside macros are enabled or not, line indentation now ignores the
line continuation backslashes.  This is most noticeable when syntactic
indentation is turned off and there are empty lines (save for the
backslash) in the macro.

*** indent-for-comment is more customizable.
The behavior of M-; (indent-for-comment) is now configurable through
the variable `c-indent-comment-alist'.  The indentation behavior is
based on the preceding code on the line, e.g. to get two spaces after
#else and #endif but indentation to `comment-column' in most other
cases (something which was hardcoded earlier).

*** New function `c-context-open-line'.
It's the open-line equivalent of `c-context-line-break'.

*** New clean-ups

**** `comment-close-slash'.
With this clean-up, a block (i.e. c-style) comment can be terminated by
typing a slash at the start of a line.

**** `c-one-liner-defun'
This clean-up compresses a short enough defun (for example, an AWK
pattern/action pair) onto a single line.  "Short enough" is configurable.

*** New lineup functions

**** `c-lineup-string-cont'
This lineup function lines up a continued string under the one it
continues.  E.g:

result = prefix + "A message "
                  "string.";      <- c-lineup-string-cont

**** `c-lineup-cascaded-calls'
Lines up series of calls separated by "->" or ".".

**** `c-lineup-knr-region-comment'
Gives (what most people think is) better indentation of comments in
the "K&R region" between the function header and its body.

**** `c-lineup-gcc-asm-reg'
Provides better indentation inside asm blocks.

**** `c-lineup-argcont'
Lines up continued function arguments after the preceding comma.

*** Added toggle for syntactic indentation.
The function `c-toggle-syntactic-indentation' can be used to toggle
syntactic indentation.

*** Better caching of the syntactic context.
CC Mode caches the positions of the opening parentheses (of any kind)
of the lists surrounding the point.  Those positions are used in many
places as anchor points for various searches.  The cache is now
improved so that it can be reused to a large extent when the point is
moved.  The less it moves, the less needs to be recalculated.

The effect is that CC Mode should be fast most of the time even when
opening parens are hung (i.e. aren't in column zero).  It's typically
only the first time after the point is moved far down in a complex
file that it'll take noticeable time to find out the syntactic

*** Statements are recognized in a more robust way.
Statements are recognized most of the time even when they occur in an
"invalid" context, e.g. in a function argument.  In practice that can
happen when macros are involved.

*** Improved the way `c-indent-exp' chooses the block to indent.
It now indents the block for the closest sexp following the point
whose closing paren ends on a different line.  This means that the
point doesn't have to be immediately before the block to indent.
Also, only the block and the closing line is indented; the current
line is left untouched.

** Changes in Makefile mode

*** Makefile mode has submodes for automake, gmake, makepp, BSD make and imake.

The former two couldn't be differentiated before, and the latter three
are new.  Font-locking is robust now and offers new customizable

*** The variable `makefile-query-one-target-method' has been renamed
to `makefile-query-one-target-method-function'.  The old name is still
available as alias.

** Sql changes

*** The variable `sql-product' controls the highlighting of different
SQL dialects.  This variable can be set globally via Customize, on a
buffer-specific basis via local variable settings, or for the current
session using the new SQL->Product submenu.  (This menu replaces the
SQL->Highlighting submenu.)

The following values are supported:

    ansi	ANSI Standard (default)
    db2		DB2
    informix    Informix
    ingres      Ingres
    interbase	Interbase
    linter	Linter
    ms		Microsoft
    mysql	MySQL
    oracle	Oracle
    postgres	Postgres
    solid       Solid
    sqlite      SQLite
    sybase      Sybase

The current product name will be shown on the mode line following the
SQL mode indicator.

The technique of setting `sql-mode-font-lock-defaults' directly in
your `.emacs' will no longer establish the default highlighting -- Use
`sql-product' to accomplish this.

ANSI keywords are always highlighted.

*** The function `sql-add-product-keywords' can be used to add
font-lock rules to the product specific rules.  For example, to have
all identifiers ending in `_t' under MS SQLServer treated as a type,
you would use the following line in your .emacs file:

  (sql-add-product-keywords 'ms
             '(("\\<\\w+_t\\>" . font-lock-type-face)))

*** Oracle support includes keyword highlighting for Oracle 9i.

Most SQL and PL/SQL keywords are implemented.  SQL*Plus commands are
highlighted in `font-lock-doc-face'.

*** Microsoft SQLServer support has been significantly improved.

Keyword highlighting for SqlServer 2000 is implemented.
sql-interactive-mode defaults to use osql, rather than isql, because
osql flushes its error stream more frequently.  Thus error messages
are displayed when they occur rather than when the session is

If the username and password are not provided to `sql-ms', osql is
called with the `-E' command line argument to use the operating system
credentials to authenticate the user.

*** Postgres support is enhanced.
Keyword highlighting of Postgres 7.3 is implemented.  Prompting for
the username and the pgsql `-U' option is added.

*** MySQL support is enhanced.
Keyword highlighting of MySql 4.0 is implemented.

*** Imenu support has been enhanced to locate tables, views, indexes,
packages, procedures, functions, triggers, sequences, rules, and

*** Added SQL->Start SQLi Session menu entry which calls the
appropriate `sql-interactive-mode' wrapper for the current setting of

*** sql.el supports the SQLite interpreter--call 'sql-sqlite'.

** Fortran mode changes

*** F90 mode and Fortran mode have support for `hs-minor-mode' (hideshow).
It cannot deal with every code format, but ought to handle a sizeable

*** F90 mode and Fortran mode have new navigation commands
`f90-end-of-block', `f90-beginning-of-block', `f90-next-block',
`f90-previous-block', `fortran-end-of-block',

*** Fortran mode does more font-locking by default.  Use level 3
highlighting for the old default.

*** Fortran mode has a new variable `fortran-directive-re'.
Adapt this to match the format of any compiler directives you use.
Lines that match are never indented, and are given distinctive font-locking.

*** The new function `f90-backslash-not-special' can be used to change
the syntax of backslashes in F90 buffers.

** Miscellaneous programming mode changes

*** In sh-script, a continuation line is only indented if the backslash was
preceded by a SPC or a TAB.

*** Perl mode has a new variable `perl-indent-continued-arguments'.

*** The old Octave mode bindings C-c f and C-c i have been changed
to C-c C-f and C-c C-i.  The C-c C-i subcommands now have duplicate
bindings on control characters--thus, C-c C-i C-b is the same as
C-c C-i b, and so on.

*** Prolog mode has a new variable `prolog-font-lock-keywords'
to support use of font-lock.

** VC Changes

*** New backends for Subversion and Meta-CVS.

*** The new variable `vc-cvs-global-switches' specifies switches that
are passed to any CVS command invoked by VC.

These switches are used as "global options" for CVS, which means they
are inserted before the command name.  For example, this allows you to
specify a compression level using the `-z#' option for CVS.

*** The key C-x C-q only changes the read-only state of the buffer
(toggle-read-only).  It no longer checks files in or out.

We made this change because we held a poll and found that many users
were unhappy with the previous behavior.  If you do prefer this
behavior, you can bind `vc-toggle-read-only' to C-x C-q in your
`.emacs' file:

    (global-set-key "\C-x\C-q" 'vc-toggle-read-only)

The function `vc-toggle-read-only' will continue to exist.

*** VC-Annotate mode enhancements

In VC-Annotate mode, you can now use the following key bindings for
enhanced functionality to browse the annotations of past revisions, or
to view diffs or log entries directly from vc-annotate-mode:

    P:  annotates the previous revision
    N:  annotates the next revision
    J:  annotates the revision at line
    A:  annotates the revision previous to line
    D:  shows the diff of the revision at line with its previous revision
    L:  shows the log of the revision at line
    W:  annotates the workfile (most up to date) version

** pcl-cvs changes

*** In pcl-cvs mode, there is a new `d y' command to view the diffs
between the local version of the file and yesterday's head revision
in the repository.

*** In pcl-cvs mode, there is a new `d r' command to view the changes
anyone has committed to the repository since you last executed
`checkout', `update' or `commit'.  That means using cvs diff options

** Diff changes

*** M-x diff uses Diff mode instead of Compilation mode.

*** Diff mode key bindings changed.

These are the new bindings:

C-c C-e   diff-ediff-patch  (old M-A)
C-c C-n   diff-restrict-view   (old M-r)
C-c C-r   diff-reverse-direction  (old M-R)
C-c C-u   diff-context->unified   (old M-U)
C-c C-w   diff-refine-hunk  (old C-c C-r)

To convert unified to context format, use C-u C-c C-u.
In addition, C-c C-u now operates on the region
in Transient Mark mode when the mark is active.

** EDiff changes.

***  When comparing directories.
Typing D brings up a buffer that lists the differences between the contents of
directories.  Now it is possible to use this buffer to copy the missing files
from one directory to another.

*** When comparing files or buffers.
Typing the = key now offers to perform the word-by-word comparison of the
currently highlighted regions in an inferior Ediff session.  If you answer 'n'
then it reverts to the old behavior and asks the user to select regions for

*** The new command `ediff-backup' compares a file with its most recent
backup using `ediff'.  If you specify the name of a backup file,
`ediff-backup' compares it with the file of which it is a backup.

** Etags changes.

*** New regular expressions features

**** New syntax for regular expressions, multi-line regular expressions.

The syntax --ignore-case-regexp=/regex/ is now undocumented and retained
only for backward compatibility.  The new equivalent syntax is
--regex=/regex/i.  More generally, it is --regex=/TAGREGEX/TAGNAME/MODS,
where `/TAGNAME' is optional, as usual, and MODS is a string of 0 or
more characters among `i' (ignore case), `m' (multi-line) and `s'
(single-line).  The `m' and `s' modifiers behave as in Perl regular
expressions: `m' allows regexps to match more than one line, while `s'
(which implies `m') means that `.' matches newlines.  The ability to
span newlines allows writing of much more powerful regular expressions
and rapid prototyping for tagging new languages.

**** Regular expressions can use char escape sequences as in GCC.

The escaped character sequence \a, \b, \d, \e, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v,
respectively, stand for the ASCII characters BEL, BS, DEL, ESC, FF, NL,

**** Regular expressions can be bound to a given language.

The syntax --regex={LANGUAGE}REGEX means that REGEX is used to make tags
only for files of language LANGUAGE, and ignored otherwise.  This is
particularly useful when storing regexps in a file.

**** Regular expressions can be read from a file.

The --regex=@regexfile option means read the regexps from a file, one
per line.  Lines beginning with space or tab are ignored.

*** New language parsing features

**** New language HTML.

Tags are generated for `title' as well as `h1', `h2', and `h3'.  Also,
when `name=' is used inside an anchor and whenever `id=' is used.

**** New language PHP.

Functions, classes and defines are tags.  If the --members option is
specified to etags, variables are tags also.

**** New language Lua.

All functions are tagged.

**** The `::' qualifier triggers C++ parsing in C file.

Previously, only the `template' and `class' keywords had this effect.

**** The GCC __attribute__ keyword is now recognized and ignored.

**** In C and derived languages, etags creates tags for #undef

**** In Makefiles, constants are tagged.

If you want the old behavior instead, thus avoiding to increase the
size of the tags file, use the --no-globals option.

**** In Perl, packages are tags.

Subroutine tags are named from their package.  You can jump to sub tags
as you did before, by the sub name, or additionally by looking for

**** In Prolog, etags creates tags for rules in addition to predicates.

**** New default keywords for TeX.

The new keywords are def, newcommand, renewcommand, newenvironment and

*** Honor #line directives.

When Etags parses an input file that contains C preprocessor's #line
directives, it creates tags using the file name and line number
specified in those directives.  This is useful when dealing with code
created from Cweb source files.  When Etags tags the generated file, it
writes tags pointing to the source file.

