texinfo.tex   [plain text]

% texinfo.tex -- TeX macros to handle Texinfo files.
% Load plain if necessary, i.e., if running under initex.
\expandafter\ifx\csname fmtname\endcsname\relax\input plain\fi
% Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995,
% 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Free Software
% Foundation, Inc.
% This texinfo.tex file is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
% modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
% published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at
% your option) any later version.
% This texinfo.tex file is distributed in the hope that it will be
% useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty
% General Public License for more details.
% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
% along with this texinfo.tex file; see the file COPYING.  If not, write
% to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
% Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
% As a special exception, when this file is read by TeX when processing
% a Texinfo source document, you may use the result without
% restriction.  (This has been our intent since Texinfo was invented.)
% Please try the latest version of texinfo.tex before submitting bug
% reports; you can get the latest version from:
%   http://www.gnu.org/software/texinfo/ (the Texinfo home page), or
%   ftp://tug.org/tex/texinfo.tex
%     (and all CTAN mirrors, see http://www.ctan.org).
% The texinfo.tex in any given distribution could well be out
% of date, so if that's what you're using, please check.
% Send bug reports to bug-texinfo@gnu.org.  Please include including a
% complete document in each bug report with which we can reproduce the
% problem.  Patches are, of course, greatly appreciated.
% To process a Texinfo manual with TeX, it's most reliable to use the
% texi2dvi shell script that comes with the distribution.  For a simple
% manual foo.texi, however, you can get away with this:
%   tex foo.texi
%   texindex foo.??
%   tex foo.texi
%   tex foo.texi
%   dvips foo.dvi -o  # or whatever; this makes foo.ps.
% The extra TeX runs get the cross-reference information correct.
% Sometimes one run after texindex suffices, and sometimes you need more
% than two; texi2dvi does it as many times as necessary.
% It is possible to adapt texinfo.tex for other languages, to some
% extent.  You can get the existing language-specific files from the
% full Texinfo distribution.
% The GNU Texinfo home page is http://www.gnu.org/software/texinfo.

\message{Loading texinfo [version \texinfoversion]:}

% If in a .fmt file, print the version number
% and turn on active characters that we couldn't do earlier because
% they might have appeared in the input file name.
\everyjob{\message{[Texinfo version \texinfoversion]}%
  \catcode`+=\active \catcode`\_=\active}


% We never want plain's \outer definition of \+ in Texinfo.
% For @tex, we can use \tabalign.
\let\+ = \relax

% Save some plain tex macros whose names we will redefine.

% If this character appears in an error message or help string, it
% starts a new line in the output.
\newlinechar = `^^J

% Use TeX 3.0's \inputlineno to get the line number, for better error
% messages, but if we're using an old version of TeX, don't do anything.
  \let\linenumber = \empty % Pre-3.0.

% Set up fixed words for English if not already set.
\ifx\putwordAppendix\undefined  \gdef\putwordAppendix{Appendix}\fi
\ifx\putwordChapter\undefined   \gdef\putwordChapter{Chapter}\fi
\ifx\putwordfile\undefined      \gdef\putwordfile{file}\fi
\ifx\putwordin\undefined        \gdef\putwordin{in}\fi
\ifx\putwordIndexIsEmpty\undefined     \gdef\putwordIndexIsEmpty{(Index is empty)}\fi
\ifx\putwordIndexNonexistent\undefined \gdef\putwordIndexNonexistent{(Index is nonexistent)}\fi
\ifx\putwordInfo\undefined      \gdef\putwordInfo{Info}\fi
\ifx\putwordInstanceVariableof\undefined \gdef\putwordInstanceVariableof{Instance Variable of}\fi
\ifx\putwordMethodon\undefined  \gdef\putwordMethodon{Method on}\fi
\ifx\putwordNoTitle\undefined   \gdef\putwordNoTitle{No Title}\fi
\ifx\putwordof\undefined        \gdef\putwordof{of}\fi
\ifx\putwordon\undefined        \gdef\putwordon{on}\fi
\ifx\putwordpage\undefined      \gdef\putwordpage{page}\fi
\ifx\putwordsection\undefined   \gdef\putwordsection{section}\fi
\ifx\putwordSection\undefined   \gdef\putwordSection{Section}\fi
\ifx\putwordsee\undefined       \gdef\putwordsee{see}\fi
\ifx\putwordSee\undefined       \gdef\putwordSee{See}\fi
\ifx\putwordShortTOC\undefined  \gdef\putwordShortTOC{Short Contents}\fi
\ifx\putwordTOC\undefined       \gdef\putwordTOC{Table of Contents}\fi
\ifx\putwordMJan\undefined \gdef\putwordMJan{January}\fi
\ifx\putwordMFeb\undefined \gdef\putwordMFeb{February}\fi
\ifx\putwordMMar\undefined \gdef\putwordMMar{March}\fi
\ifx\putwordMApr\undefined \gdef\putwordMApr{April}\fi
\ifx\putwordMMay\undefined \gdef\putwordMMay{May}\fi
\ifx\putwordMJun\undefined \gdef\putwordMJun{June}\fi
\ifx\putwordMJul\undefined \gdef\putwordMJul{July}\fi
\ifx\putwordMAug\undefined \gdef\putwordMAug{August}\fi
\ifx\putwordMSep\undefined \gdef\putwordMSep{September}\fi
\ifx\putwordMOct\undefined \gdef\putwordMOct{October}\fi
\ifx\putwordMNov\undefined \gdef\putwordMNov{November}\fi
\ifx\putwordMDec\undefined \gdef\putwordMDec{December}\fi
\ifx\putwordDefmac\undefined    \gdef\putwordDefmac{Macro}\fi
\ifx\putwordDefspec\undefined   \gdef\putwordDefspec{Special Form}\fi
\ifx\putwordDefvar\undefined    \gdef\putwordDefvar{Variable}\fi
\ifx\putwordDefopt\undefined    \gdef\putwordDefopt{User Option}\fi
\ifx\putwordDeffunc\undefined   \gdef\putwordDeffunc{Function}\fi

% In some macros, we cannot use the `\? notation---the left quote is
% in some cases the escape char.
\chardef\colonChar = `\:
\chardef\commaChar = `\,
\chardef\dotChar   = `\.
\chardef\exclamChar= `\!
\chardef\questChar = `\?
\chardef\semiChar  = `\;
\chardef\underChar = `\_

\chardef\spaceChar = `\ %
\chardef\spacecat = 10

% Ignore a token.

% The following is used inside several \edef's.

% Hyphenation fixes.
  Flor-i-da Ghost-script Ghost-view Mac-OS ap-pen-dix bit-map bit-maps
  data-base data-bases eshell fall-ing half-way long-est man-u-script
  man-u-scripts mini-buf-fer mini-buf-fers over-view par-a-digm
  par-a-digms rec-tan-gu-lar ro-bot-ics se-vere-ly set-up spa-ces
  stand-alone strong-est time-stamp time-stamps which-ever white-space
  wide-spread wrap-around

% Margin to add to right of even pages, to left of odd pages.
\newdimen\pagewidth \newdimen\pageheight

% For a final copy, take out the rectangles
% that mark overfull boxes (in case you have decided
% that the text looks ok even though it passes the margin).

% @| inserts a changebar to the left of the current line.  It should
% surround any changed text.  This approach does *not* work if the
% change spans more than two lines of output.  To handle that, we would
% have adopt a much more difficult approach (putting marks into the main
% vertical list for the beginning and end of each change).
  % \vadjust can only be used in horizontal mode.
  % Append this vertical mode material after the current line in the output.
    % We want to insert a rule with the height and depth of the current
    % leading; that is exactly what \strutbox is supposed to record.
    % \vadjust-items are inserted at the left edge of the type.  So
    % the \llap here moves out into the left-hand margin.
      % For a thicker or thinner bar, change the `1pt'.
      \vrule height\baselineskip width1pt
      % This is the space between the bar and the text.
      \hskip 12pt

% Sometimes it is convenient to have everything in the transcript file
% and nothing on the terminal.  We don't just call \tracingall here,
% since that produces some useless output on the terminal.  We also make
% some effort to order the tracing commands to reduce output in the log
% file; cf. trace.sty in LaTeX.
\def\gloggingall{\begingroup \globaldefs = 1 \loggingall \endgroup}%
  \tracinglostchars2  % 2 gives us more in etex
  \showboxbreadth\maxdimen \showboxdepth\maxdimen
  \ifx\eTeXversion\undefined\else % etex gives us more logging
  \tracingcommands3  % 3 gives us more in etex

% add check for \lastpenalty to plain's definitions.  If the last thing
% we did was a \nobreak, we don't want to insert more space.

% For @cropmarks command.
% Do @cropmarks to get crop marks.
\let\cropmarks = \cropmarkstrue
% Dimensions to add cropmarks at corners.
% Added by P. A. MacKay, 12 Nov. 1986
\newdimen\outerhsize \newdimen\outervsize % set by the paper size routines
\newdimen\cornerlong  \cornerlong=1pc
\newdimen\cornerthick \cornerthick=.3pt
\newdimen\topandbottommargin \topandbottommargin=.75in

% Main output routine.
\chardef\PAGE = 255
\output = {\onepageout{\pagecontents\PAGE}}


% \onepageout takes a vbox as an argument.  Note that \pagecontents
% does insertions, but you have to call it yourself.
  \ifcropmarks \hoffset=0pt \else \hoffset=\normaloffset \fi
  \ifodd\pageno  \advance\hoffset by \bindingoffset
  \else \advance\hoffset by -\bindingoffset\fi
  % Do this outside of the \shipout so @code etc. will be expanded in
  % the headline as they should be, not taken literally (outputting ''code).
  \setbox\headlinebox = \vbox{\let\hsize=\pagewidth \makeheadline}%
  \setbox\footlinebox = \vbox{\let\hsize=\pagewidth \makefootline}%
    % Have to do this stuff outside the \shipout because we want it to
    % take effect in \write's, yet the group defined by the \vbox ends
    % before the \shipout runs.
    \escapechar = `\\     % use backslash in output files.
    \indexdummies         % don't expand commands in the output.
    \normalturnoffactive  % \ in index entries must not stay \, e.g., if
                   % the page break happens to be in the middle of an example.
      % Do this early so pdf references go to the beginning of the page.
      \ifpdfmakepagedest \pdfdest name{\the\pageno} xyz\fi
      \ifcropmarks \vbox to \outervsize\bgroup
        \hsize = \outerhsize
        \vtop to0pt{%
          \hfil % center the page within the outer (page) hsize.
      \ifdim\ht\footlinebox > 0pt
        % Only leave this space if the footline is nonempty.
        % (We lessened \vsize for it in \oddfootingxxx.)
        % The \baselineskip=24pt in plain's \makefootline has no effect.
        \vskip 2\baselineskip
          \egroup % end of \vbox\bgroup
        \hfil\egroup % end of (centering) \line\bgroup
        \vskip\topandbottommargin plus1fill minus1fill
        \boxmaxdepth = \cornerthick
        \vbox to0pt{\vss
      \egroup % \vbox from first cropmarks clause
    }% end of \shipout\vbox
  }% end of group with \normalturnoffactive
  \ifnum\outputpenalty>-20000 \else\dosupereject\fi

\newinsert\margin \dimen\margin=\maxdimen

\def\pagebody#1{\vbox to\pageheight{\boxmaxdepth=\maxdepth #1}}
{\catcode`\@ =11
% marginal hacks, juha@viisa.uucp (Juha Takala)
\ifvoid\margin\else % marginal info is present
  \rlap{\kern\hsize\vbox to\z@{\kern1pt\box\margin \vss}}\fi
\dimen@=\dp#1 \unvbox#1
\ifvoid\footins\else\vskip\skip\footins\footnoterule \unvbox\footins\fi
\ifr@ggedbottom \kern-\dimen@ \vfil \fi}

% Here are the rules for the cropmarks.  Note that they are
% offset so that the space between them is truly \outerhsize or \outervsize
% (P. A. MacKay, 12 November, 1986)
\def\ewtop{\vrule height\cornerthick depth0pt width\cornerlong}
  {\hrule height\cornerthick depth\cornerlong width\cornerthick}}
\def\ewbot{\vrule height0pt depth\cornerthick width\cornerlong}
  {\hrule height\cornerlong depth\cornerthick width\cornerthick}}

% Parse an argument, then pass it to #1.  The argument is the rest of
% the input line (except we remove a trailing comment).  #1 should be a
% macro which expects an ordinary undelimited TeX argument.
    \parseargline\empty% Insert the \empty token, see \finishparsearg below.

{\obeylines %
    \endgroup % End of the group started in \parsearg.
    \argremovecomment #1\comment\ArgTerm%

% First remove any @comment, then any @c comment.
\def\argremovecomment#1\comment#2\ArgTerm{\argremovec #1\c\ArgTerm}

% Each occurence of `\^^M' or `<space>\^^M' is replaced by a single space.
% \argremovec might leave us with trailing space, e.g.,
%    @end itemize  @c foo
% This space token undergoes the same procedure and is eventually removed
% by \finishparsearg.
\def\argcheckspaces#1\^^M{\argcheckspacesX#1\^^M \^^M}
\def\argcheckspacesX#1 \^^M{\argcheckspacesY#1\^^M}
    % We cannot use \next here, as it holds the macro to run;
    % thus we reuse \temp.
  % Put the space token in:
  \temp#1 #3\ArgTerm

% If a _delimited_ argument is enclosed in braces, they get stripped; so
% to get _exactly_ the rest of the line, we had to prevent such situation.
% We prepended an \empty token at the very beginning and we expand it now,
% just before passing the control to \next.
% (Similarily, we have to think about #3 of \argcheckspacesY above: it is
% either the null string, or it ends with \^^M---thus there is no danger
% that a pair of braces would be stripped.
% But first, we have to remove the trailing space token.
\def\finishparsearg#1 \ArgTerm{\expandafter\next\expandafter{#1}}

% \parseargdef\foo{...}
%	is roughly equivalent to
% \def\foo{\parsearg\Xfoo}
% \def\Xfoo#1{...}
% Actually, I use \csname\string\foo\endcsname, ie. \\foo, as it is my
% favourite TeX trick.  --kasal, 16nov03

  \expandafter \doparseargdef \csname\string#1\endcsname #1%

% Several utility definitions with active space:
  \gdef\obeyedspace{ }

  % Make each space character in the input produce a normal interword
  % space in the output.  Don't allow a line break at this space, as this
  % is used only in environments like @example, where each line of input
  % should produce a line of output anyway.
  \gdef\sepspaces{\obeyspaces\let =\tie}

  % If an index command is used in an @example environment, any spaces
  % therein should become regular spaces in the raw index file, not the
  % expansion of \tie (\leavevmode \penalty \@M \ ).
  \gdef\unsepspaces{\let =\space}

\def\flushcr{\ifx\par\lisppar \def\next##1{}\else \let\next=\relax \fi \next}

% Define the framework for environments in texinfo.tex.  It's used like this:
%   \envdef\foo{...}
%   \def\Efoo{...}
% It's the responsibility of \envdef to insert \begingroup before the
% actual body; @end closes the group after calling \Efoo.  \envdef also
% defines \thisenv, so the current environment is known; @end checks
% whether the environment name matches.  The \checkenv macro can also be
% used to check whether the current environment is the one expected.
% Non-false conditionals (@iftex, @ifset) don't fit into this, so they
% are not treated as enviroments; they don't open a group.  (The
% implementation of @end takes care not to call \endgroup in this
% special case.)

% At runtime, environments start with this:
% initialize

% ... but they get defined via ``\envdef\foo{...}'':

% Check whether we're in the right environment:

% Evironment mismatch, #1 expected:
  \errhelp = \EMsimple
  \errmessage{This command can appear only \inenvironment\temp,
    not \inenvironment\thisenv}%
    out of any environment%
    in environment \expandafter\string#1%

% @end foo executes the definition of \Efoo.
% But first, it executes a specialized version of \checkenv
  \if 1\csname iscond.#1\endcsname
    % The general wording of \badenverr may not be ideal, but... --kasal, 06nov03
    \csname E#1\endcsname

\newhelp\EMsimple{Press RETURN to continue.}

%% Simple single-character @ commands

% @@ prints an @
% Kludge this until the fonts are right (grr).

% This is turned off because it was never documented
% and you can use @w{...} around a quote to suppress ligatures.
%% Define @` and @' to be the same as ` and '
%% but suppressing ligatures.

% Used to generate quoted braces.
\def\mylbrace {{\tt\char123}}
\def\myrbrace {{\tt\char125}}
  % Definitions to produce \{ and \} commands for indices,
  % and @{ and @} for the aux file.
  \catcode`\{ = \other \catcode`\} = \other
  \catcode`\[ = 1 \catcode`\] = 2
  \catcode`\! = 0 \catcode`\\ = \other

% @comma{} to avoid , parsing problems.
\let\comma = ,

% Accents: @, @dotaccent @ringaccent @ubaraccent @udotaccent
% Others are defined by plain TeX: @` @' @" @^ @~ @= @u @v @H.
\let\, = \c
\let\dotaccent = \.
\def\ringaccent#1{{\accent23 #1}}
\let\tieaccent = \t
\let\ubaraccent = \b
\let\udotaccent = \d

% Other special characters: @questiondown @exclamdown @ordf @ordm
% Plain TeX defines: @AA @AE @O @OE @L (plus lowercase versions) @ss.
\def\ordf{\leavevmode\raise1ex\hbox{\selectfonts\lllsize \underbar{a}}}
\def\ordm{\leavevmode\raise1ex\hbox{\selectfonts\lllsize \underbar{o}}}

% Dotless i and dotless j, used for accents.
  \ifx\temp\imacro \ptexi
  \else\ifx\temp\jmacro \j
  \else \errmessage{@dotless can be used only with i or j}%

% The \TeX{} logo, as in plain, but resetting the spacing so that a
% period following counts as ending a sentence.  (Idea found in latex.)
\edef\TeX{\TeX \spacefactor=3000 }

% @LaTeX{} logo.  Not quite the same results as the definition in
% latex.ltx, since we use a different font for the raised A; it's most
% convenient for us to use an explicitly smaller font, rather than using
% the \scriptstyle font (since we don't reset \scriptstyle and
% \scriptscriptstyle).
   \vbox to \ht0{\hbox{\selectfonts\lllsize A}\vss}}%

% Be sure we're in horizontal mode when doing a tie, since we make space
% equivalent to this in @example-like environments. Otherwise, a space
% at the beginning of a line will start with \penalty -- and
% since \penalty is valid in vertical mode, we'd end up putting the
% penalty on the vertical list instead of in the new paragraph.
{\catcode`@ = 11
 % Avoid using \@M directly, because that causes trouble
 % if the definition is written into an index file.
 \global\let\tiepenalty = \@M
 \gdef\tie{\leavevmode\penalty\tiepenalty\ }

% @: forces normal size whitespace following.
\def\:{\spacefactor=1000 }

% @* forces a line break.

% @/ allows a line break.

% @. is an end-of-sentence period.
\def\.{.\spacefactor=3000 }

% @! is an end-of-sentence bang.
\def\!{!\spacefactor=3000 }

% @? is an end-of-sentence query.
\def\?{?\spacefactor=3000 }

% @w prevents a word break.  Without the \leavevmode, @w at the
% beginning of a paragraph, when TeX is still in vertical mode, would
% produce a whole line of output instead of starting the paragraph.

% @group ... @end group forces ... to be all on one page, by enclosing
% it in a TeX vbox.  We use \vtop instead of \vbox to construct the box
% to keep its height that of a normal line.  According to the rules for
% \topskip (p.114 of the TeXbook), the glue inserted is
% max (\topskip - \ht (first item), 0).  If that height is large,
% therefore, no glue is inserted, and the space between the headline and
% the text is small, which looks bad.
% Another complication is that the group might be very large.  This can
% cause the glue on the previous page to be unduly stretched, because it
% does not have much material.  In this case, it's better to add an
% explicit \vfill so that the extra space is at the bottom.  The
% threshold for doing this is if the group is more than \vfilllimit
% percent of a page (\vfilllimit can be changed inside of @tex).
  \ifnum\catcode`\^^M=\active \else
    \errhelp = \groupinvalidhelp
    \errmessage{@group invalid in context where filling is enabled}%
  \setbox\groupbox = \vtop\bgroup
    % Do @comment since we are called inside an environment such as
    % @example, where each end-of-line in the input causes an
    % end-of-line in the output.  We don't want the end-of-line after
    % the `@group' to put extra space in the output.  Since @group
    % should appear on a line by itself (according to the Texinfo
    % manual), we don't worry about eating any user text.
% The \vtop produces a box with normal height and large depth; thus, TeX puts
% \baselineskip glue before it, and (when the next line of text is done)
% \lineskip glue after it.  Thus, space below is not quite equal to space
% above.  But it's pretty close.
    % To get correct interline space between the last line of the group
    % and the first line afterwards, we have to propagate \prevdepth.
    \endgraf % Not \par, as it may have been set to \lisppar.
    \global\dimen1 = \prevdepth
  \egroup           % End the \vtop.
  % \dimen0 is the vertical size of the group's box.
  \dimen0 = \ht\groupbox  \advance\dimen0 by \dp\groupbox
  % \dimen2 is how much space is left on the page (more or less).
  \dimen2 = \pageheight   \advance\dimen2 by -\pagetotal
  % if the group doesn't fit on the current page, and it's a big big
  % group, force a page break.
  \ifdim \dimen0 > \dimen2
    \ifdim \pagetotal < \vfilllimit\pageheight
  \prevdepth = \dimen1
% TeX puts in an \escapechar (i.e., `@') at the beginning of the help
% message, so this ends up printing `@group can only ...'.
group can only be used in environments such as @example,^^J%
where each line of input produces a line of output.}

% @need space-in-mils
% forces a page break if there is not space-in-mils remaining.

