# cvs.texinfo   [plain text]

\input texinfo  @c -*-texinfo-*-
@comment Documentation for CVS.
@setfilename cvs.info
@macro copyleftnotice
@noindent
2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005
Free Software Foundation, Inc.

@multitable @columnfractions .12 .88
@item Portions
Derek R. Price,
Ximbiot @url{http://ximbiot.com},
@end multitable

@ignore
Permission is granted to process this file through Tex and print the
results, provided the printed document carries copying permission
notice identical to this one except for the removal of this paragraph
(this paragraph not being relevant to the printed manual).

@end ignore
Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of
this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice
are preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also that the
permission notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual
into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions,
except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation
approved by the Free Software Foundation.
@end macro

@comment This file is part of the CVS distribution.

@comment CVS is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
@comment the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
@comment any later version.

@comment CVS is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
@comment but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
@comment MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
@comment GNU General Public License for more details.

@c See ../README for A4 vs. US letter size.
@c When we provided A4 postscript, and people tried to
@c print it on US letter, the usual complaint was that the
@c page numbers would get cut off.
@c If one prints US letter on A4, reportedly there is
@c some extra space at the top and/or bottom, and the side
@c margins are a bit narrow, but no text is lost.
@c
@c See
@c http://www.ft.uni-erlangen.de/~mskuhn/iso-paper.html
@c for more on paper sizes.  Insuring that margins are
@c big enough to print on either A4 or US letter does
@c indeed seem to be the usual approach (RFC2346).

@c This document seems to get overfull hboxes with some
@c frequency (probably because the tendency is to
@c sanity-check it with "make info" and run TeX less
@c often).  The big ugly boxes just seem to add insult
@c to injury, and I'm not aware of them helping to fix
@c the overfull hboxes at all.
@finalout

@include version.texi
@settitle CVS---Concurrent Versions System v@value{VERSION}
@setchapternewpage odd

@c -- TODO list:
@c -- Fix all lines that match "^@c -- "
@c -- Also places marked with FIXME should be manual
@c problems (as opposed to FIXCVS for CVS problems).

@c @splitrcskeyword{} is used to avoid keyword expansion.  It is replaced by
@c @asis when generating info and dvi, and by <i></i> in the generated html,
@c such that keywords are not expanded in the generated html.
@ifnothtml
@macro splitrcskeyword {arg}
@asis{}\arg\
@end macro
@end ifnothtml

@ifhtml
@macro splitrcskeyword {arg}
@i{}\arg\
@end macro
@end ifhtml

@dircategory GNU Packages
@direntry
* CVS: (cvs).                   Concurrent Versions System
@end direntry
@dircategory Individual utilities
@direntry
* cvs: (cvs)CVS commands.       Concurrent Versions System
@end direntry

@comment The titlepage section does not appear in the Info file.
@titlepage
@sp 4
@comment The title is printed in a large font.
@center @titlefont{Version Management}
@sp
@center @titlefont{with}
@sp
@center @titlefont{CVS}
@sp 2
@center for @sc{cvs} @value{VERSION}
@comment -release-
@sp 3
@center Per Cederqvist et al

@comment  The following two commands start the copyright page
@comment  for the printed manual.  This will not appear in the Info file.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@copyleftnotice
@end titlepage

@summarycontents

@contents

@comment ================================================================
@comment                   The real text starts here
@comment ================================================================

@ifnottex
@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node    Top
@top

This info manual describes how to use and administer
@sc{cvs} version @value{VERSION}.
@end ifnottex

@ifinfo
@copyleftnotice
@end ifinfo

@c This menu is pretty long.  Not sure how easily that
@c can be fixed (no brilliant ideas right away)...
* Overview::                    An introduction to CVS
* Repository::                  Where all your sources are stored
* Starting a new project::      Starting a project with CVS
* Revisions::                   Numeric and symbolic names for revisions
* Branching and merging::       Diverging/rejoining branches of development
* Recursive behavior::          CVS descends directories
* History browsing::            Viewing the history of files in various ways

CVS and the Real World.
-----------------------
* Binary files::                CVS can handle binary files
* Multiple developers::         How CVS helps a group of developers
* Revision management::         Policy questions for revision management
* Keyword substitution::        CVS can include the revision inside the file
* Tracking sources::            Tracking third-party sources
* Builds::                      Issues related to CVS and builds
* Special Files::		Devices, links and other non-regular files

References.
-----------
* CVS commands::                CVS commands share some things
* Invoking CVS::                Quick reference to CVS commands
* Environment variables::       All environment variables which affect CVS
* Troubleshooting::             Some tips when nothing works
* Credits::                     Some of the contributors to this manual
* BUGS::                        Dealing with bugs in CVS or this manual
* Index::                       Index

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Overview
@chapter Overview
@cindex Overview

This chapter is for people who have never used
@sc{cvs}, and perhaps have never used version control
software before.

If you are already familiar with @sc{cvs} and are just
trying to learn a particular feature or remember a
certain command, you can probably skip everything here.

* What is CVS?::                What you can do with @sc{cvs}
* What is CVS not?::            Problems @sc{cvs} doesn't try to solve
* A sample session::            A tour of basic @sc{cvs} usage

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node What is CVS?
@section What is CVS?
@cindex What is CVS?
@cindex Introduction to CVS
@cindex CVS, introduction to

@sc{cvs} is a version control system.  Using it, you can
record the history of your source files.

@c -- ///
@c -- ///Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.
@c -- ///               -- George Santayana
@c -- //////

@c -- Insert history  quote here!
For example, bugs sometimes creep in when
software is modified, and you might not detect the bug
until a long time after you make the modification.
With @sc{cvs}, you can easily retrieve old versions to see
exactly which change caused the bug.  This can
sometimes be a big help.

You could of course save every version of every file
you have ever created.  This would
however waste an enormous amount of disk space.  @sc{cvs}
stores all the versions of a file in a single file in a
clever way that only stores the differences between
versions.

@sc{cvs} also helps you if you are part of a group of people working
on the same project.  It is all too easy to overwrite
each others' changes unless you are extremely careful.
Some editors, like @sc{gnu} Emacs, try to make sure that
two people never modify the same file at the
same time.  Unfortunately, if someone is using another
editor, that safeguard will not work.  @sc{cvs} solves this problem
by insulating the different developers from each other.  Every
developer works in his own directory, and @sc{cvs} merges
the work when each developer is done.

@cindex History of CVS
@cindex CVS, history of
@cindex Credits (CVS program)
@cindex Contributors (CVS program)
@sc{cvs} started out as a bunch of shell scripts written by
Dick Grune, posted to the newsgroup
@code{comp.sources.unix} in the volume 6
release of July, 1986.  While no actual code from
these shell scripts is present in the current version
of @sc{cvs} much of the @sc{cvs} conflict resolution algorithms
come from them.

In April, 1989, Brian Berliner designed and coded @sc{cvs}.
Jeff Polk later helped Brian with the design of the @sc{cvs}
module and vendor branch support.

@cindex Source, getting CVS source
You can get @sc{cvs} in a variety of ways, including

@example
@url{http://cvs.nongnu.org/}
@end example

@cindex Mailing list
@cindex List, mailing list
@cindex Newsgroups
There is a mailing list, known as @email{info-cvs@@nongnu.org},
devoted to @sc{cvs}.  To subscribe or
unsubscribe
write to
@email{info-cvs-request@@nongnu.org}.
If you prefer a Usenet group, there is a one-way mirror (posts to the email
list are usually sent to the news group, but not visa versa) of
@email{info-cvs@@nongnu.org} at @url{news:gnu.cvs.help}.  The right
Usenet group for posts is @url{news:comp.software.config-mgmt} which is for
@sc{cvs} discussions (along with other configuration
management systems).  In the future, it might be
possible to create a
@code{comp.software.config-mgmt.cvs}, but probably only
if there is sufficient @sc{cvs} traffic on
@url{news:comp.software.config-mgmt}.
@c Other random data is that the tale was very
@c skeptical of comp.software.config-mgmt.cvs when the
@c subject came up around 1995 or so (for one
@c thing, because creating it would be a "reorg" which
@c would need to take a more comprehensive look at the
@c whole comp.software.config-mgmt.* hierarchy).

You can also subscribe to the @email{bug-cvs@@nongnu.org} mailing list,
described in more detail in @ref{BUGS}.  To subscribe
send mail to @email{bug-cvs-request@@nongnu.org}.  There is a two-way
Usenet mirror (posts to the Usenet group are usually sent to the email list and
visa versa) of @email{bug-cvs@@nongnu.org} named @url{news:gnu.cvs.bug}.

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node What is CVS not?
@section What is CVS not?
@cindex What is CVS not?

@sc{cvs} can do a lot of things for you, but it does
not try to be everything for everyone.

@table @asis
@item @sc{cvs} is not a build system.

Though the structure of your repository and modules
file interact with your build system
(e.g. @file{Makefile}s), they are essentially
independent.

@sc{cvs} does not dictate how you build anything.  It
merely stores files for retrieval in a tree structure
you devise.

@sc{cvs} does not dictate how to use disk space in the
checked out working directories.  If you write your
@file{Makefile}s or scripts in every directory so they
have to know the relative positions of everything else,
you wind up requiring the entire repository to be
checked out.

If you modularize your work, and construct a build
system that will share files (via links, mounts,
@code{VPATH} in @file{Makefile}s, etc.), you can
arrange your disk usage however you like.

But you have to remember that @emph{any} such system is
a lot of work to construct and maintain.  @sc{cvs} does

Of course, you should place the tools created to
support such a build system (scripts, @file{Makefile}s,
etc) under @sc{cvs}.

Figuring out what files need to be rebuilt when
something changes is, again, something to be handled
outside the scope of @sc{cvs}.  One traditional
approach is to use @code{make} for building, and use
some automated tool for generating the dependencies which
@code{make} uses.

in conjunction with @sc{cvs}.

@item @sc{cvs} is not a substitute for management.

to you frequently enough to make certain you are aware
of schedules, merge points, branch names and release
dates.  If they don't, @sc{cvs} can't help.

@sc{cvs} is an instrument for making sources dance to
your tune.  But you are the piper and the composer.  No
instrument plays itself or writes its own music.

@item @sc{cvs} is not a substitute for developer communication.

When faced with conflicts within a single file, most
developers manage to resolve them without too much
effort.  But a more general definition of conflict''
includes problems too difficult to solve without
communication between developers.

@sc{cvs} cannot determine when simultaneous changes
within a single file, or across a whole collection of
files, will logically conflict with one another.  Its
concept of a @dfn{conflict} is purely textual, arising
when two changes to the same base file are near enough
to spook the merge (i.e. @code{diff3}) command.

@sc{cvs} does not claim to help at all in figuring out
non-textual or distributed conflicts in program logic.

For example: Say you change the arguments to function
@code{X} defined in file @file{A}.  At the same time,
someone edits file @file{B}, adding new calls to
function @code{X} using the old arguments.  You are
outside the realm of @sc{cvs}'s competence.

Acquire the habit of reading specs and talking to your
peers.

@item @sc{cvs} does not have change control

Change control refers to a number of things.  First of
all it can mean @dfn{bug-tracking}, that is being able
to keep a database of reported bugs and the status of
each one (is it fixed?  in what release?  has the bug
submitter agreed that it is fixed?).  For interfacing
@sc{cvs} to an external bug-tracking system, see the
@file{rcsinfo} and @file{verifymsg} files

Another aspect of change control is keeping track of
the fact that changes to several files were in fact
changed together as one logical change.  If you check
in several files in a single @code{cvs commit}
operation, @sc{cvs} then forgets that those files were
checked in together, and the fact that they have the
same log message is the only thing tying them
together.  Keeping a @sc{gnu} style @file{ChangeLog}
can help somewhat.
@c FIXME: should have an xref to a section which talks
@c more about keeping ChangeLog's with CVS, but that
@c section hasn't been written yet.

Another aspect of change control, in some systems, is
the ability to keep track of the status of each
change.  Some changes have been written by a developer,
others have been reviewed by a second developer, and so
on.  Generally, the way to do this with @sc{cvs} is to
generate a diff (using @code{cvs diff} or @code{diff})
and email it to someone who can then apply it using the
@code{patch} utility.  This is very flexible, but
depends on mechanisms outside @sc{cvs} to make sure
nothing falls through the cracks.

@item @sc{cvs} is not an automated testing program

It should be possible to enforce mandatory use of a
test suite using the @code{commitinfo} file.  I haven't
heard a lot about projects trying to do that or whether
there are subtle gotchas, however.

@item @sc{cvs} does not have a built-in process model

Some systems provide ways to ensure that changes or
releases go through various steps, with various
approvals as needed.  Generally, one can accomplish
this with @sc{cvs} but it might be a little more work.
In some cases you'll want to use the @file{commitinfo},
files, to require that certain steps be performed
before cvs will allow a checkin.  Also consider whether
features such as branches and tags can be used to
perform tasks such as doing work in a development tree
and then merging certain changes over to a stable tree
only once they have been proven.
@end table

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node A sample session
@section A sample session
@cindex Example of a work-session
@cindex Getting started
@cindex Work-session, example of
@cindex tc, Trivial Compiler (example)
@cindex Trivial Compiler (example)

@c I think an example is a pretty good way to start.  But
@c somewhere in here, maybe after the sample session,
@c we need something which is kind of
@c a "roadmap" which is more directed at sketching out
@c the functionality of CVS and pointing people to
@c various other parts of the manual.  As it stands now
@c people who read in order get dumped right into all
@c manner of hair regarding remote repositories,
@c creating a repository, etc.
@c
@c The following was in the old Basic concepts node.  I don't
@c know how good a job it does at introducing modules,
@c or whether they need to be introduced so soon, but
@c something of this sort might go into some
@c introductory material somewhere.
@ignore
@cindex Modules (intro)
The repository contains directories and files, in an
arbitrary tree.  The @dfn{modules} feature can be used
to group together a set of directories or files into a
single entity (@pxref{modules}).  A typical usage is to
define one module per project.
@end ignore

As a way of introducing @sc{cvs}, we'll go through a
typical work-session using @sc{cvs}.  The first thing
to understand is that @sc{cvs} stores all files in a
centralized @dfn{repository} (@pxref{Repository}); this
section assumes that a repository is set up.
@c I'm not sure that the sentence concerning the
@c repository quite tells the user what they need to
@c know at this point.  Might need to expand on "centralized"
@c slightly (maybe not here, maybe further down in the example?)

Suppose you are working on a simple compiler.  The source
consists of a handful of C files and a @file{Makefile}.
The compiler is called @samp{tc} (Trivial Compiler),
and the repository is set up so that there is a module
called @samp{tc}.

* Getting the source::          Creating a workspace
* Cleaning up::                 Cleaning up
* Viewing differences::         Viewing differences

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Getting the source
@subsection Getting the source
@cindex Getting the source
@cindex Checking out source
@cindex Fetching source
@cindex Source, getting from CVS
@cindex Checkout, example

The first thing you must do is to get your own working copy of the
source for @samp{tc}.  For this, you use the @code{checkout} command:

@example
$cvs checkout tc @end example @noindent This will create a new directory called @file{tc} and populate it with the source files. @example$ cd tc
$ls CVS Makefile backend.c driver.c frontend.c parser.c @end example The @file{CVS} directory is used internally by @sc{cvs}. Normally, you should not modify or remove any of the files in it. You start your favorite editor, hack away at @file{backend.c}, and a couple of hours later you have added an optimization pass to the compiler. A note to @sc{rcs} and @sc{sccs} users: There is no need to lock the files that you want to edit. @xref{Multiple developers}, for an explanation. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Committing your changes @subsection Committing your changes @cindex Committing changes to files @cindex Log message entry When you have checked that the compiler is still compilable you decide to make a new version of @file{backend.c}. This will store your new @file{backend.c} in the repository and make it available to anyone else who is using that same repository. @example$ cvs commit backend.c
@end example

@noindent
@sc{cvs} starts an editor, to allow you to enter a log
message.  You type in Added an optimization pass.'',
save the temporary file, and exit the editor.