*** New option --parse-stdin=FILE.

This option is mostly useful when calling etags from programs.  It can
be used (only once) in place of a file name on the command line.  Etags
reads from standard input and marks the produced tags as belonging to
the file FILE.

*** The --members option is now the default.

Use --no-members if you want the old default behaviour of not tagging
struct members in C, members variables in C++ and variables in PHP.

** Ctags changes.

*** Ctags now allows duplicate tags

** Rmail changes

*** Support for `movemail' from GNU mailutils was added to Rmail.

This version of `movemail' allows you to read mail from a wide range of
mailbox formats, including remote POP3 and IMAP4 mailboxes with or
without TLS encryption.  If GNU mailutils is installed on the system
and its version of `movemail' can be found in exec-path, it will be
used instead of the native one.

*** The new commands rmail-end-of-message and rmail-summary end-of-message,
by default bound to `/', go to the end of the current mail message in
Rmail and Rmail summary buffers.

*** Rmail now displays 5-digit message ids in its summary buffer.

** Gnus package

*** Gnus now includes Sieve and PGG

Sieve is a library for managing Sieve scripts.  PGG is a library to handle

*** There are many news features, bug fixes and improvements.

See the file GNUS-NEWS or the node "Oort Gnus" in the Gnus manual for details.

** MH-E changes.

Upgraded to MH-E version 8.0.3.  There have been major changes since
version 5.0.2; see MH-E-NEWS for details.

** Miscellaneous mail changes

*** The new variable `mail-default-directory' specifies
`default-directory' for mail buffers.  This directory is used for
auto-save files of mail buffers.  It defaults to "~/".

*** The mode line can indicate new mail in a directory or file.

See the documentation of the user option `display-time-mail-directory'.

** Calendar changes

*** There is a new calendar package, icalendar.el, that can be used to
convert Emacs diary entries to/from the iCalendar format.

*** The new package cal-html.el writes HTML files with calendar and
diary entries.

*** The new functions `diary-from-outlook', `diary-from-outlook-gnus',
and `diary-from-outlook-rmail' can be used to import diary entries
from Outlook-format appointments in mail messages.  The variable
`diary-outlook-formats' can be customized to recognize additional

*** The procedure for activating appointment reminders has changed:
use the new function `appt-activate'.  The new variable
`appt-display-format' controls how reminders are displayed, replacing
`appt-issue-message', `appt-visible', and `appt-msg-window'.

*** The function `simple-diary-display' now by default sets a header line.
This can be controlled through the variables `diary-header-line-flag'
and `diary-header-line-format'.

*** Diary sexp entries can have custom marking in the calendar.
Diary sexp functions which only apply to certain days (such as
`diary-block' or `diary-cyclic') now take an optional parameter MARK,
which is the name of a face or a single-character string indicating
how to highlight the day in the calendar display.  Specifying a
single-character string as @var{mark} places the character next to the
day in the calendar.  Specifying a face highlights the day with that
face.  This lets you have different colors or markings for vacations,
appointments, paydays or anything else using a sexp.

*** The meanings of C-x < and C-x > have been interchanged.
< means to scroll backward in time, and > means to scroll forward.

*** You can now use < and >, instead of C-x < and C-x >, to scroll
the calendar left or right.

*** The new function `calendar-goto-day-of-year' (g D) prompts for a
year and day number, and moves to that date.  Negative day numbers
count backward from the end of the year.

*** The new Calendar function `calendar-goto-iso-week' (g w)
prompts for a year and a week number, and moves to the first
day of that ISO week.

*** The functions `holiday-easter-etc' and `holiday-advent' now take
optional arguments, in order to only report on the specified holiday
rather than all.  This makes customization of variables such as
`christian-holidays' simpler.

*** The new variable `calendar-minimum-window-height' affects the
window generated by the function `generate-calendar-window'.

** Speedbar changes

*** Speedbar items can now be selected by clicking mouse-1, based on
the `mouse-1-click-follows-link' mechanism.

*** The new command `speedbar-toggle-line-expansion', bound to SPC,
contracts or expands the line under the cursor.

*** New command `speedbar-create-directory', bound to `M'.

*** The new commands `speedbar-expand-line-descendants' and
`speedbar-contract-line-descendants', bound to `[' and `]'
respectively, expand and contract the line under cursor with all of
its descendents.

*** The new user option `speedbar-use-tool-tips-flag', if non-nil,
means to display tool-tips for speedbar items.

*** The new user option `speedbar-query-confirmation-method' controls
how querying is performed for file operations.  A value of 'always
means to always query before file operations; 'none-but-delete means
to not query before any file operations, except before a file

*** The new user option `speedbar-select-frame-method' specifies how
to select a frame for displaying a file opened with the speedbar.  A
value of 'attached means to use the attached frame (the frame that
speedbar was started from.)  A number such as 1 or -1 means to pass
that number to `other-frame'.

*** SPC and DEL are no longer bound to scroll up/down in the speedbar

*** The frame management code in speedbar.el has been split into a new
`dframe' library.  Emacs Lisp code that makes use of the speedbar
should use `dframe-attached-frame' instead of
`speedbar-attached-frame', `dframe-timer' instead of `speedbar-timer',
`dframe-close-frame' instead of `speedbar-close-frame', and
`dframe-activity-change-focus-flag' instead of
`speedbar-activity-change-focus-flag'.  The variables
`speedbar-update-speed' and `speedbar-navigating-speed' are also
obsolete; use `dframe-update-speed' instead.

** battery.el changes

*** display-battery-mode replaces display-battery.

*** battery.el now works on recent versions of OS X.

** Games

*** The game `mpuz' is enhanced.

`mpuz' now allows the 2nd factor not to have two identical digits.  By
default, all trivial operations involving whole lines are performed
automatically.  The game uses faces for better visual feedback.

** Obsolete and deleted packages

*** fast-lock.el and lazy-lock.el are obsolete.  Use jit-lock.el instead.

*** iso-acc.el is now obsolete.  Use one of the latin input methods instead.

*** zone-mode.el is now obsolete.  Use dns-mode.el instead.

*** cplus-md.el has been deleted.

** Miscellaneous

*** The variable `woman-topic-at-point' is renamed
to `woman-use-topic-at-point' and behaves differently: if this
variable is non-nil, the `woman' command uses the word at point
automatically, without asking for a confirmation.  Otherwise, the word
at point is suggested as default, but not inserted at the prompt.

*** You can now customize `fill-nobreak-predicate' to control where
filling can break lines.  The value is now normally a list of
functions, but it can also be a single function, for compatibility.

Emacs provide two predicates, `fill-single-word-nobreak-p' and
`fill-french-nobreak-p', for use as the value of

*** M-x view-file and commands that use it now avoid interfering
with special modes such as Tar mode.

*** `global-whitespace-mode' is a new alias for `whitespace-global-mode'.

*** The saveplace.el package now filters out unreadable files.

When you exit Emacs, the saved positions in visited files no longer
include files that aren't readable, e.g. files that don't exist.
Customize the new option `save-place-forget-unreadable-files' to nil
to get the old behavior.  The new options `save-place-save-skipped'
and `save-place-skip-check-regexp' allow further fine-tuning of this

*** Commands `winner-redo' and `winner-undo', from winner.el, are now
bound to C-c <left> and C-c <right>, respectively.  This is an
incompatible change.

*** The type-break package now allows `type-break-file-name' to be nil
and if so, doesn't store any data across sessions.  This is handy if
you don't want the `.type-break' file in your home directory or are
annoyed by the need for interaction when you kill Emacs.

*** `ps-print' can now print characters from the mule-unicode charsets.

Printing text with characters from the mule-unicode-* sets works with
`ps-print', provided that you have installed the appropriate BDF
fonts.  See the file INSTALL for URLs where you can find these fonts.

*** New command `strokes-global-set-stroke-string'.
This is like `strokes-global-set-stroke', but it allows you to bind
the stroke directly to a string to insert.  This is convenient for
using strokes as an input method.

*** In Outline mode, `hide-body' no longer hides lines at the top
of the file that precede the first header line.

*** `hide-ifdef-mode' now uses overlays rather than selective-display
to hide its text.  This should be mostly transparent but slightly
changes the behavior of motion commands like C-e and C-p.

*** In Artist mode the variable `artist-text-renderer' has been
renamed to `artist-text-renderer-function'.  The old name is still
available as alias.

*** In Enriched mode, `set-left-margin' and `set-right-margin' are now
by default bound to `C-c [' and `C-c ]' instead of the former `C-c C-l'
and `C-c C-r'.

*** `partial-completion-mode' now handles partial completion on directory names.

*** You can now disable pc-selection-mode after enabling it.

M-x pc-selection-mode behaves like a proper minor mode, and with no
argument it toggles the mode.  Turning off PC-Selection mode restores
the global key bindings that were replaced by turning on the mode.

*** `uniquify-strip-common-suffix' tells uniquify to prefer
`file|dir1' and `file|dir2' to `file|dir1/subdir' and `file|dir2/subdir'.

*** New user option `add-log-always-start-new-record'.

When this option is enabled, M-x add-change-log-entry always
starts a new record regardless of when the last record is.

*** M-x compare-windows now can automatically skip non-matching text to
resync points in both windows.

*** PO translation files are decoded according to their MIME headers
when Emacs visits them.

*** Telnet now prompts you for a port number with C-u M-x telnet.

*** calculator.el now has radix grouping mode.

To enable this, set `calculator-output-radix' non-nil.  In this mode a
separator character is used every few digits, making it easier to see
byte boundaries etc.  For more info, see the documentation of the
variable `calculator-radix-grouping-mode'.

*** LDAP support now defaults to ldapsearch from OpenLDAP version 2.

*** The terminal emulation code in term.el has been improved; it can
run most curses applications now.

*** Support for `magic cookie' standout modes has been removed.

Emacs still works on terminals that require magic cookies in order to
use standout mode, but they can no longer display mode-lines in

* Changes in Emacs 22.1 on non-free operating systems

** The HOME directory defaults to Application Data under the user profile.

If you used a previous version of Emacs without setting the HOME
environment variable and a `.emacs' was saved, then Emacs will continue
using C:/ as the default HOME.  But if you are installing Emacs afresh,
the default location will be the "Application Data" (or similar
localized name) subdirectory of your user profile.  A typical location
of this directory is "C:\Documents and Settings\USERNAME\Application Data",
where USERNAME is your user name.

This change means that users can now have their own `.emacs' files on
shared computers, and the default HOME directory is less likely to be
read-only on computers that are administered by someone else.

** Images are now supported on MS Windows.

PBM and XBM images are supported out of the box.  Other image formats
depend on external libraries.  All of these libraries have been ported
to Windows, and can be found in both source and binary form at  Note that libpng also depends on
zlib, and tiff depends on the version of jpeg that it was compiled
against.  For additional information, see nt/INSTALL.

** Sound is now supported on MS Windows.

WAV format is supported on all versions of Windows, other formats such
as AU, AIFF and MP3 may be supported in the more recent versions of
Windows, or when other software provides hooks into the system level
sound support for those formats.

** Tooltips now work on MS Windows.

See the Emacs 21.1 NEWS entry for tooltips for details.

** Pointing devices with more than 3 buttons are now supported on MS Windows.

The new variable `w32-pass-extra-mouse-buttons-to-system' controls
whether Emacs should handle the extra buttons itself (the default), or
pass them to Windows to be handled with system-wide functions.

** Passing resources on the command line now works on MS Windows.

You can use --xrm to pass resource settings to Emacs, overriding any
existing values.  For example:

  emacs --xrm "Emacs.Background:red" --xrm "Emacs.Geometry:100x20"

will start up Emacs on an initial frame of 100x20 with red background,
irrespective of geometry or background setting on the Windows registry.