\newdimen\mil  \mil=0.001in

% Old definition--didn't work.
%\parseargdef\need{\par %
%% This method tries to make TeX break the page naturally
%% if the depth of the box does not fit.
%\vtop to #1\mil{\vfil}\kern -#1\mil\nobreak

  % Ensure vertical mode, so we don't make a big box in the middle of a
  % paragraph.
  % If the @need value is less than one line space, it's useless.
  \dimen0 = #1\mil
  \dimen2 = \ht\strutbox
  \advance\dimen2 by \dp\strutbox
  \ifdim\dimen0 > \dimen2
    % Do a \strut just to make the height of this box be normal, so the
    % normal leading is inserted relative to the preceding line.
    % And a page break here is fine.
    \vtop to #1\mil{\strut\vfil}%
    % TeX does not even consider page breaks if a penalty added to the
    % main vertical list is 10000 or more.  But in order to see if the
    % empty box we just added fits on the page, we must make it consider
    % page breaks.  On the other hand, we don't want to actually break the
    % page after the empty box.  So we use a penalty of 9999.
    % There is an extremely small chance that TeX will actually break the
    % page at this \penalty, if there are no other feasible breakpoints in
    % sight.  (If the user is using lots of big @group commands, which
    % almost-but-not-quite fill up a page, TeX will have a hard time doing
    % good page breaking, for example.)  However, I could not construct an
    % example where a page broke at this \penalty; if it happens in a real
    % document, then we can reconsider our strategy.
    % Back up by the size of the box, whether we did a page break or not.
    \kern -#1\mil
    % Do not allow a page break right after this kern.

% @br   forces paragraph break (and is undocumented).

\let\br = \par

% @page forces the start of a new page.

% @exdent text....
% outputs text on separate line in roman font, starting at standard page margin

% This records the amount of indent in the innermost environment.
% That's how much \exdent should take out.

% This defn is used inside fill environments such as @defun.
\parseargdef\exdent{\hfil\break\hbox{\kern -\exdentamount{\rm#1}}\hfil\break}

% This defn is used inside nofill environments such as @example.
\parseargdef\nofillexdent{{\advance \leftskip by -\exdentamount

% @inmargin{WHICH}{TEXT} puts TEXT in the WHICH margin next to the current
% paragraph.  For more general purposes, use the \margin insertion
% class.  WHICH is `l' or `r'.
\newskip\inmarginspacing \inmarginspacing=1cm
  \vtop to \strutdepth{%
    % if you have multiple lines of stuff to put here, you'll need to
    % make the vbox yourself of the appropriate size.
      \llap{\ignorespaces #2\hskip\inmarginspacing}%
      \rlap{\hskip\hsize \hskip\inmarginspacing \ignorespaces #2}%
\def\inleftmargin{\doinmargin l}
\def\inrightmargin{\doinmargin r}
% @inmargin{TEXT [, RIGHT-TEXT]}
% (if RIGHT-TEXT is given, use TEXT for left page, RIGHT-TEXT for right;
% else use TEXT for both).
\def\inmargin#1{\parseinmargin #1,,\finish}
\def\parseinmargin#1,#2,#3\finish{% not perfect, but better than nothing.
  \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}%
  \ifdim\wd0 > 0pt
    \def\lefttext{#1}%  have both texts
    \def\lefttext{#1}%  have only one text
    \def\temp{\inrightmargin\righttext}% odd page -> outside is right margin

% @include file    insert text of that file as input.
    \def\temp{\input #1 }%

\def\pushthisfilestackY #1\StackTerm #2\StackTerm {%

\def\errthisfilestackempty{\errmessage{Internal error:
  the stack of filenames is empty.}}


% @center line
% outputs that line, centered.
  \next{\hfil \ignorespaces#1\unskip \hfil}%
    \advance\hsize by -\leftskip
    \advance\hsize by -\rightskip
\def\centerV#1{\line{\kern\leftskip #1\kern\rightskip}}

% @sp n   outputs n lines of vertical space

\parseargdef\sp{\vskip #1\baselineskip}

% @comment ...line which is ignored...
% @c is the same as @comment
% @ignore ... @end ignore  is another way to write a comment

\def\comment{\begingroup \catcode`\^^M=\other%
\catcode`\@=\other \catcode`\{=\other \catcode`\}=\other%
{\catcode`\^^M=\other \gdef\commentxxx#1^^M{\endgroup}}


% @paragraphindent NCHARS
% We'll use ems for NCHARS, close enough.
% NCHARS can also be the word `asis' or `none'.
% We cannot feasibly implement @paragraphindent asis, though.
\def\asisword{asis} % no translation, these are keywords
      \defaultparindent = 0pt
      \defaultparindent = #1em
  \parindent = \defaultparindent

% @exampleindent NCHARS
% We'll use ems for NCHARS like @paragraphindent.
% It seems @exampleindent asis isn't necessary, but
% I preserve it to make it similar to @paragraphindent.
      \lispnarrowing = 0pt
      \lispnarrowing = #1em

% @firstparagraphindent WORD
% If WORD is `none', then suppress indentation of the first paragraph
% after a section heading.  If WORD is `insert', then do indent at such
% paragraphs.
% The paragraph indentation is suppressed or not by calling
% \suppressfirstparagraphindent, which the sectioning commands do.
% We switch the definition of this back and forth according to WORD.
% By default, we suppress indentation.
    \let\suppressfirstparagraphindent = \dosuppressfirstparagraphindent
    \let\suppressfirstparagraphindent = \relax
    \errhelp = \EMsimple
    \errmessage{Unknown @firstparagraphindent option `\temp'}%

% Here is how we actually suppress indentation.  Redefine \everypar to
% \kern backwards by \parindent, and then reset itself to empty.
% We also make \indent itself not actually do anything until the next
% paragraph.
  \global\everypar = {%
    \kern -\parindent

  \global \let \indent = \ptexindent
  \global \let \noindent = \ptexnoindent
  \global \everypar = {}%

% @asis just yields its argument.  Used with @table, for example.

% @math outputs its argument in math mode.
% One complication: _ usually means subscripts, but it could also mean
% an actual _ character, as in @math{@var{some_variable} + 1}.  So make
% _ active, and distinguish by seeing if the current family is \slfam,
% which is what @var uses.
  \catcode\underChar = \active
    \def_{\ifnum\fam=\slfam \_\else\sb\fi}%
% Another complication: we want \\ (and @\) to output a \ character.
% FYI, plain.tex uses \\ as a temporary control sequence (why?), but
% this is not advertised and we don't care.  Texinfo does not
% otherwise define @\.
% The \mathchar is class=0=ordinary, family=7=ttfam, position=5C=\.
\def\mathbackslash{\ifnum\fam=\ttfam \mathchar"075C \else\backslash \fi}
  \let\\ = \mathbackslash
\def\finishmath#1{#1$\endgroup}  % Close the group opened by \tex.

% Some active characters (such as <) are spaced differently in math.
% We have to reset their definitions in case the @math was an argument
% to a command which sets the catcodes (such as @item or @section).
  \catcode`^ = \active
  \catcode`< = \active
  \catcode`> = \active
  \catcode`+ = \active
    \let^ = \ptexhat
    \let< = \ptexless
    \let> = \ptexgtr
    \let+ = \ptexplus

% @bullet and @minus need the same treatment as @math, just above.

% @dots{} outputs an ellipsis using the current font.
% We do .5em per period so that it has the same spacing in a typewriter
% font as three actual period characters.
  \hbox to 1.5em{%
    \hskip 0pt plus 0.25fil
    \hskip 0pt plus 0.5fil

% @enddots{} is an end-of-sentence ellipsis.

% @comma{} is so commas can be inserted into text without messing up
% Texinfo's parsing.
\let\comma = ,

% @refill is a no-op.

% If working on a large document in chapters, it is convenient to
% be able to disable indexing, cross-referencing, and contents, for test runs.
% This is done with @novalidate (before @setfilename).
\newif\iflinks \linkstrue % by default we want the aux files.
\let\novalidate = \linksfalse

% @setfilename is done at the beginning of every texinfo file.
% So open here the files we need to have open while reading the input.
% This makes it possible to make a .fmt file for texinfo.
   \fixbackslash  % Turn off hack to swallow `\input texinfo'.
     % Open the new aux file.  TeX will close it automatically at exit.
   \fi % \openindices needs to do some work in any case.
   \let\setfilename=\comment % Ignore extra @setfilename cmds.
   % If texinfo.cnf is present on the system, read it.
   % Useful for site-wide @afourpaper, etc.
   \openin 1 texinfo.cnf
   \ifeof 1 \else \input texinfo.cnf \fi
   \closein 1
   \comment % Ignore the actual filename.

% Called from \setfilename.

% @bye.

% adobe `portable' document format

  \let\pdfmkdest = \gobble
  \let\pdfurl = \gobble
  \let\endlink = \relax
  \let\linkcolor = \relax
  \let\pdfmakeoutlines = \relax
  \pdfoutput = 1
  \input pdfcolor
  \pdfcatalog{/PageMode /UseOutlines}%
    % without \immediate, pdftex seg faults when the same image is
    % included twice.  (Version 3.14159-pre-1.0-unofficial-20010704.)
    \ifnum\pdftexversion < 14
      \ifx\empty\imagewidth\else width \imagewidth \fi
      \ifx\empty\imageheight\else height \imageheight \fi
    \ifnum\pdftexversion < 14 \else
      \pdfrefximage \pdflastximage
    % We have to set dummies so commands such as @code in a section title
    % aren't expanded.
    \pdfdest name{#1} xyz%
  \let\linkcolor = \Blue  % was Cyan, but that seems light?
  % Adding outlines to PDF; macros for calculating structure of outlines
  % come from Petr Olsak
  \def\expnumber#1{\expandafter\ifx\csname#1\endcsname\relax 0%
    \else \csname#1\endcsname \fi}
    \advance\tempnum by 1
  % #1 is the section text.  #2 is the pdf expression for the number
  % of subentries (or empty, for subsubsections).  #3 is the node
  % text, which might be empty if this toc entry had no
  % corresponding node.  #4 is the page number.
    % Generate a link to the node text if that exists; else, use the
    % page number.  We could generate a destination for the section
    % text in the case where a section has no node, but it doesn't
    % seem worthwhile, since most documents are normally structured.
    \ifx\pdfoutlinedest\empty \def\pdfoutlinedest{#4}\fi
    \pdfoutline goto name{\pdfmkpgn{\pdfoutlinedest}}#2{#1}%
      % Thanh's hack / proper braces in bookmarks
      \edef\mylbrace{\iftrue \string{\else}\fi}\let\{=\mylbrace
      % Read toc silently, to get counts of subentries for \pdfoutline.
      % use \def rather than \let here because we redefine \chapentry et
      % al. a second time, below.
      \input \jobname.toc
      % Read toc second time, this time actually producing the outlines.
      % The `-' means take the \expnumber as the absolute number of
      % subentries, which we calculated on our first read of the .toc above.
      % We use the node names as the destinations.
      \def\numsubsubsecentry##1##2##3##4{% count is always zero
      % PDF outlines are displayed using system fonts, instead of
      % document fonts.  Therefore we cannot use special characters,
      % since the encoding is unknown.  For example, the eogonek from
      % Latin 2 (0xea) gets translated to a | character.  Info from
      % Staszek Wawrykiewicz, 19 Jan 2004 04:09:24 +0100.
      % xx to do this right, we have to translate 8-bit characters to
      % their "best" equivalent, based on the @documentencoding.  Right
      % now, I guess we'll just let the pdf reader have its way.
      \input \jobname.toc
  \def\makelinks #1,{%
      \startlink attr{/Border [0 0 0]}
        goto name{\pdfmkpgn{\the\pgn}}%
      \linkcolor #1%
      \advance\lnkcount by 1%
  \def\pdfmklnk#1{\lnkcount=0\makelinks #1,END,}
        \advance\filenamelength by 1
  \ifnum\pdftexversion < 14
    \let \startlink \pdfannotlink
    \let \startlink \pdfstartlink
      \startlink attr{/Border [0 0 0]}%
        user{/Subtype /Link /A << /S /URI /URI (#1) >>}%
    \else\ifx\first1\adn1 \else\ifx\first2\adn2 \else\ifx\first3\adn3
    \else\ifx\first4\adn4 \else\ifx\first5\adn5 \else\ifx\first6\adn6
    \else\ifx\first7\adn7 \else\ifx\first8\adn8 \else\ifx\first9\adn9
    \startlink attr{/Border [0 0 0]} goto name{\pdfmkpgn{#1}}
    \linkcolor #1\endlink}
\fi % \ifx\pdfoutput


% Change the current font style to #1, remembering it in \curfontstyle.
% For now, we do not accumulate font styles: @b{@i{foo}} prints foo in
% italics, not bold italics.
  \def\curfontstyle{#1}% not as a control sequence, because we are \edef'd.
  \csname ten#1\endcsname  % change the current font

% Select #1 fonts with the current style.
\def\selectfonts#1{\csname #1fonts\endcsname \csname\curfontstyle\endcsname}

\def\rm{\fam=0 \setfontstyle{rm}}
\def\it{\fam=\itfam \setfontstyle{it}}
\def\sl{\fam=\slfam \setfontstyle{sl}}
\def\bf{\fam=\bffam \setfontstyle{bf}}
\def\tt{\fam=\ttfam \setfontstyle{tt}}

% Texinfo sort of supports the sans serif font style, which plain TeX does not.
% So we set up a \sf.
\def\sf{\fam=\sffam \setfontstyle{sf}}
\let\li = \sf % Sometimes we call it \li, not \sf.

% We don't need math for this font style.

% Default leading.
\newdimen\textleading  \textleading = 13.2pt

% Set the baselineskip to #1, and the lineskip and strut size
% correspondingly.  There is no deep meaning behind these magic numbers
% used as factors; they just match (closely enough) what Knuth defined.
\def\strutdepthpercent {.29167}
  \normalbaselineskip = #1\relax
  \normallineskip = \lineskipfactor\normalbaselineskip
  \setbox\strutbox =\hbox{%
    \vrule width0pt height\strutheightpercent\baselineskip
                    depth \strutdepthpercent \baselineskip

% Set the font macro #1 to the font named #2, adding on the
% specified font prefix (normally `cm').
% #3 is the font's design size, #4 is a scale factor
\def\setfont#1#2#3#4{\font#1=\fontprefix#2#3 scaled #4}

% Use cm as the default font prefix.
% To specify the font prefix, you must define \fontprefix
% before you read in texinfo.tex.
% Support font families that don't use the same naming scheme as CM.
\def\rmbshape{bx}               %where the normal face is bold

% Text fonts (11.2pt, magstep1).
  % not really supported.
\font\texti=cmmi10 scaled \mainmagstep
\font\textsy=cmsy10 scaled \mainmagstep

% A few fonts for @defun names and args.
\def\df{\let\tentt=\deftt \let\tenbf = \defbf \let\tenttsl=\defttsl \bf}

% Fonts for indices, footnotes, small examples (9pt).

% Fonts for small examples (8pt).

% Fonts for title page (20.4pt):
\font\titlei=cmmi12 scaled \magstep3
\font\titlesy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep4

% Chapter (and unnumbered) fonts (17.28pt).
\font\chapi=cmmi12 scaled \magstep2
\font\chapsy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep3

% Section fonts (14.4pt).
\font\seci=cmmi12 scaled \magstep1
\font\secsy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep2

% Subsection fonts (13.15pt).
\font\sseci=cmmi12 scaled \magstephalf
\font\ssecsy=cmsy10 scaled 1315

% Reduced fonts for @acro in text (10pt).

% In order for the font changes to affect most math symbols and letters,
% we have to define the \textfont of the standard families.  Since
% texinfo doesn't allow for producing subscripts and superscripts except
% in the main text, we don't bother to reset \scriptfont and
% \scriptscriptfont (which would also require loading a lot more fonts).
  \textfont0=\tenrm \textfont1=\teni \textfont2=\tensy
  \textfont\itfam=\tenit \textfont\slfam=\tensl \textfont\bffam=\tenbf
  \textfont\ttfam=\tentt \textfont\sffam=\tensf

% The font-changing commands redefine the meanings of \tenSTYLE, instead
% of just \STYLE.  We do this because \STYLE needs to also set the
% current \fam for math mode.  Our \STYLE (e.g., \rm) commands hardwire
% \tenSTYLE to set the current font.
% Each font-changing command also sets the names \lsize (one size lower)
% and \lllsize (three sizes lower).  These relative commands are used in
% the LaTeX logo and acronyms.
% This all needs generalizing, badly.
  \let\tenrm=\textrm \let\tenit=\textit \let\tensl=\textsl
  \let\tenbf=\textbf \let\tentt=\texttt \let\smallcaps=\textsc
  \let\tensf=\textsf \let\teni=\texti \let\tensy=\textsy
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{\textleading}}
  \let\tenrm=\titlerm \let\tenit=\titleit \let\tensl=\titlesl
  \let\tenbf=\titlebf \let\tentt=\titlett \let\smallcaps=\titlesc
  \let\tensf=\titlesf \let\teni=\titlei \let\tensy=\titlesy
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{25pt}}
\def\titlefont#1{{\titlefonts\rm #1}}
  \let\tenrm=\chaprm \let\tenit=\chapit \let\tensl=\chapsl
  \let\tenbf=\chapbf \let\tentt=\chaptt \let\smallcaps=\chapsc
  \let\tensf=\chapsf \let\teni=\chapi \let\tensy=\chapsy \let\tenttsl=\chapttsl
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{19pt}}
  \let\tenrm=\secrm \let\tenit=\secit \let\tensl=\secsl
  \let\tenbf=\secbf \let\tentt=\sectt \let\smallcaps=\secsc
  \let\tensf=\secsf \let\teni=\seci \let\tensy=\secsy
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{16pt}}
  \let\tenrm=\ssecrm \let\tenit=\ssecit \let\tensl=\ssecsl
  \let\tenbf=\ssecbf \let\tentt=\ssectt \let\smallcaps=\ssecsc
  \let\tensf=\ssecsf \let\teni=\sseci \let\tensy=\ssecsy
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{15pt}}
\let\subsubsecfonts = \subsecfonts
  \let\tenrm=\reducedrm \let\tenit=\reducedit \let\tensl=\reducedsl
  \let\tenbf=\reducedbf \let\tentt=\reducedtt \let\reducedcaps=\reducedsc
  \let\tensf=\reducedsf \let\teni=\reducedi \let\tensy=\reducedsy
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{10.5pt}}
  \let\tenrm=\smallrm \let\tenit=\smallit \let\tensl=\smallsl
  \let\tenbf=\smallbf \let\tentt=\smalltt \let\smallcaps=\smallsc
  \let\tensf=\smallsf \let\teni=\smalli \let\tensy=\smallsy
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{10.5pt}}
  \let\tenrm=\smallerrm \let\tenit=\smallerit \let\tensl=\smallersl
  \let\tenbf=\smallerbf \let\tentt=\smallertt \let\smallcaps=\smallersc
  \let\tensf=\smallersf \let\teni=\smalleri \let\tensy=\smallersy
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{9.5pt}}

% Set the fonts to use with the @small... environments.
\let\smallexamplefonts = \smallfonts

% About \smallexamplefonts.  If we use \smallfonts (9pt), @smallexample
% can fit this many characters:
%   8.5x11=86   smallbook=72  a4=90  a5=69
% If we use \scriptfonts (8pt), then we can fit this many characters:
%   8.5x11=90+  smallbook=80  a4=90+  a5=77
% For me, subjectively, the few extra characters that fit aren't worth
% the additional smallness of 8pt.  So I'm making the default 9pt.
% By the way, for comparison, here's what fits with @example (10pt):
%   8.5x11=71  smallbook=60  a4=75  a5=58
% I wish the USA used A4 paper.
% --karl, 24jan03.