@cindex CVSEDITOR, environment variable
@cindex EDITOR, environment variable
The environment variable @code{$CVSEDITOR} determines which editor is started. If @code{$CVSEDITOR} is not
set, then if the environment variable @code{$EDITOR} is set, it will be used. If both @code{$CVSEDITOR} and
@code{$EDITOR} are not set then there is a default which will vary with your operating system, for example @code{vi} for unix or @code{notepad} for Windows NT/95. @cindex VISUAL, environment variable In addition, @sc{cvs} checks the @code{$VISUAL} environment
variable.  Opinions vary on whether this behavior is desirable and
whether future releases of @sc{cvs} should check @code{$VISUAL} or ignore it. You will be OK either way if you make sure that @code{$VISUAL} is either unset or set to the same thing as
@code{$EDITOR}. @c This probably should go into some new node @c containing detailed info on the editor, rather than @c the intro. In fact, perhaps some of the stuff with @c CVSEDITOR and -m and so on should too. When @sc{cvs} starts the editor, it includes a list of files which are modified. For the @sc{cvs} client, this list is based on comparing the modification time of the file against the modification time that the file had when it was last gotten or updated. Therefore, if a file's modification time has changed but its contents have not, it will show up as modified. The simplest way to handle this is simply not to worry about it---if you proceed with the commit @sc{cvs} will detect that the contents are not modified and treat it as an unmodified file. The next @code{update} will clue @sc{cvs} in to the fact that the file is unmodified, and it will reset its stored timestamp so that the file will not show up in future editor sessions. @c FIXCVS: Might be nice if "commit" and other commands @c would reset that timestamp too, but currently commit @c doesn't. @c FIXME: Need to talk more about the process of @c prompting for the log message. Like show an example @c of what it pops up in the editor, for example. Also @c a discussion of how to get the "a)bort, c)ontinue, @c e)dit" prompt and what to do with it. Might also @c work in the suggestion that if you want a diff, you @c should make it before running commit (someone @c suggested that the diff pop up in the editor. I'm @c not sure that is better than telling people to run @c "cvs diff" first if that is what they want, but if @c we want to tell people that, the manual possibly @c should say it). If you want to avoid starting an editor you can specify the log message on the command line using the @samp{-m} flag instead, like this: @example$ cvs commit -m "Added an optimization pass" backend.c
@end example

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Cleaning up
@subsection Cleaning up
@cindex Cleaning up
@cindex Working copy, removing

Before you turn to other tasks you decide to remove your working copy of
tc.  One acceptable way to do that is of course

@example
$cd ..$ rm -r tc
@end example

@noindent
but a better way is to use the @code{release} command (@pxref{release}):

@example
$cd ..$ cvs release -d tc
M driver.c
? tc
You have [1] altered files in this repository.
Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory tc': n
** release' aborted by user choice.
@end example

The @code{release} command checks that all your modifications have been
committed.  If history logging is enabled it also makes a note in the
history file.  @xref{history file}.

When you use the @samp{-d} flag with @code{release}, it

In the example above, the @code{release} command wrote a couple of lines
of output.  @samp{? tc} means that the file @file{tc} is unknown to @sc{cvs}.
That is nothing to worry about: @file{tc} is the executable compiler,
and it should not be stored in the repository.  @xref{cvsignore},
for information about how to make that warning go away.
@xref{release output}, for a complete explanation of
all possible output from @code{release}.

@samp{M driver.c} is more serious.  It means that the
file @file{driver.c} has been modified since it was
checked out.

The @code{release} command always finishes by telling
you how many modified files you have in your working
copy of the sources, and then asks you for confirmation
before deleting any files or making any note in the
history file.

You decide to play it safe and answer @kbd{n @key{RET}}

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Viewing differences
@subsection Viewing differences
@cindex Viewing differences
@cindex Diff

You do not remember modifying @file{driver.c}, so you want to see what
has happened to that file.

@example
$cd tc$ cvs diff driver.c
@end example

This command runs @code{diff} to compare the version of @file{driver.c}
that you checked out with your working copy.  When you see the output
you remember that you added a command line option that enabled the
optimization pass.  You check it in, and release the module.
@c FIXME: we haven't yet defined the term "check in".

@example
$cvs commit -m "Added an optimization pass" driver.c Checking in driver.c; /usr/local/cvsroot/tc/driver.c,v <-- driver.c new revision: 1.2; previous revision: 1.1 done$ cd ..
$cvs release -d tc ? tc You have [0] altered files in this repository. Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory tc': y @end example @c --------------------------------------------------------------------- @node Repository @chapter The Repository @cindex Repository (intro) @cindex Repository, example @cindex Layout of repository @cindex Typical repository @cindex /usr/local/cvsroot, as example repository @cindex cvsroot The @sc{cvs} @dfn{repository} stores a complete copy of all the files and directories which are under version control. Normally, you never access any of the files in the repository directly. Instead, you use @sc{cvs} commands to get your own copy of the files into a @dfn{working directory}, and then work on that copy. When you've finished a set of changes, you check (or @dfn{commit}) them back into the repository. The repository then contains the changes which you have made, as well as recording exactly what you changed, when you changed it, and other such information. Note that the repository is not a subdirectory of the working directory, or vice versa; they should be in separate locations. @c Need some example, e.g. repository @c /usr/local/cvsroot; working directory @c /home/joe/sources. But this node is too long @c as it is; need a little reorganization... @cindex :local:, setting up @sc{cvs} can access a repository by a variety of means. It might be on the local computer, or it might be on a computer across the room or across the world. To distinguish various ways to access a repository, the repository name can start with an @dfn{access method}. For example, the access method @code{:local:} means to access a repository directory, so the repository @code{:local:/usr/local/cvsroot} means that the repository is in @file{/usr/local/cvsroot} on the computer running @sc{cvs}. For information on other access methods, see @ref{Remote repositories}. @c Can se say this more concisely? Like by passing @c more of the buck to the Remote repositories node? If the access method is omitted, then if the repository starts with @samp{/}, then @code{:local:} is assumed. If it does not start with @samp{/} then either @code{:ext:} or @code{:server:} is assumed. For example, if you have a local repository in @file{/usr/local/cvsroot}, you can use @code{/usr/local/cvsroot} instead of @code{:local:/usr/local/cvsroot}. But if (under Windows NT, for example) your local repository is @file{c:\src\cvsroot}, then you must specify the access method, as in @code{:local:c:/src/cvsroot}. @c This might appear to go in Repository storage, but @c actually it is describing something which is quite @c user-visible, when you do a "cvs co CVSROOT". This @c isn't necessary the perfect place for that, though. The repository is split in two parts. @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT} contains
administrative files for @sc{cvs}.  The other directories contain the actual
user-defined modules.

* Specifying a repository::     Telling CVS where your repository is
* Repository storage::          The structure of the repository
* Working directory storage::   The structure of working directories
* Intro administrative files::  Defining modules
* Multiple repositories::       Multiple repositories
* Creating a repository::       Creating a repository
* Backing up::                  Backing up a repository
* Moving a repository::         Moving a repository
* Remote repositories::         Accessing repositories on remote machines
* Server temporary directory::  The server creates temporary directories

@node Specifying a repository
@section Telling CVS where your repository is

There are several ways to tell @sc{cvs}
where to find the repository.  You can name the
repository on the command line explicitly, with the
@code{-d} (for "directory") option:

@example
cvs -d /usr/local/cvsroot checkout yoyodyne/tc
@end example

@cindex .profile, setting CVSROOT in
@cindex .cshrc, setting CVSROOT in
@cindex .tcshrc, setting CVSROOT in
@cindex .bashrc, setting CVSROOT in
@cindex CVSROOT, environment variable
Or you can set the @code{$CVSROOT} environment variable to an absolute path to the root of the repository, @file{/usr/local/cvsroot} in this example. To set @code{$CVSROOT}, @code{csh} and @code{tcsh}
users should have this line in their @file{.cshrc} or
@file{.tcshrc} files:

@example
setenv CVSROOT /usr/local/cvsroot
@end example

@noindent
@code{sh} and @code{bash} users should instead have these lines in their
@file{.profile} or @file{.bashrc}:

@example
CVSROOT=/usr/local/cvsroot
export CVSROOT
@end example

@cindex Root file, in CVS directory
@cindex CVS/Root file
A repository specified with @code{-d} will
override the @code{$CVSROOT} environment variable. Once you've checked a working copy out from the repository, it will remember where its repository is (the information is recorded in the @file{CVS/Root} file in the working copy). The @code{-d} option and the @file{CVS/Root} file both override the @code{$CVSROOT} environment variable.  If
@code{-d} option differs from @file{CVS/Root}, the
former is used.  Of course, for proper operation they
should be two ways of referring to the same repository.

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Repository storage
@section How data is stored in the repository
@cindex Repository, how data is stored

For most purposes it isn't important @emph{how}
@sc{cvs} stores information in the repository.  In
fact, the format has changed in the past, and is likely
to change in the future.  Since in almost all cases one
accesses the repository via @sc{cvs} commands, such
changes need not be disruptive.

However, in some cases it may be necessary to
understand how @sc{cvs} stores data in the repository,
for example you might need to track down @sc{cvs} locks
(@pxref{Concurrency}) or you might need to deal with
the file permissions appropriate for the repository.

* Repository files::            What files are stored in the repository
* File permissions::            File permissions
* Windows permissions::         Issues specific to Windows
* Attic::                       Some files are stored in the Attic
* CVS in repository::           Additional information in CVS directory
* Locks::                       CVS locks control concurrent accesses
* CVSROOT storage::             A few things about CVSROOT are different

@node Repository files
@subsection Where files are stored within the repository

@c @cindex Filenames, legal
@c @cindex Legal filenames
@c Somewhere we need to say something about legitimate
@c characters in filenames in working directory and
@c repository.  Not "/" (not even on non-unix).  And
@c here is a specific set of issues:
@c 	Files starting with a - are handled inconsistently. They can not
@c   be added to a repository with an add command, because it they are
@c   interpreted as a switch. They can appear in a repository if they are
@c   part of a tree that is imported. They can not be removed from the tree
@c   once they are there.
@c Note that "--" *is* supported (as a
@c consequence of using GNU getopt).  Should document
@c this somewhere ("Common options"?).  The other usual technique,
@c "./-foo", isn't as effective, at least for "cvs add"
@c which doesn't support pathnames containing "/".

The overall structure of the repository is a directory
tree corresponding to the directories in the working
directory.  For example, supposing the repository is in

@example
/usr/local/cvsroot
@end example

@noindent
here is a possible directory tree (showing only the
directories):

@example
@t{/usr}
|
+--@t{local}
|   |
|   +--@t{cvsroot}
|   |    |
|   |    +--@t{CVSROOT}
|
+--@t{gnu}
|   |
|   +--@t{diff}
|   |   (source code to @sc{gnu} diff)
|   |
|   +--@t{rcs}
|   |   (source code to @sc{rcs})
|   |
|   +--@t{cvs}
|       (source code to @sc{cvs})
|
+--@t{yoyodyne}
|
+--@t{tc}
|    |
|    +--@t{man}
|    |
|    +--@t{testing}
|
+--(other Yoyodyne software)
@end example