** Emacs takes note of colors defined in Control Panel on MS-Windows.

The Control Panel defines some default colors for applications in much
the same way as wildcard X Resources do on X.  Emacs now adds these
colors to the colormap prefixed by System (eg SystemMenu for the
default Menu background, SystemMenuText for the foreground), and uses
some of them to initialize some of the default faces.
`list-colors-display' shows the list of System color names, in case
you wish to use them in other faces.

** Running in a console window in Windows now uses the console size.

Previous versions of Emacs erred on the side of having a usable Emacs
through telnet, even though that was inconvenient if you use Emacs in
a local console window with a scrollback buffer.  The default value of
w32-use-full-screen-buffer is now nil, which favors local console
windows.  Recent versions of Windows telnet also work well with this
setting.  If you are using an older telnet server then Emacs detects
that the console window dimensions that are reported are not sane, and
defaults to 80x25.  If you use such a telnet server regularly at a size
other than 80x25, you can still manually set
w32-use-full-screen-buffer to t.

** Different shaped mouse pointers are supported on MS Windows.

The mouse pointer changes shape depending on what is under the pointer.

** On MS Windows, the "system caret" now follows the cursor.

This enables Emacs to work better with programs that need to track the
cursor, for example screen magnifiers and text to speech programs.
When such a program is in use, the system caret is made visible
instead of Emacs drawing its own cursor. This seems to be required by
some programs. The new variable w32-use-visible-system-caret allows
the caret visibility to be manually toggled.

** On MS Windows NT/W2K/XP, Emacs uses Unicode for clipboard operations.

Those systems use Unicode internally, so this allows Emacs to share
multilingual text with other applications.  On other versions of
MS Windows, Emacs now uses the appropriate locale coding-system, so
the clipboard should work correctly for your local language without
any customizations.

** On Mac OS, `keyboard-coding-system' changes based on the keyboard script.

** The variable `mac-keyboard-text-encoding' and the constants
`kTextEncodingMacRoman', `kTextEncodingISOLatin1', and
`kTextEncodingISOLatin2' are obsolete.

** The variable `mac-command-key-is-meta' is obsolete.  Use
`mac-command-modifier' and `mac-option-modifier' instead.
* Incompatible Lisp Changes in Emacs 22.1

** Mode line display ignores text properties as well as the
:propertize and :eval forms in the value of a variable whose
`risky-local-variable' property is nil.

The function `comint-send-input' now accepts 3 optional arguments:

  (comint-send-input &optional no-newline artificial)

Callers sending input not from the user should use bind the 3rd
argument `artificial' to a non-nil value, to prevent Emacs from
deleting the part of subprocess output that matches the input.

** The `read-file-name' function now returns a null string if the
user just types RET.

** The variables post-command-idle-hook and post-command-idle-delay have
been removed.  Use run-with-idle-timer instead.

** A hex or octal escape in a string constant forces the string to
be multibyte or unibyte, respectively.

** The explicit method of creating a display table element by
combining a face number and a character code into a numeric
glyph code is deprecated.

Instead, the new functions `make-glyph-code', `glyph-char', and
`glyph-face' must be used to create and decode glyph codes in
display tables.

** `suppress-keymap' now works by remapping `self-insert-command' to
the command `undefined'.  (In earlier Emacs versions, it used
`substitute-key-definition' to rebind self inserting characters to

** The third argument of `accept-process-output' is now milliseconds.
It used to be microseconds.

** The function find-operation-coding-system may be called with a cons
(FILENAME . BUFFER) in the second argument if the first argument
OPERATION is `insert-file-contents', and thus a function registered in
`file-coding-system-alist' is also called with such an argument.

** When Emacs receives a USR1 or USR2 signal, this generates
input events: sigusr1 or sigusr2.  Use special-event-map to
handle these events.

** The variable `memory-full' now remains t until
there is no longer a shortage of memory.

** Support for Mocklisp has been removed.

* Lisp Changes in Emacs 22.1

** General Lisp changes:

*** New syntax: \s now stands for the SPACE character.

`?\s' is a new way to write the space character.  You must make sure
it is not followed by a dash, since `?\s-...' indicates the "super"
modifier.  However, it would be strange to write a character constant
and a following symbol (beginning with `-') with no space between

`\s' stands for space in strings, too, but it is not really meant for
strings; it is easier and nicer just to write a space.

*** New syntax: \uXXXX and \UXXXXXXXX specify Unicode code points in hex.

For instance, you can use "\u0428" to specify a string consisting of
CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHA, or `"U0001D6E2" to specify one consisting
of MATHEMATICAL ITALIC CAPITAL ALPHA (the latter is greater than
#xFFFF and thus needs the longer syntax).

This syntax works for both character constants and strings.

*** New function `unsafep' determines whether a Lisp form is safe.

It returns nil if the given Lisp form can't possibly do anything
dangerous; otherwise it returns a reason why the form might be unsafe
(calls unknown function, alters global variable, etc.).

*** The function `eql' is now available without requiring the CL package.

*** The new function `memql' is like `memq', but uses `eql' for comparison,
that is, floats are compared by value and other elements with `eq'.

*** New functions `string-or-null-p' and `booleanp'.

`string-or-null-p' returns non-nil iff OBJECT is a string or nil.
`booleanp' returns non-nil iff OBJECT is t or nil.

*** `makehash' is now obsolete.  Use `make-hash-table' instead.

*** Minor change in the function `format'.

Some flags that were accepted but not implemented (such as "*") are no
longer accepted.

*** `add-to-list' takes an optional third argument, APPEND.

If APPEND is non-nil, the new element gets added at the end of the
list instead of at the beginning.  This change actually occurred in
Emacs 21.1, but was not documented then.

*** New function `add-to-ordered-list' is like `add-to-list' but
associates a numeric ordering of each element added to the list.

*** New function `add-to-history' adds an element to a history list.

Lisp packages should use this function to add elements to their
history lists.

If `history-delete-duplicates' is non-nil, it removes duplicates of
the new element from the history list it updates.

*** New function `copy-tree' makes a copy of a tree.

It recursively copies through both CARs and CDRs.

*** New function `delete-dups' deletes `equal' duplicate elements from a list.

It modifies the list destructively, like `delete'.  Of several `equal'
occurrences of an element in the list, the one that's kept is the
first one.

*** New function `rassq-delete-all'.

(rassq-delete-all VALUE ALIST) deletes, from ALIST, each element whose
CDR is `eq' to the specified value.

*** Functions `get' and `plist-get' no longer give errors for bad plists.

They return nil for a malformed property list or if the list is

*** New functions `lax-plist-get' and `lax-plist-put'.

They are like `plist-get' and `plist-put', except that they compare
the property name using `equal' rather than `eq'.

*** The function `number-sequence' makes a list of equally-separated numbers.

For instance, (number-sequence 4 9) returns (4 5 6 7 8 9).  By
default, the separation is 1, but you can specify a different
separation as the third argument.  (number-sequence 1.5 6 2) returns
(1.5 3.5 5.5).

*** New variables `most-positive-fixnum' and `most-negative-fixnum'.

They hold the largest and smallest possible integer values.

*** The function `expt' handles negative exponents differently.
The value for `(expt A B)', if both A and B are integers and B is
negative, is now a float.  For example: (expt 2 -2) => 0.25.

*** The function `atan' now accepts an optional second argument.

When called with 2 arguments, as in `(atan Y X)', `atan' returns the
angle in radians between the vector [X, Y] and the X axis.  (This is
equivalent to the standard C library function `atan2'.)

*** New macro `with-case-table'

This executes the body with the case table temporarily set to a given
case table.

*** New macro `with-local-quit' temporarily allows quitting.

A quit inside the body of `with-local-quit' is caught by the
`with-local-quit' form itself, but another quit will happen later once
the code that has inhibited quitting exits.

This is for use around potentially blocking or long-running code
inside timer functions and `post-command-hook' functions.

*** New macro `define-obsolete-function-alias'.

This combines `defalias' and `make-obsolete'.

*** New macro `eval-at-startup' specifies expressions to
evaluate when Emacs starts up.  If this is done after startup,
it evaluates those expressions immediately.

This is useful in packages that can be preloaded.

*** New function `macroexpand-all' expands all macros in a form.

It is similar to the Common-Lisp function of the same name.
One difference is that it guarantees to return the original argument
if no expansion is done, which can be tested using `eq'.

*** A function or macro's doc string can now specify the calling pattern.

You put this info in the doc string's last line.  It should be
formatted so as to match the regexp "\n\n(fn .*)\\'".  If you don't
specify this explicitly, Emacs determines it from the actual argument
names.  Usually that default is right, but not always.

*** New variable `print-continuous-numbering'.

When this is non-nil, successive calls to print functions use a single
numbering scheme for circular structure references.  This is only
relevant when `print-circle' is non-nil.

When you bind `print-continuous-numbering' to t, you should
also bind `print-number-table' to nil.

*** `list-faces-display' takes an optional argument, REGEXP.

If it is non-nil, the function lists only faces matching this regexp.

*** New hook `command-error-function'.

By setting this variable to a function, you can control
how the editor command loop shows the user an error message.

*** `debug-on-entry' accepts primitive functions that are not special forms.

** Lisp code indentation features:

*** The `defmacro' form can contain indentation and edebug declarations.

These declarations specify how to indent the macro calls in Lisp mode
and how to debug them with Edebug.  You write them like this:


DECLARATION is a list `(declare DECLARATION-SPECIFIER ...)'.  The
possible declaration specifiers are:

(indent INDENT)
	Set NAME's `lisp-indent-function' property to INDENT.

(edebug DEBUG)
	Set NAME's `edebug-form-spec' property to DEBUG.  (This is
	equivalent to writing a `def-edebug-spec' for the macro,
	but this is cleaner.)

*** cl-indent now allows customization of Indentation of backquoted forms.

See the new user option `lisp-backquote-indentation'.

*** cl-indent now handles indentation of simple and extended `loop' forms.

The new user options `lisp-loop-keyword-indentation',
`lisp-loop-forms-indentation', and `lisp-simple-loop-indentation' can
be used to customize the indentation of keywords and forms in loop

** Variable aliases:

*** New function: defvaralias ALIAS-VAR BASE-VAR [DOCSTRING]

This function defines the symbol ALIAS-VAR as a variable alias for
symbol BASE-VAR.  This means that retrieving the value of ALIAS-VAR
returns the value of BASE-VAR, and changing the value of ALIAS-VAR
changes the value of BASE-VAR.

DOCSTRING, if present, is the documentation for ALIAS-VAR; else it has
the same documentation as BASE-VAR.

*** The macro `define-obsolete-variable-alias' combines `defvaralias' and

*** New function: indirect-variable VARIABLE

This function returns the variable at the end of the chain of aliases
of VARIABLE.  If VARIABLE is not a symbol, or if VARIABLE is not
defined as an alias, the function returns VARIABLE.

It might be noteworthy that variables aliases work for all kinds of
variables, including buffer-local and frame-local variables.

** defcustom changes:

*** The package-version keyword has been added to provide
`customize-changed-options' functionality to packages in the future.
Developers who make use of this keyword must also update the new
variable `customize-package-emacs-version-alist'.

*** The new customization type `float' requires a floating point number.

** String changes:

*** A hex escape in a string constant forces the string to be multibyte.

*** An octal escape in a string constant forces the string to be unibyte.

*** New function `string-to-multibyte' converts a unibyte string to a
multibyte string with the same individual character codes.

*** `split-string' now includes null substrings in the returned list if
the optional argument SEPARATORS is non-nil and there are matches for
SEPARATORS at the beginning or end of the string.  If SEPARATORS is
nil, or if the new optional third argument OMIT-NULLS is non-nil, all
empty matches are omitted from the returned list.