% Set up the default fonts, so we can use them for creating boxes.
\textfonts \rm

% Define these so they can be easily changed for other fonts.

% Count depth in font-changes, for error checks
\newcount\fontdepth \fontdepth=0

% Fonts for short table of contents.
\setfont\shortcontbf\bfshape{10}{\magstep1}  % no cmb12

%% Add scribe-like font environments, plus @l for inline lisp (usually sans
%% serif) and @ii for TeX italic

% \smartitalic{ARG} outputs arg in italics, followed by an italic correction
% unless the following character is such as not to need one.
\def\smartslanted#1{{\ifusingtt\ttsl\sl #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}
\def\smartitalic#1{{\ifusingtt\ttsl\it #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}

% like \smartslanted except unconditionally uses \ttsl.
% @var is set to this for defun arguments.
\def\ttslanted#1{{\ttsl #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}

% like \smartslanted except unconditionally use \sl.  We never want
% ttsl for book titles, do we?
\def\cite#1{{\sl #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}


\def\b#1{{\bf #1}}

% We can't just use \exhyphenpenalty, because that only has effect at
% the end of a paragraph.  Restore normal hyphenation at the end of the
% group within which \nohyphenation is presumably called.
\def\nohyphenation{\hyphenchar\font = -1  \aftergroup\restorehyphenation}
\def\restorehyphenation{\hyphenchar\font = `- }

% Set sfcode to normal for the chars that usually have another value.
% Can't use plain's \frenchspacing because it uses the `\x notation, and
% sometimes \x has an active definition that messes things up.
    \sfcode\dotChar  =\@m \sfcode\questChar=\@m \sfcode\exclamChar=\@m
    \sfcode\colonChar=\@m \sfcode\semiChar =\@m \sfcode\commaChar =\@m

  {\tt \rawbackslash \frenchspacing #1}%
\def\key#1{{\keyrm\textfont2=\keysy \leavevmode\hbox{%
% The old definition, with no lozenge:
%\def\key #1{{\ttsl \nohyphenation \uppercase{#1}}\null}
\def\ctrl #1{{\tt \rawbackslash \hat}#1}

% @file, @option are the same as @samp.

% @code is a modification of @t,
% which makes spaces the same size as normal in the surrounding text.
    % Change normal interword space to be same as for the current font.
    \spaceskip = \fontdimen2\font
    % Switch to typewriter.
    % But `\ ' produces the large typewriter interword space.
    \def\ {{\spaceskip = 0pt{} }}%
    % Turn off hyphenation.

% We *must* turn on hyphenation at `-' and `_' in @code.
% Otherwise, it is too hard to avoid overfull hboxes
% in the Emacs manual, the Library manual, etc.

% Unfortunately, TeX uses one parameter (\hyphenchar) to control
% both hyphenation at - and hyphenation within words.
% We must therefore turn them both off (\tclose does that)
% and arrange explicitly to hyphenate at a dash.
%  -- rms.
    \catcode`\-=\active \let-\codedash
    \catcode`\_=\active \let_\codeunder

  % this is all so @math{@code{var_name}+1} can work.  In math mode, _
  % is "active" (mathcode"8000) and \normalunderscore (or \char95, etc.)
  % will therefore expand the active definition of _, which is us
  % (inside @code that is), therefore an endless loop.
               \mathchar"075F % class 0=ordinary, family 7=ttfam, pos 0x5F=_.
             \else\normalunderscore \fi
\def\codex #1{\tclose{#1}\endgroup}

% @kbd is like @code, except that if the argument is just one @key command,
% then @kbd has no effect.

% @kbdinputstyle -- arg is `distinct' (@kbd uses slanted tty font always),
%   `example' (@kbd uses ttsl only inside of @example and friends),
%   or `code' (@kbd uses normal tty font always).
    \errhelp = \EMsimple
    \errmessage{Unknown @kbdinputstyle option `\arg'}%

% Default is `distinct.'
\kbdinputstyle distinct

\ifx\one\xkey\ifx\threex\three \key{#2}%

% For @url, @env, @command quotes seem unnecessary, so use \code.

% @uref (abbreviation for `urlref') takes an optional (comma-separated)
% second argument specifying the text to display and an optional third
% arg as text to display instead of (rather than in addition to) the url
% itself.  First (mandatory) arg is the url.  Perhaps eventually put in
% a hypertex \special here.
\def\uref#1{\douref #1,,,\finish}
  \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #3}%
  \ifdim\wd0 > 0pt
    \unhbox0 % third arg given, show only that
    \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}%
    \ifdim\wd0 > 0pt
        \unhbox0             % PDF: 2nd arg given, show only it
        \unhbox0\ (\code{#1})% DVI: 2nd arg given, show both it and url
      \code{#1}% only url given, so show it

% rms does not like angle brackets --karl, 17may97.
% So now @email is just like @uref, unless we are pdf.
%\def\email#1{\angleleft{\tt #1}\angleright}
    \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}%

% Check if we are currently using a typewriter font.  Since all the
% Computer Modern typewriter fonts have zero interword stretch (and
% shrink), and it is reasonable to expect all typewriter fonts to have
% this property, we can check that font parameter.
\def\ifmonospace{\ifdim\fontdimen3\font=0pt }

% Typeset a dimension, e.g., `in' or `pt'.  The only reason for the
% argument is to make the input look right: @dmn{pt} instead of @dmn{}pt.
\def\dmn#1{\thinspace #1}


% @l was never documented to mean ``switch to the Lisp font'',
% and it is not used as such in any manual I can find.  We need it for
% Polish suppressed-l.  --karl, 22sep96.
%\def\l#1{{\li #1}\null}

% Explicit font changes: @r, @sc, undocumented @ii.
\def\r#1{{\rm #1}}              % roman font
\def\sc#1{{\smallcaps#1}}       % smallcaps font
\def\ii#1{{\it #1}}             % italic font

\def\acronym#1{\doacronym #1,,\finish}
  {\selectfonts\lsize #1}%
  \ifx\temp\empty \else
    \space ({\unsepspaces \ignorespaces \temp \unskip})%

% @pounds{} is a sterling sign, which is in the CM italic font.

% @registeredsymbol - R in a circle.  The font for the R should really
% be smaller yet, but lllsize is the best we can do for now.
% Adapted from the plain.tex definition of \copyright.
  $^{{\ooalign{\hfil\raise.07ex\hbox{\selectfonts\lllsize R}%

\message{page headings,}

\newskip\titlepagetopglue \titlepagetopglue = 1.5in
\newskip\titlepagebottomglue \titlepagebottomglue = 2pc

% First the title page.  Must do @settitle before @titlepage.

% Do an implicit @contents or @shortcontents after @end titlepage if the
% user says @setcontentsaftertitlepage or @setshortcontentsaftertitlepage.
 \let\setcontentsaftertitlepage = \setcontentsaftertitlepagetrue
 \let\setshortcontentsaftertitlepage = \setshortcontentsaftertitlepagetrue

\parseargdef\shorttitlepage{\begingroup\hbox{}\vskip 1.5in \chaprm \centerline{#1}%

  % Open one extra group, as we want to close it in the middle of \Etitlepage.
    \parindent=0pt \textfonts
    % Leave some space at the very top of the page.
    % No rule at page bottom unless we print one at the top with @title.
    % Most title ``pages'' are actually two pages long, with space
    % at the top of the second.  We don't want the ragged left on the second.
    \let\oldpage = \page
      \let\page = \oldpage

    % It is important to do the page break before ending the group,
    % because the headline and footline are only empty inside the group.
    % If we use the new definition of \page, we always get a blank page
    % after the title page, which we certainly don't want.
  % Need this before the \...aftertitlepage checks so that if they are
  % in effect the toc pages will come out with page numbers.
  % If they want short, they certainly want long too.
    \global\let\shortcontents = \relax
    \global\let\contents = \relax
    \global\let\contents = \relax
    \global\let\shortcontents = \relax

  \vskip4pt \hrule height 2pt width \hsize

%%% Macros to be used within @titlepage:

\def\subtitlefont{\subtitlerm \normalbaselineskip = 13pt \normalbaselines}

\def\authorfont{\authorrm \normalbaselineskip = 16pt \normalbaselines

  \leftline{\titlefonts\rm #1}
  % print a rule at the page bottom also.
  \vskip4pt \hrule height 4pt width \hsize \vskip4pt

  {\subtitlefont \rightline{#1}}%

% @author should come last, but may come many times.
% It can also be used inside @quotation.
    \def\quotationauthor{#1}% printed in \Equotation.
    \ifseenauthor\else \vskip 0pt plus 1filll \seenauthortrue \fi
    {\authorfont \leftline{#1}}%

%%% Set up page headings and footings.


\newtoks\evenheadline    % headline on even pages
\newtoks\oddheadline     % headline on odd pages
\newtoks\evenfootline    % footline on even pages
\newtoks\oddfootline     % footline on odd pages

% Now make TeX use those variables
\headline={{\textfonts\rm \ifodd\pageno \the\oddheadline
                            \else \the\evenheadline \fi}}
\footline={{\textfonts\rm \ifodd\pageno \the\oddfootline
                            \else \the\evenfootline \fi}\HEADINGShook}

% Commands to set those variables.
% For example, this is what  @headings on  does
% @evenheading @thistitle|@thispage|@thischapter
% @oddheading @thischapter|@thispage|@thistitle
% @evenfooting @thisfile||
% @oddfooting ||@thisfile

\def\evenheadingxxx #1{\evenheadingyyy #1\|\|\|\|\finish}
\def\evenheadingyyy #1\|#2\|#3\|#4\finish{%

\def\oddheadingxxx #1{\oddheadingyyy #1\|\|\|\|\finish}
\def\oddheadingyyy #1\|#2\|#3\|#4\finish{%


\def\evenfootingxxx #1{\evenfootingyyy #1\|\|\|\|\finish}
\def\evenfootingyyy #1\|#2\|#3\|#4\finish{%

\def\oddfootingxxx #1{\oddfootingyyy #1\|\|\|\|\finish}
\def\oddfootingyyy #1\|#2\|#3\|#4\finish{%
  \global\oddfootline = {\rlap{\centerline{#2}}\line{#1\hfil#3}}%
  % Leave some space for the footline.  Hopefully ok to assume
  % @evenfooting will not be used by itself.
  \global\advance\pageheight by -\baselineskip
  \global\advance\vsize by -\baselineskip


% @headings double      turns headings on for double-sided printing.
% @headings single      turns headings on for single-sided printing.
% @headings off         turns them off.
% @headings on          same as @headings double, retained for compatibility.
% @headings after       turns on double-sided headings after this page.
% @headings doubleafter turns on double-sided headings after this page.
% @headings singleafter turns on single-sided headings after this page.
% By default, they are off at the start of a document,
% and turned `on' after @end titlepage.

\def\headings #1 {\csname HEADINGS#1\endcsname}

\global\evenheadline={\hfil} \global\evenfootline={\hfil}
\global\oddheadline={\hfil} \global\oddfootline={\hfil}}
% When we turn headings on, set the page number to 1.
% For double-sided printing, put current file name in lower left corner,
% chapter name on inside top of right hand pages, document
% title on inside top of left hand pages, and page numbers on outside top
% edge of all pages.
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chapoddpage
\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager

% For single-sided printing, chapter title goes across top left of page,
% page number on top right.
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager

\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chapoddpage

\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager

% Subroutines used in generating headings
% This produces Day Month Year style of output.
% Only define if not already defined, in case a txi-??.tex file has set
% up a different format (e.g., txi-cs.tex does this).

% @settitle line...  specifies the title of the document, for headings.
% It generates no output of its own.

% Tables -- @table, @ftable, @vtable, @item(x).

% default indentation of table text
\newdimen\tableindent \tableindent=.8in
% default indentation of @itemize and @enumerate text
\newdimen\itemindent  \itemindent=.3in
% margin between end of table item and start of table text.
\newdimen\itemmargin  \itemmargin=.1in

% used internally for \itemindent minus \itemmargin

% Note @table, @ftable, and @vtable define @item, @itemx, etc., with
% these defs.
% They also define \itemindex
% to index the item name in whatever manner is desired (perhaps none).



\def\internalBitem{\smallbreak \parsearg\itemzzz}
\def\internalBitemx{\itemxpar \parsearg\itemzzz}

\def\itemzzz #1{\begingroup %
  \advance\hsize by -\rightskip
  \advance\hsize by -\tableindent
  \nobreak % This prevents a break before @itemx.
  % If the item text does not fit in the space we have, put it on a line
  % by itself, and do not allow a page break either before or after that
  % line.  We do not start a paragraph here because then if the next
  % command is, e.g., @kindex, the whatsit would get put into the
  % horizontal list on a line by itself, resulting in extra blank space.
  \ifdim \wd0>\itemmax
    % Make this a paragraph so we get the \parskip glue and wrapping,
    % but leave it ragged-right.
      \advance\leftskip by-\tableindent
      \advance\hsize by\tableindent
      \advance\rightskip by0pt plus1fil
    % We're going to be starting a paragraph, but we don't want the
    % \parskip glue -- logically it's part of the @item we just started.
    \nobreak \vskip-\parskip
    % Stop a page break at the \parskip glue coming up.  (Unfortunately
    % we can't prevent a possible page break at the following
    % \baselineskip glue.)  However, if what follows is an environment
    % such as @example, there will be no \parskip glue; then
    % the negative vskip we just would cause the example and the item to
    % crash together.  So we use this bizarre value of 10001 as a signal
    % to \aboveenvbreak to insert \parskip glue after all.
    % (Possibly there are other commands that could be followed by
    % @example which need the same treatment, but not section titles; or
    % maybe section titles are the only special case and they should be
    % penalty 10001...)
    \penalty 10001
    % The item text fits into the space.  Start a paragraph, so that the
    % following text (if any) will end up on the same line.
    % Do this with kerns and \unhbox so that if there is a footnote in
    % the item text, it can migrate to the main vertical list and
    % eventually be printed.
    \dimen0 = \itemmax  \advance\dimen0 by \itemmargin \advance\dimen0 by -\wd0

\def\item{\errmessage{@item while not in a list environment}}
\def\itemx{\errmessage{@itemx while not in a list environment}}

% @table, @ftable, @vtable.
  \def\itemindex ##1{\doind {fn}{\code{##1}}}%
  \def\itemindex ##1{\doind {vr}{\code{##1}}}%
    \edef\temp{\noexpand\tablez #1\space\space\space}%
  }\temp \endtablez
\def\tablez #1 #2 #3 #4\endtablez{%
  \ifnum 0#1>0 \advance \leftskip by #1\mil \fi
  \ifnum 0#2>0 \tableindent=#2\mil \fi
  \ifnum 0#3>0 \advance \rightskip by #3\mil \fi
  \advance \itemmax by -\itemmargin
  \advance \leftskip by \tableindent
  \parindent = 0pt
  \parskip = \smallskipamount
  \ifdim \parskip=0pt \parskip=2pt \fi
  \let\item = \internalBitem
  \let\itemx = \internalBitemx

% This is the counter used by @enumerate, which is really @itemize

\newcount \itemno


  \advance\itemmax by -\itemmargin
  \advance\leftskip by \itemindent
  \ifdim\parskip=0pt \parskip=2pt \fi
  % @itemize with no arg is equivalent to @itemize @bullet.

% Definition of @item while inside @itemize and @enumerate.
  \advance\itemno by 1  % for enumerations
  {\let\par=\endgraf \smallbreak}% reasonable place to break
   % If the document has an @itemize directly after a section title, a
   % \nobreak will be last on the list, and \sectionheading will have
   % done a \vskip-\parskip.  In that case, we don't want to zero
   % parskip, or the item text will crash with the heading.  On the
   % other hand, when there is normal text preceding the item (as there
   % usually is), we do want to zero parskip, or there would be too much
   % space.  In that case, we won't have a \nobreak before.  At least
   % that's the theory.
   \ifnum\lastpenalty<10000 \parskip=0in \fi
   \hbox to 0pt{\hss \itemcontents \kern\itemmargin}%
   \vadjust{\penalty 1200}}% not good to break after first line of item.

% \splitoff TOKENS\endmark defines \first to be the first token in
% TOKENS, and \rest to be the remainder.

% Allow an optional argument of an uppercase letter, lowercase letter,
% or number, to specify the first label in the enumerated list.  No
% argument is the same as `1'.
\envparseargdef\enumerate{\enumeratey #1  \endenumeratey}
\def\enumeratey #1 #2\endenumeratey{%
  % If we were given no argument, pretend we were given `1'.
  \ifx\thearg\empty \def\thearg{1}\fi
  % Detect if the argument is a single token.  If so, it might be a
  % letter.  Otherwise, the only valid thing it can be is a number.
  % (We will always have one token, because of the test we just made.
  % This is a good thing, since \splitoff doesn't work given nothing at
  % all -- the first parameter is undelimited.)
    % Only one token in the argument.  It could still be anything.
    % A ``lowercase letter'' is one whose \lccode is nonzero.
    % An ``uppercase letter'' is one whose \lccode is both nonzero, and
    %   not equal to itself.
    % Otherwise, we assume it's a number.
    % We need the \relax at the end of the \ifnum lines to stop TeX from
    % continuing to look for a <number>.
      \numericenumerate % a number (we hope)
      % It's a letter.
        \lowercaseenumerate % lowercase letter
        \uppercaseenumerate % uppercase letter
    % Multiple tokens in the argument.  We hope it's a number.

% An @enumerate whose labels are integers.  The starting integer is
% given in \thearg.
  \itemno = \thearg

% The starting (lowercase) letter is in \thearg.
  \itemno = \expandafter`\thearg
    % Be sure we're not beyond the end of the alphabet.
      \errmessage{No more lowercase letters in @enumerate; get a bigger

% The starting (uppercase) letter is in \thearg.
  \itemno = \expandafter`\thearg
    % Be sure we're not beyond the end of the alphabet.
      \errmessage{No more uppercase letters in @enumerate; get a bigger

% Call \doitemize, adding a period to the first argument and supplying the
% common last two arguments.  Also subtract one from the initial value in
% \itemno, since @item increments \itemno.
  \advance\itemno by -1

% @alphaenumerate and @capsenumerate are abbreviations for giving an arg
% to @enumerate.

% @multitable macros
% Amy Hendrickson, 8/18/94, 3/6/96
% @multitable ... @end multitable will make as many columns as desired.
% Contents of each column will wrap at width given in preamble.  Width
% can be specified either with sample text given in a template line,
% or in percent of \hsize, the current width of text on page.

% Table can continue over pages but will only break between lines.

% To make preamble:
% Either define widths of columns in terms of percent of \hsize:
%   @multitable @columnfractions .25 .3 .45
%   @item ...
%   Numbers following @columnfractions are the percent of the total
%   current hsize to be used for each column. You may use as many
%   columns as desired.

% Or use a template:
%   @multitable {Column 1 template} {Column 2 template} {Column 3 template}
%   @item ...
%   using the widest term desired in each column.

% Each new table line starts with @item, each subsequent new column
% starts with @tab. Empty columns may be produced by supplying @tab's
% with nothing between them for as many times as empty columns are needed,
% ie, @tab@tab@tab will produce two empty columns.

% @item, @tab do not need to be on their own lines, but it will not hurt
% if they are.

% Sample multitable:

%   @multitable {Column 1 template} {Column 2 template} {Column 3 template}
%   @item first col stuff @tab second col stuff @tab third col
%   @item
%   first col stuff
%   @tab
%   second col stuff
%   @tab
%   third col
%   @item first col stuff @tab second col stuff
%   @tab Many paragraphs of text may be used in any column.
%         They will wrap at the width determined by the template.
%   @item@tab@tab This will be in third column.
%   @end multitable

% Default dimensions may be reset by user.
% @multitableparskip is vertical space between paragraphs in table.
% @multitableparindent is paragraph indent in table.
% @multitablecolmargin is horizontal space to be left between columns.
% @multitablelinespace is space to leave between table items, baseline
%                                                            to baseline.
%   0pt means it depends on current normal line spacing.