With the directories are @dfn{history files} for each file
under version control.  The name of the history file is
the name of the corresponding file with @samp{,v}
appended to the end.  Here is what the repository for
the @file{yoyodyne/tc} directory might look like:
@c FIXME: Should also mention CVS (CVSREP)
@c FIXME? Should we introduce Attic with an xref to
@c Attic?  Not sure whether that is a good idea or not.
@example
@code{$CVSROOT} | +--@t{yoyodyne} | | | +--@t{tc} | | | +--@t{Makefile,v} +--@t{backend.c,v} +--@t{driver.c,v} +--@t{frontend.c,v} +--@t{parser.c,v} +--@t{man} | | | +--@t{tc.1,v} | +--@t{testing} | +--@t{testpgm.t,v} +--@t{test2.t,v} @end example @cindex History files @cindex RCS history files @c The first sentence, about what history files @c contain, is kind of redundant with our intro to what the @c repository does in node Repository.... The history files contain, among other things, enough information to recreate any revision of the file, a log of all commit messages and the user-name of the person who committed the revision. The history files are known as @dfn{RCS files}, because the first program to store files in that format was a version control system known as @sc{rcs}. For a full description of the file format, see the @code{man} page @cite{rcsfile(5)}, distributed with @sc{rcs}, or the file @file{doc/RCSFILES} in the @sc{cvs} source distribution. This file format has become very common---many systems other than @sc{cvs} or @sc{rcs} can at least import history files in this format. @c FIXME: Think about including documentation for this @c rather than citing it? In the long run, getting @c this to be a standard (not sure if we can cope with @c a standards process as formal as IEEE/ANSI/ISO/etc, @c though...) is the way to go, so maybe citing is @c better. The @sc{rcs} files used in @sc{cvs} differ in a few ways from the standard format. The biggest difference is magic branches; for more information see @ref{Magic branch numbers}. Also in @sc{cvs} the valid tag names are a subset of what @sc{rcs} accepts; for @sc{cvs}'s rules see @ref{Tags}. @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node File permissions @subsection File permissions @c -- Move this to @node Creating a repository or similar @cindex Security, file permissions in repository @cindex File permissions, general @cindex Permissions, general @c FIXME: we need to somehow reflect "permissions in @c repository" versus "permissions in working @c directory" in the index entries. @cindex Group, UNIX file permissions, in repository @cindex Read-only files, in repository All @samp{,v} files are created read-only, and you should not change the permission of those files. The directories inside the repository should be writable by the persons that have permission to modify the files in each directory. This normally means that you must create a UNIX group (see group(5)) consisting of the persons that are to edit the files in a project, and set up the repository so that it is that group that owns the directory. (On some systems, you also need to set the set-group-ID-on-execution bit on the repository directories (see chmod(1)) so that newly-created files and directories get the group-ID of the parent directory rather than that of the current process.) @c See also comment in commitinfo node regarding cases @c which are really awkward with unix groups. This means that you can only control access to files on a per-directory basis. Note that users must also have write access to check out files, because @sc{cvs} needs to create lock files (@pxref{Concurrency}). You can use LockDir in CVSROOT/config to put the lock files somewhere other than in the repository if you want to allow read-only access to some directories (@pxref{config}). @c CVS seems to use CVSUMASK in picking permissions for @c val-tags, but maybe we should say more about this. @c Like val-tags gets created by someone who doesn't @c have CVSUMASK set right? @cindex CVSROOT/val-tags file, and read-only access to projects @cindex val-tags file, and read-only access to projects Also note that users must have write access to the @file{CVSROOT/val-tags} file. @sc{cvs} uses it to keep track of what tags are valid tag names (it is sometimes updated when tags are used, as well as when they are created). Each @sc{rcs} file will be owned by the user who last checked it in. This has little significance; what really matters is who owns the directories. @cindex CVSUMASK, environment variable @cindex Umask, for repository files @sc{cvs} tries to set up reasonable file permissions for new directories that are added inside the tree, but you must fix the permissions manually when a new directory should have different permissions than its parent directory. If you set the @code{CVSUMASK} environment variable that will control the file permissions which @sc{cvs} uses in creating directories and/or files in the repository. @code{CVSUMASK} does not affect the file permissions in the working directory; such files have the permissions which are typical for newly created files, except that sometimes @sc{cvs} creates them read-only (see the sections on watches, @ref{Setting a watch}; -r, @ref{Global options}; or @code{CVSREAD}, @ref{Environment variables}). @c FIXME: Need more discussion of which @c group should own the file in the repository. @c Include a somewhat detailed example of the usual @c case where CVSUMASK is 007, the developers are all @c in a group, and that group owns stuff in the @c repository. Need to talk about group ownership of @c newly-created directories/files (on some unices, @c such as SunOS4, setting the setgid bit on the @c directories will make files inherit the directory's @c group. On other unices, your mileage may vary. I @c can't remember what POSIX says about this, if @c anything). Note that using the client/server @sc{cvs} (@pxref{Remote repositories}), there is no good way to set @code{CVSUMASK}; the setting on the client machine has no effect. If you are connecting with @code{rsh}, you can set @code{CVSUMASK} in @file{.bashrc} or @file{.cshrc}, as described in the documentation for your operating system. This behavior might change in future versions of @sc{cvs}; do not rely on the setting of @code{CVSUMASK} on the client having no effect. @c FIXME: need to explain what a umask is or cite @c someplace which does. @c @c There is also a larger (largely separate) issue @c about the meaning of CVSUMASK in a non-unix context. @c For example, whether there is @c an equivalent which fits better into other @c protection schemes like POSIX.6, VMS, &c. @c @c FIXME: Need one place which discusses this @c read-only files thing. Why would one use -r or @c CVSREAD? Why would one use watches? How do they @c interact? @c @c FIXME: We need to state @c whether using CVSUMASK removes the need for manually @c fixing permissions (in fact, if we are going to mention @c manually fixing permission, we better document a lot @c better just what we mean by "fix"). Using pserver, you will generally need stricter permissions on the @sc{cvsroot} directory and directories above it in the tree; see @ref{Password authentication security}. @cindex Setuid @cindex Setgid @cindex Security, setuid @cindex Installed images (VMS) Some operating systems have features which allow a particular program to run with the ability to perform operations which the caller of the program could not. For example, the set user ID (setuid) or set group ID (setgid) features of unix or the installed image feature of VMS. @sc{cvs} was not written to use such features and therefore attempting to install @sc{cvs} in this fashion will provide protection against only accidental lapses; anyone who is trying to circumvent the measure will be able to do so, and depending on how you have set it up may gain access to more than just @sc{cvs}. You may wish to instead consider pserver. It shares some of the same attributes, in terms of possibly providing a false sense of security or opening security holes wider than the ones you are trying to fix, so read the documentation on pserver security carefully if you are considering this option (@ref{Password authentication security}). @node Windows permissions @subsection File Permission issues specific to Windows @cindex Windows, and permissions @cindex File permissions, Windows-specific @cindex Permissions, Windows-specific Some file permission issues are specific to Windows operating systems (Windows 95, Windows NT, and presumably future operating systems in this family. Some of the following might apply to OS/2 but I'm not sure). If you are using local @sc{cvs} and the repository is on a networked file system which is served by the Samba SMB server, some people have reported problems with permissions. Enabling WRITE=YES in the samba configuration is said to fix/workaround it. Disclaimer: I haven't investigated enough to know the implications of enabling that option, nor do I know whether there is something which @sc{cvs} could be doing differently in order to avoid the problem. If you find something out, please let us know as described in @ref{BUGS}. @node Attic @subsection The attic @cindex Attic You will notice that sometimes @sc{cvs} stores an @sc{rcs} file in the @code{Attic}. For example, if the @sc{cvsroot} is @file{/usr/local/cvsroot} and we are talking about the file @file{backend.c} in the directory @file{yoyodyne/tc}, then the file normally would be in @example /usr/local/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc/backend.c,v @end example @noindent but if it goes in the attic, it would be in @example /usr/local/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc/Attic/backend.c,v @end example @noindent @cindex Dead state instead. It should not matter from a user point of view whether a file is in the attic; @sc{cvs} keeps track of this and looks in the attic when it needs to. But in case you want to know, the rule is that the RCS file is stored in the attic if and only if the head revision on the trunk has state @code{dead}. A @code{dead} state means that file has been removed, or never added, for that revision. For example, if you add a file on a branch, it will have a trunk revision in @code{dead} state, and a branch revision in a non-@code{dead} state. @c Probably should have some more concrete examples @c here, or somewhere (not sure exactly how we should @c arrange the discussion of the dead state, versus @c discussion of the attic). @node CVS in repository @subsection The CVS directory in the repository @cindex CVS directory, in repository The @file{CVS} directory in each repository directory contains information such as file attributes (in a file called @file{CVS/fileattr}. In the future additional files may be added to this directory, so implementations should silently ignore additional files. This behavior is implemented only by @sc{cvs} 1.7 and later; for details see @ref{Watches Compatibility}. The format of the @file{fileattr} file is a series of entries of the following form (where @samp{@{} and @samp{@}} means the text between the braces can be repeated zero or more times): @var{ent-type} @var{filename} <tab> @var{attrname} = @var{attrval} @{; @var{attrname} = @var{attrval}@} <linefeed> @var{ent-type} is @samp{F} for a file, in which case the entry specifies the attributes for that file. @var{ent-type} is @samp{D}, and @var{filename} empty, to specify default attributes to be used for newly added files. Other @var{ent-type} are reserved for future expansion. @sc{cvs} 1.9 and older will delete them any time it writes file attributes. @sc{cvs} 1.10 and later will preserve them. Note that the order of the lines is not significant; a program writing the fileattr file may rearrange them at its convenience. There is currently no way of quoting tabs or line feeds in the filename, @samp{=} in @var{attrname}, @samp{;} in @var{attrval}, etc. Note: some implementations also don't handle a NUL character in any of the fields, but implementations are encouraged to allow it. By convention, @var{attrname} starting with @samp{_} is for an attribute given special meaning by @sc{cvs}; other @var{attrname}s are for user-defined attributes (or will be, once implementations start supporting user-defined attributes). Built-in attributes: @table @code @item _watched Present means the file is watched and should be checked out read-only. @item _watchers Users with watches for this file. Value is @var{watcher} > @var{type} @{ , @var{watcher} > @var{type} @} where @var{watcher} is a username, and @var{type} is zero or more of edit,unedit,commit separated by @samp{+} (that is, nothing if none; there is no "none" or "all" keyword). @item _editors Users editing this file. Value is @var{editor} > @var{val} @{ , @var{editor} > @var{val} @} where @var{editor} is a username, and @var{val} is @var{time}+@var{hostname}+@var{pathname}, where @var{time} is when the @code{cvs edit} command (or equivalent) happened, and @var{hostname} and @var{pathname} are for the working directory. @end table Example: @c FIXME: sanity.sh should contain a similar test case @c so we can compare this example from something from @c Real Life(TM). See cvsclient.texi (under Notify) for more @c discussion of the date format of _editors. @example Ffile1 _watched=;_watchers=joe>edit,mary>commit Ffile2 _watched=;_editors=sue>8 Jan 1975+workstn1+/home/sue/cvs D _watched= @end example @noindent means that the file @file{file1} should be checked out read-only. Furthermore, joe is watching for edits and mary is watching for commits. The file @file{file2} should be checked out read-only; sue started editing it on 8 Jan 1975 in the directory @file{/home/sue/cvs} on the machine @code{workstn1}. Future files which are added should be checked out read-only. To represent this example here, we have shown a space after @samp{D}, @samp{Ffile1}, and @samp{Ffile2}, but in fact there must be a single tab character there and no spaces. @node Locks @subsection CVS locks in the repository @cindex #cvs.rfl, technical details @cindex #cvs.pfl, technical details @cindex #cvs.wfl, technical details @cindex #cvs.lock, technical details @cindex Locks, cvs, technical details For an introduction to @sc{cvs} locks focusing on user-visible behavior, see @ref{Concurrency}. The following section is aimed at people who are writing tools which want to access a @sc{cvs} repository without interfering with other tools accessing the same repository. If you find yourself confused by concepts described here, like @dfn{read lock}, @dfn{write lock}, and @dfn{deadlock}, you might consult the literature on operating systems or databases. @cindex #cvs.tfl Any file in the repository with a name starting with @file{#cvs.rfl.} is a read lock. Any file in the repository with a name starting with @file{#cvs.pfl} is a promotable read lock. Any file in the repository with a name starting with @file{#cvs.wfl} is a write lock. Old versions of @sc{cvs} (before @sc{cvs} 1.5) also created files with names starting with @file{#cvs.tfl}, but they are not discussed here. The directory @file{#cvs.lock} serves as a master lock. That is, one must obtain this lock first before creating any of the other locks. To obtain a read lock, first create the @file{#cvs.lock} directory. This operation must be atomic (which should be true for creating a directory under most operating systems). If it fails because the directory already existed, wait for a while and try again. After obtaining the @file{#cvs.lock} lock, create a file whose name is @file{#cvs.rfl.} followed by information of your choice (for example, hostname and process identification number). Then remove the @file{#cvs.lock} directory to release the master lock. Then proceed with reading the repository. When you are done, remove the @file{#cvs.rfl} file to release the read lock. Promotable read locks are a concept you may not find in other literature on concurrency. They are used to allow a two (or more) pass process to only lock a file for read on the first (read) pass(es), then upgrade its read locks to write locks if necessary for a final pass, still assured that the files have not changed since they were first read. @sc{cvs} uses promotable read locks, for example, to prevent commit and tag verification passes from interfering with other reading processes. It can then lock only a single directory at a time for write during the write pass. To obtain a promotable read lock, first create the @file{#cvs.lock} directory, as with a non-promotable read lock. Then check that there are no files that start with @file{#cvs.pfl}. If there are, remove the master @file{#cvs.lock} directory, wait awhile (CVS waits 30 seconds between lock attempts), and try again. If there are no other promotable locks, go ahead and create a file whose name is @file{#cvs.pfl} followed by information of your choice (for example, CVS uses its hostname and the process identification number of the CVS server process creating the lock). If versions of @sc{cvs} older than version 1.12.4 access your repository directly (not via a @sc{cvs} server of version 1.12.4 or later), then you should also create a read lock since older versions of CVS will ignore the promotable lock when attempting to create their own write lock. Then remove the master @file{#cvs.lock} directory in order to allow other processes to obtain read locks. To obtain a write lock, first create the @file{#cvs.lock} directory, as with read locks. Then check that there are no files whose names start with @file{#cvs.rfl.} and no files whose names start with @file{#cvs.pfl} that are not owned by the process attempting to get the write lock. If either exist, remove @file{#cvs.lock}, wait for a while, and try again. If there are no readers or promotable locks from other processes, then create a file whose name is @file{#cvs.wfl} followed by information of your choice (again, CVS uses the hostname and server process identification number). Remove your @file{#cvs.pfl} file if present. Hang on to the @file{#cvs.lock} lock. Proceed with writing the repository. When you are done, first remove the @file{#cvs.wfl} file and then the @file{#cvs.lock} directory. Note that unlike the @file{#cvs.rfl} file, the @file{#cvs.wfl} file is just informational; it has no effect on the locking operation beyond what is provided by holding on to the @file{#cvs.lock} lock itself. Note that each lock (write lock or read lock) only locks a single directory in the repository, including @file{Attic} and @file{CVS} but not including subdirectories which represent other directories under version control. To lock an entire tree, you need to lock each directory (note that if you fail to obtain any lock you need, you must release the whole tree before waiting and trying again, to avoid deadlocks). Note also that @sc{cvs} expects write locks to control access to individual @file{foo,v} files. @sc{rcs} has a scheme where the @file{,foo,} file serves as a lock, but @sc{cvs} does not implement it and so taking out a @sc{cvs} write lock is recommended. See the comments at rcs_internal_lockfile in the @sc{cvs} source code for further discussion/rationale. @node CVSROOT storage @subsection How files are stored in the CVSROOT directory @cindex CVSROOT, storage of files The @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT} directory contains the
various administrative files.  In some ways this
directory is just like any other directory in the
repository; it contains @sc{rcs} files whose names end
in @samp{,v}, and many of the @sc{cvs} commands operate
on it the same way.  However, there are a few
differences.

@sc{rcs} file, there is also a checked out copy of the
file.  For example, there is an @sc{rcs} file
contains the latest revision contained in
file, @sc{cvs} should print

@example
cvs commit: Rebuilding administrative file database
@end example

@noindent
and update the checked out copy in
@file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT}. If it does not, there is something wrong (@pxref{BUGS}). To add your own files to the files to be updated in this fashion, you can add them to the @file{checkoutlist} administrative file (@pxref{checkoutlist}). @cindex modules.db @cindex modules.pag @cindex modules.dir By default, the @file{modules} file behaves as described above. If the modules file is very large, storing it as a flat text file may make looking up modules slow (I'm not sure whether this is as much of a concern now as when @sc{cvs} first evolved this feature; I haven't seen benchmarks). Therefore, by making appropriate edits to the @sc{cvs} source code one can store the modules file in a database which implements the @code{ndbm} interface, such as Berkeley db or GDBM. If this option is in use, then the modules database will be stored in the files @file{modules.db}, @file{modules.pag}, and/or @file{modules.dir}. @c I think fileattr also will use the database stuff. @c Anything else? For information on the meaning of the various administrative files, see @ref{Administrative files}. @node Working directory storage @section How data is stored in the working directory @c FIXME: Somewhere we should discuss timestamps (test @c case "stamps" in sanity.sh). But not here. Maybe @c in some kind of "working directory" chapter which @c would encompass the "Builds" one? But I'm not sure @c whether that is a good organization (is it based on @c what the user wants to do?). @cindex CVS directory, in working directory While we are discussing @sc{cvs} internals which may become visible from time to time, we might as well talk about what @sc{cvs} puts in the @file{CVS} directories in the working directories. As with the repository, @sc{cvs} handles this information and one can usually access it via @sc{cvs} commands. But in some cases it may be useful to look at it, and other programs, such as the @code{jCVS} graphical user interface or the @code{VC} package for emacs, may need to look at it. Such programs should follow the recommendations in this section if they hope to be able to work with other programs which use those files, including future versions of the programs just mentioned and the command-line @sc{cvs} client. The @file{CVS} directory contains several files. Programs which are reading this directory should silently ignore files which are in the directory but which are not documented here, to allow for future expansion. The files are stored according to the text file convention for the system in question. This means that working directories are not portable between systems with differing conventions for storing text files. This is intentional, on the theory that the files being managed by @sc{cvs} probably will not be portable between such systems either. @table @file @item Root This file contains the current @sc{cvs} root, as described in @ref{Specifying a repository}. @cindex Repository file, in CVS directory @cindex CVS/Repository file @item Repository This file contains the directory within the repository which the current directory corresponds with. It can be either an absolute pathname or a relative pathname; @sc{cvs} has had the ability to read either format since at least version 1.3 or so. The relative pathname is relative to the root, and is the more sensible approach, but the absolute pathname is quite common and implementations should accept either. For example, after the command @example cvs -d :local:/usr/local/cvsroot checkout yoyodyne/tc @end example @noindent @file{Root} will contain @example :local:/usr/local/cvsroot @end example @noindent and @file{Repository} will contain either @example /usr/local/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc @end example @noindent or @example yoyodyne/tc @end example If the particular working directory does not correspond to a directory in the repository, then @file{Repository} should contain @file{CVSROOT/Emptydir}. @cindex Emptydir, in CVSROOT directory @cindex CVSROOT/Emptydir directory @cindex Entries file, in CVS directory @cindex CVS/Entries file @item Entries This file lists the files and directories in the working directory. The first character of each line indicates what sort of line it is. If the character is unrecognized, programs reading the file should silently skip that line, to allow for future expansion. If the first character is @samp{/}, then the format is: @example /@var{name}/@var{revision}/@var{timestamp}[+@var{conflict}]/@var{options}/@var{tagdate} @end example @noindent where @samp{[} and @samp{]} are not part of the entry, but instead indicate that the @samp{+} and conflict marker are optional. @var{name} is the name of the file within the directory. @var{revision} is the revision that the file in the working derives from, or @samp{0} for an added file, or @samp{-} followed by a revision for a removed file. @var{timestamp} is the timestamp of the file at the time that @sc{cvs} created it; if the timestamp differs with the actual modification time of the file it means the file has been modified. It is stored in the format used by the ISO C asctime() function (for example, @samp{Sun Apr 7 01:29:26 1996}). One may write a string which is not in that format, for example, @samp{Result of merge}, to indicate that the file should always be considered to be modified. This is not a special case; to see whether a file is modified a program should take the timestamp of the file and simply do a string compare with @var{timestamp}. If there was a conflict, @var{conflict} can be set to the modification time of the file after the file has been written with conflict markers (@pxref{Conflicts example}). Thus if @var{conflict} is subsequently the same as the actual modification time of the file it means that the user has obviously not resolved the conflict. @var{options} contains sticky options (for example @samp{-kb} for a binary file). @var{tagdate} contains @samp{T} followed by a tag name, or @samp{D} for a date, followed by a sticky tag or date. Note that if @var{timestamp} contains a pair of timestamps separated by a space, rather than a single timestamp, you are dealing with a version of @sc{cvs} earlier than @sc{cvs} 1.5 (not documented here). The timezone on the timestamp in CVS/Entries (local or universal) should be the same as the operating system stores for the timestamp of the file itself. For example, on Unix the file's timestamp is in universal time (UT), so the timestamp in CVS/Entries should be too. On @sc{vms}, the file's timestamp is in local time, so @sc{cvs} on @sc{vms} should use local time. This rule is so that files do not appear to be modified merely because the timezone changed (for example, to or from summer time). @c See comments and calls to gmtime() and friends in @c src/vers_ts.c (function time_stamp). If the first character of a line in @file{Entries} is @samp{D}, then it indicates a subdirectory. @samp{D} on a line all by itself indicates that the program which wrote the @file{Entries} file does record subdirectories (therefore, if there is such a line and no other lines beginning with @samp{D}, one knows there are no subdirectories). Otherwise, the line looks like: @example D/@var{name}/@var{filler1}/@var{filler2}/@var{filler3}/@var{filler4} @end example @noindent where @var{name} is the name of the subdirectory, and all the @var{filler} fields should be silently ignored, for future expansion. Programs which modify @code{Entries} files should preserve these fields. The lines in the @file{Entries} file can be in any order. @cindex Entries.Log file, in CVS directory @cindex CVS/Entries.Log file @item Entries.Log This file does not record any information beyond that in @file{Entries}, but it does provide a way to update the information without having to rewrite the entire @file{Entries} file, including the ability to preserve the information even if the program writing @file{Entries} and @file{Entries.Log} abruptly aborts. Programs which are reading the @file{Entries} file should also check for @file{Entries.Log}. If the latter exists, they should read @file{Entries} and then apply the changes mentioned in @file{Entries.Log}. After applying the changes, the recommended practice is to rewrite @file{Entries} and then delete @file{Entries.Log}. The format of a line in @file{Entries.Log} is a single character command followed by a space followed by a line in the format specified for a line in @file{Entries}. The single character command is @samp{A} to indicate that the entry is being added, @samp{R} to indicate that the entry is being removed, or any other character to indicate that the entire line in @file{Entries.Log} should be silently ignored (for future expansion). If the second character of the line in @file{Entries.Log} is not a space, then it was written by an older version of @sc{cvs} (not documented here). Programs which are writing rather than reading can safely ignore @file{Entries.Log} if they so choose. @cindex Entries.Backup file, in CVS directory @cindex CVS/Entries.Backup file @item Entries.Backup This is a temporary file. Recommended usage is to write a new entries file to @file{Entries.Backup}, and then to rename it (atomically, where possible) to @file{Entries}. @cindex Entries.Static file, in CVS directory @cindex CVS/Entries.Static file @item Entries.Static The only relevant thing about this file is whether it exists or not. If it exists, then it means that only part of a directory was gotten and @sc{cvs} will not create additional files in that directory. To clear it, use the @code{update} command with the @samp{-d} option, which will get the additional files and remove @file{Entries.Static}. @c FIXME: This needs to be better documented, in places @c other than Working Directory Storage. @c FIXCVS: The fact that this setting exists needs to @c be more visible to the user. For example "cvs @c status foo", in the case where the file would be @c gotten except for Entries.Static, might say @c something to distinguish this from other cases. @c One thing that periodically gets suggested is to @c have "cvs update" print something when it skips @c files due to Entries.Static, but IMHO that kind of @c noise pretty much makes the Entries.Static feature @c useless. @cindex Tag file, in CVS directory @cindex CVS/Tag file @cindex Sticky tags/dates, per-directory @cindex Per-directory sticky tags/dates @item Tag This file contains per-directory sticky tags or dates. The first character is @samp{T} for a branch tag, @samp{N} for a non-branch tag, or @samp{D} for a date, or another character to mean the file should be silently ignored, for future expansion. This character is followed by the tag or date. Note that per-directory sticky tags or dates are used for things like applying to files which are newly added; they might not be the same as the sticky tags or dates on individual files. For general information on sticky tags and dates, see @ref{Sticky tags}. @c FIXME: This needs to be much better documented, @c preferably not in the context of "working directory @c storage". @c FIXME: The Sticky tags node needs to discuss, or xref to @c someplace which discusses, per-directory sticky @c tags and the distinction with per-file sticky tags. @cindex Notify file, in CVS directory @cindex CVS/Notify file @item Notify This file stores notifications (for example, for @code{edit} or @code{unedit}) which have not yet been sent to the server. Its format is not yet documented here. @cindex Notify.tmp file, in CVS directory @cindex CVS/Notify.tmp file @item Notify.tmp This file is to @file{Notify} as @file{Entries.Backup} is to @file{Entries}. That is, to write @file{Notify}, first write the new contents to @file{Notify.tmp} and then (atomically where possible), rename it to @file{Notify}. @cindex Base directory, in CVS directory @cindex CVS/Base directory @item Base If watches are in use, then an @code{edit} command stores the original copy of the file in the @file{Base} directory. This allows the @code{unedit} command to operate even if it is unable to communicate with the server. @cindex Baserev file, in CVS directory @cindex CVS/Baserev file @item Baserev The file lists the revision for each of the files in the @file{Base} directory. The format is: @example B@var{name}/@var{rev}/@var{expansion} @end example @noindent where @var{expansion} should be ignored, to allow for future expansion. @cindex Baserev.tmp file, in CVS directory @cindex CVS/Baserev.tmp file @item Baserev.tmp This file is to @file{Baserev} as @file{Entries.Backup} is to @file{Entries}. That is, to write @file{Baserev}, first write the new contents to @file{Baserev.tmp} and then (atomically where possible), rename it to @file{Baserev}. @cindex Template file, in CVS directory @cindex CVS/Template file @item Template This file contains the template specified by the @file{rcsinfo} file (@pxref{rcsinfo}). It is only used by the client; the non-client/server @sc{cvs} consults @file{rcsinfo} directly. @end table @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Intro administrative files @section The administrative files @cindex Administrative files (intro) @cindex Modules file @cindex CVSROOT, module name @cindex Defining modules (intro) @c FIXME: this node should be reorganized into "general @c information about admin files" and put the "editing @c admin files" stuff up front rather than jumping into @c the details of modules right away. Then the @c Administrative files node can go away, the information @c on each admin file distributed to a place appropriate @c to its function, and this node can contain a table @c listing each file and a @ref to its detailed description. The directory @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT} contains some @dfn{administrative
files}.  @xref{Administrative files}, for a complete description.
You can use @sc{cvs} without any of these files, but
some commands work better when at least the
@file{modules} file is properly set up.