*** The new function `assoc-string' replaces `assoc-ignore-case' and
`assoc-ignore-representation', which are still available, but have
been declared obsolete.

*** New function `substring-no-properties' returns a substring without
text properties.

** Displaying warnings to the user.

See the functions `warn' and `display-warning', or the Lisp Manual.
If you want to be sure the warning will not be overlooked, this
facility is much better than using `message', since it displays
warnings in a separate window.

** Progress reporters.

These provide a simple and uniform way for commands to present
progress messages for the user.

See the new functions `make-progress-reporter',
`progress-reporter-update', `progress-reporter-force-update',
`progress-reporter-done', and `dotimes-with-progress-reporter'.

** Buffer positions:

*** Function `compute-motion' now calculates the usable window
width if the WIDTH argument is nil.  If the TOPOS argument is nil,
the usable window height and width is used.

*** The `line-move', `scroll-up', and `scroll-down' functions will now
modify the window vscroll to scroll through display rows that are
taller that the height of the window, for example in the presence of
large images.  To disable this feature, bind the new variable
`auto-window-vscroll' to nil.

*** The argument to `forward-word', `backward-word' is optional.

It defaults to 1.

*** Argument to `forward-to-indentation' and `backward-to-indentation' is optional.

It defaults to 1.

*** `field-beginning' and `field-end' take new optional argument, LIMIT.

This argument tells them not to search beyond LIMIT.  Instead they
give up and return LIMIT.

*** New function `window-line-height' is an efficient way to get
information about a specific text line in a window provided that the
window's display is up-to-date.

*** New function `line-number-at-pos' returns the line number of a position.

It an optional buffer position argument that defaults to point.

*** Function `pos-visible-in-window-p' now returns the pixel coordinates
and partial visibility state of the corresponding row, if the PARTIALLY
arg is non-nil.

*** New functions `posn-at-point' and `posn-at-x-y' return
click-event-style position information for a given visible buffer
position or for a given window pixel coordinate.

*** New function `mouse-on-link-p' tests if a position is in a clickable link.

This is the function used by the new `mouse-1-click-follows-link'

** Text modification:

*** The new function `buffer-chars-modified-tick' returns a buffer's
tick counter for changes to characters.  Each time text in that buffer
is inserted or deleted, the character-change counter is updated to the
tick counter (`buffer-modified-tick').  Text property changes leave it

*** The new function `insert-for-yank' normally works like `insert', but
removes the text properties in the `yank-excluded-properties' list
and handles the `yank-handler' text property.

*** The new function `insert-buffer-substring-as-yank' is like
`insert-for-yank' except that it gets the text from another buffer as
in `insert-buffer-substring'.

*** The new function `insert-buffer-substring-no-properties' is like
`insert-buffer-substring', but removes all text properties from the
inserted substring.

*** The new function `filter-buffer-substring' extracts a buffer
substring, passes it through a set of filter functions, and returns
the filtered substring.  Use it instead of `buffer-substring' or
`delete-and-extract-region' when copying text into a user-accessible
data structure, such as the kill-ring, X clipboard, or a register.

The list of filter function is specified by the new variable
`buffer-substring-filters'.  For example, Longlines mode adds to
`buffer-substring-filters' to remove soft newlines from the copied

*** Function `translate-region' accepts also a char-table as TABLE

*** The new translation table `translation-table-for-input'
is used for customizing self-insertion.  The character to
be inserted is translated through it.

*** Text clones.

The new function `text-clone-create'.  Text clones are chunks of text
that are kept identical by transparently propagating changes from one
clone to the other.

*** The function `insert-string' is now obsolete.

** Filling changes.

*** In determining an adaptive fill prefix, Emacs now tries the function in
`adaptive-fill-function' _before_ matching the buffer line against
`adaptive-fill-regexp' rather than _after_ it.

** Atomic change groups.

To perform some changes in the current buffer "atomically" so that
they either all succeed or are all undone, use `atomic-change-group'
around the code that makes changes.  For instance:

    (insert foo)
    (delete-region x y))

If an error (or other nonlocal exit) occurs inside the body of
`atomic-change-group', it unmakes all the changes in that buffer that
were during the execution of the body.  The change group has no effect
on any other buffers--any such changes remain.

If you need something more sophisticated, you can directly call the
lower-level functions that `atomic-change-group' uses.  Here is how.

To set up a change group for one buffer, call `prepare-change-group'.
Specify the buffer as argument; it defaults to the current buffer.
This function returns a "handle" for the change group.  You must save
the handle to activate the change group and then finish it.

Before you change the buffer again, you must activate the change
group.  Pass the handle to `activate-change-group' afterward to
do this.

After you make the changes, you must finish the change group.  You can
either accept the changes or cancel them all.  Call
`accept-change-group' to accept the changes in the group as final;
call `cancel-change-group' to undo them all.

You should use `unwind-protect' to make sure the group is always
finished.  The call to `activate-change-group' should be inside the
`unwind-protect', in case the user types C-g just after it runs.
(This is one reason why `prepare-change-group' and
`activate-change-group' are separate functions.)  Once you finish the
group, don't use the handle again--don't try to finish the same group

To make a multibuffer change group, call `prepare-change-group' once
for each buffer you want to cover, then use `nconc' to combine the
returned values, like this:

  (nconc (prepare-change-group buffer-1)
         (prepare-change-group buffer-2))

You can then activate the multibuffer change group with a single call
to `activate-change-group', and finish it with a single call to
`accept-change-group' or `cancel-change-group'.

Nested use of several change groups for the same buffer works as you
would expect.  Non-nested use of change groups for the same buffer
will lead to undesirable results, so don't let it happen; the first
change group you start for any given buffer should be the last one

** Buffer-related changes:

*** The new function `buffer-local-value' returns the buffer-local
binding of VARIABLE (a symbol) in buffer BUFFER.  If VARIABLE does not
have a buffer-local binding in buffer BUFFER, it returns the default
value of VARIABLE instead.

*** `list-buffers-noselect' now takes an additional argument, BUFFER-LIST.

If it is non-nil, it specifies which buffers to list.

*** `kill-buffer-hook' is now a permanent local.

*** The function `frame-or-buffer-changed-p' now lets you maintain
various status records in parallel.

It takes a variable (a symbol) as argument.  If the variable is non-nil,
then its value should be a vector installed previously by
`frame-or-buffer-changed-p'.  If the frame names, buffer names, buffer
order, or their read-only or modified flags have changed, since the
time the vector's contents were recorded by a previous call to
`frame-or-buffer-changed-p', then the function returns t.  Otherwise
it returns nil.

On the first call to `frame-or-buffer-changed-p', the variable's
value should be nil.  `frame-or-buffer-changed-p' stores a suitable
vector into the variable and returns t.

If the variable is itself nil, then `frame-or-buffer-changed-p' uses,
for compatibility, an internal variable which exists only for this

*** The function `read-buffer' follows the convention for reading from
the minibuffer with a default value: if DEF is non-nil, the minibuffer
prompt provided in PROMPT is edited to show the default value provided
in DEF before the terminal colon and space.

** Searching and matching changes:

*** New function `looking-back' checks whether a regular expression matches
the text before point.  Specifying the LIMIT argument bounds how far
back the match can start; this is a way to keep it from taking too long.

*** The new variable `search-spaces-regexp' controls how to search
for spaces in a regular expression.  If it is non-nil, it should be a
regular expression, and any series of spaces stands for that regular
expression.  If it is nil, spaces stand for themselves.

Spaces inside of constructs such as `[..]' and inside loops such as
`*', `+', and `?' are never replaced with `search-spaces-regexp'.

*** New regular expression operators, `\_<' and `\_>'.

These match the beginning and end of a symbol.  A symbol is a
non-empty sequence of either word or symbol constituent characters, as
specified by the syntax table.

*** `skip-chars-forward' and `skip-chars-backward' now handle
character classes such as `[:alpha:]', along with individual
characters and ranges.

*** In `replace-match', the replacement text no longer inherits
properties from surrounding text.

*** The list returned by `(match-data t)' now has the buffer as a final
element, if the last match was on a buffer.  `set-match-data'
accepts such a list for restoring the match state.

*** Functions `match-data' and `set-match-data' now have an optional
argument `reseat'.  When non-nil, all markers in the match data list
passed to these functions will be reseated to point to nowhere.

*** rx.el has new corresponding `symbol-start' and `symbol-end' elements.

*** The default value of `sentence-end' is now defined using the new
variable `sentence-end-without-space', which contains such characters
that end a sentence without following spaces.

The function `sentence-end' should be used to obtain the value of the
variable `sentence-end'.  If the variable `sentence-end' is nil, then
this function returns the regexp constructed from the variables
`sentence-end-without-period', `sentence-end-double-space' and

** Undo changes:

*** `buffer-undo-list' allows programmable elements.

These elements have the form (apply FUNNAME . ARGS), where FUNNAME is
a symbol other than t or nil.  That stands for a high-level change
that should be undone by evaluating (apply FUNNAME ARGS).

These entries can also have the form (apply DELTA BEG END FUNNAME . ARGS)
which indicates that the change which took place was limited to the
range BEG...END and increased the buffer size by DELTA.

*** If the buffer's undo list for the current command gets longer than
`undo-outer-limit', garbage collection empties it.  This is to prevent
it from using up the available memory and choking Emacs.

** Killing and yanking changes:

*** New `yank-handler' text property can be used to control how
previously killed text on the kill ring is reinserted.

The value of the `yank-handler' property must be a list with one to four
elements with the following format:

The `insert-for-yank' function looks for a yank-handler property on
the first character on its string argument (typically the first
element on the kill-ring).  If a `yank-handler' property is found,
the normal behavior of `insert-for-yank' is modified in various ways:

  When FUNCTION is present and non-nil, it is called instead of `insert'
to insert the string.  FUNCTION takes one argument--the object to insert.
  If PARAM is present and non-nil, it replaces STRING as the object
passed to FUNCTION (or `insert'); for example, if FUNCTION is
`yank-rectangle', PARAM should be a list of strings to insert as a
  If NOEXCLUDE is present and non-nil, the normal removal of the
`yank-excluded-properties' is not performed; instead FUNCTION is
responsible for removing those properties.  This may be necessary
if FUNCTION adjusts point before or after inserting the object.
  If UNDO is present and non-nil, it is a function that will be called
by `yank-pop' to undo the insertion of the current object.  It is
called with two arguments, the start and end of the current region.
FUNCTION can set `yank-undo-function' to override the UNDO value.

*** The functions `kill-new', `kill-append', and `kill-region' now have an
optional argument to specify the `yank-handler' text property to put on
the killed text.

*** The function `yank-pop' will now use a non-nil value of the variable
`yank-undo-function' (instead of `delete-region') to undo the previous
`yank' or `yank-pop' command (or a call to `insert-for-yank').  The function
`insert-for-yank' automatically sets that variable according to the UNDO
element of the string argument's `yank-handler' text property if present.

*** The function `insert-for-yank' now supports strings where the
`yank-handler' property does not span the first character of the
string.  The old behavior is available if you call
`insert-for-yank-1' instead.

** Syntax table changes:

*** The new function `syntax-ppss' provides an efficient way to find the
current syntactic context at point.

*** The new function `syntax-after' returns the syntax code
of the character after a specified buffer position, taking account
of text properties as well as the character code.