% Macros used to set up halign preamble:

% #1 is the @columnfraction, usually a decimal number like .5, but might
% be just 1.  We just use it, whatever it is.
\def\pickupwholefraction#1 {%
  \global\advance\colcount by 1
  \expandafter\xdef\csname col\the\colcount\endcsname{#1\hsize}%

    \let\go = \relax
         \global\advance\colcount by 1
         \setbox0=\hbox{#1\unskip\space}% Add a normal word space as a
                   % separator; typically that is always in the input, anyway.
         \expandafter\xdef\csname col\the\colcount\endcsname{\the\wd0}%
      % Put the argument back for the \pickupwholefraction call, so
      % we'll always have a period there to be parsed.
      \let\go = \setuptable

% multitable-only commands.
% @headitem starts a heading row, which we typeset in bold.
% Assignments have to be global since we are inside the implicit group
% of an alignment entry.  Note that \everycr resets \everytab.
\def\headitem{\checkenv\multitable \crcr \global\everytab={\bf}\the\everytab}%
% A \tab used to include \hskip1sp.  But then the space in a template
% line is not enough.  That is bad.  So let's go back to just `&' until
% we encounter the problem it was intended to solve again.
%					--karl, nathan@acm.org, 20apr99.
\def\tab{\checkenv\multitable &\the\everytab}%

% @multitable ... @end multitable definitions:
\newtoks\everytab  % insert after every tab.
  % @item within a multitable starts a normal row.
  \everycr = {%
      \global\colcount=0 % Reset the column counter.
      % Check for saved footnotes, etc.
      % Keeps underfull box messages off when table breaks over pages.
	% Maybe so, but it also creates really weird page breaks when the
	% table breaks over pages. Wouldn't \vfil be better?  Wait until the
	% problem manifests itself, so it can be fixed for real --karl.
  % To parse everything between @multitable and @item:
  \setuptable#1 \endsetuptable
  % This preamble sets up a generic column definition, which will
  % be used as many times as user calls for columns.
  % \vtop will set a single line and will also let text wrap and
  % continue for many paragraphs if desired.
  \halign\bgroup &%
    \global\advance\colcount by 1
      % Use the current \colcount to find the correct column width:
      \hsize=\expandafter\csname col\the\colcount\endcsname
      % In order to keep entries from bumping into each other
      % we will add a \leftskip of \multitablecolspace to all columns after
      % the first one.
      % If a template has been used, we will add \multitablecolspace
      % to the width of each template entry.
      % If the user has set preamble in terms of percent of \hsize we will
      % use that dimension as the width of the column, and the \leftskip
      % will keep entries from bumping into each other.  Table will start at
      % left margin and final column will justify at right margin.
      % Make sure we don't inherit \rightskip from the outer environment.
	% The first column will be indented with the surrounding text.
	\advance\hsize by\leftskip
	\ifsetpercent \else
	  % If user has not set preamble in terms of percent of \hsize
	  % we will advance \hsize by \multitablecolspace.
	  \advance\hsize by \multitablecolspace
       % In either case we will make \leftskip=\multitablecolspace:
      % Ignoring space at the beginning and end avoids an occasional spurious
      % blank line, when TeX decides to break the line at the space before the
      % box from the multistrut, so the strut ends up on a line by itself.
      % For example:
      % @multitable @columnfractions .11 .89
      % @item @code{#}
      % @tab Legal holiday which is valid in major parts of the whole country.
      % Is automatically provided with highlighting sequences respectively
      % marking characters.
  \egroup % end the \halign

\def\setmultitablespacing{% test to see if user has set \multitablelinespace.
% If so, do nothing. If not, give it an appropriate dimension based on
% current baselineskip.
\global\advance\multitablelinespace by-\ht0
%% strut to put in table in case some entry doesn't have descenders,
%% to keep lines equally spaced
\let\multistrut = \strut
%% FIXME: what is \box0 supposed to be?
\gdef\multistrut{\vrule height\multitablelinespace depth\dp0
width0pt\relax} \fi
%% Test to see if parskip is larger than space between lines of
%% table. If not, do nothing.
%%        If so, set to same dimension as multitablelinespace.
\global\advance\multitableparskip-7pt %% to keep parskip somewhat smaller
                                      %% than skip between lines in the table.
\global\advance\multitableparskip-7pt %% to keep parskip somewhat smaller
                                      %% than skip between lines in the table.


% @iftex, @ifnotdocbook, @ifnothtml, @ifnotinfo, @ifnotplaintext,
% @ifnotxml always succeed.  They currently do nothing; we don't
% attempt to check whether the conditionals are properly nested.  But we
% have to remember that they are conditionals, so that @end doesn't
% attempt to close an environment group.
  \expandafter\let\csname #1\endcsname = \relax
  \expandafter\let\csname iscond.#1\endcsname = 1

% Ignore @ignore, @ifhtml, @ifinfo, and the like.

% Ignore text until a line `@end #1', keeping track of nested conditionals.
% A count to remember the depth of nesting.

  % Scan in ``verbatim'' mode:
  \catcode`\@ = \other
  \catcode`\{ = \other
  \catcode`\} = \other
  % Make sure that spaces turn into tokens that match what \doignoretext wants.
  % Count number of #1's that we've seen.
  \doignorecount = 0
  % Swallow text until we reach the matching `@end #1'.
  \dodoignore {#1}%

{ \catcode`_=11 % We want to use \_STOP_ which cannot appear in texinfo source.
  \obeylines %
    % #1 contains the string `ifinfo'.
    % Define a command to find the next `@end #1', which must be on a line
    % by itself.
    \long\def\doignoretext##1^^M@end #1{\doignoretextyyy##1^^M@#1\_STOP_}%
    % And this command to find another #1 command, at the beginning of a
    % line.  (Otherwise, we would consider a line `@c @ifset', for
    % example, to count as an @ifset for nesting.)
    % And now expand that command.
    \obeylines %
    \doignoretext ^^M%

  \ifx\temp\empty			% Nothing found.
  \else					% Found a nested condition, ...
    \advance\doignorecount by 1
    \let\next\doignoretextyyy		% ..., look for another.
    % If we're here, #1 ends with ^^M\ifinfo (for example).
  \next #1% the token \_STOP_ is present just after this macro.

% We have to swallow the remaining "\_STOP_".
  \ifnum\doignorecount = 0	% We have just found the outermost @end.
  \else				% Still inside a nested condition.
    \advance\doignorecount by -1
    \let\next\doignoretext      % Look for the next @end.

% Finish off ignored text.

% @set VAR sets the variable VAR to an empty value.
% @set VAR REST-OF-LINE sets VAR to the value REST-OF-LINE.
% Since we want to separate VAR from REST-OF-LINE (which might be
% empty), we can't just use \parsearg; we have to insert a space of our
% own to delimit the rest of the line, and then take it out again if we
% didn't need it.
% We rely on the fact that \parsearg sets \catcode`\ =10.
\parseargdef\set{\setyyy#1 \endsetyyy}
\def\setyyy#1 #2\endsetyyy{%
% Remove the trailing space \setxxx inserted.
\def\setzzz#1 \endsetzzz{\next{#1}}

% @clear VAR clears (i.e., unsets) the variable VAR.
    \global\expandafter\let\csname SET#1\endcsname=\relax

% @value{foo} gets the text saved in variable foo.
  \catcode`\- = \active \catcode`\_ = \active
    \let\value = \expandablevalue
    % We don't want these characters active, ...
    \catcode`\-=\other \catcode`\_=\other
    % ..., but we might end up with active ones in the argument if
    % we're called from @code, as @code{@value{foo-bar_}}, though.
    % So \let them to their normal equivalents.
    \let-\realdash \let_\normalunderscore

% We have this subroutine so that we can handle at least some @value's
% properly in indexes (we call \makevalueexpandable in \indexdummies).
% The command has to be fully expandable (if the variable is set), since
% the result winds up in the index file.  This means that if the
% variable's value contains other Texinfo commands, it's almost certain
% it will fail (although perhaps we could fix that with sufficient work
% to do a one-level expansion on the result, instead of complete).
  \expandafter\ifx\csname SET#1\endcsname\relax
    {[No value for ``#1'']}%
    \message{Variable `#1', used in @value, is not set.}%
    \csname SET#1\endcsname

% @ifset VAR ... @end ifset reads the `...' iff VAR has been defined
% with @set.
% To get special treatment of `@end ifset,' call \makeond and the redefine.
    \expandafter\ifx\csname SET#2\endcsname\relax
      #1% If not set, redefine \next.

% @ifclear VAR ... @end ifclear reads the `...' iff VAR has never been
% defined with @set, or has been undefined with @clear.
% The `\else' inside the `\doifset' parameter is a trick to reuse the
% above code: if the variable is not set, do nothing, if it is set,
% then redefine \next to \ifclearfail.
\def\ifclear{\parsearg{\doifset{\else \let\next=\ifclearfail}}}

% @dircategory CATEGORY  -- specify a category of the dir file
% which this file should belong to.  Ignore this in TeX.

% @defininfoenclose.

% Index generation facilities

% Define \newwrite to be identical to plain tex's \newwrite
% except not \outer, so it can be used within \newindex.

% \newindex {foo} defines an index named foo.
% It automatically defines \fooindex such that
% \fooindex ...rest of line... puts an entry in the index foo.
% It also defines \fooindfile to be the number of the output channel for
% the file that accumulates this index.  The file's extension is foo.
% The name of an index should be no more than 2 characters long
% for the sake of vms.
    \expandafter\newwrite \csname#1indfile\endcsname
    \openout \csname#1indfile\endcsname \jobname.#1 % Open the file
  \expandafter\xdef\csname#1index\endcsname{%     % Define @#1index

% @defindex foo  ==  \newindex{foo}

% Define @defcodeindex, like @defindex except put all entries in @code.
    \expandafter\newwrite \csname#1indfile\endcsname
    \openout \csname#1indfile\endcsname \jobname.#1

% @synindex foo bar    makes index foo feed into index bar.
% Do this instead of @defindex foo if you don't want it as a separate index.
% @syncodeindex foo bar   similar, but put all entries made for index foo
% inside @code.
\def\synindex#1 #2 {\dosynindex\doindex{#1}{#2}}
\def\syncodeindex#1 #2 {\dosynindex\docodeindex{#1}{#2}}

% #1 is \doindex or \docodeindex, #2 the index getting redefined (foo),
% #3 the target index (bar).
  % Only do \closeout if we haven't already done it, else we'll end up
  % closing the target index.
  \expandafter \ifx\csname donesynindex#2\endcsname \undefined
    % The \closeout helps reduce unnecessary open files; the limit on the
    % Acorn RISC OS is a mere 16 files.
    \expandafter\let\csname\donesynindex#2\endcsname = 1
  % redefine \fooindfile:
  % redefine \fooindex:

% Define \doindex, the driver for all \fooindex macros.
% Argument #1 is generated by the calling \fooindex macro,
%  and it is "foo", the name of the index.

% \doindex just uses \parsearg; it calls \doind for the actual work.
% This is because \doind is more useful to call from other macros.

% There is also \dosubind {index}{topic}{subtopic}
% which makes an entry in a two-level index such as the operation index.

\def\singleindexer #1{\doind{\indexname}{#1}}

% like the previous two, but they put @code around the argument.
\def\singlecodeindexer #1{\doind{\indexname}{\code{#1}}}

% Take care of Texinfo commands that can appear in an index entry.
% Since there are some commands we want to expand, and others we don't,
% we have to laboriously prevent expansion for those that we don't.
  \def\@{@}% change to @@ when we switch to @ as escape char in index files.
  \def\ {\realbackslash\space }%
  % Need these in case \tex is in effect and \{ is a \delimiter again.
  % But can't use \lbracecmd and \rbracecmd because texindex assumes
  % braces and backslashes are used only as delimiters.
  \let\{ = \mylbrace
  \let\} = \myrbrace
  % \definedummyword defines \#1 as \realbackslash #1\space, thus
  % effectively preventing its expansion.  This is used only for control
  % words, not control letters, because the \space would be incorrect
  % for control characters, but is needed to separate the control word
  % from whatever follows.
  % For control letters, we have \definedummyletter, which omits the
  % space.
  % These can be used both for control words that take an argument and
  % those that do not.  If it is followed by {arg} in the input, then
  % that will dutifully get written to the index (or wherever).
    \expandafter\def\csname ##1\endcsname{\realbackslash ##1\space}%
    \expandafter\def\csname ##1\endcsname{\realbackslash ##1}%
  % Do the redefinitions.

% For the aux file, @ is the escape character.  So we want to redefine
% everything using @ instead of \realbackslash.  When everything uses
% @, this will be simpler.
  \def\ {@ }%
  \let\{ = \lbraceatcmd
  \let\} = \rbraceatcmd
  % (See comments in \indexdummies.)
    \expandafter\def\csname ##1\endcsname{@##1\space}%
    \expandafter\def\csname ##1\endcsname{@##1}%
  % Do the redefinitions.

% Called from \indexdummies and \atdummies.  \definedummyword and
% \definedummyletter must be defined first.
  % Non-English letters.
  % Although these internal commands shouldn't show up, sometimes they do.
  % Assorted special characters.
  % Handle some cases of @value -- where it does not contain any
  % (non-fully-expandable) commands.
  % Normal spaces, not active ones.
  % No macro expansion.

% \commondummiesnofonts: common to \commondummies and \indexnofonts.
% Better have this without active chars.
    % Control letters and accents.
    % Texinfo font commands.
    % Commands that take arguments.

% \indexnofonts is used when outputting the strings to sort the index
% by, and when constructing control sequence names.  It eliminates all
% control sequences and just writes whatever the best ASCII sort string
% would be for a given command (usually its argument).
    \expandafter\let\csname ##1\endcsname\asis
  % Don't no-op \tt, since it isn't a user-level command
  % and is used in the definitions of the active chars like <, >, |, etc.
  % Likewise with the other plain tex font commands.
  \def\ { }%
  % how to handle braces?
  % Non-English letters.
  % Assorted special characters.
  % (The following {} will end up in the sort string, but that's ok.)

\let\indexbackslash=0  %overridden during \printindex.
\let\SETmarginindex=\relax % put index entries in margin (undocumented)?

% Most index entries go through here, but \dosubind is the general case.
% #1 is the index name, #2 is the entry text.

% Workhorse for all \fooindexes.
% #1 is name of index, #2 is stuff to put there, #3 is subentry --
% empty if called from \doind, as we usually are (the main exception
% is with most defuns, which call us directly).
    % Store the main index entry text (including the third arg).
    \toks0 = {#2}%
    % If third arg is present, precede it with a space.
    \ifx\thirdarg\empty \else
      \toks0 = \expandafter{\the\toks0 \space #3}%

% Write the entry in \toks0 to the index file:
  % Put the index entry in the margin if desired.
    \insert\margin{\hbox{\vrule height8pt depth3pt width0pt \the\toks0}}%
  % Remember, we are within a group.
  \indexdummies % Must do this here, since \bf, etc expand at this stage
  \def\backslashcurfont{\indexbackslash}% \indexbackslash isn't defined now
      % so it will be output as is; and it will print as backslash.
  % Process the index entry with all font commands turned off, to
  % get the string to sort by.
   \edef\temp{\the\toks0}% need full expansion
  % Set up the complete index entry, with both the sort key and
  % the original text, including any font commands.  We write
  % three arguments to \entry to the .?? file (four in the
  % subentry case), texindex reduces to two when writing the .??s
  % sorted result.

% Take care of unwanted page breaks:
% If a skip is the last thing on the list now, preserve it
% by backing up by \lastskip, doing the \write, then inserting
% the skip again.  Otherwise, the whatsit generated by the
% \write will make \lastskip zero.  The result is that sequences
% like this:
% @end defun
% @tindex whatever
% @defun ...
% will have extra space inserted, because the \medbreak in the
% start of the @defun won't see the skip inserted by the @end of
% the previous defun.
% But don't do any of this if we're not in vertical mode.  We
% don't want to do a \vskip and prematurely end a paragraph.
% Avoid page breaks due to these extra skips, too.
% But wait, there is a catch there:
% We'll have to check whether \lastskip is zero skip.  \ifdim is not
% sufficient for this purpose, as it ignores stretch and shrink parts
% of the skip.  The only way seems to be to check the textual
% representation of the skip.
% The following is almost like \def\zeroskipmacro{0.0pt} except that
% the ``p'' and ``t'' characters have catcode \other, not 11 (letter).
\edef\zeroskipmacro{\expandafter\the\csname z@skip\endcsname}
% ..., ready, GO:
  % \lastskip and \lastpenalty cannot both be nonzero simultaneously.
  \skip0 = \lastskip
  \count255 = \lastpenalty
  % If \lastskip is nonzero, that means the last item was a
  % skip.  And since a skip is discardable, that means this
  % -\skip0 glue we're inserting is preceded by a
  % non-discardable item, therefore it is not a potential
  % breakpoint, therefore no \nobreak needed.
    % if \lastskip was zero, perhaps the last item was a
    % penalty, and perhaps it was >=10000, e.g., a \nobreak.
    % In that case, we want to re-insert the penalty; since we
    % just inserted a non-discardable item, any following glue
    % (such as a \parskip) would be a breakpoint.  For example:
    %   @deffn deffn-whatever
    %   @vindex index-whatever
    %   Description.
    % would allow a break between the index-whatever whatsit
    % and the "Description." paragraph.
    \ifnum\count255>9999 \nobreak \fi
    % On the other hand, if we had a nonzero \lastskip,
    % this make-up glue would be preceded by a non-discardable item
    % (the whatsit from the \write), so we must insert a \nobreak.

% The index entry written in the file actually looks like
%  \entry {sortstring}{page}{topic}
% or
%  \entry {sortstring}{page}{topic}{subtopic}
% The texindex program reads in these files and writes files
% containing these kinds of lines:
%  \initial {c}
%     before the first topic whose initial is c
%  \entry {topic}{pagelist}
%     for a topic that is used without subtopics
%  \primary {topic}
%     for the beginning of a topic that is used with subtopics
%  \secondary {subtopic}{pagelist}
%     for each subtopic.

% Define the user-accessible indexing commands
% @findex, @vindex, @kindex, @cindex.

\def\findex {\fnindex}
\def\kindex {\kyindex}
\def\cindex {\cpindex}
\def\vindex {\vrindex}
\def\tindex {\tpindex}
\def\pindex {\pgindex}

\def\cindexsub {\begingroup\obeylines\cindexsub}
{\obeylines %
\gdef\cindexsub "#1" #2^^M{\endgroup %

% Define the macros used in formatting output of the sorted index material.

% @printindex causes a particular index (the ??s file) to get printed.
% It does not print any chapter heading (usually an @unnumbered).
  \dobreak \chapheadingskip{10000}%
  \smallfonts \rm
  \tolerance = 9500
  \everypar = {}% don't want the \kern\-parindent from indentation suppression.
  % See if the index file exists and is nonempty.
  % Change catcode of @ here so that if the index file contains
  % \initial {@}
  % as its first line, TeX doesn't complain about mismatched braces
  % (because it thinks @} is a control sequence).
  \catcode`\@ = 11
  \openin 1 \jobname.#1s
  \ifeof 1
    % \enddoublecolumns gets confused if there is no text in the index,
    % and it loses the chapter title and the aux file entries for the
    % index.  The easiest way to prevent this problem is to make sure
    % there is some text.
    % If the index file exists but is empty, then \openin leaves \ifeof
    % false.  We have to make TeX try to read something from the file, so
    % it can discover if there is anything in it.
    \read 1 to \temp
    \ifeof 1
      % Index files are almost Texinfo source, but we use \ as the escape
      % character.  It would be better to use @, but that's too big a change
      % to make right now.
      \catcode`\\ = 0
      \escapechar = `\\
      \input \jobname.#1s
  \closein 1

% These macros are used by the sorted index file itself.
% Change them to control the appearance of the index.

  % Some minor font changes for the special characters.
  \let\tentt=\sectt \let\tt=\sectt \let\sf=\sectt
  % Remove any glue we may have, we'll be inserting our own.
  % We like breaks before the index initials, so insert a bonus.
  \penalty -300
  % Typeset the initial.  Making this add up to a whole number of
  % baselineskips increases the chance of the dots lining up from column
  % to column.  It still won't often be perfect, because of the stretch
  % we need before each entry, but it's better.
  % No shrink because it confuses \balancecolumns.
  \vskip 1.67\baselineskip plus .5\baselineskip
  \leftline{\secbf #1}%
  \vskip .33\baselineskip plus .1\baselineskip
  % Do our best not to break after the initial.