The most important of these files is the @file{modules}
file.  It defines all modules in the repository.  This
is a sample @file{modules} file.

@c FIXME: The CVSROOT line is a goofy example now that
@c mkmodules doesn't exist.
@example
CVSROOT         CVSROOT
modules         CVSROOT modules
cvs             gnu/cvs
rcs             gnu/rcs
diff            gnu/diff
tc              yoyodyne/tc
@end example

The @file{modules} file is line oriented.  In its
simplest form each line contains the name of the
module, whitespace, and the directory where the module
resides.  The directory is a path relative to
@code{$CVSROOT}. The last four lines in the example above are examples of such lines. @c FIXME: might want to introduce the concept of options in modules file @c (the old example which was here, -i mkmodules, is obsolete). The line that defines the module called @samp{modules} uses features that are not explained here. @xref{modules}, for a full explanation of all the available features. @c FIXME: subsection without node is bogus @subsection Editing administrative files @cindex Editing administrative files @cindex Administrative files, editing them You edit the administrative files in the same way that you would edit any other module. Use @samp{cvs checkout CVSROOT} to get a working copy, edit it, and commit your changes in the normal way. It is possible to commit an erroneous administrative file. You can often fix the error and check in a new revision, but sometimes a particularly bad error in the administrative file makes it impossible to commit new revisions. @c @xref{Bad administrative files} for a hint @c about how to solve such situations. @c -- administrative file checking-- @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Multiple repositories @section Multiple repositories @cindex Multiple repositories @cindex Repositories, multiple @cindex Many repositories @cindex Parallel repositories @cindex Disjoint repositories @cindex CVSROOT, multiple repositories In some situations it is a good idea to have more than one repository, for instance if you have two development groups that work on separate projects without sharing any code. All you have to do to have several repositories is to specify the appropriate repository, using the @code{CVSROOT} environment variable, the @samp{-d} option to @sc{cvs}, or (once you have checked out a working directory) by simply allowing @sc{cvs} to use the repository that was used to check out the working directory (@pxref{Specifying a repository}). The big advantage of having multiple repositories is that they can reside on different servers. With @sc{cvs} version 1.10, a single command cannot recurse into directories from different repositories. With development versions of @sc{cvs}, you can check out code from multiple servers into your working directory. @sc{cvs} will recurse and handle all the details of making connections to as many server machines as necessary to perform the requested command. Here is an example of how to set up a working directory: @example cvs -d server1:/cvs co dir1 cd dir1 cvs -d server2:/root co sdir cvs update @end example The @code{cvs co} commands set up the working directory, and then the @code{cvs update} command will contact server2, to update the dir1/sdir subdirectory, and server1, to update everything else. @c FIXME: Does the FAQ have more about this? I have a @c dim recollection, but I'm too lazy to check right now. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Creating a repository @section Creating a repository @cindex Repository, setting up @cindex Creating a repository @cindex Setting up a repository This section describes how to set up a @sc{cvs} repository for any sort of access method. After completing the setup described in this section, you should be able to access your @sc{cvs} repository immediately via the local access method and several remote access methods. For more information on setting up remote access to the repository you create in this section, please read the section on @xref{Remote repositories}. To set up a @sc{cvs} repository, first choose the machine and disk on which you want to store the revision history of the source files. CPU and memory requirements are modest, so most machines should be adequate. For details see @ref{Server requirements}. @c Possible that we should be providing a quick rule of @c thumb, like the 32M memory for the server. That @c might increase the number of people who are happy @c with the answer, without following the xref. To estimate disk space requirements, if you are importing RCS files from another system, the size of those files is the approximate initial size of your repository, or if you are starting without any version history, a rule of thumb is to allow for the server approximately three times the size of the code to be under @sc{cvs} for the repository (you will eventually outgrow this, but not for a while). On the machines on which the developers will be working, you'll want disk space for approximately one working directory for each developer (either the entire tree or a portion of it, depending on what each developer uses). The repository should be accessible (directly or via a networked file system) from all machines which want to use @sc{cvs} in server or local mode; the client machines need not have any access to it other than via the @sc{cvs} protocol. It is not possible to use @sc{cvs} to read from a repository which one only has read access to; @sc{cvs} needs to be able to create lock files (@pxref{Concurrency}). @cindex init (subcommand) To create a repository, run the @code{cvs init} command. It will set up an empty repository in the @sc{cvs} root specified in the usual way (@pxref{Repository}). For example, @example cvs -d /usr/local/cvsroot init @end example @code{cvs init} is careful to never overwrite any existing files in the repository, so no harm is done if you run @code{cvs init} on an already set-up repository. @code{cvs init} will enable history logging; if you don't want that, remove the history file after running @code{cvs init}. @xref{history file}. @node Backing up @section Backing up a repository @cindex Repository, backing up @cindex Backing up, repository There is nothing particularly magical about the files in the repository; for the most part it is possible to back them up just like any other files. However, there are a few issues to consider. @cindex Locks, cvs, and backups @cindex #cvs.rfl, and backups The first is that to be paranoid, one should either not use @sc{cvs} during the backup, or have the backup program lock @sc{cvs} while doing the backup. To not use @sc{cvs}, you might forbid logins to machines which can access the repository, turn off your @sc{cvs} server, or similar mechanisms. The details would depend on your operating system and how you have @sc{cvs} set up. To lock @sc{cvs}, you would create @file{#cvs.rfl} locks in each repository directory. See @ref{Concurrency}, for more on @sc{cvs} locks. Having said all this, if you just back up without any of these precautions, the results are unlikely to be particularly dire. Restoring from backup, the repository might be in an inconsistent state, but this would not be particularly hard to fix manually. When you restore a repository from backup, assuming that changes in the repository were made after the time of the backup, working directories which were not affected by the failure may refer to revisions which no longer exist in the repository. Trying to run @sc{cvs} in such directories will typically produce an error message. One way to get those changes back into the repository is as follows: @itemize @bullet @item Get a new working directory. @item Copy the files from the working directory from before the failure over to the new working directory (do not copy the contents of the @file{CVS} directories, of course). @item Working in the new working directory, use commands such as @code{cvs update} and @code{cvs diff} to figure out what has changed, and then when you are ready, commit the changes into the repository. @end itemize @node Moving a repository @section Moving a repository @cindex Repository, moving @cindex Moving a repository @cindex Copying a repository Just as backing up the files in the repository is pretty much like backing up any other files, if you need to move a repository from one place to another it is also pretty much like just moving any other collection of files. The main thing to consider is that working directories point to the repository. The simplest way to deal with a moved repository is to just get a fresh working directory after the move. Of course, you'll want to make sure that the old working directory had been checked in before the move, or you figured out some other way to make sure that you don't lose any changes. If you really do want to reuse the existing working directory, it should be possible with manual surgery on the @file{CVS/Repository} files. You can see @ref{Working directory storage}, for information on the @file{CVS/Repository} and @file{CVS/Root} files, but unless you are sure you want to bother, it probably isn't worth it. @c FIXME: Surgery on CVS/Repository should be avoided @c by making RELATIVE_REPOS the default. @c FIXME-maybe: might want some documented way to @c change the CVS/Root files in some particular tree. @c But then again, I don't know, maybe just having @c people do this in perl/shell/&c isn't so bad... @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Remote repositories @section Remote repositories @cindex Repositories, remote @cindex Remote repositories @cindex Client/Server Operation @cindex Server, CVS @cindex Remote repositories, port specification @cindex Repositories, remote, port specification @cindex Client/Server Operation, port specification @cindex pserver (client/server connection method), port specification @cindex kserver (client/server connection method), port specification @cindex gserver (client/server connection method), port specification @cindex port, specifying for remote repositories Your working copy of the sources can be on a different machine than the repository. Using @sc{cvs} in this manner is known as @dfn{client/server} operation. You run @sc{cvs} on a machine which can mount your working directory, known as the @dfn{client}, and tell it to communicate to a machine which can mount the repository, known as the @dfn{server}. Generally, using a remote repository is just like using a local one, except that the format of the repository name is: @example [:@var{method}:][[@var{user}][:@var{password}]@@]@var{hostname}[:[@var{port}]]/path/to/repository @end example Specifying a password in the repository name is not recommended during checkout, since this will cause @sc{cvs} to store a cleartext copy of the password in each created directory. @code{cvs login} first instead (@pxref{Password authentication client}). The details of exactly what needs to be set up depend on how you are connecting to the server. @c Should we try to explain which platforms are which? @c Platforms like unix and VMS, which only allow @c privileged programs to bind to sockets <1024 lose on @c :server: @c Platforms like Mac and VMS, whose rsh program is @c unusable or nonexistent, lose on :ext: @c Platforms like OS/2 and NT probably could plausibly @c default either way (modulo -b troubles). @menu * Server requirements:: Memory and other resources for servers * The connection method:: Connection methods and method options * Connecting via rsh:: Using the @code{rsh} program to connect * Password authenticated:: Direct connections using passwords * GSSAPI authenticated:: Direct connections using GSSAPI * Kerberos authenticated:: Direct connections with Kerberos * Connecting via fork:: Using a forked @code{cvs server} to connect * Write proxies:: Distributing load across several CVS servers @end menu @node Server requirements @subsection Server requirements The quick answer to what sort of machine is suitable as a server is that requirements are modest---a server with 32M of memory or even less can handle a fairly large source tree with a fair amount of activity. @c Say something about CPU speed too? I'm even less sure @c what to say on that subject... The real answer, of course, is more complicated. Estimating the known areas of large memory consumption should be sufficient to estimate memory requirements. There are two such areas documented here; other memory consumption should be small by comparison (if you find that is not the case, let us know, as described in @ref{BUGS}, so we can update this documentation). The first area of big memory consumption is large checkouts, when using the @sc{cvs} server. The server consists of two processes for each client that it is serving. Memory consumption on the child process should remain fairly small. Memory consumption on the parent process, particularly if the network connection to the client is slow, can be expected to grow to slightly more than the size of the sources in a single directory, or two megabytes, whichever is larger. @c "two megabytes" of course is SERVER_HI_WATER. But @c we don't mention that here because we are @c documenting the default configuration of CVS. If it @c is a "standard" thing to change that value, it @c should be some kind of run-time configuration. @c @c See cvsclient.texi for more on the design decision @c to not have locks in place while waiting for the @c client, which is what results in memory consumption @c as high as this. Multiplying the size of each @sc{cvs} server by the number of servers which you expect to have active at one time should give an idea of memory requirements for the server. For the most part, the memory consumed by the parent process probably can be swap space rather than physical memory. @c Has anyone verified that notion about swap space? @c I say it based pretty much on guessing that the @c ->text of the struct buffer_data only gets accessed @c in a first in, first out fashion, but I haven't @c looked very closely. @c What about disk usage in /tmp on the server? I think that @c it can be substantial, but I haven't looked at this @c again and tried to figure it out ("cvs import" is @c probably the worst case...). The second area of large memory consumption is @code{diff}, when checking in large files. This is required even for binary files. The rule of thumb is to allow about ten times the size of the largest file you will want to check in, although five times may be adequate. For example, if you want to check in a file which is 10 megabytes, you should have 100 megabytes of memory on the machine doing the checkin (the server machine for client/server, or the machine running @sc{cvs} for non-client/server). This can be swap space rather than physical memory. Because the memory is only required briefly, there is no particular need to allow memory for more than one such checkin at a time. @c The 5-10 times rule of thumb is from Paul Eggert for @c GNU diff. I don't think it is in the GNU diff @c manual or anyplace like that. @c @c Probably we could be saying more about @c non-client/server CVS. @c I would guess for non-client/server CVS in an NFS @c environment the biggest issues are the network and @c the NFS server. Resource consumption for the client is even more modest---any machine with enough capacity to run the operating system in question should have little trouble. @c Is that true? I think the client still wants to @c (bogusly) store entire files in memory at times. For information on disk space requirements, see @ref{Creating a repository}. @node The connection method @subsection The connection method In its simplest form, the @var{method} portion of the repository string (@pxref{Remote repositories}) may be one of @samp{ext}, @samp{fork}, @samp{gserver}, @samp{kserver}, @samp{local}, @samp{pserver}, and, on some platforms, @samp{server}. If @var{method} is not specified, and the repository name starts with a @samp{/}, then the default is @code{local}. If @var{method} is not specified, and the repository name does not start with a @samp{/}, then the default is @code{ext} or @code{server}, depending on your platform; both the @samp{ext} and @samp{server} methods are described in @ref{Connecting via rsh}. @cindex connection method options @cindex options, connection method The @code{ext}, @code{fork}, @code{gserver}, and @code{pserver} connection methods all accept optional method options, specified as part of the @var{method} string, like so: @example :@var{method}[;@var{option}=@var{arg}...]:@var{other_connection_data} @end example @sc{cvs} is not sensitive to the case of @var{method} or @var{option}, though it may sometimes be sensitive to the case of @var{arg}. The possible method options are as follows: @table @code @cindex CVS_PROXY_PORT @cindex proxy, method option @cindex proxyport, method option @cindex proxies, web, connecting via @cindex web proxies, connecting via @cindex proxies, HTTP, connecting via @cindex HTTP proxies, connecting via @item proxy=@var{hostname} @itemx proxyport=@var{port} These two method options can be used to connect via an HTTP tunnel style web proxy. @var{hostname} should be the name of the HTTP proxy server to connect through and @var{port} is the port number on the HTTP proxy server to connect via. @var{port} defaults to 8080. @strong{NOTE: An HTTP proxy server is not the same as a @sc{cvs} write proxy server - please see @ref{Write proxies} for more on @sc{cvs} write proxies.} For example, to connect pserver via a web proxy listening on port 8000 of www.myproxy.net, you would use a method of: @example :pserver;proxy=www.myproxy.net;proxyport=8000:@var{pserver_connection_string} @end example @strong{NOTE: In the above example, @var{pserver_connection_string} is still required to connect and authenticate to the CVS server, as noted in the upcoming sections on password authentication, @code{gserver}, and @code{kserver}. The example above only demonstrates a modification to the @var{method} portion of the repository name.} These options first appeared in @sc{cvs} version 1.12.7 and are valid as modifcations to the @code{gserver} and @code{pserver} connection methods. @cindex CVS_RSH method option @item CVS_RSH=@var{path} This method option can be used with the @code{ext} method to specify the path the @sc{cvs} client will use to find the remote shell used to contact the @sc{cvs} server and takes precedence over any path specified in the @code{$CVS_RSH} environment variable (@pxref{Connecting via rsh}).  For
example, to connect to a @sc{cvs} server via the local
@file{/path/to/ssh/command} command, you could choose to specify the following
@var{path} via the @code{CVS_RSH} method option:

@example
:ext;CVS_RSH=/path/to/ssh/command:@var{ext_connection_string}
@end example

This method option first appeared in @sc{cvs} version 1.12.11 and is valid only
as a modifcation to the @code{ext} connection method.