*** `syntax-class' extracts the class of a syntax code (as returned
by `syntax-after').

*** The macro `with-syntax-table' no longer copies the syntax table.

** File operation changes:

*** New vars `exec-suffixes' and `load-suffixes' used when
searching for an executable or an Emacs Lisp file.

*** New function `locate-file' searches for a file in a list of directories.
`locate-file' accepts a name of a file to search (a string), and two
lists: a list of directories to search in and a list of suffixes to
try; typical usage might use `exec-path' and `load-path' for the list
of directories, and `exec-suffixes' and `load-suffixes' for the list
of suffixes.  The function also accepts a predicate argument to
further filter candidate files.

One advantage of using this function is that the list of suffixes in
`exec-suffixes' is OS-dependant, so this function will find
executables without polluting Lisp code with OS dependencies.

*** The new function `file-remote-p' tests a file name and returns
non-nil if it specifies a remote file (one that Emacs accesses using
its own special methods and not directly through the file system).
The value in that case is an identifier for the remote file system.

*** The new hook `before-save-hook' is invoked by `basic-save-buffer'
before saving buffers.  This allows packages to perform various final
tasks.  For example, it can be used by the copyright package to make
sure saved files have the current year in any copyright headers.

*** `file-chase-links' now takes an optional second argument LIMIT which
specifies the maximum number of links to chase through.  If after that
many iterations the file name obtained is still a symbolic link,
`file-chase-links' returns it anyway.

*** Functions `file-name-sans-extension' and `file-name-extension' now
ignore the leading dots in file names, so that file names such as
`.emacs' are treated as extensionless.

*** If `buffer-save-without-query' is non-nil in some buffer,
`save-some-buffers' will always save that buffer without asking (if
it's modified).

*** `buffer-auto-save-file-format' is the new name for what was
formerly called `auto-save-file-format'.  It is now a permanent local.

*** `visited-file-modtime' and `calendar-time-from-absolute' now return
a list of two integers, instead of a cons.

*** The precedence of file name handlers has been changed.

Instead of choosing the first handler that matches,
`find-file-name-handler' now gives precedence to a file name handler
that matches nearest the end of the file name.  More precisely, the
handler whose (match-beginning 0) is the largest is chosen.  In case
of ties, the old "first matched" rule applies.

*** A file name handler can declare which operations it handles.

You do this by putting an `operation' property on the handler name
symbol.  The property value should be a list of the operations that
the handler really handles.  It won't be called for any other

This is useful for autoloaded handlers, to prevent them from being
autoloaded when not really necessary.

*** The function `make-auto-save-file-name' is now handled by file
name handlers.  This will be exploited for remote files mainly.

*** The function `file-name-completion' accepts an optional argument
PREDICATE, and rejects completion candidates that don't satisfy PREDICATE.

*** The new primitive `set-file-times' sets a file's access and
modification times.  Magic file name handlers can handle this

** Input changes:

*** Functions `y-or-n-p', `read-char', `read-key-sequence' and the like, that
display a prompt but don't use the minibuffer, now display the prompt
using the text properties (esp. the face) of the prompt string.

*** The functions `read-event', `read-char', and `read-char-exclusive'
have a new optional argument SECONDS.  If non-nil, this specifies a
maximum time to wait for input, in seconds.  If no input arrives after
this time elapses, the functions stop waiting and return nil.

*** An interactive specification can now use the code letter `U' to get
the up-event that was discarded in case the last key sequence read for a
previous `k' or `K' argument was a down-event; otherwise nil is used.

*** The new interactive-specification `G' reads a file name
much like `F', but if the input is a directory name (even defaulted),
it returns just the directory name.

*** (while-no-input BODY...) runs BODY, but only so long as no input
arrives.  If the user types or clicks anything, BODY stops as if a
quit had occurred.  `while-no-input' returns the value of BODY, if BODY
finishes.  It returns nil if BODY was aborted by a quit, and t if
BODY was aborted by arrival of input.

*** `recent-keys' now returns the last 300 keys.

** Minibuffer changes:

*** The new function `minibufferp' returns non-nil if its optional
buffer argument is a minibuffer.  If the argument is omitted, it
defaults to the current buffer.

*** New function `minibuffer-selected-window' returns the window which
was selected when entering the minibuffer.

*** The `read-file-name' function now takes an additional argument which
specifies a predicate which the file name read must satisfy.  The
new variable `read-file-name-predicate' contains the predicate argument
while reading the file name from the minibuffer; the predicate in this
variable is used by read-file-name-internal to filter the completion list.

*** The new variable `read-file-name-function' can be used by Lisp code
to override the built-in `read-file-name' function.

*** The new variable `read-file-name-completion-ignore-case' specifies
whether completion ignores case when reading a file name with the
`read-file-name' function.

*** The new function `read-directory-name' is for reading a directory name.

It is like `read-file-name' except that the defaulting works better
for directories, and completion inside it shows only directories.

*** The new variable `history-add-new-input' specifies whether to add new
elements in history.  If set to nil, minibuffer reading functions don't
add new elements to the history list, so it is possible to do this
afterwards by calling `add-to-history' explicitly.

** Completion changes:

*** The new function `minibuffer-completion-contents' returns the contents
of the minibuffer just before point.  That is what completion commands
operate on.

*** The functions `all-completions' and `try-completion' now accept lists
of strings as well as hash-tables additionally to alists, obarrays
and functions.  Furthermore, the function `test-completion' is now
exported to Lisp.  The keys in alists and hash tables can be either
strings or symbols, which are automatically converted with to strings.

*** The new macro `dynamic-completion-table' supports using functions
as a dynamic completion table.

  (dynamic-completion-table FUN)

FUN is called with one argument, the string for which completion is required,
and it should return an alist containing all the intended possible
completions.  This alist can be a full list of possible completions so that FUN
can ignore the value of its argument.  If completion is performed in the
minibuffer, FUN will be called in the buffer from which the minibuffer was
entered.  `dynamic-completion-table' then computes the completion.

*** The new macro `lazy-completion-table' initializes a variable
as a lazy completion table.

  (lazy-completion-table VAR FUN)

If the completion table VAR is used for the first time (e.g., by passing VAR
as an argument to `try-completion'), the function FUN is called with no
arguments.  FUN must return the completion table that will be stored in VAR.
If completion is requested in the minibuffer, FUN will be called in the buffer
from which the minibuffer was entered.  The return value of
`lazy-completion-table' must be used to initialize the value of VAR.

** Abbrev changes:

*** `define-abbrev' now accepts an optional argument SYSTEM-FLAG.

If non-nil, this marks the abbrev as a "system" abbrev, which means
that it won't be stored in the user's abbrevs file if he saves the
abbrevs.  Major modes that predefine some abbrevs should always
specify this flag.

*** The new function `copy-abbrev-table' copies an abbrev table.

It returns a new abbrev table that is a copy of a given abbrev table.

** Enhancements to keymaps.

*** Cleaner way to enter key sequences.

You can enter a constant key sequence in a more natural format, the
same one used for saving keyboard macros, using the macro `kbd'.  For

(kbd "C-x C-f") => "\^x\^f"

Actually, this format has existed since Emacs 20.1.

*** Interactive commands can be remapped through keymaps.

This is an alternative to using `defadvice' or `substitute-key-definition'
to modify the behavior of a key binding using the normal keymap
binding and lookup functionality.

When a key sequence is bound to a command, and that command is
remapped to another command, that command is run instead of the
original command.

Suppose that minor mode `my-mode' has defined the commands
`my-kill-line' and `my-kill-word', and it wants C-k (and any other key
bound to `kill-line') to run the command `my-kill-line' instead of
`kill-line', and likewise it wants to run `my-kill-word' instead of

Instead of rebinding C-k and the other keys in the minor mode map,
command remapping allows you to directly map `kill-line' into
`my-kill-line' and `kill-word' into `my-kill-word' using `define-key':

   (define-key my-mode-map [remap kill-line] 'my-kill-line)
   (define-key my-mode-map [remap kill-word] 'my-kill-word)

When `my-mode' is enabled, its minor mode keymap is enabled too.  So
when the user types C-k, that runs the command `my-kill-line'.

Only one level of remapping is supported.  In the above example, this
means that if `my-kill-line' is remapped to `other-kill', then C-k still
runs `my-kill-line'.

The following changes have been made to provide command remapping:

- Command remappings are defined using `define-key' with a prefix-key
  `remap', i.e. `(define-key MAP [remap CMD] DEF)' remaps command CMD
  to definition DEF in keymap MAP.  The definition is not limited to
  another command; it can be anything accepted for a normal binding.

- The new function `command-remapping' returns the binding for a
  remapped command in the current keymaps, or nil if not remapped.

- `key-binding' now remaps interactive commands unless the optional
  third argument NO-REMAP is non-nil.

- `where-is-internal' now returns nil for a remapped command (e.g.
  `kill-line', when `my-mode' is enabled), and the actual key binding for
  the command it is remapped to (e.g. C-k for my-kill-line).
  It also has a new optional fifth argument, NO-REMAP, which inhibits
  remapping if non-nil (e.g. it returns "C-k" for `kill-line', and
  "<kill-line>" for `my-kill-line').

- The new variable `this-original-command' contains the original
  command before remapping.  It is equal to `this-command' when the
  command was not remapped.

*** The definition of a key-binding passed to define-key can use XEmacs-style
key-sequences, such as [(control a)].

*** New keymaps for typing file names

Two new keymaps, `minibuffer-local-filename-completion-map'  and
`minibuffer-local-must-match-filename-map', apply whenever
Emacs reads a file name in the minibuffer.  These key maps override
the usual binding of SPC to `minibuffer-complete-word' (so that file
names with embedded spaces could be typed without the need to quote
the spaces).

*** New function `current-active-maps' returns a list of currently
active keymaps.

*** New function `describe-buffer-bindings' inserts the list of all
defined keys and their definitions.

*** New function `keymap-prompt' returns the prompt string of a keymap.

*** If text has a `keymap' property, that keymap takes precedence
over minor mode keymaps.

*** The `keymap' property now also works at the ends of overlays and
text properties, according to their stickiness.  This also means that it
works with empty overlays.  The same hold for the `local-map' property.

*** `key-binding' will now look up mouse-specific bindings.  The
keymaps consulted by `key-binding' will get adapted if the key
sequence is started with a mouse event.  Instead of letting the click
position be determined from the key sequence itself, it is also
possible to specify it with an optional argument explicitly.

*** `define-key-after' now accepts keys longer than 1.

*** (map-keymap FUNCTION KEYMAP) applies the function to each binding
in the keymap.

*** New variable `emulation-mode-map-alists'.

Lisp packages using many minor mode keymaps can now maintain their own
keymap alist separate from `minor-mode-map-alist' by adding their
keymap alist to this list.

*** Dense keymaps now handle inheritance correctly.

Previously a dense keymap would hide all of the simple-char key
bindings of the parent keymap.

** Enhancements to process support

*** Adaptive read buffering of subprocess output.

On some systems, when Emacs reads the output from a subprocess, the
output data is read in very small blocks, potentially resulting in
very poor performance.  This behavior can be remedied to some extent
by setting the new variable `process-adaptive-read-buffering' to a
non-nil value (the default), as it will automatically delay reading
from such processes, allowing them to produce more output before
Emacs tries to read it.

*** Processes now have an associated property list where programs can
maintain process state and other per-process related information.

Use the new functions `process-get' and `process-put' to access, add,
and modify elements on this property list.  Use the new functions
`process-plist' and `set-process-plist' to access and replace the
entire property list of a process.

*** Function `list-processes' now has an optional argument; if non-nil,
it lists only the processes whose query-on-exit flag is set.

*** New fns `set-process-query-on-exit-flag' and `process-query-on-exit-flag'.

These replace the old function `process-kill-without-query'.  That
function is still supported, but new code should use the new

*** The new function `call-process-shell-command'.

This executes a shell command synchronously in a separate process.