% \entry typesets a paragraph consisting of the text (#1), dot leaders, and
% then page number (#2) flushed to the right margin.  It is used for index
% and table of contents entries.  The paragraph is indented by \leftskip.
% A straightforward implementation would start like this:
%	\def\entry#1#2{...
% But this frozes the catcodes in the argument, and can cause problems to
% @code, which sets - active.  This problem was fixed by a kludge---
% ``-'' was active throughout whole index, but this isn't really right.
% The right solution is to prevent \entry from swallowing the whole text.
%                                 --kasal, 21nov03
    % Start a new paragraph if necessary, so our assignments below can't
    % affect previous text.
    % Do not fill out the last line with white space.
    \parfillskip = 0in
    % No extra space above this paragraph.
    \parskip = 0in
    % Do not prefer a separate line ending with a hyphen to fewer lines.
    \finalhyphendemerits = 0
    % \hangindent is only relevant when the entry text and page number
    % don't both fit on one line.  In that case, bob suggests starting the
    % dots pretty far over on the line.  Unfortunately, a large
    % indentation looks wrong when the entry text itself is broken across
    % lines.  So we use a small indentation and put up with long leaders.
    % \hangafter is reset to 1 (which is the value we want) at the start
    % of each paragraph, so we need not do anything with that.
    \hangindent = 2em
    % When the entry text needs to be broken, just fill out the first line
    % with blank space.
    \rightskip = 0pt plus1fil
    % A bit of stretch before each entry for the benefit of balancing
    % columns.
    \vskip 0pt plus1pt
    % Swallow the left brace of the text (first parameter):
    \let\temp =
    \bgroup % Instead of the swallowed brace.
      % And now comes the text of the entry.
    % #1 is the page number.
    % The following is kludged to not output a line of dots in the index if
    % there are no page numbers.  The next person who breaks this will be
    % cursed by a Unix daemon.
    \def\tempa{{\rm }}%
      \ %
      % If we must, put the page number on a line of its own, and fill out
      % this line with blank space.  (The \hfil is overwhelmed with the
      % fill leaders glue in \indexdotfill if the page number does fit.)
      \null\nobreak\indexdotfill % Have leaders before the page number.
      % The `\ ' here is removed by the implicit \unskip that TeX does as
      % part of (the primitive) \par.  Without it, a spurious underfull
      % \hbox ensues.
	\ \the\toksA
	\ #1%

% Like \dotfill except takes at least 1 em.
  \hbox{$\mathsurround=0pt \mkern1.5mu ${\it .}$ \mkern1.5mu$}\hskip 1em plus 1fill}

\def\primary #1{\line{#1\hfil}}

\newskip\secondaryindent \secondaryindent=0.5cm
    \pdfgettoks#2.\ \the\toksA % The page number ends the paragraph.

% Define two-column mode, which we use to typeset indexes.
% Adapted from the TeXbook, page 416, which is to say,
% the manmac.tex format used to print the TeXbook itself.


\def\begindoublecolumns{\begingroup % ended by \enddoublecolumns
  % Grab any single-column material above us.
  \output = {%
    % Here is a possibility not foreseen in manmac: if we accumulate a
    % whole lot of material, we might end up calling this \output
    % routine twice in a row (see the doublecol-lose test, which is
    % essentially a couple of indexes with @setchapternewpage off).  In
    % that case we just ship out what is in \partialpage with the normal
    % output routine.  Generally, \partialpage will be empty when this
    % runs and this will be a no-op.  See the indexspread.tex test case.
    \ifvoid\partialpage \else
    \global\setbox\partialpage = \vbox{%
      % Unvbox the main output page.
      \kern-\topskip \kern\baselineskip
  \eject % run that output routine to set \partialpage
  % Use the double-column output routine for subsequent pages.
  \output = {\doublecolumnout}%
  % Change the page size parameters.  We could do this once outside this
  % routine, in each of @smallbook, @afourpaper, and the default 8.5x11
  % format, but then we repeat the same computation.  Repeating a couple
  % of assignments once per index is clearly meaningless for the
  % execution time, so we may as well do it in one place.
  % First we halve the line length, less a little for the gutter between
  % the columns.  We compute the gutter based on the line length, so it
  % changes automatically with the paper format.  The magic constant
  % below is chosen so that the gutter has the same value (well, +-<1pt)
  % as it did when we hard-coded it.
  % We put the result in a separate register, \doublecolumhsize, so we
  % can restore it in \pagesofar, after \hsize itself has (potentially)
  % been clobbered.
  \doublecolumnhsize = \hsize
    \advance\doublecolumnhsize by -.04154\hsize
    \divide\doublecolumnhsize by 2
  \hsize = \doublecolumnhsize
  % Double the \vsize as well.  (We don't need a separate register here,
  % since nobody clobbers \vsize.)
  \vsize = 2\vsize

% The double-column output routine for all double-column pages except
% the last.
  \splittopskip=\topskip \splitmaxdepth=\maxdepth
  % Get the available space for the double columns -- the normal
  % (undoubled) page height minus any material left over from the
  % previous page.
  \dimen@ = \vsize
  \divide\dimen@ by 2
  \advance\dimen@ by -\ht\partialpage
  % box0 will be the left-hand column, box2 the right.
  \setbox0=\vsplit255 to\dimen@ \setbox2=\vsplit255 to\dimen@
% Re-output the contents of the output page -- any previous material,
% followed by the two boxes we just split, in box0 and box2.
  \hsize = \doublecolumnhsize
  \wd0=\hsize \wd2=\hsize
  \hbox to\pagewidth{\box0\hfil\box2}%
% All done with double columns.
  \output = {%
    % Split the last of the double-column material.  Leave it on the
    % current page, no automatic page break.
    % If we end up splitting too much material for the current page,
    % though, there will be another page break right after this \output
    % invocation ends.  Having called \balancecolumns once, we do not
    % want to call it again.  Therefore, reset \output to its normal
    % definition right away.  (We hope \balancecolumns will never be
    % called on to balance too much material, but if it is, this makes
    % the output somewhat more palatable.)
    \global\output = {\onepageout{\pagecontents\PAGE}}%
  \endgroup % started in \begindoublecolumns
  % \pagegoal was set to the doubled \vsize above, since we restarted
  % the current page.  We're now back to normal single-column
  % typesetting, so reset \pagegoal to the normal \vsize (after the
  % \endgroup where \vsize got restored).
  \pagegoal = \vsize
% Called at the end of the double column material.
  \setbox0 = \vbox{\unvbox255}% like \box255 but more efficient, see p.120.
  \dimen@ = \ht0
  \advance\dimen@ by \topskip
  \advance\dimen@ by-\baselineskip
  \divide\dimen@ by 2 % target to split to
  %debug\message{final 2-column material height=\the\ht0, target=\the\dimen@.}%
  \splittopskip = \topskip
  % Loop until we get a decent breakpoint.
    \vbadness = 10000
      \global\setbox3 = \copy0
      \global\setbox1 = \vsplit3 to \dimen@
      \global\advance\dimen@ by 1pt
  %debug\message{split to \the\dimen@, column heights: \the\ht1, \the\ht3.}%
  \setbox0=\vbox to\dimen@{\unvbox1}%
  \setbox2=\vbox to\dimen@{\unvbox3}%
\catcode`\@ = \other

% Chapters, sections, etc.

% \unnumberedno is an oxymoron, of course.  But we count the unnumbered
% sections so that we can refer to them unambiguously in the pdf
% outlines by their "section number".  We avoid collisions with chapter
% numbers by starting them at 10000.  (If a document ever has 10000
% chapters, we're in trouble anyway, I'm sure.)
\newcount\unnumberedno \unnumberedno = 10000
\newcount\secno        \secno=0
\newcount\subsecno     \subsecno=0
\newcount\subsubsecno  \subsubsecno=0

% This counter is funny since it counts through charcodes of letters A, B, ...
\newcount\appendixno  \appendixno = `\@
% \def\appendixletter{\char\the\appendixno}
% We do the following ugly conditional instead of the above simple
% construct for the sake of pdftex, which needs the actual
% letter in the expansion, not just typeset.
  \ifnum\appendixno=`A A%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`B B%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`C C%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`D D%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`E E%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`F F%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`G G%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`H H%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`I I%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`J J%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`K K%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`L L%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`M M%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`N N%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`O O%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`P P%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`Q Q%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`R R%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`S S%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`T T%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`U U%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`V V%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`W W%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`X X%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`Y Y%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`Z Z%
  % The \the is necessary, despite appearances, because \appendixletter is
  % expanded while writing the .toc file.  \char\appendixno is not
  % expandable, thus it is written literally, thus all appendixes come out
  % with the same letter (or @) in the toc without it.

% Each @chapter defines this as the name of the chapter.
% page headings and footings can use it.  @section does likewise.
% However, they are not reliable, because we don't use marks.

\newcount\absseclevel % used to calculate proper heading level
\newcount\secbase\secbase=0 % @raisesections/@lowersections modify this count

% @raisesections: treat @section as chapter, @subsection as section, etc.
\def\raisesections{\global\advance\secbase by -1}
\let\up=\raisesections % original BFox name

% @lowersections: treat @chapter as section, @section as subsection, etc.
\def\lowersections{\global\advance\secbase by 1}
\let\down=\lowersections % original BFox name

% Choose a numbered-heading macro
% #1 is heading level if unmodified by @raisesections or @lowersections
% #2 is text for heading
\def\numhead#1#2{\absseclevel=\secbase\advance\absseclevel by #1
  \or \seczzz{#2}%
  \or \numberedsubseczzz{#2}%
  \or \numberedsubsubseczzz{#2}%
    \ifnum \absseclevel<0 \chapterzzz{#2}%
    \else \numberedsubsubseczzz{#2}%

% like \numhead, but chooses appendix heading levels
\def\apphead#1#2{\absseclevel=\secbase\advance\absseclevel by #1
  \or \appendixsectionzzz{#2}%
  \or \appendixsubseczzz{#2}%
  \or \appendixsubsubseczzz{#2}%
    \ifnum \absseclevel<0 \appendixzzz{#2}%
    \else \appendixsubsubseczzz{#2}%

% like \numhead, but chooses numberless heading levels
\def\unnmhead#1#2{\absseclevel=\secbase\advance\absseclevel by #1
  \or \unnumberedseczzz{#2}%
  \or \unnumberedsubseczzz{#2}%
  \or \unnumberedsubsubseczzz{#2}%
    \ifnum \absseclevel<0 \unnumberedzzz{#2}%
    \else \unnumberedsubsubseczzz{#2}%

% @chapter, @appendix, @unnumbered.  Increment top-level counter, reset
% all lower-level sectioning counters to zero.
% Also set \chaplevelprefix, which we prepend to @float sequence numbers
% (e.g., figures), q.v.  By default (before any chapter), that is empty.
\let\chaplevelprefix = \empty
\outer\parseargdef\chapter{\numhead0{#1}} % normally numhead0 calls chapterzzz
  % section resetting is \global in case the chapter is in a group, such
  % as an @include file.
  \global\secno=0 \global\subsecno=0 \global\subsubsecno=0
    \global\advance\chapno by 1
  % Used for \float.
  \message{\putwordChapter\space \the\chapno}%
  % Write the actual heading.
  % So @section and the like are numbered underneath this chapter.
  \global\let\section = \numberedsec
  \global\let\subsection = \numberedsubsec
  \global\let\subsubsection = \numberedsubsubsec

\outer\parseargdef\appendix{\apphead0{#1}} % normally apphead0 calls appendixzzz
  \global\secno=0 \global\subsecno=0 \global\subsubsecno=0
    \global\advance\appendixno by 1
  \def\appendixnum{\putwordAppendix\space \appendixletter}%
  \global\let\section = \appendixsec
  \global\let\subsection = \appendixsubsec
  \global\let\subsubsection = \appendixsubsubsec

% @centerchap is like @unnumbered, but the heading is centered.

\outer\parseargdef\unnumbered{\unnmhead0{#1}} % normally unnmhead0 calls unnumberedzzz
  \global\secno=0 \global\subsecno=0 \global\subsubsecno=0
    \global\advance\unnumberedno by 1
  % Since an unnumbered has no number, no prefix for figures.
  \global\let\chaplevelprefix = \empty
  % This used to be simply \message{#1}, but TeX fully expands the
  % argument to \message.  Therefore, if #1 contained @-commands, TeX
  % expanded them.  For example, in `@unnumbered The @cite{Book}', TeX
  % expanded @cite (which turns out to cause errors because \cite is meant
  % to be executed, not expanded).
  % Anyway, we don't want the fully-expanded definition of @cite to appear
  % as a result of the \message, we just want `@cite' itself.  We use
  % \the<toks register> to achieve this: TeX expands \the<toks> only once,
  % simply yielding the contents of <toks register>.  (We also do this for
  % the toc entries.)
  \toks0 = {#1}%
  \global\let\section = \unnumberedsec
  \global\let\subsection = \unnumberedsubsec
  \global\let\subsubsection = \unnumberedsubsubsec

% @top is like @unnumbered.

% Sections.
\outer\parseargdef\numberedsec{\numhead1{#1}} % normally calls seczzz
  \global\subsecno=0 \global\subsubsecno=0  \global\advance\secno by 1

\outer\parseargdef\appendixsection{\apphead1{#1}} % normally calls appendixsectionzzz
  \global\subsecno=0 \global\subsubsecno=0  \global\advance\secno by 1

\outer\parseargdef\unnumberedsec{\unnmhead1{#1}} % normally calls unnumberedseczzz
  \global\subsecno=0 \global\subsubsecno=0  \global\advance\secno by 1

% Subsections.
\outer\parseargdef\numberedsubsec{\numhead2{#1}} % normally calls numberedsubseczzz
  \global\subsubsecno=0  \global\advance\subsecno by 1

\outer\parseargdef\appendixsubsec{\apphead2{#1}} % normally calls appendixsubseczzz
  \global\subsubsecno=0  \global\advance\subsecno by 1

\outer\parseargdef\unnumberedsubsec{\unnmhead2{#1}} %normally calls unnumberedsubseczzz
  \global\subsubsecno=0  \global\advance\subsecno by 1

% Subsubsections.
\outer\parseargdef\numberedsubsubsec{\numhead3{#1}} % normally numberedsubsubseczzz
  \global\advance\subsubsecno by 1

\outer\parseargdef\appendixsubsubsec{\apphead3{#1}} % normally appendixsubsubseczzz
  \global\advance\subsubsecno by 1

\outer\parseargdef\unnumberedsubsubsec{\unnmhead3{#1}} %normally unnumberedsubsubseczzz
  \global\advance\subsubsecno by 1

% These are variants which are not "outer", so they can appear in @ifinfo.
% Actually, they are now be obsolete; ordinary section commands should work.



% These macros control what the section commands do, according
% to what kind of chapter we are in (ordinary, appendix, or unnumbered).
% Define them by default for a numbered chapter.
\let\section = \numberedsec
\let\subsection = \numberedsubsec
\let\subsubsection = \numberedsubsubsec

% Define @majorheading, @heading and @subheading

% NOTE on use of \vbox for chapter headings, section headings, and such:
%       1) We use \vbox rather than the earlier \line to permit
%          overlong headings to fold.
%       2) \hyphenpenalty is set to 10000 because hyphenation in a
%          heading is obnoxious; this forbids it.
%       3) Likewise, headings look best if no \parindent is used, and
%          if justification is not attempted.  Hence \raggedright.

  {\advance\chapheadingskip by 10pt \chapbreak }%

\def\chapheading{\chapbreak \parsearg\chapheadingzzz}
  {\chapfonts \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000\tolerance=5000
                    \rm #1\hfill}}%
  \bigskip \par\penalty 200\relax

% @heading, @subheading, @subsubheading.

% These macros generate a chapter, section, etc. heading only
% (including whitespace, linebreaking, etc. around it),
% given all the information in convenient, parsed form.

%%% Args are the skip and penalty (usually negative)

\def\setchapterstyle #1 {\csname CHAPF#1\endcsname}

%%% Define plain chapter starts, and page on/off switching for it
% Parameter controlling skip before chapter headings (if needed)


\def\chapbreak{\dobreak \chapheadingskip {-4000}}
\def\chapoddpage{\chappager \ifodd\pageno \else \hbox to 0pt{} \chappager\fi}

\def\setchapternewpage #1 {\csname CHAPPAG#1\endcsname}

\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager

\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager

\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chapoddpage



% Normal chapter opening.
% #1 is the text, #2 is the section type (Ynumbered, Ynothing,
% Yappendix, Yomitfromtoc), #3 the chapter number.
% To test against our argument.
    \chapfonts \rm
    % Have to define \thissection before calling \donoderef, because the
    % xref code eventually uses it.  On the other hand, it has to be called
    % after \pchapsepmacro, or the headline will change too soon.
    % Only insert the separating space if we have a chapter/appendix
    % number, and don't print the unnumbered ``number''.
      \setbox0 = \hbox{}%
      \setbox0 = \hbox{}% contents like unnumbered, but no toc entry
      \setbox0 = \hbox{\putwordAppendix{} #3\enspace}%
      % We don't substitute the actual chapter name into \thischapter
      % because we don't want its macros evaluated now.  And we don't
      % use \thissection because that changes with each section.
      \xdef\thischapter{\putwordAppendix{} \appendixletter:
      \setbox0 = \hbox{#3\enspace}%
      \xdef\thischapter{\putwordChapter{} \the\chapno:
    % Write the toc entry for this chapter.  Must come before the
    % \donoderef, because we include the current node name in the toc
    % entry, and \donoderef resets it to empty.
    % For pdftex, we have to write out the node definition (aka, make
    % the pdfdest) after any page break, but before the actual text has
    % been typeset.  If the destination for the pdf outline is after the
    % text, then jumping from the outline may wind up with the text not
    % being visible, for instance under high magnification.
    % Typeset the actual heading.
    \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000 \tolerance=5000 \parindent=0pt \raggedright
          \hangindent=\wd0 \centerparametersmaybe
          \unhbox0 #1\par}%
  \nobreak\bigskip % no page break after a chapter title

% @centerchap -- centered and unnumbered.
\let\centerparametersmaybe = \relax
    \advance\rightskip by 3\rightskip
    \leftskip = \rightskip
    \parfillskip = 0pt

\CHAPFplain % The default

% I don't think this chapter style is supported any more, so I'm not
% updating it with the new noderef stuff.  We'll see.  --karl, 11aug03.
\def\unnchfopen #1{%
\chapoddpage {\chapfonts \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000\tolerance=5000
                       \rm #1\hfill}}\bigskip \par\nobreak

\def\chfopen #1#2{\chapoddpage {\chapfonts
\vbox to 3in{\vfil \hbox to\hsize{\hfil #2} \hbox to\hsize{\hfil #1} \vfil}}%
\par\penalty 5000 %

\def\centerchfopen #1{%
\chapoddpage {\chapfonts \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000\tolerance=5000
                       \hfill {\rm #1}\hfill}}\bigskip \par\nobreak


% Section titles.  These macros combine the section number parts and
% call the generic \sectionheading to do the printing.
\def\secheadingbreak{\dobreak \secheadingskip{-1000}}

% Subsection titles.
\def\subsecheadingbreak{\dobreak \subsecheadingskip{-500}}

% Subsubsection titles.

% Print any size, any type, section title.
% #1 is the text, #2 is the section level (sec/subsec/subsubsec), #3 is
% the section type for xrefs (Ynumbered, Ynothing, Yappendix), #4 is the
% section number.
    % Switch to the right set of fonts.
    \csname #2fonts\endcsname \rm
    % Insert space above the heading.
    \csname #2headingbreak\endcsname
    % Only insert the space after the number if we have a section number.
      \setbox0 = \hbox{}%
      % for @headings -- no section number, don't include in toc,
      % and don't redefine \thissection.
      \setbox0 = \hbox{}%
      \setbox0 = \hbox{#4\enspace}%
      \setbox0 = \hbox{#4\enspace}%
    % Write the toc entry (before \donoderef).  See comments in \chfplain.
    % Write the node reference (= pdf destination for pdftex).
    % Again, see comments in \chfplain.
    % Output the actual section heading.
    \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000 \tolerance=5000 \parindent=0pt \raggedright
          \hangindent=\wd0  % zero if no section number
          \unhbox0 #1}%
  % Add extra space after the heading -- half of whatever came above it.
  % Don't allow stretch, though.
  \kern .5 \csname #2headingskip\endcsname
  % Do not let the kern be a potential breakpoint, as it would be if it
  % was followed by glue.
  % We'll almost certainly start a paragraph next, so don't let that
  % glue accumulate.  (Not a breakpoint because it's preceded by a
  % discardable item.)
  % This \nobreak is purely so the last item on the list is a \penalty
  % of 10000.  This is so other code, for instance \parsebodycommon, can
  % check for and avoid allowing breakpoints.  Otherwise, it would
  % insert a valid breakpoint between:
  %   @section sec-whatever
  %   @deffn def-whatever

% Table of contents.