@cindex CVS_SERVER method option
@item CVS_SERVER=@var{path}
This method option can be used with the @code{ext} and @code{fork} methods to
specify the path @sc{cvs} will use to find the @sc{cvs} executable on the
@sc{cvs} server and takes precedence over any path specified in the
@code{$CVS_SERVER} environment variable (@pxref{Connecting via rsh}). For example, to select the remote @file{/path/to/cvs/command} executable as your @sc{cvs} server application on the @sc{cvs} server machine, you could choose to specify the following @var{path} via the @code{CVS_SERVER} method option: @example :ext;CVS_SERVER=/path/to/cvs/command:@var{ext_connection_string} @end example @noindent or, to select an executable named @samp{cvs-1.12.11}, assuming it is in your @code{$PATH} on the @sc{cvs} server:

@example
:ext;CVS_SERVER=cvs-1.12.11:@var{ext_connection_string}
@end example

This method option first appeared in @sc{cvs} version 1.12.11 and is valid
as a modifcation to both the @code{ext} and @code{fork} connection methods.

@cindex Redirect, method option
@item Redirect=@var{boolean-state}
The @code{Redirect} method option determines whether the @sc{cvs} client will
allow a @sc{cvs} server to redirect it to a different @sc{cvs} server, usually
for write requests, as in a write proxy setup.

A @var{boolean-state} of any value acceptable for boolean @file{CVSROOT/config}
file options is acceptable here (@pxref{config}).  For example, @samp{on},
@samp{off}, @samp{true}, and @samp{false} are all valid values for
@var{boolean-state}.  @var{boolean-state} for the @code{Redirect} method option
defaults to @samp{on}.

This option will have no effect when talking to any non-secondary @sc{cvs}
server.  For more on write proxies and secondary servers, please see
@ref{Write proxies}.

This method option first appeared in @sc{cvs} version 1.12.11 and is valid only
as a modifcation to the @code{ext} connection method.
@end table

As a further example, to combine both the @code{CVS_RSH} and @code{CVS_SERVER}
options, a method specification like the following would work:

@example
:ext;CVS_RSH=/path/to/ssh/command;CVS_SERVER=/path/to/cvs/command:
@end example

This means that you would not need to have
the @code{CVS_SERVER} or @code{CVS_RSH} environment
variables set correctly.  See @ref{Connecting via rsh}, for more details on
these environment variables.

@node Connecting via rsh
@subsection Connecting with rsh

@cindex rsh
@sc{cvs} uses the @samp{rsh} protocol to perform these
operations, so the remote user host needs to have a
user. Note that the program that @sc{cvs} uses for this
purpose may be specified using the @file{--with-rsh}
flag to configure.

For example, suppose you are the user @samp{mozart} on
the local machine @samp{toe.example.com}, and the
server machine is @samp{faun.example.org}.  On
faun, put the following line into the file
@file{.rhosts} in @samp{bach}'s home directory:

@example
toe.example.com  mozart
@end example

@noindent
Then test that @samp{rsh} is working with

@example
rsh -l bach faun.example.org 'echo $PATH' @end example @cindex CVS_SERVER, environment variable Next you have to make sure that @code{rsh} will be able to find the server. Make sure that the path which @code{rsh} printed in the above example includes the directory containing a program named @code{cvs} which is the server. You need to set the path in @file{.bashrc}, @file{.cshrc}, etc., not @file{.login} or @file{.profile}. Alternately, you can set the environment variable @code{CVS_SERVER} on the client machine to the filename of the server you want to use, for example @file{/usr/local/bin/cvs-1.6}. For the @code{ext} and @code{fork} methods, you may also specify @var{CVS_SERVER} as an otpion in the @var{CVSROOT} so that you may use different servers for differnt roots. See @ref{Remote repositories} for more details. There is no need to edit @file{inetd.conf} or start a @sc{cvs} server daemon. @cindex :server:, setting up @cindex :ext:, setting up @cindex Kerberos, using kerberized rsh @cindex SSH (rsh replacement) @cindex rsh replacements (Kerberized, SSH, &c) There are two access methods that you use in @code{CVSROOT} for rsh. @code{:server:} specifies an internal rsh client, which is supported only by some @sc{cvs} ports. @code{:ext:} specifies an external rsh program. By default this is @code{rsh} (unless otherwise specified by the @file{--with-rsh} flag to configure) but you may set the @code{CVS_RSH} environment variable to invoke another program which can access the remote server (for example, @code{remsh} on HP-UX 9 because @code{rsh} is something different). It must be a program which can transmit data to and from the server without modifying it; for example the Windows NT @code{rsh} is not suitable since it by default translates between CRLF and LF. The OS/2 @sc{cvs} port has a hack to pass @samp{-b} to @code{rsh} to get around this, but since this could potentially cause problems for programs other than the standard @code{rsh}, it may change in the future. If you set @code{CVS_RSH} to @code{SSH} or some other rsh replacement, the instructions in the rest of this section concerning @file{.rhosts} and so on are likely to be inapplicable; consult the documentation for your rsh replacement. You may choose to specify the @var{CVS_RSH} option as a method option in the @var{CVSROOT} string to allow you to use different connection tools for different roots (@pxref{The connection method}). For example, allowing some roots to use @code{CVS_RSH=remsh} and some to use @code{CVS_RSH=ssh} for the @code{ext} method. See also the @ref{Remote repositories} for more details. @c See also the comment in src/client.c for rationale @c concerning "rsh" being the default and never @c "remsh". Continuing our example, supposing you want to access the module @file{foo} in the repository @file{/usr/local/cvsroot/}, on machine @file{faun.example.org}, you are ready to go: @example cvs -d :ext:bach@@faun.example.org:/usr/local/cvsroot checkout foo @end example @noindent (The @file{bach@@} can be omitted if the username is the same on both the local and remote hosts.) @c Should we mention "rsh host echo hi" and "rsh host @c cat" (the latter followed by typing text and ^D) @c as troubleshooting techniques? Probably yes @c (people tend to have trouble setting this up), @c but this kind of thing can be hard to spell out. @node Password authenticated @subsection Direct connection with password authentication The @sc{cvs} client can also connect to the server using a password protocol. This is particularly useful if using @code{rsh} is not feasible (for example, the server is behind a firewall), and Kerberos also is not available. To use this method, it is necessary to make some adjustments on both the server and client sides. @menu * Password authentication server:: Setting up the server * Password authentication client:: Using the client * Password authentication security:: What this method does and does not do @end menu @node Password authentication server @subsubsection Setting up the server for password authentication First of all, you probably want to tighten the permissions on the @file{$CVSROOT} and
@file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT} directories. See @ref{Password authentication security}, for more details. @cindex pserver (subcommand) @cindex Remote repositories, port specification @cindex Repositories, remote, port specification @cindex Client/Server Operation, port specification @cindex pserver (client/server connection method), port specification @cindex kserver (client/server connection method), port specification @cindex gserver (client/server connection method), port specification @cindex port, specifying for remote repositories @cindex Password server, setting up @cindex Authenticating server, setting up @cindex inetd, configuring for pserver @cindex xinetd, configuring for pserver @c FIXME: this isn't quite right regarding port @c numbers; CVS looks up "cvspserver" in @c /etc/services (on unix, but what about non-unix?). On the server side, the file @file{/etc/inetd.conf} needs to be edited so @code{inetd} knows to run the command @code{cvs pserver} when it receives a connection on the right port. By default, the port number is 2401; it would be different if your client were compiled with @code{CVS_AUTH_PORT} defined to something else, though. This can also be specified in the CVSROOT variable (@pxref{Remote repositories}) or overridden with the CVS_CLIENT_PORT environment variable (@pxref{Environment variables}). If your @code{inetd} allows raw port numbers in @file{/etc/inetd.conf}, then the following (all on a single line in @file{inetd.conf}) should be sufficient: @example 2401 stream tcp nowait root /usr/local/bin/cvs cvs -f --allow-root=/usr/cvsroot pserver @end example @noindent (You could also use the @samp{-T} option to specify a temporary directory.) The @samp{--allow-root} option specifies the allowable @sc{cvsroot} directory. Clients which attempt to use a different @sc{cvsroot} directory will not be allowed to connect. If there is more than one @sc{cvsroot} directory which you want to allow, repeat the option. (Unfortunately, many versions of @code{inetd} have very small limits on the number of arguments and/or the total length of the command. The usual solution to this problem is to have @code{inetd} run a shell script which then invokes @sc{cvs} with the necessary arguments.) If your @code{inetd} wants a symbolic service name instead of a raw port number, then put this in @file{/etc/services}: @example cvspserver 2401/tcp @end example @noindent and put @code{cvspserver} instead of @code{2401} in @file{inetd.conf}. If your system uses @code{xinetd} instead of @code{inetd}, the procedure is slightly different. Create a file called @file{/etc/xinetd.d/cvspserver} containing the following: @example service cvspserver @{ port = 2401 socket_type = stream protocol = tcp wait = no user = root passenv = PATH server = /usr/local/bin/cvs server_args = -f --allow-root=/usr/cvsroot pserver @} @end example @noindent (If @code{cvspserver} is defined in @file{/etc/services}, you can omit the @code{port} line.) Once the above is taken care of, restart your @code{inetd}, or do whatever is necessary to force it to reread its initialization files. If you are having trouble setting this up, see @ref{Connection}. @cindex CVS passwd file @cindex passwd (admin file) Because the client stores and transmits passwords in cleartext (almost---see @ref{Password authentication security}, for details), a separate @sc{cvs} password file is generally used, so people don't compromise their regular passwords when they access the repository. This file is @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/passwd} (@pxref{Intro
administrative files}).  It uses a colon-separated
format, similar to @file{/etc/passwd} on Unix systems,
except that it has fewer fields: @sc{cvs} username,
@sc{cvs} to run as if authentication succeeds.  Here is
an example @file{passwd} file with five entries:

@example
anonymous:
bach:ULtgRLXo7NRxs
spwang:1sOp854gDF3DY
melissa:tGX1fS8sun6rY:pubcvs
qproj:XR4EZcEs0szik:pubcvs
@end example

@noindent
(The passwords are encrypted according to the standard
Unix @code{crypt()} function, so it is possible to
paste in passwords directly from regular Unix
@file{/etc/passwd} files.)

@sc{cvs} client attempting to authenticate as user
@code{anonymous}, no matter what password they use,
including an empty password.  (This is typical for
sites granting anonymous read-only access; for
information on how to do the "read-only" part, see

@code{bach} and @code{spwang} if they supply their

@cindex User aliases
she supplies the correct password, but her @sc{cvs}
operations will actually run on the server side under
the system user @code{pubcvs}.  Thus, there need not be
any system user named @code{melissa}, but there
@emph{must} be one named @code{pubcvs}.

The fifth line shows that system user identities can be
shared: any client who successfully authenticates as
@code{qproj} will actually run as @code{pubcvs}, just
as @code{melissa} does.  That way you could create a
single, shared system user for each project in your
repository, and give each developer their own line in
the @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/passwd} file. The @sc{cvs} username on each line would be different, but the system username would be the same. The reason to have different @sc{cvs} usernames is that @sc{cvs} will log their actions under those names: when @code{melissa} commits a change to a project, the checkin is recorded in the project's history under the name @code{melissa}, not @code{pubcvs}. And the reason to have them share a system username is so that you can arrange permissions in the relevant area of the repository such that only that account has write-permission there. If the system-user field is present, all password-authenticated @sc{cvs} commands run as that user; if no system user is specified, @sc{cvs} simply takes the @sc{cvs} username as the system username and runs commands as that user. In either case, if there is no such user on the system, then the @sc{cvs} operation will fail (regardless of whether the client supplied a valid password). The password and system-user fields can both be omitted (and if the system-user field is omitted, then also omit the colon that would have separated it from the encrypted password). For example, this would be a valid @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/passwd} file:

@example
anonymous::pubcvs
fish:rKa5jzULzmhOo:kfogel
sussman:1sOp854gDF3DY
@end example

@noindent
When the password field is omitted or empty, then the
client's authentication attempt will succeed with any
password, including the empty string.  However, the
colon after the @sc{cvs} username is always necessary,
even if the password is empty.

@sc{cvs} can also fall back to use system authentication.
When authenticating a password, the server first checks
for the user in the @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/passwd} file. If it finds the user, it will use that entry for authentication as described above. But if it does not find the user, or if the @sc{cvs} @file{passwd} file does not exist, then the server can try to authenticate the username and password using the operating system's user-lookup routines (this "fallback" behavior can be disabled by setting @code{SystemAuth=no} in the @sc{cvs} @file{config} file, @pxref{config}). The default fallback behavior is to look in @file{/etc/passwd} for this system user unless your system has PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules) and your @sc{cvs} server executable was configured to use it at compile time (using @code{./configure --enable-pam} - see the INSTALL file for more). In this case, PAM will be consulted instead. This means that @sc{cvs} can be configured to use any password authentication source PAM can be configured to use (possibilities include a simple UNIX password, NIS, LDAP, and others) in its global configuration file (usually @file{/etc/pam.conf} or possibly @file{/etc/pam.d/cvs}). See your PAM documentation for more details on PAM configuration. Note that PAM is an experimental feature in @sc{cvs} and feedback is encouraged. Please send a mail to one of the @sc{cvs} mailing lists (@code{info-cvs@@nongnu.org} or @code{bug-cvs@@nongnu.org}) if you use the @sc{cvs} PAM support. @strong{WARNING: Using PAM gives the system administrator much more flexibility about how @sc{cvs} users are authenticated but no more security than other methods. See below for more.} CVS needs an "auth", "account" and "session" module in the PAM configuration file. A typical PAM configuration would therefore have the following lines in @file{/etc/pam.conf} to emulate the standard @sc{cvs} system @file{/etc/passwd} authentication: @example cvs auth required pam_unix.so cvs account required pam_unix.so cvs session required pam_unix.so @end example The the equivalent @file{/etc/pam.d/cvs} would contain @example auth required pam_unix.so account required pam_unix.so session required pam_unix.so @end example Some systems require a full path to the module so that @file{pam_unix.so} (Linux) would become something like @file{/usr/lib/security/$ISA/pam_unix.so.1} (Sun Solaris).
See the @file{contrib/pam} subdirectory of the @sc{cvs}
source distribution for further example configurations.

The PAM service name given above as "cvs" is just
the service name in the default configuration and can be
set using
@code{./configure --with-hardcoded-pam-service-name=<pam-service-name>}
before compiling.  @sc{cvs} can also be configured to use whatever
name it is invoked as as its PAM service name using
@code{./configure --without-hardcoded-pam-service-name}, but this
feature should not be used if you may not have control of the name
@sc{cvs} will be invoked as.

Be aware, also, that falling back to system
authentication might be a security risk: @sc{cvs}
operations would then be authenticated with that user's
the network in plaintext.  See @ref{Password
authentication security} for more on this.
This may be more of a problem with PAM authentication
because it is likely that the source of the system
password is some central authentication service like
LDAP which is also used to authenticate other services.

On the other hand, PAM makes it very easy to change your password
regularly.  If they are given the option of a one-password system for
all of their activities, users are often more willing to change their

In the non-PAM configuration where the password is stored in the
@file{CVSROOT/passwd} file, it is difficult to change passwords on a
regular basis since only administrative users (or in some cases
processes that act as an administrative user) are typically given
hand-crafted web page or set-uid program to update the file, or the
update needs to be done by submitting a request to an administrator to
perform the duty by hand.  In the first case, having to remember to
update a separate password on a periodic basis can be difficult.  In
the second case, the manual nature of the change will typically mean
that the password will not be changed unless it is absolutely
necessary.