*** The new function `process-file' is similar to `call-process', but
obeys file handlers.  The file handler is chosen based on

*** Function `signal-process' now accepts a process object or process
name in addition to a process id to identify the signaled process.

*** Function `accept-process-output' has a new optional fourth arg
JUST-THIS-ONE.  If non-nil, only output from the specified process
is handled, suspending output from other processes.  If value is an
integer, also inhibit running timers.  This feature is generally not
recommended, but may be necessary for specific applications, such as
speech synthesis.

*** A process filter function gets the output as multibyte string
if the process specifies t for its filter's multibyteness.

That multibyteness is decided by the value of
`default-enable-multibyte-characters' when the process is created, and
you can change it later with `set-process-filter-multibyte'.

*** The new function `set-process-filter-multibyte' sets the
multibyteness of the strings passed to the process's filter.

*** The new function `process-filter-multibyte-p' returns the
multibyteness of the strings passed to the process's filter.

*** If a process's coding system is `raw-text' or `no-conversion' and its
buffer is multibyte, the output of the process is at first converted
to multibyte by `string-to-multibyte' then inserted in the buffer.
Previously, it was converted to multibyte by `string-as-multibyte',
which was not compatible with the behavior of file reading.

** Enhanced networking support.

*** The new `make-network-process' function makes network connections.
It allows opening of stream and datagram connections to a server, as well as
create a stream or datagram server inside Emacs.

- A server is started using :server t arg.
- Datagram connection is selected using :type 'datagram arg.
- A server can open on a random port using :service t arg.
- Local sockets are supported using :family 'local arg.
- IPv6 is supported (when available).  You may explicitly select IPv6
  using :family 'ipv6 arg.
- Non-blocking connect is supported using :nowait t arg.
- The process' property list can be initialized using :plist PLIST arg;
  a copy of the server process' property list is automatically inherited
  by new client processes created to handle incoming connections.

To test for the availability of a given feature, use featurep like this:
  (featurep 'make-network-process '(:type datagram))
  (featurep 'make-network-process '(:family ipv6))

*** The old `open-network-stream' now uses `make-network-process'.

*** `process-contact' has an optional KEY argument.

Depending on this argument, you can get the complete list of network
process properties or a specific property.  Using :local or :remote as
the KEY, you get the address of the local or remote end-point.

An Inet address is represented as a 5 element vector, where the first
4 elements contain the IP address and the fifth is the port number.

*** New functions `stop-process' and `continue-process'.

These functions stop and restart communication through a network
connection.  For a server process, no connections are accepted in the
stopped state.  For a client process, no input is received in the
stopped state.

*** New function `format-network-address'.

This function reformats the Lisp representation of a network address
to a printable string.  For example, an IP address A.B.C.D and port
number P is represented as a five element vector [A B C D P], and the
printable string returned for this vector is "A.B.C.D:P".  See the doc
string for other formatting options.

*** New function `network-interface-list'.

This function returns a list of network interface names and their
current network addresses.

*** New function `network-interface-info'.

This function returns the network address, hardware address, current
status, and other information about a specific network interface.

*** New functions `process-datagram-address', `set-process-datagram-address'.

These functions are used with datagram-based network processes to get
and set the current address of the remote partner.

*** Deleting a network process with `delete-process' calls the sentinel.

The status message passed to the sentinel for a deleted network
process is "deleted".  The message passed to the sentinel when the
connection is closed by the remote peer has been changed to
"connection broken by remote peer".

** Using window objects:

*** You can now make a window as short as one line.

A window that is just one line tall does not display either a mode
line or a header line, even if the variables `mode-line-format' and
`header-line-format' call for them.  A window that is two lines tall
cannot display both a mode line and a header line at once; if the
variables call for both, only the mode line actually appears.

*** The new function `window-inside-edges' returns the edges of the
actual text portion of the window, not including the scroll bar or
divider line, the fringes, the display margins, the header line and
the mode line.

*** The new functions `window-pixel-edges' and `window-inside-pixel-edges'
return window edges in units of pixels, rather than columns and lines.

*** New function `window-body-height'.

This is like `window-height' but does not count the mode line or the
header line.

*** The new function `adjust-window-trailing-edge' moves the right
or bottom edge of a window.  It does not move other window edges.

*** The new macro `with-selected-window' temporarily switches the
selected window without impacting the order of `buffer-list'.
It saves and restores the current buffer, too.

*** `select-window' takes an optional second argument NORECORD.

This is like `switch-to-buffer'.

*** `save-selected-window' now saves and restores the selected window
of every frame.  This way, it restores everything that can be changed
by calling `select-window'.  It also saves and restores the current

*** `set-window-buffer' has an optional argument KEEP-MARGINS.

If non-nil, that says to preserve the window's current margin, fringe,
and scroll-bar settings.

*** The new function `window-tree' returns a frame's window tree.

*** The functions `get-lru-window' and `get-largest-window' take an optional
argument `dedicated'.  If non-nil, those functions do not ignore
dedicated windows.

** Customizable fringe bitmaps

*** There are new display properties, `left-fringe' and `right-fringe',
that can be used to show a specific bitmap in the left or right fringe
bitmap of the display line.

Format is `display (left-fringe BITMAP [FACE])', where BITMAP is a
symbol identifying a fringe bitmap, either built-in or defined with
`define-fringe-bitmap', and FACE is an optional face name to be used
for displaying the bitmap instead of the default `fringe' face.
When specified, FACE is automatically merged with the `fringe' face.

*** New buffer-local variables `fringe-indicator-alist' and
`fringe-cursor-alist' maps between logical (internal) fringe indicator
and cursor symbols and the actual fringe bitmaps to be displayed.
This decouples the logical meaning of the fringe indicators from the
physical appearance, as well as allowing different fringe bitmaps to
be used in different windows showing different buffers.

*** New function `define-fringe-bitmap' can now be used to create new
fringe bitmaps, as well as change the built-in fringe bitmaps.

*** New function `destroy-fringe-bitmap' deletes a fringe bitmap
or restores a built-in one to its default value.

*** New function `set-fringe-bitmap-face' specifies the face to be
used for a specific fringe bitmap.  The face is automatically merged
with the `fringe' face, so normally, the face should only specify the
foreground color of the bitmap.

*** New function `fringe-bitmaps-at-pos' returns the current fringe
bitmaps in the display line at a given buffer position.

** Other window fringe features:

*** Controlling the default left and right fringe widths.

The default left and right fringe widths for all windows of a frame
can now be controlled by setting the `left-fringe' and `right-fringe'
frame parameters to an integer value specifying the width in pixels.
Setting the width to 0 effectively removes the corresponding fringe.

The actual default fringe widths for the frame may deviate from the
specified widths, since the combined fringe widths must match an
integral number of columns.  The extra width is distributed evenly
between the left and right fringe.  To force a specific fringe width,
specify the width as a negative integer (if both widths are negative,
only the left fringe gets the specified width).

Setting the width to nil (the default), restores the default fringe
width which is the minimum number of pixels necessary to display any
of the currently defined fringe bitmaps.  The width of the built-in
fringe bitmaps is 8 pixels.

*** Per-window fringe and scrollbar settings

**** Windows can now have their own individual fringe widths and
position settings.

To control the fringe widths of a window, either set the buffer-local
variables `left-fringe-width', `right-fringe-width', or call

To control the fringe position in a window, that is, whether fringes
are positioned between the display margins and the window's text area,
or at the edges of the window, either set the buffer-local variable
`fringes-outside-margins' or call `set-window-fringes'.

The function `window-fringes' can be used to obtain the current
settings.  To make `left-fringe-width', `right-fringe-width', and
`fringes-outside-margins' take effect, you must set them before
displaying the buffer in a window, or use `set-window-buffer' to force
an update of the display margins.

**** Windows can now have their own individual scroll-bar settings
controlling the width and position of scroll-bars.

To control the scroll-bar of a window, either set the buffer-local
variables `scroll-bar-mode' and `scroll-bar-width', or call
`set-window-scroll-bars'.  The function `window-scroll-bars' can be
used to obtain the current settings.  To make `scroll-bar-mode' and
`scroll-bar-width' take effect, you must set them before displaying
the buffer in a window, or use `set-window-buffer' to force an update
of the display margins.

** Redisplay features:

*** `sit-for' can now be called with args (SECONDS &optional NODISP).

*** Iconifying or deiconifying a frame no longer makes sit-for return.

*** New function `redisplay' causes an immediate redisplay if no input is
available, equivalent to (sit-for 0).  The call (redisplay t) forces
an immediate redisplay even if input is pending.

*** New function `force-window-update' can initiate a full redisplay of
one or all windows.  Normally, this is not needed as changes in window
contents are detected automatically.  However, certain implicit
changes to mode lines, header lines, or display properties may require
forcing an explicit window update.

*** (char-displayable-p CHAR) returns non-nil if Emacs ought to be able
to display CHAR.  More precisely, if the selected frame's fontset has
a font to display the character set that CHAR belongs to.

Fontsets can specify a font on a per-character basis; when the fontset
does that, this value cannot be accurate.

*** You can define multiple overlay arrows via the new
variable `overlay-arrow-variable-list'.

It contains a list of variables which contain overlay arrow position
markers, including the original `overlay-arrow-position' variable.

Each variable on this list can have individual `overlay-arrow-string'
and `overlay-arrow-bitmap' properties that specify an overlay arrow
string (for non-window terminals) or fringe bitmap (for window
systems) to display at the corresponding overlay arrow position.
If either property is not set, the default `overlay-arrow-string' or
'overlay-arrow-fringe-bitmap' will be used.

*** New `line-height' and `line-spacing' properties for newline characters

A newline can now have `line-height' and `line-spacing' text or overlay
properties that control the height of the corresponding display row.

If the `line-height' property value is t, the newline does not
contribute to the height of the display row; instead the height of the
newline glyph is reduced.  Also, a `line-spacing' property on this
newline is ignored.  This can be used to tile small images or image
slices without adding blank areas between the images.

If the `line-height' property value is a positive integer, the value
specifies the minimum line height in pixels.  If necessary, the line
height it increased by increasing the line's ascent.

If the `line-height' property value is a float, the minimum line
height is calculated by multiplying the default frame line height by
the given value.

If the `line-height' property value is a cons (FACE . RATIO), the
minimum line height is calculated as RATIO * height of named FACE.
RATIO is int or float.  If FACE is t, it specifies the current face.

If the `line-height' property value is a cons (nil . RATIO), the line
height is calculated as RATIO * actual height of the line's contents.

If the `line-height' value is a cons (HEIGHT . TOTAL), HEIGHT specifies
the line height as described above, while TOTAL is any of the forms
described above and specifies the total height of the line, causing a
varying number of pixels to be inserted after the line to make it line
exactly that many pixels high.

If the `line-spacing' property value is an positive integer, the value
is used as additional pixels to insert after the display line; this
overrides the default frame `line-spacing' and any buffer local value of
the `line-spacing' variable.

If the `line-spacing' property is a float or cons, the line spacing
is calculated as specified above for the `line-height' property.

*** The buffer local `line-spacing' variable can now have a float value,
which is used as a height relative to the default frame line height.

*** Enhancements to stretch display properties

The display property stretch specification form `(space PROPS)', where
PROPS is a property list, now allows pixel based width and height
specifications, as well as enhanced horizontal text alignment.

The value of these properties can now be a (primitive) expression
which is evaluated during redisplay.  The following expressions
are supported:

UNIT ::= in | mm | cm | width | height
ELEM ::= left-fringe | right-fringe | left-margin | right-margin
      |  scroll-bar | text
POS  ::= left | center | right
FORM ::= (NUM . EXPR) | (OP EXPR ...)
OP   ::= + | -

The form `NUM' specifies a fractional width or height of the default
frame font size.  The form `(NUM)' specifies an absolute number of
pixels.  If a symbol is specified, its buffer-local variable binding
is used.  The `in', `mm', and `cm' units specifies the number of
pixels per inch, milli-meter, and centi-meter, resp.  The `width' and
`height' units correspond to the width and height of the current face
font.  An image specification corresponds to the width or height of
the image.