% Write an entry to the toc file, opening it if necessary.
% Called from @chapter, etc.  
% Example usage: \writetocentry{sec}{Section Name}{\the\chapno.\the\secno}
% We append the current node name (if any) and page number as additional
% arguments for the \{chap,sec,...}entry macros which will eventually
% read this.  The node name is used in the pdf outlines as the
% destination to jump to.
% We open the .toc file for writing here instead of at @setfilename (or
% any other fixed time) so that @contents can be anywhere in the document.
% But if #1 is `omit', then we don't do anything.  This is used for the
% table of contents chapter openings themselves.
  \ifx\writetoctype\omitkeyword \else
      \immediate\openout\tocfile = \jobname.toc
      \toks0 = {#2}%
      \toks2 = \expandafter{\lastnode}%
      \edef\temp{\write\tocfile{\realbackslash #1entry{\the\toks0}{#3}%
  % Tell \shipout to create a pdf destination on each page, if we're
  % writing pdf.  These are used in the table of contents.  We can't
  % just write one on every page because the title pages are numbered
  % 1 and 2 (the page numbers aren't printed), and so are the first
  % two pages of the document.  Thus, we'd have two destinations named
  % `1', and two named `2'.
  \ifpdf \global\pdfmakepagedesttrue \fi

\newskip\contentsrightmargin \contentsrightmargin=1in
\newcount\lastnegativepageno \lastnegativepageno = -1

% Prepare to read what we've written to \tocfile.
  % If @setchapternewpage on, and @headings double, the contents should
  % start on an odd page, unlike chapters.  Thus, we maintain
  % \contentsalignmacro in parallel with \pagealignmacro.
  % From: Torbjorn Granlund <tege@matematik.su.se>
  % Don't need to put `Contents' or `Short Contents' in the headline.
  % It is abundantly clear what they are.
  \savepageno = \pageno
  \begingroup                  % Set up to handle contents files properly.
    \catcode`\\=0  \catcode`\{=1  \catcode`\}=2  \catcode`\@=11
    % We can't do this, because then an actual ^ in a section
    % title fails, e.g., @chapter ^ -- exponentiation.  --karl, 9jul97.
    %\catcode`\^=7 % to see ^^e4 as \"a etc. juha@piuha.ydi.vtt.fi
    \raggedbottom             % Worry more about breakpoints than the bottom.
    \advance\hsize by -\contentsrightmargin % Don't use the full line length.
    % Roman numerals for page numbers.
    \ifnum \pageno>0 \global\pageno = \lastnegativepageno \fi

% Normal (long) toc.
    \openin 1 \jobname.toc
    \ifeof 1 \else
      \input \jobname.toc
    \vfill \eject
    \contentsalignmacro % in case @setchapternewpage odd is in effect
    \ifeof 1 \else
    \closein 1
  \lastnegativepageno = \pageno
  \global\pageno = \savepageno

% And just the chapters.
    \let\numchapentry = \shortchapentry
    \let\appentry = \shortchapentry
    \let\unnchapentry = \shortunnchapentry
    % We want a true roman here for the page numbers.
    \let\rm=\shortcontrm \let\bf=\shortcontbf
    \let\sl=\shortcontsl \let\tt=\shortconttt
    \hyphenpenalty = 10000
    \advance\baselineskip by 1pt % Open it up a little.
    \let\appsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\unnsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\numsubsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\appsubsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\unnsubsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\numsubsubsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\appsubsubsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\unnsubsubsecentry = \numsecentry
    \openin 1 \jobname.toc
    \ifeof 1 \else
      \input \jobname.toc
    \closein 1
    \vfill \eject
    \contentsalignmacro % in case @setchapternewpage odd is in effect
  \lastnegativepageno = \pageno
  \global\pageno = \savepageno
\let\shortcontents = \summarycontents

% Typeset the label for a chapter or appendix for the short contents.
% The arg is, e.g., `A' for an appendix, or `3' for a chapter.
  % This space should be enough, since a single number is .5em, and the
  % widest letter (M) is 1em, at least in the Computer Modern fonts.
  % But use \hss just in case.
  % (This space doesn't include the extra space that gets added after
  % the label; that gets put in by \shortchapentry above.)
  % We'd like to right-justify chapter numbers, but that looks strange
  % with appendix letters.  And right-justifying numbers and
  % left-justifying letters looks strange when there is less than 10
  % chapters.  Have to read the whole toc once to know how many chapters
  % there are before deciding ...
  \hbox to 1em{#1\hss}%

% These macros generate individual entries in the table of contents.
% The first argument is the chapter or section name.
% The last argument is the page number.
% The arguments in between are the chapter number, section number, ...

% Chapters, in the main contents.
% Chapters, in the short toc.
% See comments in \dochapentry re vbox and related settings.
  \tocentry{\shortchaplabel{#2}\labelspace #1}{\doshortpageno\bgroup#4\egroup}%

% Appendices, in the main contents.
% Need the word Appendix, and a fixed-size box.
  % We use M since it's probably the widest letter.
  \setbox0 = \hbox{\putwordAppendix{} M}%
  \hbox to \wd0{\putwordAppendix{} #1\hss}}

% Unnumbered chapters.

% Sections.

% Subsections.

% And subsubsections.

% This parameter controls the indentation of the various levels.
% Same as \defaultparindent.
\newdimen\tocindent \tocindent = 15pt

% Now for the actual typesetting. In all these, #1 is the text and #2 is the
% page number.
% If the toc has to be broken over pages, we want it to be at chapters
% if at all possible; hence the \penalty.
   \penalty-300 \vskip1\baselineskip plus.33\baselineskip minus.25\baselineskip
   \nobreak\vskip .25\baselineskip plus.1\baselineskip

  \secentryfonts \leftskip=\tocindent

  \subsecentryfonts \leftskip=2\tocindent

  \subsubsecentryfonts \leftskip=3\tocindent

% We use the same \entry macro as for the index entries.
\let\tocentry = \entry

% Space between chapter (or whatever) number and the title.
\def\labelspace{\hskip1em \relax}

\def\dopageno#1{{\rm #1}}
\def\doshortpageno#1{{\rm #1}}

\def\chapentryfonts{\secfonts \rm}

% @foo ... @end foo.

% @point{}, @result{}, @expansion{}, @print{}, @equiv{}.
% Since these characters are used in examples, it should be an even number of
% \tt widths. Each \tt character is 1en, so two makes it 1em.
\def\result{\leavevmode\raise.15ex\hbox to 1em{\hfil$\Rightarrow$\hfil}}
\def\expansion{\leavevmode\raise.1ex\hbox to 1em{\hfil$\mapsto$\hfil}}
\def\print{\leavevmode\lower.1ex\hbox to 1em{\hfil$\dashv$\hfil}}
\def\equiv{\leavevmode\lower.1ex\hbox to 1em{\hfil$\ptexequiv$\hfil}}

% The @error{} command.
% Adapted from the TeXbook's \boxit.
{\tentt \global\dimen0 = 3em}% Width of the box.
\dimen2 = .55pt % Thickness of rules
% The text. (`r' is open on the right, `e' somewhat less so on the left.)
\setbox0 = \hbox{\kern-.75pt \tensf error\kern-1.5pt}
\setbox\errorbox=\hbox to \dimen0{\hfil
   \hsize = \dimen0 \advance\hsize by -5.8pt % Space to left+right.
   \advance\hsize by -2\dimen2 % Rules.
      \hrule height\dimen2
      \hbox{\vrule width\dimen2 \kern3pt          % Space to left of text.
         \vtop{\kern2.4pt \box0 \kern2.4pt}% Space above/below.
         \kern3pt\vrule width\dimen2}% Space to right.
      \hrule height\dimen2}

% @tex ... @end tex    escapes into raw Tex temporarily.
% One exception: @ is still an escape character, so that @end tex works.
% But \@ or @@ will get a plain tex @ character.

  \catcode `\\=0 \catcode `\{=1 \catcode `\}=2
  \catcode `\$=3 \catcode `\&=4 \catcode `\#=6
  \catcode `\^=7 \catcode `\_=8 \catcode `\~=\active \let~=\tie
  \catcode `\%=14
  \catcode `\+=\other
  \catcode `\"=\other
  \catcode `\|=\other
  \catcode `\<=\other
  \catcode `\>=\other
  \def\enddots{\relax\ifmmode\endldots\else$\mathsurround=0pt \endldots\,$\fi}%
% There is no need to define \Etex.

% Define @lisp ... @end lisp.
% @lisp environment forms a group so it can rebind things,
% including the definition of @end lisp (which normally is erroneous).

% Amount to narrow the margins by for @lisp.
\newskip\lispnarrowing \lispnarrowing=0.4in

% This is the definition that ^^M gets inside @lisp, @example, and other
% such environments.  \null is better than a space, since it doesn't
% have any width.

% This space is always present above and below environments.
\newskip\envskipamount \envskipamount = 0pt

% Make spacing and below environment symmetrical.  We use \parskip here
% to help in doing that, since in @example-like environments \parskip
% is reset to zero; thus the \afterenvbreak inserts no space -- but the
% start of the next paragraph will insert \parskip.
  % =10000 instead of <10000 because of a special case in \itemzzz, q.v.
  \ifnum \lastpenalty=10000 \else
    \advance\envskipamount by \parskip
      % it's not a good place to break if the last penalty was \nobreak
      % or better ...
      \ifnum\lastpenalty<10000 \penalty-50 \fi

\let\afterenvbreak = \aboveenvbreak

% \nonarrowing is a flag.  If "set", @lisp etc don't narrow margins.

% @cartouche ... @end cartouche: draw rectangle w/rounded corners around
% environment contents.
\def\ctl{{\circle\char'013\hskip -6pt}}% 6pt from pl file: 1/2charwidth
\def\ctr{{\hskip 6pt\circle\char'010}}
\def\cbl{{\circle\char'012\hskip -6pt}}
\def\cbr{{\hskip 6pt\circle\char'011}}
\def\carttop{\hbox to \cartouter{\hskip\lskip
        \ctl\leaders\hrule height\circthick\hfil\ctr
\def\cartbot{\hbox to \cartouter{\hskip\lskip
        \cbl\leaders\hrule height\circthick\hfil\cbr

  \ifhmode\par\fi  % can't be in the midst of a paragraph.
  \lskip=\leftskip \rskip=\rightskip
  \leftskip=0pt\rightskip=0pt % we want these *outside*.
  \cartinner=\hsize \advance\cartinner by-\lskip
  \advance\cartinner by-\rskip
  \advance\cartouter by 18.4pt	% allow for 3pt kerns on either
				% side, and for 6pt waste from
				% each corner char, and rule thickness
  \normbskip=\baselineskip \normpskip=\parskip \normlskip=\lineskip
  % Flag to tell @lisp, etc., not to narrow margin.
	      \vskip -\parskip
	      \comment % For explanation, see the end of \def\group.

% This macro is called at the beginning of all the @example variants,
% inside a group.
  \hfuzz = 12pt % Don't be fussy
  \sepspaces % Make spaces be word-separators rather than space tokens.
  \let\par = \lisppar % don't ignore blank lines
  \obeylines % each line of input is a line of output
  \parskip = 0pt
  \parindent = 0pt
  \emergencystretch = 0pt % don't try to avoid overfull boxes
  % @cartouche defines \nonarrowing to inhibit narrowing
  % at next level down.
    \advance \leftskip by \lispnarrowing

% If you want all examples etc. small: @set dispenvsize small.
% If you want even small examples the full size: @set dispenvsize nosmall.
% This affects the following displayed environments:
%    @example, @display, @format, @lisp
    \smallexamplefonts \rm
    \smallexamplefonts \rm

% We often define two environments, @foo and @smallfoo.
% Let's do it by one command:
\def\makedispenv #1#2{
  \expandafter\envdef\csname#1\endcsname {\setnormaldispenv #2}
  \expandafter\envdef\csname small#1\endcsname {\setsmalldispenv #2}
  \expandafter\let\csname E#1\endcsname \afterenvbreak
  \expandafter\let\csname Esmall#1\endcsname \afterenvbreak

% Define two synonyms:
\def\maketwodispenvs #1#2#3{

% @lisp: indented, narrowed, typewriter font; @example: same as @lisp.
% @smallexample and @smalllisp: use smaller fonts.
% Originally contributed by Pavel@xerox.
\maketwodispenvs {lisp}{example}{%
  \let\kbdfont = \kbdexamplefont % Allow @kbd to do something special.
  \gobble       % eat return

% @display/@smalldisplay: same as @lisp except keep current font.
\makedispenv {display}{%

% @format/@smallformat: same as @display except don't narrow margins.
  \let\nonarrowing = t%

% @flushleft: same as @format, but doesn't obey \SETdispenvsize.
  \let\nonarrowing = t%
\let\Eflushleft = \afterenvbreak

% @flushright.
  \let\nonarrowing = t%
  \advance\leftskip by 0pt plus 1fill
\let\Eflushright = \afterenvbreak

% @quotation does normal linebreaking (hence we can't use \nonfillstart)
% and narrows the margins.  We keep \parskip nonzero in general, since
% we're doing normal filling.  So, when using \aboveenvbreak and
% \afterenvbreak, temporarily make \parskip 0.
  {\parskip=0pt \aboveenvbreak}% because \aboveenvbreak inserts \parskip
  % @cartouche defines \nonarrowing to inhibit narrowing at next level down.
    \advance\leftskip by \lispnarrowing
    \advance\rightskip by \lispnarrowing
    \exdentamount = \lispnarrowing
    \let\nonarrowing = \relax

% We have retained a nonzero parskip for the environment, since we're
% doing normal filling.
    % indent a bit.
    \leftline{\kern 2\leftskip \sl ---\quotationauthor}%
  {\parskip=0pt \afterenvbreak}%

% If we're given an argument, typeset it in bold with a colon after.
  \ifx\temp\empty \else
    {\bf #1: }%

% LaTeX-like @verbatim...@end verbatim and @verb{<char>...<char>}
% If we want to allow any <char> as delimiter,
% we need the curly braces so that makeinfo sees the @verb command, eg:
% `@verbx...x' would look like the '@verbx' command.  --janneke@gnu.org
% [Knuth]: Donald Ervin Knuth, 1996.  The TeXbook.
% [Knuth] p.344; only we need to do the other characters Texinfo sets
% active too.  Otherwise, they get lost as the first character on a
% verbatim line.
  \do\ \do\\\do\{\do\}\do\$\do\&%
% [Knuth] p. 380
% [Knuth] pp. 380,381,391
% Disable Spanish ligatures ?` and !` of \tt font
% Setup for the @verb command.
% Eight spaces for a tab
  \gdef\tabeightspaces{\catcode`\^^I=\active\def^^I{\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ }}
  \tt  % easiest (and conventionally used) font for verbatim
  % Respect line breaks,
  % print special symbols as themselves, and
  % make each space count
  % must do in this order:
  \obeylines \uncatcodespecials \sepspaces

% Setup for the @verbatim environment
% Real tab expansion
\newdimen\tabw \setbox0=\hbox{\tt\space} \tabw=8\wd0 % tab amount
      \dimen0=\wd0 % the width so far, or since the previous tab
      \divide\dimen0 by\tabw
      \multiply\dimen0 by\tabw % compute previous multiple of \tabw
      \advance\dimen0 by\tabw  % advance to next multiple of \tabw
      \wd0=\dimen0 \box0 \starttabbox
  \advance\leftskip by -\defbodyindent
  % Easiest (and conventionally used) font for verbatim
  % Respect line breaks,
  % print special symbols as themselves, and
  % make each space count
  % must do in this order:
  \obeylines \uncatcodespecials \sepspaces

% Do the @verb magic: verbatim text is quoted by unique
% delimiter characters.  Before first delimiter expect a
% right brace, after last delimiter expect closing brace:
%    \def\doverb'{'<char>#1<char>'}'{#1}
% [Knuth] p. 382; only eat outer {}
% Do the @verbatim magic: define the macro \doverbatim so that
% the (first) argument ends when '@end verbatim' is reached, ie:
%     \def\doverbatim#1@end verbatim{#1}
% For Texinfo it's a lot easier than for LaTeX,
% because texinfo's \verbatim doesn't stop at '\end{verbatim}':
% we need not redefine '\', '{' and '}'.
% Inspired by LaTeX's verbatim command set [latex.ltx]
  \catcode`\ =\active
  \obeylines %
  % ignore everything up to the first ^^M, that's the newline at the end
  % of the @verbatim input line itself.  Otherwise we get an extra blank
  % line in the output.
  \xdef\doverbatim#1^^M#2@end verbatim{#2\noexpand\end\gobble verbatim}%
  % We really want {...\end verbatim} in the body of the macro, but
  % without the active space; thus we have to use \xdef and \gobble.
\let\Everbatim = \afterenvbreak

% @verbatiminclude FILE - insert text of file in verbatim environment.
    \input #1

% @copying ... @end copying.
% Save the text away for @insertcopying later.  Many commands won't be
% allowed in this context, but that's ok.
% We save the uninterpreted tokens, rather than creating a box.
% Saving the text in a box would be much easier, but then all the
% typesetting commands (@smallbook, font changes, etc.) have to be done
% beforehand -- and a) we want @copying to be done first in the source
% file; b) letting users define the frontmatter in as flexible order as
% possible is very desirable.
  % Define a command to swallow text until we reach `@end copying'.
  % \ is the escape char in this texinfo.tex file, so it is the
  % delimiter for the command; @ will be the escape char when we read
  % it, but that doesn't matter.
  \long\def\docopying##1\end copying{\gdef\copyingtext{##1}\enddocopying}%
  % We must preserve ^^M's in the input file; see \insertcopying below.
  \catcode`\^^M = \active

% What we do to finish off the copying text.

% @insertcopying.  Here we must play games with ^^M's.  On the one hand,
% we need them to delimit commands such as `@end quotation', so they
% must be active.  On the other hand, we certainly don't want every
% end-of-line to be a \par, as would happen with the normal active
% definition of ^^M.  On the third hand, two ^^M's in a row should still
% generate a \par.
% Our approach is to make ^^M insert a space and a penalty1 normally;
% then it can also check if \lastpenalty=1.  If it does, then manually
% do \par.
% This messes up the normal definitions of @c[omment], so we redefine
% it.  Similarly for @ignore.  (These commands are used in the gcc
% manual for man page generation.)
% Seems pretty fragile, most line-oriented commands will presumably
% fail, but for the limited use of getting the copying text (which
% should be quite simple) inserted, we can hope it's ok.
{\catcode`\^^M=\active %
\gdef\insertcopying{\begingroup %
  \parindent = 0pt  % looks wrong on title page
    \ifnum \lastpenalty=1 %
      \par %
    \else %
      \space \penalty 1 %
    \fi %
  % Fix @c[omment] for catcode 13 ^^M's.
  \let\comment = \c %
  % Don't bother jumping through all the hoops that \doignore does, it
  % would be very hard since the catcodes are already set.
  \long\def\ignore##1\end ignore{\ignorespaces}%
  \copyingtext %

% @defun etc.

\newskip\defbodyindent \defbodyindent=.4in
\newskip\defargsindent \defargsindent=50pt
\newskip\deflastargmargin \deflastargmargin=18pt

% Start the processing of @deffn:
    % If there are two @def commands in a row, we'll have a \nobreak,
    % which is there to keep the function description together with its
    % header.  But if there's nothing but headers, we need to allow a
    % break somewhere.  Check for penalty 10002 (inserted by
    % \defargscommonending) instead of 10000, since the sectioning
    % commands insert a \penalty10000, and we don't want to allow a break
    % between a section heading and a defun.
    \ifnum\lastpenalty=10002 \penalty2000 \fi
    % Similarly, after a section heading, do not allow a break.
    % But do insert the glue.
    \medskip  % preceded by discardable penalty, so not a breakpoint
  \advance\leftskip by \defbodyindent

  % First, check whether we are in the right environment:
  % As above, allow line break if we have multiple x headers in a row.
  % It's not a great place, though.
  \ifnum\lastpenalty=10002 \penalty3000 \fi
  % And now, it's time to reuse the body of the original defun:

% \printdefunline \deffnheader{text}
    % call \deffnheader:
    #1#2 \endheader
    % common ending:
    \interlinepenalty = 10000
    \advance\rightskip by 0pt plus 1fil
    \nobreak\vskip -\parskip
    \penalty 10002  % signal to \startdefun and \dodefunx
    % Some of the @defun-type tags do not enable magic parentheses,
    % rendering the following check redundant.  But we don't optimize.


% \makedefun{deffn} creates \deffn, \deffnx and \Edeffn;
% the only thing remainnig is to define \deffnheader.
  \expandafter\let\csname E#1\endcsname = \Edefun

% \domakedefun \deffn \deffnx \deffnheader
% Define \deffn and \deffnx, without parameters.
% \deffnheader has to be defined explicitly.

%%% Untyped functions:

% @deffn category name args

% @deffn category class name args
\makedefun{defop}#1 {\defopon{#1\ \putwordon}}

% \defopon {category on}class name args
\def\defopon#1#2 {\deffngeneral{\putwordon\ \code{#2}}{#1\ \code{#2}} }

% \deffngeneral {subind}category name args
\def\deffngeneral#1#2 #3 #4\endheader{%
  % Remember that \dosubind{fn}{foo}{} is equivalent to \doind{fn}{foo}.