Note that PAM administrators should probably avoid configuring
one-time-passwords (OTP) for @sc{cvs} authentication/authorization.  If
OTPs are desired, the administrator may wish to encourage the use of
one of the other Client/Server access methods.  See the section on
@pxref{Remote repositories} for a list of other methods.

Right now, the only way to put a password in the
@sc{cvs} @file{passwd} file is to paste it there from
somewhere else.  Someday, there may be a @code{cvs
passwd} command.

Unlike many of the files in @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT}, it is normal to edit the @file{passwd} file in-place, rather than via @sc{cvs}. This is because of the possible security risks of having the @file{passwd} file checked out to people's working copies. If you do want to include the @file{passwd} file in checkouts of @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT}, see @ref{checkoutlist}.

@c We might also suggest using the @code{htpasswd} command
@c from freely available web servers as well, but that
@c would open up a can of worms in that the users next
@c questions are likely to be "where do I get it?" and
@c "how do I use it?"
@c Also note that htpasswd, at least the version I had,
@c likes to clobber the third field.

@subsubsection Using the client with password authentication
@cindex Authenticated client, using
@cindex :pserver:, setting up
To run a @sc{cvs} command on a remote repository via
the password-authenticating server, one specifies the
@code{pserver} protocol, optional username, repository host, an
optional port number, and path to the repository.  For example:

@example
cvs -d :pserver:faun.example.org:/usr/local/cvsroot checkout someproj
@end example

@noindent
or

@example
CVSROOT=:pserver:bach@@faun.example.org:2401/usr/local/cvsroot
cvs checkout someproj
@end example

However, unless you're connecting to a public-access
repository (i.e., one where that username doesn't
Logging in verifies your password with the repository and stores it in a file.
It's done with the @code{login} command, which will
prompt you interactively for the password if you didn't supply one as part of
@var{$CVSROOT}: @example cvs -d :pserver:bach@@faun.example.org:/usr/local/cvsroot login CVS password: @end example @noindent or @example cvs -d :pserver:bach:p4ss30rd@@faun.example.org:/usr/local/cvsroot login @end example After you enter the password, @sc{cvs} verifies it with the server. If the verification succeeds, then that combination of username, host, repository, and password is permanently recorded, so future transactions with that repository won't require you to run @code{cvs login}. (If verification fails, @sc{cvs} will exit complaining that the password was incorrect, and nothing will be recorded.) The records are stored, by default, in the file @file{$HOME/.cvspass}.  That file's format is
human-readable, and to a degree human-editable, but
note that the passwords are not stored in
cleartext---they are trivially encoded to protect them
from "innocent" compromise (i.e., inadvertent viewing
by a system administrator or other non-malicious
person).

@cindex CVS_PASSFILE, environment variable
You can change the default location of this file by
setting the @code{CVS_PASSFILE} environment variable.
If you use this variable, make sure you set it
@emph{before} @code{cvs login} is run.  If you were to
set it after running @code{cvs login}, then later
@sc{cvs} commands would be unable to look up the
password for transmission to the server.

Once you have logged in, all @sc{cvs} commands using
that remote repository and username will authenticate
with the stored password.  So, for example

@example
cvs -d :pserver:bach@@faun.example.org:/usr/local/cvsroot checkout foo
@end example

@noindent
should just work (unless the password changes on the
server side, in which case you'll have to re-run

Note that if the @samp{:pserver:} were not present in
the repository specification, @sc{cvs} would assume it
should use @code{rsh} to connect with the server

Of course, once you have a working copy checked out and
are running @sc{cvs} commands from within it, there is
no longer any need to specify the repository
explicitly, because @sc{cvs} can deduce the repository
from the working copy's @file{CVS} subdirectory.

@c FIXME: seems to me this needs somewhat more
@c explanation.
@cindex Logout (subcommand)
The password for a given remote repository can be
removed from the @code{CVS_PASSFILE} by using the
@code{cvs logout} command.

@subsubsection Security considerations with password authentication

@cindex Security, of pserver
The passwords are stored on the client side in a
trivial encoding of the cleartext, and transmitted in
the same encoding.  The encoding is done only to
system administrator accidentally looking at the file),
and will not prevent even a naive attacker from gaining

@c to pserver; it applies to kerberos and SSH and
@c everything else too.  Should reorganize the
@c documentation to make this clear.
authentication server}) allows people
to use a different password for repository access than
for login access.  On the other hand, once a user has
the server system through a variety of means.  Thus, repository
access implies fairly broad system access as well.  It
might be possible to modify @sc{cvs} to prevent that,
but no one has done so as of this writing.
@c OpenBSD uses chroot() and copies the repository to
@c provide anonymous read-only access (for details see
@c http://www.openbsd.org/anoncvs.shar).  While this
@c closes the most obvious holes, I'm not sure it
@c closes enough holes to recommend it (plus it is
@c *very* easy to accidentally screw up a setup of this
@c type).

Note that because the @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT} directory contains @file{passwd} and other files which are used to check security, you must control the permissions on this directory as tightly as the permissions on @file{/etc}. The same applies to the @file{$CVSROOT}
directory itself and any directory
such a directory will have the ability to become any
user on the system.  Note that these permissions are
typically tighter than you would use if you are not
using pserver.
@c TODO: Would be really nice to document/implement a
@c scheme where the CVS server can run as some non-root
@c user, e.g. "cvs".  CVSROOT/passwd would contain a
@c bunch of entries of the form foo:xxx:cvs (or the "cvs"
@c would be implicit).  This would greatly reduce
@c security risks such as those hinted at in the
@c previous paragraph.  I think minor changes to CVS
@c might be required but mostly this would just need
@c someone who wants to play with it, document it, &c.

In summary, anyone who gets the password gets
repository access (which may imply some measure of general system
access as well).  The password is available to anyone
who can sniff network packets or read a protected
(i.e., user read-only) file.  If you want real
security, get Kerberos.

@node GSSAPI authenticated
@subsection Direct connection with GSSAPI

@cindex GSSAPI
@cindex Security, GSSAPI
@cindex :gserver:, setting up
@cindex Kerberos, using :gserver:
GSSAPI is a generic interface to network security
systems such as Kerberos 5.
If you have a working GSSAPI library, you can have
@sc{cvs} connect via a direct @sc{tcp} connection,
authenticating with GSSAPI.

To do this, @sc{cvs} needs to be compiled with GSSAPI
support; when configuring @sc{cvs} it tries to detect
whether GSSAPI libraries using Kerberos version 5 are
present.  You can also use the @file{--with-gssapi}
flag to configure.

The connection is authenticated using GSSAPI, but the
message stream is @emph{not} authenticated by default.
You must use the @code{-a} global option to request
stream authentication.

The data transmitted is @emph{not} encrypted by
default.  Encryption support must be compiled into both
the client and the server; use the
@file{--enable-encrypt} configure option to turn it on.
You must then use the @code{-x} global option to
request encryption.

GSSAPI connections are handled on the server side by
the same server which handles the password
server}.  If you are using a GSSAPI mechanism such as
Kerberos which provides for strong authentication, you
will probably want to disable the ability to
authenticate via cleartext passwords.  To do so, create
an empty @file{CVSROOT/passwd} password file, and set
@code{SystemAuth=no} in the config file
(@pxref{config}).

The GSSAPI server uses a principal name of
cvs/@var{hostname}, where @var{hostname} is the
canonical name of the server host.  You will have to
set this up as required by your GSSAPI mechanism.

To connect using GSSAPI, use the @samp{:gserver:} method.  For
example,

@example
cvs -d :gserver:faun.example.org:/usr/local/cvsroot checkout foo
@end example

@node Kerberos authenticated
@subsection Direct connection with Kerberos

@cindex Kerberos, using :kserver:
@cindex Security, Kerberos
@cindex :kserver:, setting up
The easiest way to use Kerberos is to use the Kerberos
@code{rsh}, as described in @ref{Connecting via rsh}.
The main disadvantage of using rsh is that all the data
needs to pass through additional programs, so it may be
slower.  So if you have Kerberos installed you can
connect via a direct @sc{tcp} connection,
authenticating with Kerberos.

This section concerns the Kerberos network security
system, version 4.  Kerberos version 5 is supported via
the GSSAPI generic network security interface, as
described in the previous section.

To do this, @sc{cvs} needs to be compiled with Kerberos
support; when configuring @sc{cvs} it tries to detect
whether Kerberos is present or you can use the
@file{--with-krb4} flag to configure.

The data transmitted is @emph{not} encrypted by
default.  Encryption support must be compiled into both
the client and server; use the
@file{--enable-encryption} configure option to turn it
on.  You must then use the @code{-x} global option to
request encryption.

The CVS client will attempt to connect to port 1999 by default.

@cindex kinit
When you want to use @sc{cvs}, get a ticket in the
usual way (generally @code{kinit}); it must be a ticket

@example
cvs -d :kserver:faun.example.org:/usr/local/cvsroot checkout foo
@end example

Previous versions of @sc{cvs} would fall back to a
connection via rsh; this version will not do so.

@node Connecting via fork
@subsection Connecting with fork

@cindex fork, access method
@cindex :fork:, setting up
This access method allows you to connect to a
repository on your local disk via the remote protocol.
In other words it does pretty much the same thing as
@code{:local:}, but various quirks, bugs and the like are
those of the remote @sc{cvs} rather than the local
@sc{cvs}.

For day-to-day operations you might prefer either
@code{:local:} or @code{:fork:}, depending on your
preferences.  Of course @code{:fork:} comes in
particularly handy in testing or
debugging @code{cvs} and the remote protocol.
Specifically, we avoid all of the network-related
setup/configuration, timeouts, and authentication
inherent in the other remote access methods but still
create a connection which uses the remote protocol.

To connect using the @code{fork} method, use
@samp{:fork:} and the pathname to your local
repository.  For example:

@example
cvs -d :fork:/usr/local/cvsroot checkout foo
@end example

@cindex CVS_SERVER, and :fork:
As with @code{:ext:}, the server is called @samp{cvs}
by default, or the value of the @code{CVS_SERVER}
environment variable.

@node Write proxies
@subsection Distributing load across several CVS servers

@cindex PrimaryServer, in CVSROOT/config
@cindex Primary server
@cindex Secondary server
@cindex proxy, write
@cindex write proxy
@sc{cvs} can be configured to distribute usage across several @sc{cvs}
servers.  This is accomplished by means of one or more @dfn{write proxies}, or
@dfn{secondary servers}, for a single @dfn{primary server}.

When a @sc{cvs} client accesses a secondary server and only sends read
requests, then the secondary server handles the entire request.  If the client
sends any write requests, however, the secondary server asks the client to
redirect its write request to the primary server, if the client supports
redirect requests, and otherwise becomes a transparent proxy for the primary
server, which actually handles the write request.

In this manner, any number of read-only secondary servers may be configured as
write proxies for the primary server, effectively distributing the load from
all read operations between the secondary servers and restricting the load on
the primary server to write operations and pushing changes to the secondaries.

Primary servers will not automatically push changes to secondaries.  This must
@file{postwatch} scripts (@pxref{Trigger Scripts}) like the following:

@example
ALL	rsync -gopr -essh ./ secondary:/cvsroot/%p &
@end example

You would probably actually want to lock directories for write on the secondary
and for read on the primary before running the @samp{rsync} in the above
example, but describing such a setup is beyond the scope of this document.

A secondary advantage of a write proxy setup is that users pointing at the
secondary server can still execute fast read operations while on a network that
connects to the primary over a slow link or even one where the link to the
primary is periodically broken.  Only write operations will require the network

To configure write proxies, the primary must be specified with the
@samp{PrimaryServer} option in @file{CVSROOT/config} (@pxref{config}).  For the
transparent proxy mode to work, all secondary servers must also be running the
same version of the @sc{cvs} server, or at least one that provides the same
list of supported requests to the client as the primary server.  This is not
necessary for redirection.

Once a primary server is configured, secondary servers may be configured by:

@enumerate
@item
Duplicating the primary repository at the new location.
@item
@file{postwatch} files on the primary to propagate writes to the new secondary.
@item
to any other CVS server (@pxref{Remote repositories}).
@item
Ensuring that @code{--allow-root=@var{secondary-cvsroot}} is passed to
@strong{all} incovations of the secondary server if the path to the @sc{cvs}
repository directory is different on the two servers and you wish to support
clients that do not handle the @samp{Redirect} resopnse (CVS 1.12.9 and earlier
clients do not handle the @samp{Redirect} response).

Please note, again, that writethrough proxy suport requires
@code{--allow-root=@var{secondary-cvsroot}} to be specified for @strong{all}
incovations of the secondary server, not just @samp{pserver} invocations.
This may require a wrapper script for the @sc{cvs} executable
@end enumerate

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------

It is possible to grant read-only repository
other access methods do not have explicit support for
the user can do whatever local file permissions allow
her to do.)

A user who has read-only access can do only
those @sc{cvs} operations which do not modify the
repository, except for certain administrative'' files
(such as lock files and the history file).  It may be
desirable to use this feature in conjunction with

Unlike with previous versions of @sc{cvs}, read-only
users should be able merely to read the repository, and
not to execute programs on the server or otherwise gain
unexpected levels of access.  Or to be more accurate,
the @emph{known} holes have been plugged.  Because this
feature is new and has not received a comprehensive
security audit, you should use whatever level of
caution seems warranted given your attitude concerning
security.

There are two ways to specify read-only access
for a user: by inclusion, and by exclusion.

"Inclusion" means listing that user
specifically in the @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/readers} file, which is simply a newline-separated list of users. Here is a sample @file{readers} file: @example melissa splotnik jrandom @end example @noindent (Don't forget the newline after the last user.) "Exclusion" means explicitly listing everyone who has @emph{write} access---if the file @example$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/writers
@end example

@noindent
exists, then only
those users listed in it have write access, and
everyone else has read-only access (of course, even the
read-only users still need to be listed in the
@sc{cvs} @file{passwd} file).  The
@file{writers} file has the same format as the

file maps cvs users onto system users (@pxref{Password
authentication server}), make sure you deny or grant
@file{writers} files contain cvs usernames, which may
or may not be the same as system usernames.

Here is a complete description of the server's
behavior in deciding whether to grant read-only or

If @file{readers} exists, and this user is
listed in it, then she gets read-only access.  Or if
@file{writers} exists, and this user is NOT listed in
it, then she also gets read-only access (this is true
even if @file{readers} exists but she is not listed
there).  Otherwise, she gets full read-write access.

Of course there is a conflict if the user is
listed in both files.  This is resolved in the more
conservative way, it being better to protect the
repository too much than too little: such a user gets

@node Server temporary directory
@section Temporary directories for the server
@cindex Temporary directories, and server
@cindex Server, temporary directories

While running, the @sc{cvs} server creates temporary
directories.  They are named

@example
cvs-serv@var{pid}
@end example

@noindent
where @var{pid} is the process identification number of
the server.
They are located in the directory specified by
the @samp{-T} global option (@pxref{Global options}),
the @code{TMPDIR} environment variable (@pxref{Environment variables}),
or, failing that, @file{/tmp}.

In most cases the server will remove the temporary
directory when it is done, whether it finishes normally
or abnormally.  However, there are a few cases in which
the server does not or cannot remove the temporary
directory, for example:

@itemize @bullet
@item
If the server aborts due to an internal server error,
it may preserve the directory to aid in debugging

@item
If the server is killed in a way that it has no way of
cleaning up (most notably, @samp{kill -KILL} on unix).

@item
If the system shuts down without an orderly shutdown,
which tells the server to clean up.
@end itemize

In cases such as this, you will need to manually remove
the @file{cvs-serv@var{pid}} directories.  As long as
there is no server running with process identification
number @var{pid}, it is safe to do so.

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Starting a new project
@chapter Starting a project with CVS
@cindex Starting a project with CVS
@cindex Creating a project

@comment --moduledb--
Because renaming files and moving them between
directories is somewhat inconvenient, the first thing
you do when you start a new project should be to think
through your file organization.  It is not impossible
to rename or move files, but it does increase the
potential for confusion and @sc{cvs} does have some
quirks particularly in the area of renaming
directories.  @xref{Moving files}.

What to do next depends on the situation at hand.

* Setting up the files::        Getting the files into the repository
* Defining the module::         How to make a module of the files
@c -- File permissions!

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Setting up the files
@section Setting up the files

The first step is to create the files inside the repository.  This can
be done in a couple of different ways.

@c -- The contributed scripts
* From files::                  This method is useful with old projects
* From other version control systems::  Old projects where you want to
preserve history from another system.
* From scratch::                Creating a directory tree from scratch.