The `left-fringe', `right-fringe', `left-margin', `right-margin',
`scroll-bar', and `text' elements specify to the width of the
corresponding area of the window.

The `left', `center', and `right' positions can be used with :align-to
to specify a position relative to the left edge, center, or right edge
of the text area.  One of the above window elements (except `text')
can also be used with :align-to to specify that the position is
relative to the left edge of the given area.  Once the base offset for
a relative position has been set (by the first occurrence of one of
these symbols), further occurrences of these symbols are interpreted as
the width of the area.

For example, to align to the center of the left-margin, use
    :align-to (+ left-margin (0.5 . left-margin))

If no specific base offset is set for alignment, it is always relative
to the left edge of the text area.  For example, :align-to 0 in a
header line aligns with the first text column in the text area.

The value of the form `(NUM . EXPR)' is the value of NUM multiplied by
the value of the expression EXPR.  For example, (2 . in) specifies a
width of 2 inches, while (0.5 . IMAGE) specifies half the width (or
height) of the specified image.

The form `(+ EXPR ...)' adds up the value of the expressions.
The form `(- EXPR ...)' negates or subtracts the value of the expressions.

*** Normally, the cursor is displayed at the end of any overlay and
text property string that may be present at the current window
position.  The cursor can now be placed on any character of such
strings by giving that character a non-nil `cursor' text property.

*** The display space :width and :align-to text properties are now
supported on text terminals.

*** Support for displaying image slices

**** New display property (slice X Y WIDTH HEIGHT) can be used with
an image property to display only a specific slice of the image.

**** Function `insert-image' has new optional fourth arg to
specify image slice (X Y WIDTH HEIGHT).

**** New function `insert-sliced-image' inserts a given image as a
specified number of evenly sized slices (rows x columns).

*** Images can now have an associated image map via the :map property.

An image map is an alist where each element has the format (AREA ID PLIST).
An AREA is specified as either a rectangle, a circle, or a polygon:
A rectangle is a cons (rect . ((X0 . Y0) . (X1 . Y1))) specifying the
pixel coordinates of the upper left and bottom right corners.
A circle is a cons (circle . ((X0 . Y0) . R)) specifying the center
and the radius of the circle; R can be a float or integer.
A polygon is a cons (poly . [X0 Y0 X1 Y1 ...]) where each pair in the
vector describes one corner in the polygon.

When the mouse pointer is above a hot-spot area of an image, the
PLIST of that hot-spot is consulted; if it contains a `help-echo'
property it defines a tool-tip for the hot-spot, and if it contains
a `pointer' property, it defines the shape of the mouse cursor when
it is over the hot-spot.  See the variable `void-area-text-pointer'
for possible pointer shapes.

When you click the mouse when the mouse pointer is over a hot-spot,
an event is composed by combining the ID of the hot-spot with the
mouse event, e.g. [area4 mouse-1] if the hot-spot's ID is `area4'.

*** The function `find-image' now searches in etc/images/ and etc/.
The new variable `image-load-path' is a list of locations in which to
search for image files.  The default is to search in etc/images, then
in etc/, and finally in the directories specified by `load-path'.
Subdirectories of etc/ and etc/images are not recursively searched; if
you put an image file in a subdirectory, you have to specify it
explicitly; for example, if an image is put in etc/images/foo/bar.xpm:

  (defimage foo-image '((:type xpm :file "foo/bar.xpm")))

Note that all images formerly located in the lisp directory have been
moved to etc/images.

*** New function `image-load-path-for-library' returns a suitable
search path for images relative to library. This function is useful in
external packages to save users from having to update

*** The new variable `max-image-size' defines the maximum size of
images that Emacs will load and display.

*** The new variable `display-mm-dimensions-alist' can be used to
override incorrect graphical display dimensions returned by functions
`display-mm-height' and `display-mm-width'.

** Mouse pointer features:

*** The mouse pointer shape in void text areas (i.e. after the end of a
line or below the last line in the buffer) of the text window is now
controlled by the new variable `void-text-area-pointer'.  The default
is to use the `arrow' (non-text) pointer.  Other choices are `text'
(or nil), `hand', `vdrag', `hdrag', `modeline', and `hourglass'.

*** The mouse pointer shape over an image can now be controlled by the
:pointer image property.

*** The mouse pointer shape over ordinary text or images can now be
controlled/overridden via the `pointer' text property.

** Mouse event enhancements:

*** All mouse events now include a buffer position regardless of where
you clicked.  For mouse clicks in window margins and fringes, this is
a sensible buffer position corresponding to the surrounding text.

*** Mouse events for clicks on window fringes now specify `left-fringe'
or `right-fringe' as the area.

*** Mouse events include actual glyph column and row for all event types
and all areas.

*** Mouse events can now indicate an image object clicked on.

*** Mouse events include relative X and Y pixel coordinates relative to
the top left corner of the object (image or character) clicked on.

*** Mouse events include the pixel width and height of the object
(image or character) clicked on.

*** Function `mouse-set-point' now works for events outside text area.

*** `posn-point' now returns buffer position for non-text area events.

*** New function `posn-area' returns window area clicked on (nil means
text area).

*** New function `posn-actual-col-row' returns the actual glyph coordinates
of the mouse event position.

*** New functions 'posn-object', 'posn-object-x-y', 'posn-object-width-height'.

These return the image or string object of a mouse click, the X and Y
pixel coordinates relative to the top left corner of that object, and
the total width and height of that object.

** Text property and overlay changes:

*** Arguments for `remove-overlays' are now optional, so that you can
remove all overlays in the buffer with just (remove-overlays).

*** New variable `char-property-alias-alist'.

This variable allows you to create alternative names for text
properties.  It works at the same level as `default-text-properties',
although it applies to overlays as well.  This variable was introduced
to implement the `font-lock-face' property.

*** New function `get-char-property-and-overlay' accepts the same
arguments as `get-char-property' and returns a cons whose car is the
return value of `get-char-property' called with those arguments and
whose cdr is the overlay in which the property was found, or nil if
it was found as a text property or not found at all.

*** The new function `remove-list-of-text-properties'.

It is like `remove-text-properties' except that it takes a list of
property names as argument rather than a property list.

** Face changes

*** The variable `facemenu-unlisted-faces' has been removed.
Emacs has a lot more faces than in the past, and nearly all of them
needed to be excluded.  The new variable `facemenu-listed-faces' lists
the faces to include in the face menu.

*** The new face attribute condition `min-colors' can be used to tailor
the face color to the number of colors supported by a display, and
define the foreground and background colors accordingly so that they
look best on a terminal that supports at least this many colors.  This
is now the preferred method for defining default faces in a way that
makes a good use of the capabilities of the display.

*** New function `display-supports-face-attributes-p' can be used to test
whether a given set of face attributes is actually displayable.

A new predicate `supports' has also been added to the `defface' face
specification language, which can be used to do this test for faces
defined with `defface'.

*** The special treatment of faces whose names are of the form `fg:COLOR'
or `bg:COLOR' has been removed.  Lisp programs should use the
`defface' facility for defining faces with specific colors, or use
the feature of specifying the face attributes :foreground and :background
directly in the `face' property instead of using a named face.

*** The first face specification element in a defface can specify
`default' instead of frame classification.  Then its attributes act as
defaults that apply to all the subsequent cases (and can be overridden
by them).

*** The function `face-differs-from-default-p' now truly checks
whether the given face displays differently from the default face or
not (previously it did only a very cursory check).

*** `face-attribute', `face-foreground', `face-background', `face-stipple'.

These now accept a new optional argument, INHERIT, which controls how
face inheritance is used when determining the value of a face

*** New functions `face-attribute-relative-p' and `merge-face-attribute'
help with handling relative face attributes.

*** The priority of faces in an :inherit attribute face list is reversed.

If a face contains an :inherit attribute with a list of faces, earlier
faces in the list override later faces in the list; in previous
releases of Emacs, the order was the opposite.  This change was made
so that :inherit face lists operate identically to face lists in text
`face' properties.

*** The variable `face-font-rescale-alist' specifies how much larger
(or smaller) font we should use.  For instance, if the value is
'((SOME-FONTNAME-PATTERN . 1.3)) and a face requests a font of 10
point, we actually use a font of 13 point if the font matches

*** On terminals, faces with the :inverse-video attribute are displayed
with swapped foreground and background colors even when one of them is
not specified.  In previous releases of Emacs, if either foreground
or background color was unspecified, colors were not swapped.  This
was inconsistent with the face behavior under X.

*** `set-fontset-font', `fontset-info', `fontset-font' now operate on
the default fontset if the argument NAME is nil..

** Font-Lock changes:

*** New special text property `font-lock-face'.

This property acts like the `face' property, but it is controlled by
M-x font-lock-mode.  It is not, strictly speaking, a builtin text
property.  Instead, it is implemented inside font-core.el, using the
new variable `char-property-alias-alist'.

*** font-lock can manage arbitrary text-properties beside `face'.

**** the FACENAME returned in `font-lock-keywords' can be a list of the
form (face FACE PROP1 VAL1 PROP2 VAL2 ...) so you can set other
properties than `face'.

**** `font-lock-extra-managed-props' can be set to make sure those
extra properties are automatically cleaned up by font-lock.

*** jit-lock obeys a new text-property `jit-lock-defer-multiline'.

If a piece of text with that property gets contextually refontified
(see `jit-lock-defer-contextually'), then all of that text will
be refontified.  This is useful when the syntax of a textual element
depends on text several lines further down (and when `font-lock-multiline'
is not appropriate to solve that problem).  For example in Perl:


Adding/removing the last `e' changes the `bar' from being a piece of
text to being a piece of code, so you'd put a `jit-lock-defer-multiline'
property over the second half of the command to force (deferred)
refontification of `bar' whenever the `e' is added/removed.

*** `font-lock-extend-region-functions' makes it possible to alter the way
the fontification region is chosen.  This can be used to prevent rounding
up to whole lines, or to extend the region to include all related lines
of multiline constructs so that such constructs get properly recognized.

** Major mode mechanism changes:

*** New variable `magic-mode-alist' determines major mode for a file by
looking at the file contents.  It takes precedence over `auto-mode-alist'.

*** New variable `magic-fallback-mode-alist' determines major mode for a file by
looking at the file contents.  It is handled after `auto-mode-alist',
only if `auto-mode-alist' (and `magic-mode-alist') says nothing about the file.

*** XML or SGML major mode is selected when file starts with an `<?xml'
or `<!DOCTYPE' declaration.

*** An interpreter magic line (if present) takes precedence over the
file name when setting the major mode.

*** If new variable `auto-mode-case-fold' is set to a non-nil value,
Emacs will perform a second case-insensitive search through
`auto-mode-alist' if the first case-sensitive search fails.  This
means that a file FILE.TXT is opened in text-mode, and a file
PROG.HTML is opened in html-mode.  Note however, that independent of
this setting, *.C files are usually recognized as C++ files.  It also
has no effect on systems with case-insensitive file names.

*** All major mode functions should now run the new normal hook
`after-change-major-mode-hook', at their very end, after the mode
hooks.  `run-mode-hooks' does this automatically.

*** Major modes can define `eldoc-documentation-function'
locally to provide Eldoc functionality by some method appropriate to
the language.

*** Use the new function `run-mode-hooks' to run the major mode's mode hook.

*** The new function `run-mode-hooks' and the new macro `delay-mode-hooks'
are used by `define-derived-mode' to make sure the mode hook for the
parent mode is run at the end of the child mode.