%%% Typed functions:

% @deftypefn category type name args

% @deftypeop category class type name args
\makedefun{deftypeop}#1 {\deftypeopon{#1\ \putwordon}}

% \deftypeopon {category on}class type name args
\def\deftypeopon#1#2 {\deftypefngeneral{\putwordon\ \code{#2}}{#1\ \code{#2}} }

% \deftypefngeneral {subind}category type name args
\def\deftypefngeneral#1#2 #3 #4 #5\endheader{%

%%% Typed variables:

% @deftypevr category type var args

% @deftypecv category class type var args
\makedefun{deftypecv}#1 {\deftypecvof{#1\ \putwordof}}

% \deftypecvof {category of}class type var args
\def\deftypecvof#1#2 {\deftypecvgeneral{\putwordof\ \code{#2}}{#1\ \code{#2}} }

% \deftypecvgeneral {subind}category type var args
\def\deftypecvgeneral#1#2 #3 #4 #5\endheader{%

%%% Untyped variables:

% @defvr category var args
\makedefun{defvr}#1 {\deftypevrheader{#1} {} }

% @defcv category class var args
\makedefun{defcv}#1 {\defcvof{#1\ \putwordof}}

% \defcvof {category of}class var args
\def\defcvof#1#2 {\deftypecvof{#1}#2 {} }

%%% Type:
% @deftp category name args
\makedefun{deftp}#1 #2 #3\endheader{%

% Remaining @defun-like shortcuts:
\makedefun{defun}{\deffnheader{\putwordDeffunc} }
\makedefun{defmac}{\deffnheader{\putwordDefmac} }
\makedefun{defspec}{\deffnheader{\putwordDefspec} }
\makedefun{deftypefun}{\deftypefnheader{\putwordDeffunc} }
\makedefun{defvar}{\defvrheader{\putwordDefvar} }
\makedefun{defopt}{\defvrheader{\putwordDefopt} }
\makedefun{deftypevar}{\deftypevrheader{\putwordDefvar} }

% \defname, which formats the name of the @def (not the args).
% #1 is the category, such as "Function".
% #2 is the return type, if any.
% #3 is the function name.
% We are followed by (but not passed) the arguments, if any.
  % Get the values of \leftskip and \rightskip as they were outside the @def...
  \advance\leftskip by -\defbodyindent
  % How we'll format the type name.  Putting it in brackets helps
  % distinguish it from the body text that may end up on the next line
  % just below it.
  \setbox0=\hbox{\kern\deflastargmargin \ifx\temp\empty\else [\rm\temp]\fi}
  % Figure out line sizes for the paragraph shape.
  % The first line needs space for \box0; but if \rightskip is nonzero,
  % we need only space for the part of \box0 which exceeds it:
  \dimen0=\hsize  \advance\dimen0 by -\wd0  \advance\dimen0 by \rightskip
  % The continuations:
  \dimen2=\hsize  \advance\dimen2 by -\defargsindent
  % (plain.tex says that \dimen1 should be used only as global.)
  \parshape 2 0in \dimen0 \defargsindent \dimen2
  % Put the type name to the right margin.
  \hbox to 0pt{%
    \hfil\box0 \kern-\hsize
    % \hsize has to be shortened this way:
    % Intentionally do not respect \rightskip, since we need the space.
  % Allow all lines to be underfull without complaint:
  \tolerance=10000 \hbadness=10000
    % defun fonts. We use typewriter by default (used to be bold) because:
    % . we're printing identifiers, they should be in tt in principle.
    % . in languages with many accents, such as Czech or French, it's
    %   common to leave accents off identifiers.  The result looks ok in
    %   tt, but exceedingly strange in rm.
    % . we don't want -- and --- to be treated as ligatures.
    % . this still does not fix the ?` and !` ligatures, but so far no
    %   one has made identifiers using them :).
    \df \tt
    \def\temp{#2}% return value type
    \ifx\temp\empty\else \tclose{\temp} \fi
    #3% output function name
  {\rm\enskip}% hskip 0.5 em of \tenrm
  % arguments will be output next, if any.

% Print arguments in slanted roman (not ttsl), inconsistently with using
% tt for the name.  This is because literal text is sometimes needed in
% the argument list (groff manual), and ttsl and tt are not very
% distinguishable.  Prevent hyphenation at `-' chars.
  % use sl by default (not ttsl), 
  % tt for the names.
  \df \sl \hyphenchar\font=0
  % On the other hand, if an argument has two dashes (for instance), we
  % want a way to get ttsl.  Let's try @var for that.

% We want ()&[] to print specially on the defun line.
  \catcode`\(=\active \catcode`\)=\active
  \catcode`\[=\active \catcode`\]=\active

% Make control sequences which act like normal parenthesis chars.
\let\lparen = ( \let\rparen = )

% Be sure that we always have a definition for `(', etc.  For example,
% if the fn name has parens in it, \boldbrax will not be in effect yet,
% so TeX would otherwise complain about undefined control sequence.
  \global\let(=\lparen \global\let)=\rparen
  \global\let[=\lbrack \global\let]=\rbrack
  \global\let& = \&



% If we encounter &foo, then turn on ()-hacking afterwards
\def\amprm#1 {\ampseentrue{\bf\&#1 }}

    % At the first level, print parens in roman,
    % otherwise use the default font.
    \ifnum \parencount=1 \rm \fi
    % The \sf parens (in \boldbrax) actually are a little bolder than
    % the contained text.  This is especially needed for [ and ] .
\def\bfafterword#1 {#1 \bf}

  \global\advance\parencount by 1
  \infirstlevel \bfafterword
  \infirstlevel \sl
  \global\advance\parencount by -1

  \global\advance\brackcount by 1
  \global\advance\brackcount by -1

  \ifnum\parencount=0 \else \badparencount \fi
  \ifnum\brackcount=0 \else \badbrackcount \fi
  \errmessage{Unbalanced parentheses in @def}%
  \errmessage{Unbalanced square braces in @def}%

% @macro.

% To do this right we need a feature of e-TeX, \scantokens,
% which we arrange to emulate with a temporary file in ordinary TeX.
    \input \jobname.tmp

    % Undo catcode changes of \startcontents and \doprintindex
    \catcode`\@=0 \catcode`\\=\other \escapechar=`\@
    % ... and \example
    % Append \endinput to make sure that TeX does not see the ending newline.
    % I've verified that it is necessary both for e-TeX and for ordinary TeX
    %							--kasal, 29nov03

\newcount\paramno   % Count of parameters
\newtoks\macname    % Macro name
\newif\ifrecursive  % Is it recursive?
\def\macrolist{}    % List of all defined macros in the form
                    % \do\macro1\do\macro2...

% Utility routines.
% This does \let #1 = #2, except with \csnames.

% Trim leading and trailing spaces off a string.
% Concepts from aro-bend problem 15 (see CTAN).
\gdef\eatspaces #1{\expandafter\trim@\expandafter{#1 }}
\gdef\trim@ #1{\trim@@ @#1 @ #1 @ @@}
\gdef\trim@@ #1@ #2@ #3@@{\trim@@@\empty #2 @}
\unbrace{\gdef\trim@@@ #1 } #2@{#1}

% Trim a single trailing ^^M off a string.
{\catcode`\^^M=\other \catcode`\Q=3%
\gdef\eatcr #1{\eatcra #1Q^^MQ}%

% Macro bodies are absorbed as an argument in a context where
% all characters are catcode 10, 11 or 12, except \ which is active
% (as in normal texinfo). It is necessary to change the definition of \.

% It's necessary to have hard CRs when the macro is executed. This is
% done by  making ^^M (\endlinechar) catcode 12 when reading the macro
% body, and then making it the \newlinechar in \scanmacro.



% \mbodybackslash is the definition of \ in @macro bodies.
% It maps \foo\ => \csname macarg.foo\endcsname => #N
% where N is the macro parameter number.
% We define \csname macarg.\endcsname to be \realbackslash, so
% \\ in macro replacement text gets you a backslash.

{\catcode`@=0 @catcode`@\=@active
 @gdef@mbodybackslash#1\{@csname macarg.#1@endcsname}
\expandafter\def\csname macarg.\endcsname{\realbackslash}


  \getargs{#1}%           now \macname is the macname and \argl the arglist
  \ifx\argl\empty       % no arguments
     \expandafter\parsemargdef \argl;%
  \if1\csname ismacro.\the\macname\endcsname
     \message{Warning: redefining \the\macname}%
     \expandafter\ifx\csname \the\macname\endcsname \relax
     \else \errmessage{Macro name \the\macname\space already defined}\fi
     \global\expandafter\let\csname ismacro.\the\macname\endcsname=1%
     % Add the macroname to \macrolist
     \toks0 = \expandafter{\macrolist\do}%
  \begingroup \macrobodyctxt
  \ifrecursive \expandafter\parsermacbody
  \else \expandafter\parsemacbody

  \if1\csname ismacro.#1\endcsname
    \global\expandafter\let \csname ismacro.#1\endcsname=0%
    % Remove the macro name from \macrolist:
      \expandafter\let\csname#1\endcsname \relax
    \errmessage{Macro #1 not defined}%

% Called by \do from \dounmacro on each macro.  The idea is to omit any
% macro definitions that have been changed to \relax.
    % remove this
    \noexpand\do \noexpand #1%

% This makes use of the obscure feature that if the last token of a
% <parameter list> is #, then the preceding argument is delimited by
% an opening brace, and that opening brace is not consumed.
\def\getargsxxx#1#{\getmacname #1 \relax\getmacargs}
\def\getmacname #1 #2\relax{\macname={#1}}

% Parse the optional {params} list.  Set up \paramno and \paramlist
% so \defmacro knows what to do.  Define \macarg.blah for each blah
% in the params list, to be ##N where N is the position in that list.
% That gets used by \mbodybackslash (above).

% We need to get `macro parameter char #' into several definitions.
% The technique used is stolen from LaTeX:  let \hash be something
% unexpandable, insert that wherever you need a #, and then redefine
% it to # just before using the token list produced.
% The same technique is used to protect \eatspaces till just before
% the macro is used.

  \else \let\next=\parsemargdefxxx
    \advance\paramno by 1%
    \expandafter\edef\csname macarg.\eatspaces{#1}\endcsname

% These two commands read recursive and nonrecursive macro bodies.
% (They're different since rec and nonrec macros end differently.)

\long\def\parsemacbody#1@end macro%
\long\def\parsermacbody#1@end rmacro%

% This defines the macro itself. There are six cases: recursive and
% nonrecursive macros of zero, one, and many arguments.
% Much magic with \expandafter here.
% \xdef is used so that macro definitions will survive the file
% they're defined in; @include reads the file inside a group.
  \let\hash=##% convert placeholders to macro parameter chars
    % 0
    \or % 1
         \expandafter\noexpand\csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname}%
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname##1{%
    \else % many
         \noexpand\csname\the\macname xx\endcsname}%
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname xx\endcsname##1{%
          \expandafter\noexpand\csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname ##1,}%
        \csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname
    % 0
    \or % 1
         \expandafter\noexpand\csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname}%
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname##1{%
    \else % many
         \expandafter\noexpand\csname\the\macname xx\endcsname}%
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname xx\endcsname##1{%
          \expandafter\noexpand\csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname ##1,}%
      \csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname


% \braceorline decides whether the next nonwhitespace character is a
% {.  If so it reads up to the closing }, if not, it reads the whole
% line.  Whatever was read is then fed to the next control sequence
% as an argument (by \parsebrace or \parsearg)
  \fi \next}

% We mant to disable all macros during \shipout so that they are not
% expanded by \write.
\def\turnoffmacros{\begingroup \def\do##1{\let\noexpand##1=\relax}%

% @alias.
% We need some trickery to remove the optional spaces around the equal
% sign.  Just make them active and then expand them all to nothing.
\def\aliasxxx #1{\aliasyyy#1\relax}
\def\aliasyyy #1=#2\relax{%

\message{cross references,}


\newif\ifhavexrefs    % True if xref values are known.
\newif\ifwarnedxrefs  % True if we warned once that they aren't known.

% @inforef is relatively simple.
\def\inforef #1{\inforefzzz #1,,,,**}
\def\inforefzzz #1,#2,#3,#4**{\putwordSee{} \putwordInfo{} \putwordfile{} \file{\ignorespaces #3{}},
  node \samp{\ignorespaces#1{}}}

% @node's only job in TeX is to define \lastnode, which is used in
% cross-references.
\parseargdef\node{\checkenv{}\nodexxx #1,\finishnodeparse}

% Write a cross-reference definition for the current node.  #1 is the
% type (Ynumbered, Yappendix, Ynothing).

% @anchor{NAME} -- define xref target at arbitrary point.
\def\savesf{\relax \ifhmode \savesfregister=\spacefactor \fi}
\def\restoresf{\relax \ifhmode \spacefactor=\savesfregister \fi}
\def\anchor#1{\savesf \setref{#1}{Ynothing}\restoresf \ignorespaces}

% \setref{NAME}{SNT} defines a cross-reference point NAME (a node or an
% anchor), which consists of three parts:
% 1) NAME-title - the current sectioning name taken from \thissection,
%                 or the anchor name.
% 2) NAME-snt   - section number and type, passed as the SNT arg, or
%                 empty for anchors.
% 3) NAME-pg    - the page number.
% This is called from \donoderef, \anchor, and \dofloat.  In the case of
% floats, there is an additional part, which is not written here:
% 4) NAME-lof   - the text as it should appear in a @listoffloats.
      \atdummies  % preserve commands, but don't expand them
	\write\auxfile{@xrdef{#1-% #1 of \setref, expanded by the \edef
	  ##1}{##2}}% these are parameters of \writexrdef
      \toks0 = \expandafter{\thissection}%
      \immediate \writexrdef{title}{\the\toks0 }%
      \immediate \writexrdef{snt}{\csname #2\endcsname}% \Ynumbered etc.
      \writexrdef{pg}{\folio}% will be written later, during \shipout

% @xref, @pxref, and @ref generate cross-references.  For \xrefX, #1 is
% the node name, #2 the name of the Info cross-reference, #3 the printed
% node name, #4 the name of the Info file, #5 the name of the printed
% manual.  All but the node name can be omitted.
\def\pxref#1{\putwordsee{} \xrefX[#1,,,,,,,]}
\def\xref#1{\putwordSee{} \xrefX[#1,,,,,,,]}
  \def\printedmanual{\ignorespaces #5}%
  \def\printedrefname{\ignorespaces #3}%
  \ifdim \wd0 = 0pt
    % No printed node name was explicitly given.
    \expandafter\ifx\csname SETxref-automatic-section-title\endcsname\relax
      % Use the node name inside the square brackets.
      \def\printedrefname{\ignorespaces #1}%
      % Use the actual chapter/section title appear inside
      % the square brackets.  Use the real section title if we have it.
      \ifdim \wd1 > 0pt
        % It is in another manual, so we don't have it.
        \def\printedrefname{\ignorespaces #1}%
          % We know the real title if we have the xref values.
          % Otherwise just copy the Info node name.
          \def\printedrefname{\ignorespaces #1}%
  % Make link in pdf output.
    {\turnoffactive \otherbackslash
       \startlink attr{/Border [0 0 0]}%
         goto file{\the\filename.pdf} name{#1}%
       \startlink attr{/Border [0 0 0]}%
         goto name{\pdfmkpgn{#1}}%
  % Float references are printed completely differently: "Figure 1.2"
  % instead of "[somenode], p.3".  We distinguish them by the
  % LABEL-title being set to a magic string.
    % Have to otherify everything special to allow the \csname to
    % include an _ in the xref name, etc.
      \csname XR#1-title\endcsname
    % If the user specified the print name (third arg) to the ref,
    % print it instead of our usual "Figure 1.2".
    \ifdim\wd0 = 0pt
    % if the user also gave the printed manual name (fifth arg), append
    % "in MANUALNAME". 
    \ifdim \wd1 > 0pt
      \space \putwordin{} \cite{\printedmanual}%
    % node/anchor (non-float) references.
    % If we use \unhbox0 and \unhbox1 to print the node names, TeX does not
    % insert empty discretionaries after hyphens, which means that it will
    % not find a line break at a hyphen in a node names.  Since some manuals
    % are best written with fairly long node names, containing hyphens, this
    % is a loss.  Therefore, we give the text of the node name again, so it
    % is as if TeX is seeing it for the first time.
    \ifdim \wd1 > 0pt
      \putwordsection{} ``\printedrefname'' \putwordin{} \cite{\printedmanual}%
      % _ (for example) has to be the character _ for the purposes of the
      % control sequence corresponding to the node, but it has to expand
      % into the usual \leavevmode...\vrule stuff for purposes of
      % printing. So we \turnoffactive for the \refx-snt, back on for the
      % printing, back off for the \refx-pg.
      {\turnoffactive \otherbackslash
       % Only output a following space if the -snt ref is nonempty; for
       % @unnumbered and @anchor, it won't be.
       \setbox2 = \hbox{\ignorespaces \refx{#1-snt}{}}%
       \ifdim \wd2 > 0pt \refx{#1-snt}\space\fi
      % output the `[mynode]' via a macro so it can be overridden.
      % But we always want a comma and a space:
      % output the `page 3'.
      \turnoffactive \otherbackslash \putwordpage\tie\refx{#1-pg}{}%

% This macro is called from \xrefX for the `[nodename]' part of xref
% output.  It's a separate macro only so it can be changed more easily,
% since square brackets don't work well in some documents.  Particularly
% one that Bob is working on :).

% Things referred to by \setref.
    \putwordChapter@tie \the\chapno
  \else \ifnum\subsecno=0
    \putwordSection@tie \the\chapno.\the\secno
  \else \ifnum\subsubsecno=0
    \putwordSection@tie \the\chapno.\the\secno.\the\subsecno
    \putwordSection@tie \the\chapno.\the\secno.\the\subsecno.\the\subsubsecno
     \putwordAppendix@tie @char\the\appendixno{}%
  \else \ifnum\subsecno=0
     \putwordSection@tie @char\the\appendixno.\the\secno
  \else \ifnum\subsubsecno=0
    \putwordSection@tie @char\the\appendixno.\the\secno.\the\subsecno

% Define \refx{NAME}{SUFFIX} to reference a cross-reference string named NAME.
% If its value is nonempty, SUFFIX is output afterward.
      \csname XR#1\endcsname
    % If not defined, say something at least.
    \angleleft un\-de\-fined\angleright
        \message{\linenumber Undefined cross reference `#1'.}%
          \message{Cross reference values unknown; you must run TeX again.}%
    % It's defined, so just use it.
  #2% Output the suffix in any case.

% This is the macro invoked by entries in the aux file.  Usually it's
% just a \def (we prepend XR to the control sequence name to avoid
% collisions).  But if this is a float type, we have more work to do.
  \expandafter\gdef\csname XR#1\endcsname{#2}% remember this xref value.
  % Was that xref control sequence that we just defined for a float?
  \expandafter\iffloat\csname XR#1\endcsname
    % it was a float, and we have the (safe) float type in \iffloattype.
      \csname floatlist\iffloattype\endcsname
    % Is this the first time we've seen this float type?
      \toks0 = {\do}% yes, so just \do
      % had it before, so preserve previous elements in list.
      \toks0 = \expandafter{\floatlist\do}%
    % Remember this xref in the control sequence \floatlistFLOATTYPE,
    % for later use in \listoffloats.
    \expandafter\xdef\csname floatlist\iffloattype\endcsname{\the\toks0{#1}}%

% Read the last existing aux file, if any.  No error if none exists.
  \openin 1 \jobname.aux
  \ifeof 1 \else
  \closein 1

  % It was suggested to set the catcode of ^ to 7, which would allow ^^e4 etc.
  % in xref tags, i.e., node names.  But since ^^e4 notation isn't
  % supported in the main text, it doesn't seem desirable.  Furthermore,
  % that is not enough: for node names that actually contain a ^
  % character, we would end up writing a line like this: 'xrdef {'hat
  % b-title}{'hat b} and \xrdef does a \csname...\endcsname on the first
  % argument, and \hat is not an expandable control sequence.  It could
  % all be worked out, but why?  Either we support ^^ or we don't.
  % The other change necessary for this was to define \auxhat:
  % \def\auxhat{\def^{'hat }}% extra space so ok if followed by letter
  % and then to call \auxhat in \setq.
  % Special characters.  Should be turned off anyway, but...
  \catcode`+=\other % avoid \+ for paranoia even though we've turned it off
  % This is to support \ in node names and titles, since the \
  % characters end up in a \csname.  It's easier than
  % leaving it active and making its active definition an actual \
  % character.  What I don't understand is why it works in the *value*
  % of the xrdef.  Seems like it should be a catcode12 \, and that
  % should not typeset properly.  But it works, so I'm moving on for
  % now.  --karl, 15jan04.
  % Make the characters 128-255 be printing characters.
    \count 1=128
      \catcode\count 1=\other
      \advance\count 1 by 1
      \ifnum \count 1<256 \loop \fi
  % @ is our escape character in .aux files, and we need braces.
  \input \jobname.aux

% including footnotes.