@c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
@node From files
@subsection Creating a directory tree from a number of files
@cindex Importing files

When you begin using @sc{cvs}, you will probably already have several
projects that can be
put under @sc{cvs} control.  In these cases the easiest way is to use the
@code{import} command.  An example is probably the easiest way to
explain how to use it.  If the files you want to install in
@sc{cvs} reside in @file{@var{wdir}}, and you want them to appear in the
repository as @file{$CVSROOT/yoyodyne/@var{rdir}}, you can do this: @example$ cd @var{wdir}
$cvs import -m "Imported sources" yoyodyne/@var{rdir} yoyo start @end example Unless you supply a log message with the @samp{-m} flag, @sc{cvs} starts an editor and prompts for a message. The string @samp{yoyo} is a @dfn{vendor tag}, and @samp{start} is a @dfn{release tag}. They may fill no purpose in this context, but since @sc{cvs} requires them they must be present. @xref{Tracking sources}, for more information about them. You can now verify that it worked, and remove your original source directory. @c FIXME: Need to say more about "verify that it @c worked". What should the user look for in the output @c from "diff -r"? @example$ cd ..
$cvs checkout yoyodyne/@var{rdir} # @r{Explanation below}$ diff -r @var{wdir} yoyodyne/@var{rdir}
$rm -r @var{wdir} @end example @noindent Erasing the original sources is a good idea, to make sure that you do not accidentally edit them in @var{wdir}, bypassing @sc{cvs}. Of course, it would be wise to make sure that you have a backup of the sources before you remove them. The @code{checkout} command can either take a module name as argument (as it has done in all previous examples) or a path name relative to @code{$CVSROOT},
as it did in the example above.

It is a good idea to check that the permissions
@sc{cvs} sets on the directories inside @code{$CVSROOT} are reasonable, and that they belong to the proper groups. @xref{File permissions}. If some of the files you want to import are binary, you may want to use the wrappers features to specify which files are binary and which are not. @xref{Wrappers}. @c The node name is too long, but I am having trouble @c thinking of something more concise. @node From other version control systems @subsection Creating Files From Other Version Control Systems @cindex Importing files, from other version control systems If you have a project which you are maintaining with another version control system, such as @sc{rcs}, you may wish to put the files from that project into @sc{cvs}, and preserve the revision history of the files. @table @asis @cindex RCS, importing files from @item From RCS If you have been using @sc{rcs}, find the @sc{rcs} files---usually a file named @file{foo.c} will have its @sc{rcs} file in @file{RCS/foo.c,v} (but it could be other places; consult the @sc{rcs} documentation for details). Then create the appropriate directories in @sc{cvs} if they do not already exist. Then copy the files into the appropriate directories in the @sc{cvs} repository (the name in the repository must be the name of the source file with @samp{,v} added; the files go directly in the appropriate directory of the repository, not in an @file{RCS} subdirectory). This is one of the few times when it is a good idea to access the @sc{cvs} repository directly, rather than using @sc{cvs} commands. Then you are ready to check out a new working directory. @c Someday there probably should be a "cvs import -t @c rcs" or some such. It could even create magic @c branches. It could also do something about the case @c where the RCS file had a (non-magic) "0" branch. The @sc{rcs} file should not be locked when you move it into @sc{cvs}; if it is, @sc{cvs} will have trouble letting you operate on it. @c What is the easiest way to unlock your files if you @c have them locked? Especially if you have a lot of them? @c This is a CVS bug/misfeature; importing RCS files @c should ignore whether they are locked and leave them in @c an unlocked state. Yet another reason for a separate @c "import RCS file" command. @c How many is "many"? Or do they just import RCS files? @item From another version control system Many version control systems have the ability to export @sc{rcs} files in the standard format. If yours does, export the @sc{rcs} files and then follow the above instructions. Failing that, probably your best bet is to write a script that will check out the files one revision at a time using the command line interface to the other system, and then check the revisions into @sc{cvs}. The @file{sccs2rcs} script mentioned below may be a useful example to follow. @cindex SCCS, importing files from @item From SCCS There is a script in the @file{contrib} directory of the @sc{cvs} source distribution called @file{sccs2rcs} which converts @sc{sccs} files to @sc{rcs} files. Note: you must run it on a machine which has both @sc{sccs} and @sc{rcs} installed, and like everything else in contrib it is unsupported (your mileage may vary). @cindex PVCS, importing files from @item From PVCS There is a script in the @file{contrib} directory of the @sc{cvs} source distribution called @file{pvcs_to_rcs} which converts @sc{pvcs} archives to @sc{rcs} files. You must run it on a machine which has both @sc{pvcs} and @sc{rcs} installed, and like everything else in contrib it is unsupported (your mileage may vary). See the comments in the script for details. @end table @c CMZ and/or PATCHY were systems that were used in the @c high energy physics community (especially for @c CERNLIB). CERN has replaced them with CVS, but the @c CAR format seems to live on as a way to submit @c changes. There is a program car2cvs which converts @c but I'm not sure where one gets a copy. @c Not sure it is worth mentioning here, since it would @c appear to affect only one particular community. @c Best page for more information is: @c http://wwwcn1.cern.ch/asd/cvs/index.html @c See also: @c http://ecponion.cern.ch/ecpsa/cernlib.html @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node From scratch @subsection Creating a directory tree from scratch @c Also/instead should be documenting @c$ cvs co -l .
@c $mkdir tc @c$ cvs add tc
@c $cd tc @c$ mkdir man
@c $cvs add man @c etc. @c Using import to create the directories only is @c probably a somewhat confusing concept. For a new project, the easiest thing to do is probably to create an empty directory structure, like this: @example$ mkdir tc
$mkdir tc/man$ mkdir tc/testing
@end example

After that, you use the @code{import} command to create
the corresponding (empty) directory structure inside
the repository:

@example
$cd tc$ cvs import -m "Created directory structure" yoyodyne/@var{dir} yoyo start
@end example

This will add yoyodyne/@var{dir} as a directory under
@code{$CVSROOT}. Use @code{checkout} to get the new project. Then, use @code{add} to add files (and new directories) as needed. @example$ cd ..
$cvs co yoyodyne/@var{dir} @end example Check that the permissions @sc{cvs} sets on the directories inside @code{$CVSROOT} are reasonable.

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Defining the module
@section Defining the module
@cindex Defining a module
@cindex Editing the modules file
@cindex Module, defining
@cindex Modules file, changing

The next step is to define the module in the
@file{modules} file.  This is not strictly necessary,
but modules can be convenient in grouping together
related files and directories.

In simple cases these steps are sufficient to define a module.

@enumerate
@item
Get a working copy of the modules file.

@example
$cvs checkout CVSROOT/modules$ cd CVSROOT
@end example

@item
Edit the file and insert a line that defines the module.  @xref{Intro
administrative files}, for an introduction.  @xref{modules}, for a full
description of the modules file.  You can use the
following line to define the module @samp{tc}:

@example
tc   yoyodyne/tc
@end example

@item
Commit your changes to the modules file.

@example
$cvs commit -m "Added the tc module." modules @end example @item Release the modules module. @example$ cd ..
$cvs release -d CVSROOT @end example @end enumerate @c --------------------------------------------------------------------- @node Revisions @chapter Revisions For many uses of @sc{cvs}, one doesn't need to worry too much about revision numbers; @sc{cvs} assigns numbers such as @code{1.1}, @code{1.2}, and so on, and that is all one needs to know. However, some people prefer to have more knowledge and control concerning how @sc{cvs} assigns revision numbers. If one wants to keep track of a set of revisions involving more than one file, such as which revisions went into a particular release, one uses a @dfn{tag}, which is a symbolic revision which can be assigned to a numeric revision in each file. @menu * Revision numbers:: The meaning of a revision number * Versions revisions releases:: Terminology used in this manual * Assigning revisions:: Assigning revisions * Tags:: Tags--Symbolic revisions * Tagging the working directory:: The cvs tag command * Tagging by date/tag:: The cvs rtag command * Modifying tags:: Adding, renaming, and deleting tags * Tagging add/remove:: Tags with adding and removing files * Sticky tags:: Certain tags are persistent @end menu @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Revision numbers @section Revision numbers @cindex Revision numbers @cindex Revision tree @cindex Linear development @cindex Number, revision- @cindex Decimal revision number @cindex Branch number @cindex Number, branch Each version of a file has a unique @dfn{revision number}. Revision numbers look like @samp{1.1}, @samp{1.2}, @samp{1.3.2.2} or even @samp{1.3.2.2.4.5}. A revision number always has an even number of period-separated decimal integers. By default revision 1.1 is the first revision of a file. Each successive revision is given a new number by increasing the rightmost number by one. The following figure displays a few revisions, with newer revisions to the right. @example +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ ! 1.1 !----! 1.2 !----! 1.3 !----! 1.4 !----! 1.5 ! +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ @end example It is also possible to end up with numbers containing more than one period, for example @samp{1.3.2.2}. Such revisions represent revisions on branches (@pxref{Branching and merging}); such revision numbers are explained in detail in @ref{Branches and revisions}. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Versions revisions releases @section Versions, revisions and releases @cindex Revisions, versions and releases @cindex Versions, revisions and releases @cindex Releases, revisions and versions A file can have several versions, as described above. Likewise, a software product can have several versions. A software product is often given a version number such as @samp{4.1.1}. Versions in the first sense are called @dfn{revisions} in this document, and versions in the second sense are called @dfn{releases}. To avoid confusion, the word @dfn{version} is almost never used in this document. @node Assigning revisions @section Assigning revisions @c We avoid the "major revision" terminology. It seems @c like jargon. Hopefully "first number" is clear enough. @c @c Well, in the context of software release numbers, @c "major" and "minor" release or version numbers are @c documented in at least the GNU Coding Standards, but I'm @c still not sure I find that a valid reason to apply the @c terminology to RCS revision numbers. "First", "Second", @c "subsequent", and so on is almost surely clearer, @c especially to a novice reader. -DRP By default, @sc{cvs} will assign numeric revisions by leaving the first number the same and incrementing the second number. For example, @code{1.1}, @code{1.2}, @code{1.3}, etc. When adding a new file, the second number will always be one and the first number will equal the highest first number of any file in that directory. For example, the current directory contains files whose highest numbered revisions are @code{1.7}, @code{3.1}, and @code{4.12}, then an added file will be given the numeric revision @code{4.1}. (When using client/server @sc{cvs}, only files that are actually sent to the server are considered.) @c This is sort of redundant with something we said a @c while ago. Somewhere we need a better way of @c introducing how the first number can be anything @c except "1", perhaps. Also I don't think this @c presentation is clear on why we are discussing releases @c and first numbers of numeric revisions in the same @c breath. Normally there is no reason to care about the revision numbers---it is easier to treat them as internal numbers that @sc{cvs} maintains, and tags provide a better way to distinguish between things like release 1 versus release 2 of your product (@pxref{Tags}). However, if you want to set the numeric revisions, the @samp{-r} option to @code{cvs commit} can do that. The @samp{-r} option implies the @samp{-f} option, in the sense that it causes the files to be committed even if they are not modified. For example, to bring all your files up to revision 3.0 (including those that haven't changed), you might invoke: @example$ cvs commit -r 3.0
@end example

Note that the number you specify with @samp{-r} must be
larger than any existing revision number.  That is, if
revision 3.0 exists, you cannot @samp{cvs commit
-r 1.3}.  If you want to maintain several releases in
parallel, you need to use a branch (@pxref{Branching and merging}).

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Tags
@section Tags--Symbolic revisions
@cindex Tags

The revision numbers live a life of their own.  They
need not have anything at all to do with the release
numbers of your software product.  Depending
on how you use @sc{cvs} the revision numbers might change several times
between two releases.  As an example, some of the
source files that make up @sc{rcs} 5.6 have the following
revision numbers:
@cindex RCS revision numbers

@example
ci.c            5.21
co.c            5.9
ident.c         5.3
rcs.c           5.12
rcsbase.h       5.11
rcsdiff.c       5.10
rcsedit.c       5.11
rcsfcmp.c       5.9
rcsgen.c        5.10
rcslex.c        5.11
rcsmap.c        5.2
rcsutil.c       5.10
@end example

@cindex tag (subcommand), introduction
@cindex Tags, symbolic name
@cindex Symbolic name (tag)
@cindex Name, symbolic (tag)
@cindex HEAD, as reserved tag name
@cindex BASE, as reserved tag name
You can use the @code{tag} command to give a symbolic name to a
certain revision of a file.  You can use the @samp{-v} flag to the
@code{status} command to see all tags that a file has, and
which revision numbers they represent.  Tag names must
contain uppercase and lowercase letters, digits,
@samp{-}, and @samp{_}.  The two tag names @code{BASE}
and @code{HEAD} are reserved for use by @sc{cvs}.  It
is expected that future names which are special to
@sc{cvs} will be specially named, for example by
starting with @samp{.}, rather than being named analogously to
@code{BASE} and @code{HEAD}, to avoid conflicts with
actual tag names.
@c Including a character such as % or = has also been
@c suggested as the naming convention for future
@c special tag names.  Starting with . is nice because
@c that is not a legal tag name as far as RCS is concerned.
@c FIXME: CVS actually accepts quite a few characters
@c in tag names, not just the ones documented above
@c (see RCS_check_tag).  RCS
@c defines legitimate tag names by listing illegal
@c characters rather than legal ones.  CVS is said to lose its
@c mind if you try to use "/" (try making such a tag sticky
@c and using "cvs status" client/server--see remote
@c protocol format for entries line for probable cause).
@c TODO: The testsuite
@c should test for whatever are documented above as
@c officially-OK tag names, and CVS should at least reject
@c characters that won't work, like "/".

You'll want to choose some convention for naming tags,
based on information such as the name of the program
and the version number of the release.  For example,
one might take the name of the program, immediately
followed by the version number with @samp{.} changed to
@samp{-}, so that @sc{cvs} 1.9 would be tagged with the name
@code{cvs1-9}.  If you choose a consistent convention,
then you won't constantly be guessing whether a tag is
@code{cvs-1-9} or @code{cvs1_9} or what.  You might
even want to consider enforcing your convention in the
@file{taginfo} file (@pxref{taginfo}).
@c Might be nice to say more about using taginfo this
@c way, like giving an example, or pointing out any particular
@c issues which arise.

@cindex Tags, example
The following example shows how you can add a tag to a
file.  The commands must be issued inside your working
directory.  That is, you should issue the
command in the directory where @file{backend.c}
resides.

@example
$cvs tag rel-0-4 backend.c T backend.c$ cvs status -v backend.c
===================================================================
File: backend.c         Status: Up-to-date

Version:            1.4     Tue Dec  1 14:39:01 1992
RCS Version:        1.4     /u/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc/backend.c,v
Sticky Tag:         (none)
Sticky Date:        (none)
Sticky Options:     (none)

Existing Tags:
rel-0-4                     (revision: 1.4)

@end example

For a complete summary of the syntax of @code{cvs tag},
including the various options, see @ref{Invoking CVS}.

There is seldom reason to tag a file in isolation.  A more common use is
to tag all the files that constitute a module with the same tag at
strategic points in the development life-cycle, such as when a release

@example
$cvs tag rel-1-0 . cvs tag: Tagging . T Makefile T backend.c T driver.c T frontend.c T parser.c @end example @noindent (When you give @sc{cvs} a directory as argument, it generally applies the operation to all the files in that directory, and (recursively), to any subdirectories that it may contain. @xref{Recursive behavior}.) @cindex Retrieving an old revision using tags @cindex Tags, retrieving old revisions The @code{checkout} command has a flag, @samp{-r}, that lets you check out a certain revision of a module. This flag makes it easy to retrieve the sources that make up release 1.0 of the module @samp{tc} at any time in the future: @example$ cvs checkout -r rel-1-0 tc
@end example

@noindent
This is useful, for instance, if someone claims that there is a bug in
that release, but you cannot find the bug in the current working copy.

You can also check out a module as it was on any branch at any given date.
@xref{checkout options}.  When specifying @samp{-r} or @samp{-D} to
any of these commands, you will need beware of sticky
tags; see @ref{Sticky tags}.

When you tag more than one file with the same tag you
can think about the tag as "a curve drawn through a
matrix of filename vs. revision number."  Say we have 5
files with the following revisions:

@example
@group
file1   file2   file3   file4   file5

1.1     1.1     1.1     1.1  /--1.1*      <-*-  TAG
1.2*-   1.2     1.2    -1.2*-
1.3  \- 1.3*-   1.3   / 1.3
1.4          \  1.4  /  1.4
\-1.5*-   1.5
1.6
@end group
@end example

At some time in the past, the @code{*} versions were tagged.
You can think of the tag as a handle attached to the curve
drawn through the tagged revisions.  When you pull on
the handle, you get all the tagged revisions.  Another
way to look at it is that you "sight" through a set of
revisions that is "flat" along the tagged revisions,
like this:

@example
@group
file1   file2   file3   file4   file5

1.1
1.2
1.1     1.3                       _
1.1     1.2     1.4     1.1              /
1.2*----1.3*----1.5*----1.2*----1.1*    (--- <--- Look here
1.3             1.6     1.3              \_
1.4                     1.4
1.5
@end group
@end example

@node Tagging the working directory
@section Specifying what to tag from the working directory

@cindex tag (subcommand)
The example in the previous section demonstrates one of
the most common ways to choose which revisions to tag.
Namely, running the @code{cvs tag} command without
arguments causes @sc{cvs} to select the revisions which
are checked out in the current working directory.  For
example, if the copy of @file{backend.c} in working
directory was checked out from revision 1.4, then
@sc{cvs} will tag revision 1.4.  Note that the tag is
applied immediately to revision 1.4 in the repository;
tagging is not like modifying a file, or other
operations in which one first modifies the working
directory and then runs @code{cvs commit} to transfer
that modification to the repository.