*** `define-derived-mode' by default creates a new empty abbrev table.
It does not copy abbrevs from the parent mode's abbrev table.

*** If a major mode function has a non-nil `no-clone-indirect'
property, `clone-indirect-buffer' signals an error if you use
it in that buffer.

** Minor mode changes:

*** `define-minor-mode' now accepts arbitrary additional keyword arguments
and simply passes them to `defcustom', if applicable.

*** `define-globalized-minor-mode'.

This is a new name for what was formerly called
`easy-mmode-define-global-mode'.  The old name remains as an alias.

*** `minor-mode-list' now holds a list of minor mode commands.

** Command loop changes:

*** The new function `called-interactively-p' does what many people
have mistakenly believed `interactive-p' to do: it returns t if the
calling function was called through `call-interactively'.

Only use this when you cannot solve the problem by adding a new
INTERACTIVE argument to the command.

*** The function `commandp' takes an additional optional argument.

If it is non-nil, then `commandp' checks for a function that could be
called with `call-interactively', and does not return t for keyboard

*** When a command returns, the command loop moves point out from
within invisible text, in the same way it moves out from within text
covered by an image or composition property.

This makes it generally unnecessary to mark invisible text as intangible.
This is particularly good because the intangible property often has
unexpected side-effects since the property applies to everything
(including `goto-char', ...) whereas this new code is only run after
`post-command-hook' and thus does not care about intermediate states.

*** If a command sets `transient-mark-mode' to `only', that
enables Transient Mark mode for the following command only.
During that following command, the value of `transient-mark-mode'
is `identity'.  If it is still `identity' at the end of the command,
the next return to the command loop changes to nil.

*** Both the variable and the function `disabled-command-hook' have
been renamed to `disabled-command-function'.  The variable
`disabled-command-hook' has been kept as an obsolete alias.

*** `emacsserver' now runs `pre-command-hook' and `post-command-hook'
when it receives a request from emacsclient.

*** `current-idle-time' reports how long Emacs has been idle.

** Lisp file loading changes:

*** `load-history' can now have elements of the form (t . FUNNAME),
which means FUNNAME was previously defined as an autoload (before the
current file redefined it).

*** `load-history' now records (defun . FUNNAME) when a function is
defined.  For a variable, it records just the variable name.

*** The function `symbol-file' can now search specifically for function,
variable or face definitions.

*** `provide' and `featurep' now accept an optional second argument
to test/provide subfeatures.  Also `provide' now checks `after-load-alist'
and runs any code associated with the provided feature.

*** The variable `recursive-load-depth-limit' has been deleted.
Emacs now signals an error if the same file is loaded with more
than 3 levels of nesting.

** Byte compiler changes:

*** The byte compiler now displays the actual line and character
position of errors, where possible.  Additionally, the form of its
warning and error messages have been brought into line with GNU standards
for these.  As a result, you can use next-error and friends on the
compilation output buffer.

*** The new macro `with-no-warnings' suppresses all compiler warnings
inside its body.  In terms of execution, it is equivalent to `progn'.

*** You can avoid warnings for possibly-undefined symbols with a
simple convention that the compiler understands.  (This is mostly
useful in code meant to be portable to different Emacs versions.)
Write forms like the following, or code that macroexpands into such

  (if (fboundp 'foo) <then> <else>)
  (if (boundp 'foo) <then> <else)

In the first case, using `foo' as a function inside the <then> form
won't produce a warning if it's not defined as a function, and in the
second case, using `foo' as a variable won't produce a warning if it's
unbound.  The test must be in exactly one of the above forms (after
macro expansion), but such tests can be nested.  Note that `when' and
`unless' expand to `if', but `cond' doesn't.

*** `(featurep 'xemacs)' is treated by the compiler as nil.  This
helps to avoid noisy compiler warnings in code meant to run under both
Emacs and XEmacs and can sometimes make the result significantly more
efficient.  Since byte code from recent versions of XEmacs won't
generally run in Emacs and vice versa, this optimization doesn't lose
you anything.

*** The local variable `no-byte-compile' in Lisp files is now obeyed.

*** When a Lisp file uses CL functions at run-time, compiling the file
now issues warnings about these calls, unless the file performs
(require 'cl) when loaded.

** Frame operations:

*** New functions `frame-current-scroll-bars' and `window-current-scroll-bars'.

These functions return the current locations of the vertical and
horizontal scroll bars in a frame or window.

*** The new function `modify-all-frames-parameters' modifies parameters
for all (existing and future) frames.

*** The new frame parameter `tty-color-mode' specifies the mode to use
for color support on character terminal frames.  Its value can be a
number of colors to support, or a symbol.  See the Emacs Lisp
Reference manual for more detailed documentation.

*** When using non-toolkit scroll bars with the default width,
the `scroll-bar-width' frame parameter value is nil.

** Mode line changes:

*** New function `format-mode-line'.

This returns the mode line or header line of the selected (or a
specified) window as a string with or without text properties.

*** The new mode-line construct `(:propertize ELT PROPS...)' can be
used to add text properties to mode-line elements.

*** The new `%i' and `%I' constructs for `mode-line-format' can be used
to display the size of the accessible part of the buffer on the mode

*** Mouse-face on mode-line (and header-line) is now supported.

** Menu manipulation changes:

*** To manipulate the File menu using easy-menu, you must specify the
proper name "file".  In previous Emacs versions, you had to specify
"files", even though the menu item itself was changed to say "File"
several versions ago.

*** The dummy function keys made by easy-menu are now always lower case.
If you specify the menu item name "Ada", for instance, it uses `ada'
as the "key" bound by that key binding.

This is relevant only if Lisp code looks for the bindings that were
made with easy-menu.

*** `easy-menu-define' now allows you to use nil for the symbol name
if you don't need to give the menu a name.  If you install the menu
into other keymaps right away (MAPS is non-nil), it usually doesn't
need to have a name.

** Mule changes:

*** Already true in Emacs 21.1, but not emphasized clearly enough:

Multibyte buffers can now faithfully record all 256 character codes
from 0 to 255.  As a result, most of the past reasons to use unibyte
buffers no longer exist.  We only know of three reasons to use them

1. If you prefer to use unibyte text all of the time.

2. For reading files into temporary buffers, when you want to avoid
the time it takes to convert the format.

3. For binary files where format conversion would be pointless and

*** The new variable `auto-coding-functions' lets you specify functions
to examine a file being visited and deduce the proper coding system
for it.  (If the coding system is detected incorrectly for a specific
file, you can put a `coding:' tags to override it.)

*** The new variable `ascii-case-table' stores the case table for the
ascii character set.  Language environments (such as Turkish) may
alter the case correspondences of ASCII characters.  This variable
saves the original ASCII case table before any such changes.

*** The new function `merge-coding-systems' fills in unspecified aspects
of one coding system from another coding system.

*** New coding system property `mime-text-unsuitable' indicates that
the coding system's `mime-charset' is not suitable for MIME text
parts, e.g. utf-16.

*** New function `decode-coding-inserted-region' decodes a region as if
it is read from a file without decoding.

*** New CCL functions `lookup-character' and `lookup-integer' access
hash tables defined by the Lisp function `define-translation-hash-table'.

*** New function `quail-find-key' returns a list of keys to type in the
current input method to input a character.

*** `set-buffer-file-coding-system' now takes an additional argument,
NOMODIFY.  If it is non-nil, it means don't mark the buffer modified.

** Operating system access:

*** The new primitive `get-internal-run-time' returns the processor
run time used by Emacs since start-up.

*** Functions `user-uid' and `user-real-uid' now return floats if the
user UID doesn't fit in a Lisp integer.  Function `user-full-name'
accepts a float as UID parameter.

*** New function `locale-info' accesses locale information.

*** On MS Windows, locale-coding-system is used to interact with the OS.
The Windows specific variable w32-system-coding-system, which was
formerly used for that purpose is now an alias for locale-coding-system.

*** New function `redirect-debugging-output' can be used to redirect
debugging output on the stderr file handle to a file.

** GC changes:

*** New variable `gc-cons-percentage' automatically grows the GC cons threshold
as the heap size increases.

*** New variables `gc-elapsed' and `gcs-done' provide extra information
on garbage collection.

*** The normal hook `post-gc-hook' is run at the end of garbage collection.

The hook is run with GC inhibited, so use it with care.

** Miscellaneous:

*** A number of hooks have been renamed to better follow the conventions:

`find-file-hooks' to `find-file-hook',
`find-file-not-found-hooks' to `find-file-not-found-functions',
`write-file-hooks' to `write-file-functions',
`write-contents-hooks' to `write-contents-functions',
`x-lost-selection-hooks' to `x-lost-selection-functions',
`x-sent-selection-hooks' to `x-sent-selection-functions',
`delete-frame-hook' to `delete-frame-functions'.

In each case the old name remains as an alias for the moment.

*** Variable `local-write-file-hooks' is marked obsolete.

Use the LOCAL arg of `add-hook'.

*** New function `x-send-client-message' sends a client message when
running under X.
* New Packages for Lisp Programming in Emacs 22.1

** The new library button.el implements simple and fast `clickable
buttons' in Emacs buffers.  Buttons are much lighter-weight than the
`widgets' implemented by widget.el, and can be used by lisp code that
doesn't require the full power of widgets.  Emacs uses buttons for
such things as help and apropos buffers.

** The new library tree-widget.el provides a widget to display a set
of hierarchical data as an outline.  For example, the tree-widget is
well suited to display a hierarchy of directories and files.

** The new library bindat.el provides functions to unpack and pack
binary data structures, such as network packets, to and from Lisp
data structures.

** master-mode.el implements a minor mode for scrolling a slave
buffer without leaving your current buffer, the master buffer.

It can be used by sql.el, for example: the SQL buffer is the master
and its SQLi buffer is the slave.  This allows you to scroll the SQLi
buffer containing the output from the SQL buffer containing the

This is how to use sql.el and master.el together: the variable
sql-buffer contains the slave buffer.  It is a local variable in the
SQL buffer.

(add-hook 'sql-mode-hook
   (function (lambda ()
	       (master-mode t)
	       (master-set-slave sql-buffer))))
(add-hook 'sql-set-sqli-hook
   (function (lambda ()
	       (master-set-slave sql-buffer))))

** The new library benchmark.el does timing measurements on Lisp code.

This includes measuring garbage collection time.

** The new library testcover.el does test coverage checking.

This is so you can tell whether you've tested all paths in your Lisp
code.  It works with edebug.

The function `testcover-start' instruments all functions in a given
file.  Then test your code.  The function `testcover-mark-all' adds
overlay "splotches" to the Lisp file's buffer to show where coverage
is lacking.  The command `testcover-next-mark' (bind it to a key!)
will move point forward to the next spot that has a splotch.

Normally, a red splotch indicates the form was never completely
evaluated; a brown splotch means it always evaluated to the same
value.  The red splotches are skipped for forms that can't possibly
complete their evaluation, such as `error'.  The brown splotches are
skipped for forms that are expected to always evaluate to the same
value, such as (setq x 14).

For difficult cases, you can add do-nothing macros to your code to
help out the test coverage tool.  The macro `noreturn' suppresses a
red splotch.  It is an error if the argument to `noreturn' does
return.  The macro `1value' suppresses a brown splotch for its argument.
This macro is a no-op except during test-coverage -- then it signals
an error if the argument actually returns differing values.

This file is part of GNU Emacs.

GNU Emacs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
any later version.

GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU Emacs; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to the
Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.

Local variables:
mode: outline
paragraph-separate: "[ 	]*$"

arch-tag: 1aca9dfa-2ac4-4d14-bebf-0007cee12793