\newcount \footnoteno

% The trailing space in the following definition for supereject is
% vital for proper filling; pages come out unaligned when you do a
% pagealignmacro call if that space before the closing brace is
% removed. (Generally, numeric constants should always be followed by a
% space to prevent strange expansion errors.)
\def\supereject{\par\penalty -20000\footnoteno =0 }

% @footnotestyle is meaningful for info output only.

{\catcode `\@=11
% Auto-number footnotes.  Otherwise like plain.
  \global\advance\footnoteno by \@ne
  % In case the footnote comes at the end of a sentence, preserve the
  % extra spacing after we do the footnote number.
  % Remove inadvertent blank space before typesetting the footnote number.

% Don't bother with the trickery in plain.tex to not require the
% footnote text as a parameter.  Our footnotes don't need to be so general.
% Oh yes, they do; otherwise, @ifset (and anything else that uses
% \parseargline) fails inside footnotes because the tokens are fixed when
% the footnote is read.  --karl, 16nov96.
  % We want to typeset this text as a normal paragraph, even if the
  % footnote reference occurs in (for example) a display environment.
  % So reset some parameters.
  \splittopskip\ht\strutbox % top baseline for broken footnotes
  \smallfonts \rm
  % Because we use hanging indentation in footnotes, a @noindent appears
  % to exdent this text, so make it be a no-op.  makeinfo does not use
  % hanging indentation so @noindent can still be needed within footnote
  % text after an @example or the like (not that this is good style).
  \let\noindent = \relax
  % Hang the footnote text off the number.  Use \everypar in case the
  % footnote extends for more than one paragraph.
  \everypar = {\hang}%
  % Don't crash into the line above the footnote text.  Since this
  % expands into a box, it must come within the paragraph, lest it
  % provide a place where TeX can split the footnote.
}%end \catcode `\@=11

% In case a @footnote appears in a vbox, save the footnote text and create
% the real \insert just after the vbox finished.  Otherwise, the insertion
% would be lost.
% Similarily, if a @footnote appears inside an alignment, save the footnote
% text to a box and make the \insert when a row of the table is finished.
% And the same can be done for other insert classes.  --kasal, 16nov03.

% Replace the \insert primitive by a cheating macro.
% Deeper inside, just make sure that the saved insertions are not spilled
% out prematurely.
  \ifx \insert\ptexinsert

% This \insert replacement works for both \insert\footins{foo} and
% \insert\footins\bgroup foo\egroup, but it doesn't work for \insert27{foo}.
  \edef\next{\noexpand\savetobox \makeSAVEname#1}%
  % swallow the left brace
  \let\temp =
\def\savetobox#1{\global\setbox#1 = \vbox\bgroup \unvbox#1}

\def\checksaveins#1{\ifvoid#1\else \placesaveins#1\fi}

  \ptexinsert \csname\expandafter\gobblesave\string#1\endcsname

% eat @SAVE -- beware, all of them have catcode \other:
  \def\dospecials{\do S\do A\do V\do E} \uncatcodespecials  %  ;-)
  \gdef\gobblesave @SAVE{}

% initialization:
\def\newsaveins #1{%
  \edef\next{\noexpand\newsaveinsX \makeSAVEname#1}%
\def\newsaveinsX #1{%
  \csname newbox\endcsname #1%
    \checksaveins #1}%

% initialize:

% @image.  We use the macros from epsf.tex to support this.
% If epsf.tex is not installed and @image is used, we complain.
% Check for and read epsf.tex up front.  If we read it only at @image
% time, we might be inside a group, and then its definitions would get
% undone and the next image would fail.
\openin 1 = epsf.tex
\ifeof 1 \else
  % Do not bother showing banner with epsf.tex v2.7k (available in
  % doc/epsf.tex and on ctan).
  \def\epsfannounce{\toks0 = }%
  \input epsf.tex
\closein 1
% We will only complain once about lack of epsf.tex.
\newhelp\noepsfhelp{epsf.tex must be installed for images to
  work.  It is also included in the Texinfo distribution, or you can get
  it from ftp://tug.org/tex/epsf.tex.}
    \ifwarnednoepsf \else
      \errhelp = \noepsfhelp
      \errmessage{epsf.tex not found, images will be ignored}%
    \imagexxx #1,,,,,\finish
% Arguments to @image:
% #1 is (mandatory) image filename; we tack on .eps extension.
% #2 is (optional) width, #3 is (optional) height.
% #4 is (ignored optional) html alt text.
% #5 is (ignored optional) extension.
% #6 is just the usual extra ignored arg for parsing this stuff.
  \catcode`\^^M = 5     % in case we're inside an example
  \normalturnoffactive  % allow _ et al. in names
  % If the image is by itself, center it.
    % Usually we'll have text after the image which will insert
    % \parskip glue, so insert it here too to equalize the space
    % above and below.
  % Output the image.
    % \epsfbox itself resets \epsf?size at each figure.
    \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}\ifdim\wd0 > 0pt \epsfxsize=#2\relax \fi
    \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #3}\ifdim\wd0 > 0pt \epsfysize=#3\relax \fi
  \ifimagevmode \hss \egroup \bigbreak \fi  % space after the image

% @float FLOATTYPE,LOC ... @end float for displayed figures, tables, etc.
% We don't actually implement floating yet, we just plop the float "here".
% But it seemed the best name for the future.
\envparseargdef\float{\dofloat #1,,,\finish}

% #1 is the optional FLOATTYPE, the text label for this float, typically
% "Figure", "Table", "Example", etc.  Can't contain commas.  If omitted,
% this float will not be numbered and cannot be referred to.
% #2 is the optional xref label.  Also must be present for the float to
% be referable.
% #3 is the optional positioning argument; for now, it is ignored.  It
% will somehow specify the positions allowed to float to (here, top, bottom).
% We keep a separate counter for each FLOATTYPE, which we reset at each
% chapter-level command.
  % don't lose footnotes inside @float.
    \def\floatloc{#3}% we do nothing with this yet.
        % the floattype might have accents or other special characters,
        % but we need to use it in a control sequence name.
    % If label is given but no type, we handle that as the empty type.
    \ifx\floatlabel\empty \else
      % We want each FLOATTYPE to be numbered separately (Figure 1,
      % Table 1, Figure 2, ...).  (And if no label, no number.)
      \expandafter\getfloatno\csname\safefloattype floatno\endcsname
      \global\advance\floatno by 1
        % This magic value for \thissection is output by \setref as the
        % XREFLABEL-title value.  \xrefX uses it to distinguish float
        % labels (which have a completely different output format) from
        % node and anchor labels.  And \xrdef uses it to construct the
        % lists of floats.
    % start with \parskip glue, I guess.
    % Don't suppress indentation if a float happens to start a section.

% we have these possibilities:
% @float Foo,lbl & @caption{Cap}: Foo 1.1: Cap
% @float Foo,lbl & no caption:    Foo 1.1
% @float Foo & @caption{Cap}:     Foo: Cap
% @float Foo & no caption:        Foo
% @float ,lbl & Caption{Cap}:     1.1: Cap
% @float ,lbl & no caption:       1.1
% @float & @caption{Cap}:         Cap
% @float & no caption:
    \let\floatident = \empty
    % In all cases, if we have a float type, it comes first.
    \ifx\floattype\empty \else \def\floatident{\floattype}\fi
    % If we have an xref label, the number comes next.
    \ifx\floatlabel\empty \else
      \ifx\floattype\empty \else % if also had float type, need tie first.
      % the number.
    % Start the printed caption with what we've constructed in
    % \floatident, but keep it separate; we need \floatident again.
    \let\captionline = \floatident
    \ifx\thiscaption\empty \else
      \ifx\floatident\empty \else
	\appendtomacro\captionline{: }% had ident, so need a colon between
      % caption text.
    % If we have anything to print, print it, with space before.
    % Eventually this needs to become an \insert.
    \ifx\captionline\empty \else
    % If have an xref label, write the list of floats info.  Do this
    % after the caption, to avoid chance of it being a breakpoint.
    \ifx\floatlabel\empty \else
      % Write the text that goes in the lof to the aux file as
      % \floatlabel-lof.  Besides \floatident, we include the short
      % caption if specified, else the full caption if specified, else nothing.
        \atdummies \turnoffactive \otherbackslash
            \ifx\thiscaption\empty \else : \thiscaption \fi
            : \thisshortcaption
    % Space below caption, if we printed anything.
    \ifx\printedsomething\empty \else \vskip\parskip \fi
  \egroup  % end of \vtop

% Append the tokens #2 to the definition of macro #1, not expanding either.
  \appendtomacroAtoks = \expandafter{#1}%
  \appendtomacroBtoks = {#2}%
  \edef#1{\the\appendtomacroAtoks \the\appendtomacroBtoks}%

% @caption, @shortcaption are easy.
\long\def\caption#1{\checkenv\float \def\thiscaption{#1}}
\def\shortcaption#1{\checkenv\float \def\thisshortcaption{#1}}

% The parameter is the control sequence identifying the counter we are
% going to use.  Create it if it doesn't exist and assign it to \floatno.
      % Haven't seen this figure type before.
      \csname newcount\endcsname #1%
      % Remember to reset this floatno at the next chap.
        \expandafter{\resetallfloatnos #1=0 }%

% \setref calls this to get the XREFLABEL-snt value.  We want an @xref
% to the FLOATLABEL to expand to "Figure 3.1".  We call \setref when we
% first read the @float command.
\def\Yfloat{\floattype@tie \chaplevelprefix\the\floatno}%

% Magic string used for the XREFLABEL-title value, so \xrefX can
% distinguish floats from other xref types.

% #1 is the control sequence we are passed; we expand into a conditional
% which is true if #1 represents a float ref.  That is, the magic
% \thissection value which we \setref above.
% #1 is (maybe) the \floatmagic string.  If so, #2 will be the
% (safe) float type for this float.  We set \iffloattype to #2.

% @listoffloats FLOATTYPE - print a list of floats like a table of contents.
  \def\floattype{#1}% floattype
    % the floattype might have accents or other special characters,
    % but we need to use it in a control sequence name.
  % \xrdef saves the floats as a \do-list in \floatlistSAFEFLOATTYPE.
  \expandafter\ifx\csname floatlist\safefloattype\endcsname \relax
      % if the user said @listoffloats foo but never @float foo.
      \message{\linenumber No `\safefloattype' floats to list.}%
      \leftskip=\tocindent  % indent these entries like a toc
      \csname floatlist\safefloattype\endcsname

% This is called on each entry in a list of floats.  We're passed the
% xref label, in the form LABEL-title, which is how we save it in the
% aux file.  We strip off the -title and look up \XRLABEL-lof, which
% has the text we're supposed to typeset here.
% Figures without xref labels will not be included in the list (since
% they won't appear in the aux file).
  % Can't fully expand XR#1-lof because it can contain anything.  Just
  % pass the control sequence.  On the other hand, XR#1-pg is just the
  % page number, and we want to fully expand that so we can get a link
  % in pdf output.
  \toksA = \expandafter{\csname XR#1-lof\endcsname}%
  % use the same \entry macro we use to generate the TOC and index.
  \edef\writeentry{\noexpand\entry{\the\toksA}{\csname XR#1-pg\endcsname}}%

% and i18n.

% @documentlanguage is usually given very early, just after
% @setfilename.  If done too late, it may not override everything
% properly.  Single argument is the language abbreviation.
% It would be nice if we could set up a hyphenation file here.
  \tex % read txi-??.tex file in plain TeX.
    % Read the file if it exists.
    \openin 1 txi-#1.tex
    \ifeof 1
      \errhelp = \nolanghelp
      \errmessage{Cannot read language file txi-#1.tex}%
      \input txi-#1.tex
    \closein 1
\newhelp\nolanghelp{The given language definition file cannot be found or
is empty.  Maybe you need to install it?  In the current directory
should work if nowhere else does.}

% @documentencoding should change something in TeX eventually, most
% likely, but for now just recognize it.
\let\documentencoding = \comment

% Page size parameters.
\newdimen\defaultparindent \defaultparindent = 15pt

\chapheadingskip = 15pt plus 4pt minus 2pt
\secheadingskip = 12pt plus 3pt minus 2pt
\subsecheadingskip = 9pt plus 2pt minus 2pt

% Prevent underfull vbox error messages.
\vbadness = 10000

% Don't be so finicky about underfull hboxes, either.
\hbadness = 2000

% Following George Bush, just get rid of widows and orphans.

% Use TeX 3.0's \emergencystretch to help line breaking, but if we're
% using an old version of TeX, don't do anything.  We want the amount of
% stretch added to depend on the line length, hence the dependence on
% \hsize.  We call this whenever the paper size is set.
    % Allow us to assign to \emergencystretch anyway.
    \emergencystretch = .15\hsize

% Parameters in order: 1) textheight; 2) textwidth; 3) voffset;
% 4) hoffset; 5) binding offset; 6) topskip; 7) physical page height; 8)
% physical page width.
% We also call \setleading{\textleading}, so the caller should define
% \textleading.  The caller should also set \parskip.
  \voffset = #3\relax
  \topskip = #6\relax
  \splittopskip = \topskip
  \vsize = #1\relax
  \advance\vsize by \topskip
  \outervsize = \vsize
  \advance\outervsize by 2\topandbottommargin
  \pageheight = \vsize
  \hsize = #2\relax
  \outerhsize = \hsize
  \advance\outerhsize by 0.5in
  \pagewidth = \hsize
  \normaloffset = #4\relax
  \bindingoffset = #5\relax
    \pdfpageheight #7\relax
    \pdfpagewidth #8\relax
  \parindent = \defaultparindent

% @letterpaper (the default).
\def\letterpaper{{\globaldefs = 1
  \parskip = 3pt plus 2pt minus 1pt
  \textleading = 13.2pt
  % If page is nothing but text, make it come out even.

% Use @smallbook to reset parameters for 7x9.5 (or so) format.
\def\smallbook{{\globaldefs = 1
  \parskip = 2pt plus 1pt
  \textleading = 12pt
  \lispnarrowing = 0.3in
  \tolerance = 700
  \hfuzz = 1pt
  \contentsrightmargin = 0pt
  \defbodyindent = .5cm

% Use @afourpaper to print on European A4 paper.
\def\afourpaper{{\globaldefs = 1
  \parskip = 3pt plus 2pt minus 1pt
  \textleading = 13.2pt
  % Double-side printing via postscript on Laserjet 4050
  % prints double-sided nicely when \bindingoffset=10mm and \hoffset=-6mm.
  % To change the settings for a different printer or situation, adjust
  % \normaloffset until the front-side and back-side texts align.  Then
  % do the same for \bindingoffset.  You can set these for testing in
  % your texinfo source file like this:
  % @tex
  % \global\normaloffset = -6mm
  % \global\bindingoffset = 10mm
  % @end tex
  \tolerance = 700
  \hfuzz = 1pt
  \contentsrightmargin = 0pt
  \defbodyindent = 5mm

% Use @afivepaper to print on European A5 paper.
% From romildo@urano.iceb.ufop.br, 2 July 2000.
% He also recommends making @example and @lisp be small.
\def\afivepaper{{\globaldefs = 1
  \parskip = 2pt plus 1pt minus 0.1pt
  \textleading = 12.5pt
  \lispnarrowing = 0.2in
  \tolerance = 800
  \hfuzz = 1.2pt
  \contentsrightmargin = 0pt
  \defbodyindent = 2mm
  \tableindent = 12mm

% A specific text layout, 24x15cm overall, intended for A4 paper.
\def\afourlatex{{\globaldefs = 1
  % Must explicitly reset to 0 because we call \afourpaper.
  \globaldefs = 0

% Use @afourwide to print on A4 paper in landscape format.
\def\afourwide{{\globaldefs = 1
  \globaldefs = 0

% Perhaps we should allow setting the margins, \topskip, \parskip,
% and/or leading, also. Or perhaps we should compute them somehow.
\parseargdef\pagesizes{\pagesizesyyy #1,,\finish}
  \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}\ifdim\wd0 > 0pt \hsize=#2\relax \fi
  \globaldefs = 1
  \parskip = 3pt plus 2pt minus 1pt
  \dimen0 = #1
  \advance\dimen0 by \voffset
  \dimen2 = \hsize
  \advance\dimen2 by \normaloffset

% Set default to letter.

\message{and turning on texinfo input format.}

% Define macros to output various characters with catcode for normal text.
\def\normaldollar{$}%$ font-lock fix

% This macro is used to make a character print one way in \tt
% (where it can probably be output as-is), and another way in other fonts,
% where something hairier probably needs to be done.
% #1 is what to print if we are indeed using \tt; #2 is what to print
% otherwise.  Since all the Computer Modern typewriter fonts have zero
% interword stretch (and shrink), and it is reasonable to expect all
% typewriter fonts to have this, we can check that font parameter.
\def\ifusingtt#1#2{\ifdim \fontdimen3\font=0pt #1\else #2\fi}

% Same as above, but check for italic font.  Actually this also catches
% non-italic slanted fonts since it is impossible to distinguish them from
% italic fonts.  But since this is only used by $ and it uses \sl anyway
% this is not a problem.
\def\ifusingit#1#2{\ifdim \fontdimen1\font>0pt #1\else #2\fi}

% Turn off all special characters except @
% (and those which the user can use as if they were ordinary).
% Most of these we simply print from the \tt font, but for some, we can
% use math or other variants that look better in normal text.

\def^{{\tt \hat}}

% Subroutine for the previous macro.
\def\_{\leavevmode \kern.07em \vbox{\hrule width.3em height.1ex}\kern .07em }

\chardef \less=`\<
\def<{{\tt \less}}
\chardef \gtr=`\>
\def>{{\tt \gtr}}
\def+{{\tt \char 43}}
\def${\ifusingit{{\sl\$}}\normaldollar}%$ font-lock fix

% If a .fmt file is being used, characters that might appear in a file
% name cannot be active until we have parsed the command line.
% So turn them off again, and have \everyjob (or @setfilename) turn them on.
% \otherifyactive is called near the end of this file.
\def\otherifyactive{\catcode`+=\other \catcode`\_=\other}


% \backslashcurfont outputs one backslash character in current font,
% as in \char`\\.
\global\let\rawbackslashxx=\backslashcurfont  % let existing .??s files work

% \rawbackslash defines an active \ to do \backslashcurfont.
% \otherbackslash defines an active \ to be a literal `\' character with
% catcode other.

% \realbackslash is an actual character `\' with catcode other.
{\catcode`\\=\other @gdef@realbackslash{\}}

% \normalbackslash outputs one backslash in fixed width font.


% Used sometimes to turn off (effectively) the active characters
% even after parsing them.
  @let$=@normaldollar %$ font-lock fix

% Same as @turnoffactive except outputs \ as {\tt\char`\\} instead of
% the literal character `\'.  (Thus, \ is not expandable when this is in
% effect.)
@def@normalturnoffactive{@turnoffactive @let\=@normalbackslash}

% Make _ and + \other characters, temporarily.
% This is canceled by @fixbackslash.

% If a .fmt file is being used, we don't want the `\input texinfo' to show up.
% That is what \eatinput is for; after that, the `\' should revert to printing
% a backslash.
@gdef@eatinput input texinfo{@fixbackslash}
@global@let\ = @eatinput

% On the other hand, perhaps the file did not have a `\input texinfo'. Then
% the first `\{ in the file would cause an error. This macro tries to fix
% that, assuming it is called before the first `\' could plausibly occur.
% Also back turn on active characters that might appear in the input
% file name, in case not using a pre-dumped format.
  @ifx\@eatinput @let\ = @normalbackslash @fi

% Say @foo, not \foo, in error messages.
@escapechar = `@@

% These look ok in all fonts, so just make them not special.
@catcode`@& = @other
@catcode`@# = @other
@catcode`@% = @other

@c Local variables:
@c eval: (add-hook 'write-file-hooks 'time-stamp)
@c page-delimiter: "^\\\\message"
@c time-stamp-start: "def\\\\texinfoversion{"
@c time-stamp-format: "%:y-%02m-%02d.%02H"
@c time-stamp-end: "}"
@c End:

@c vim:sw=2:

   arch-tag: e1b36e32-c96e-4135-a41a-0b2efa2ea115
@end ignore