.\" .\" Copyright (c) 1992, 1993, 1994 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" This code is derived from software donated to Berkeley by .\" John Heidemann of the UCLA Ficus project. .\" .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software .\" must display the following acknowledgement: .\" This product includes software developed by the University of .\" California, Berkeley and its contributors. .\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)mount_null.8 8.6 (Berkeley) 5/1/95 .\" .\" .Dd May 1, 1995 .Dt MOUNT_NULL 8 .Os BSD 4.4 .Sh NAME .Nm mount_null .Nd mount a loopback filesystem sub-tree; demonstrate the use of a null file system layer .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm mount_null .Op Fl o Ar options .Ar target .Ar mount-point .Sh DESCRIPTION The .Nm mount_null command creates a null layer, duplicating a sub-tree of the file system name space under another part of the global file system namespace. This allows existing files and directories to be accessed using a different pathname. .Pp The primary differences between a virtual copy of the filesystem and a symbolic link are that .Xr getcwd 3 functions correctly in the virtual copy, and that other filesystems may be mounted on the virtual copy without affecting the original. A different device number for the virtual copy is returned by .Xr stat 2 , but in other respects it is indistinguishable from the original. .Pp The .Nm mount_null filesystem differs from a traditional loopback file system in two respects: it is implemented using a stackable layers techniques, and it's .Do null-node .Dc s stack above all lower-layer vnodes, not just over directory vnodes. .Pp The options are as follows: .Bl -tag -width indent .It Fl o Options are specified with a .Fl o flag followed by a comma separated string of options. See the .Xr mount 8 man page for possible options and their meanings. .El .Pp The null layer has two purposes. First, it serves as a demonstration of layering by proving a layer which does nothing. (It actually does everything the loopback file system does, which is slightly more than nothing.) Second, the null layer can serve as a prototype layer. Since it provides all necessary layer framework, new file system layers can be created very easily be starting with a null layer. .Pp The remainder of this man page examines the null layer as a basis for constructing new layers. .\" .\" .Sh INSTANTIATING NEW NULL LAYERS New null layers are created with .Xr mount_null 8 . .Xr Mount_null 8 takes two arguments, the pathname of the lower vfs (target-pn) and the pathname where the null layer will appear in the namespace (mount-point-pn). After the null layer is put into place, the contents of target-pn subtree will be aliased under mount-point-pn. .\" .\" .Sh OPERATION OF A NULL LAYER The null layer is the minimum file system layer, simply bypassing all possible operations to the lower layer for processing there. The majority of its activity centers on the bypass routine, though which nearly all vnode operations pass. .Pp The bypass routine accepts arbitrary vnode operations for handling by the lower layer. It begins by examing vnode operation arguments and replacing any null-nodes by their lower-layer equivalents. It then invokes the operation on the lower layer. Finally, it replaces the null-nodes in the arguments and, if a vnode is returned by the operation, stacks a null-node on top of the returned vnode. .Pp Although bypass handles most operations, .Em vop_getattr , .Em vop_inactive , .Em vop_reclaim , and .Em vop_print are not bypassed. .Em Vop_getattr must change the fsid being returned. .Em Vop_inactive and vop_reclaim are not bypassed so that they can handle freeing null-layer specific data. .Em Vop_print is not bypassed to avoid excessive debugging information. .\" .\" .Sh INSTANTIATING VNODE STACKS Mounting associates the null layer with a lower layer, in effect stacking two VFSes. Vnode stacks are instead created on demand as files are accessed. .Pp The initial mount creates a single vnode stack for the root of the new null layer. All other vnode stacks are created as a result of vnode operations on this or other null vnode stacks. .Pp New vnode stacks come into existence as a result of an operation which returns a vnode. The bypass routine stacks a null-node above the new vnode before returning it to the caller. .Pp For example, imagine mounting a null layer with .Bd -literal -offset indent mount_null /usr/include /dev/layer/null .Ed Changing directory to .Pa /dev/layer/null will assign the root null-node (which was created when the null layer was mounted). Now consider opening .Pa sys . A vop_lookup would be done on the root null-node. This operation would bypass through to the lower layer which would return a vnode representing the UFS .Pa sys . Null_bypass then builds a null-node aliasing the UFS .Pa sys and returns this to the caller. Later operations on the null-node .Pa sys will repeat this process when constructing other vnode stacks. .\" .\" .Sh CREATING OTHER FILE SYSTEM LAYERS One of the easiest ways to construct new file system layers is to make a copy of the null layer, rename all files and variables, and then begin modifyng the copy. Sed can be used to easily rename all variables. .Pp The umap layer is an example of a layer descended from the null layer. .\" .\" .Sh INVOKING OPERATIONS ON LOWER LAYERS There are two techniques to invoke operations on a lower layer when the operation cannot be completely bypassed. Each method is appropriate in different situations. In both cases, it is the responsibility of the aliasing layer to make the operation arguments "correct" for the lower layer by mapping an vnode arguments to the lower layer. .Pp The first approach is to call the aliasing layer's bypass routine. This method is most suitable when you wish to invoke the operation currently being handled on the lower layer. It has the advantage the the bypass routine already must do argument mapping. An example of this is .Em null_getattrs in the null layer. .Pp A second approach is to directly invoked vnode operations on the lower layer with the .Em VOP_OPERATIONNAME interface. The advantage of this method is that it is easy to invoke arbitrary operations on the lower layer. The disadvantage is that vnodes arguments must be manually mapped. .\" .\" .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr mount 8 .sp UCLA Technical Report CSD-910056, .Em "Stackable Layers: an Architecture for File System Development" . .Sh HISTORY The .Nm mount_null utility first appeared in 4.4BSD.