One potentially surprising aspect of the fact that
@code{cvs tag} operates on the repository is that you
are tagging the checked-in revisions, which may differ
from locally modified files in your working directory.
If you want to avoid doing this by mistake, specify the
@samp{-c} option to @code{cvs tag}.  If there are any
locally modified files, @sc{cvs} will abort with an
error before it tags any files:

@example
$cvs tag -c rel-0-4 cvs tag: backend.c is locally modified cvs [tag aborted]: correct the above errors first! @end example @node Tagging by date/tag @section Specifying what to tag by date or revision @cindex rtag (subcommand) The @code{cvs rtag} command tags the repository as of a certain date or time (or can be used to tag the latest revision). @code{rtag} works directly on the repository contents (it requires no prior checkout and does not look for a working directory). The following options specify which date or revision to tag. See @ref{Common options}, for a complete description of them. @table @code @item -D @var{date} Tag the most recent revision no later than @var{date}. @item -f Only useful with the @samp{-D} or @samp{-r} flags. If no matching revision is found, use the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Tag the revision already tagged with @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. See @ref{Common options}. @end table The @code{cvs tag} command also allows one to specify files by revision or date, using the same @samp{-r}, @samp{-D}, and @samp{-f} options. However, this feature is probably not what you want. The reason is that @code{cvs tag} chooses which files to tag based on the files that exist in the working directory, rather than the files which existed as of the given tag/date. Therefore, you are generally better off using @code{cvs rtag}. The exceptions might be cases like: @example cvs tag -r 1.4 stable backend.c @end example @node Modifying tags @section Deleting, moving, and renaming tags @c Also see: @c "How do I move or rename a magic branch tag?" @c in the FAQ (I think the issues it talks about still @c apply, but this could use some sanity.sh work). Normally one does not modify tags. They exist in order to record the history of the repository and so deleting them or changing their meaning would, generally, not be what you want. However, there might be cases in which one uses a tag temporarily or accidentally puts one in the wrong place. Therefore, one might delete, move, or rename a tag. @noindent @strong{WARNING: the commands in this section are dangerous; they permanently discard historical information and it can be difficult or impossible to recover from errors. If you are a @sc{cvs} administrator, you may consider restricting these commands with the @file{taginfo} file (@pxref{taginfo}).} @cindex Deleting tags @cindex Deleting branch tags @cindex Removing tags @cindex Removing branch tags @cindex Tags, deleting @cindex Branch tags, deleting To delete a tag, specify the @samp{-d} option to either @code{cvs tag} or @code{cvs rtag}. For example: @example cvs rtag -d rel-0-4 tc @end example @noindent deletes the non-branch tag @code{rel-0-4} from the module @code{tc}. In the event that branch tags are encountered within the repository with the given name, a warning message will be issued and the branch tag will not be deleted. If you are absolutely certain you know what you are doing, the @code{-B} option may be specified to allow deletion of branch tags. In that case, any non-branch tags encountered will trigger warnings and will not be deleted. @noindent @strong{WARNING: Moving branch tags is very dangerous! If you think you need the @code{-B} option, think again and ask your @sc{cvs} administrator about it (if that isn't you). There is almost certainly another way to accomplish what you want to accomplish.} @cindex Moving tags @cindex Moving branch tags @cindex Tags, moving @cindex Branch tags, moving When we say @dfn{move} a tag, we mean to make the same name point to different revisions. For example, the @code{stable} tag may currently point to revision 1.4 of @file{backend.c} and perhaps we want to make it point to revision 1.6. To move a non-branch tag, specify the @samp{-F} option to either @code{cvs tag} or @code{cvs rtag}. For example, the task just mentioned might be accomplished as: @example cvs tag -r 1.6 -F stable backend.c @end example @noindent If any branch tags are encountered in the repository with the given name, a warning is issued and the branch tag is not disturbed. If you are absolutely certain you wish to move the branch tag, the @code{-B} option may be specified. In that case, non-branch tags encountered with the given name are ignored with a warning message. @noindent @strong{WARNING: Moving branch tags is very dangerous! If you think you need the @code{-B} option, think again and ask your @sc{cvs} administrator about it (if that isn't you). There is almost certainly another way to accomplish what you want to accomplish.} @cindex Renaming tags @cindex Tags, renaming When we say @dfn{rename} a tag, we mean to make a different name point to the same revisions as the old tag. For example, one may have misspelled the tag name and want to correct it (hopefully before others are relying on the old spelling). To rename a tag, first create a new tag using the @samp{-r} option to @code{cvs rtag}, and then delete the old name. (Caution: this method will not work with branch tags.) This leaves the new tag on exactly the same files as the old tag. For example: @example cvs rtag -r old-name-0-4 rel-0-4 tc cvs rtag -d old-name-0-4 tc @end example @node Tagging add/remove @section Tagging and adding and removing files The subject of exactly how tagging interacts with adding and removing files is somewhat obscure; for the most part @sc{cvs} will keep track of whether files exist or not without too much fussing. By default, tags are applied to only files which have a revision corresponding to what is being tagged. Files which did not exist yet, or which were already removed, simply omit the tag, and @sc{cvs} knows to treat the absence of a tag as meaning that the file didn't exist as of that tag. However, this can lose a small amount of information. For example, suppose a file was added and then removed. Then, if the tag is missing for that file, there is no way to know whether the tag refers to the time before the file was added, or the time after it was removed. If you specify the @samp{-r} option to @code{cvs rtag}, then @sc{cvs} tags the files which have been removed, and thereby avoids this problem. For example, one might specify @code{-r HEAD} to tag the head. On the subject of adding and removing files, the @code{cvs rtag} command has a @samp{-a} option which means to clear the tag from removed files that would not otherwise be tagged. For example, one might specify this option in conjunction with @samp{-F} when moving a tag. If one moved a tag without @samp{-a}, then the tag in the removed files might still refer to the old revision, rather than reflecting the fact that the file had been removed. I don't think this is necessary if @samp{-r} is specified, as noted above. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Sticky tags @section Sticky tags @cindex Sticky tags @cindex Tags, sticky @c A somewhat related issue is per-directory sticky @c tags (see comment at CVS/Tag in node Working @c directory storage); we probably want to say @c something like "you can set a sticky tag for only @c some files, but you don't want to" or some such. Sometimes a working copy's revision has extra data associated with it, for example it might be on a branch (@pxref{Branching and merging}), or restricted to versions prior to a certain date by @samp{checkout -D} or @samp{update -D}. Because this data persists -- that is, it applies to subsequent commands in the working copy -- we refer to it as @dfn{sticky}. Most of the time, stickiness is an obscure aspect of @sc{cvs} that you don't need to think about. However, even if you don't want to use the feature, you may need to know @emph{something} about sticky tags (for example, how to avoid them!). You can use the @code{status} command to see if any sticky tags or dates are set: @example$ cvs status driver.c
===================================================================
File: driver.c          Status: Up-to-date

Version:            1.7.2.1 Sat Dec  5 19:35:03 1992
RCS Version:        1.7.2.1 /u/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc/driver.c,v
Sticky Tag:         rel-1-0-patches (branch: 1.7.2)
Sticky Date:        (none)
Sticky Options:     (none)

@end example

@cindex Resetting sticky tags
@cindex Sticky tags, resetting
@cindex Deleting sticky tags
The sticky tags will remain on your working files until
you delete them with @samp{cvs update -A}.  The
@samp{-A} option merges local changes into the version of the
file from the head of the trunk, removing any sticky tags,
dates, or options.  See @ref{update} for more on the operation
of @code{cvs update}.

@cindex Sticky date
The most common use of sticky tags is to identify which
branch one is working on, as described in
@ref{Accessing branches}.  However, non-branch
sticky tags have uses as well.  For example,
suppose that you want to avoid updating your working
directory, to isolate yourself from possibly
destabilizing changes other people are making.  You
can, of course, just refrain from running @code{cvs
update}.  But if you want to avoid updating only a
portion of a larger tree, then sticky tags can help.
If you check out a certain revision (such as 1.4) it
will become sticky.  Subsequent @code{cvs update}
commands will
not retrieve the latest revision until you reset the
tag with @code{cvs update -A}.  Likewise, use of the
@samp{-D} option to @code{update} or @code{checkout}
sets a @dfn{sticky date}, which, similarly, causes that
date to be used for future retrievals.

People often want to retrieve an old version of
a file without setting a sticky tag.  This can
be done with the @samp{-p} option to @code{checkout} or
@code{update}, which sends the contents of the file to
standard output.  For example:
@example
$cvs update -p -r 1.1 file1 >file1 =================================================================== Checking out file1 RCS: /tmp/cvs-sanity/cvsroot/first-dir/Attic/file1,v VERS: 1.1 ***************$
@end example

However, this isn't the easiest way, if you are asking
how to undo a previous checkin (in this example, put
@file{file1} back to the way it was as of revision
1.1).  In that case you are better off using the
@samp{-j} option to @code{update}; for further
discussion see @ref{Merging two revisions}.

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Branching and merging
@chapter Branching and merging
@cindex Branching
@cindex Merging
@cindex Copying changes
@cindex Main trunk and branches
@cindex Revision tree, making branches
@cindex Branches, copying changes between
@cindex Changes, copying between branches
@cindex Modifications, copying between branches

@sc{cvs} allows you to isolate changes onto a separate
line of development, known as a @dfn{branch}.  When you
change files on a branch, those changes do not appear
on the main trunk or other branches.

Later you can move changes from one branch to another
branch (or the main trunk) by @dfn{merging}.  Merging
involves first running @code{cvs update -j}, to merge
the changes into the working directory.
You can then commit that revision, and thus effectively
copy the changes onto another branch.

* Branches motivation::         What branches are good for
* Creating a branch::           Creating a branch
* Accessing branches::          Checking out and updating branches
* Branches and revisions::      Branches are reflected in revision numbers
* Magic branch numbers::        Magic branch numbers
* Merging a branch::            Merging an entire branch
* Merging more than once::      Merging from a branch several times
* Merging two revisions::       Merging differences between two revisions
* Merging adds and removals::   What if files are added or removed?
* Merging and keywords::        Avoiding conflicts due to keyword substitution

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Branches motivation
@section What branches are good for
@cindex Branches motivation
@cindex What branches are good for
@cindex Motivation for branches

@c FIXME: this node mentions one way to use branches,
@c but it is by no means the only way.  For example,
@c the technique of committing a new feature on a branch,
@c until it is ready for the main trunk.  The whole
@c thing is generally speaking more akin to the
@c "Revision management" node although it isn't clear to
@c me whether policy matters should be centralized or
@c distributed throughout the relevant sections.
Suppose that release 1.0 of tc has been made.  You are continuing to
develop tc, planning to create release 1.1 in a couple of months.  After a
while your customers start to complain about a fatal bug.  You check
out release 1.0 (@pxref{Tags}) and find the bug
(which turns out to have a trivial fix).  However, the current revision
of the sources are in a state of flux and are not expected to be stable
for at least another month.  There is no way to make a
bug fix release based on the newest sources.

The thing to do in a situation like this is to create a @dfn{branch} on
the revision trees for all the files that make up
release 1.0 of tc.  You can then make
modifications to the branch without disturbing the main trunk.  When the
modifications are finished you can elect to either incorporate them on
the main trunk, or leave them on the branch.

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Creating a branch
@section Creating a branch
@cindex Creating a branch
@cindex Branch, creating a
@cindex tag (subcommand), creating a branch using
@cindex rtag (subcommand), creating a branch using

You can create a branch with @code{tag -b}; for
example, assuming you're in a working copy:

@example
$cvs tag -b rel-1-0-patches @end example @c FIXME: we should be more explicit about the value of @c having a tag on the branchpoint. For example @c "cvs tag rel-1-0-patches-branchpoint" before @c the "cvs tag -b". This points out that @c rel-1-0-patches is a pretty awkward name for @c this example (more so than for the rtag example @c below). This splits off a branch based on the current revisions in the working copy, assigning that branch the name @samp{rel-1-0-patches}. It is important to understand that branches get created in the repository, not in the working copy. Creating a branch based on current revisions, as the above example does, will @emph{not} automatically switch the working copy to be on the new branch. For information on how to do that, see @ref{Accessing branches}. You can also create a branch without reference to any working copy, by using @code{rtag}: @example$ cvs rtag -b -r rel-1-0 rel-1-0-patches tc
@end example

@samp{-r rel-1-0} says that this branch should be
rooted at the revision that
corresponds to the tag @samp{rel-1-0}.  It need not
be the most recent revision -- it's often useful to
split a branch off an old revision (for example, when
fixing a bug in a past release otherwise known to be
stable).

As with @samp{tag}, the @samp{-b} flag tells
@code{rtag} to create a branch (rather than just a
symbolic revision name).  Note that the numeric
revision number that matches @samp{rel-1-0} will
probably be different from file to file.

So, the full effect of the command is to create a new
branch -- named @samp{rel-1-0-patches} -- in module
@samp{tc}, rooted in the revision tree at the point tagged
by @samp{rel-1-0}.

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Accessing branches
@section Accessing branches
@cindex Check out a branch
@cindex Retrieve a branch
@cindex Access a branch
@cindex Identifying a branch
@cindex Branch, check out
@cindex Branch, retrieving
@cindex Branch, accessing
@cindex Branch, identifying

You can retrieve a branch in one of two ways: by
checking it out fresh from the repository, or by
switching an existing working copy over to the branch.

To check out a branch from the repository, invoke
@samp{checkout} with the @samp{-r} flag, followed by
the tag name of the branch (@pxref{Creating a branch}):

@example
$cvs checkout -r rel-1-0-patches tc @end example Or, if you already have a working copy, you can switch it to a given branch with @samp{update -r}: @example$ cvs update -r rel-1-0-patches tc
@end example

@noindent
or equivalently:

@example
$cd tc$ cvs update -r rel-1-0-patches
@end example

It does not matter if the working copy was originally
on the main trunk or on some other branch -- the above
command will switch it to the named branch.  And
similarly to a regular @samp{update} command,
@samp{update -r} merges any changes you have made,
notifying you of conflicts where they occur.

Once you have a working copy tied to a particular
branch, it remains there until you tell it otherwise.
This means that changes checked in from the working
copy will add new revisions on that branch, while
leaving the main trunk and other branches unaffected.

@cindex Branches, sticky
To find out what branch a working copy is on, you can
use the @samp{status} command.  In its output, look for
the field named @samp{Sticky tag} (@pxref{Sticky tags})
-- that's @sc{cvs}'s way of telling you the branch, if
any, of the current working files:

@example
$cvs status -v driver.c backend.c =================================================================== File: driver.c Status: Up-to-date Version: 1.7 Sat Dec 5 18:25:54 1992 RCS Version: 1.7 /u/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc/driver.c,v Sticky Tag: rel-1-0-patches (branch: 1.7.2) Sticky Date: (none) Sticky Options: (none) Existing Tags: rel-1-0-patches (branch: 1.7.2) rel-1-0 (revision: 1.7) =================================================================== File: backend.c Status: Up-to-date Version: 1.4 Tue Dec 1 14:39:01 1992 RCS Version: 1.4 /u/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc/backend.c,v Sticky Tag: rel-1-0-patches (branch: 1.4.2) Sticky Date: (none) Sticky Options: (none) Existing Tags: rel-1-0-patches (branch: 1.4.2) rel-1-0 (revision: 1.4) rel-0-4 (revision: 1.4) @end example Don't be confused by the fact that the branch numbers for each file are different (@samp{1.7.2} and @samp{1.4.2} respectively). The branch tag is the same, @samp{rel-1-0-patches}, and the files are indeed on the same branch. The numbers simply reflect the point in each file's revision history at which the branch was made. In the above example, one can deduce that @samp{driver.c} had been through more changes than @samp{backend.c} before this branch was created. See @ref{Branches and revisions} for details about how branch numbers are constructed. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Branches and revisions @section Branches and revisions @cindex Branch number @cindex Number, branch @cindex Revision numbers (branches) Ordinarily, a file's revision history is a linear series of increments (@pxref{Revision numbers}): @example +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ ! 1.1 !----! 1.2 !----! 1.3 !----! 1.4 !----! 1.5 ! +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ @end example However, @sc{cvs} is not limited to linear development. The @dfn{revision tree} can be split into @dfn{branches}, where each branch is a self-maintained line of development. Changes made on one branch can easily be moved back to the main trunk. Each branch has a @dfn{branch number}, consisting of an odd number of period-separated decimal integers. The branch number is created by appending an integer to the revision number where the corresponding branch forked off. Having branch numbers allows more than one branch to be forked off from a certain revision. @need 3500 All revisions on a branch have revision numbers formed by appending an ordinal number to the branch number. The following figure illustrates branching with an example. @example @c This example used to have a 1.2.2.4 revision, which @c might help clarify that development can continue on @c 1.2.2. Might be worth reinstating if it can be done @c without overfull hboxes. @group +-------------+ Branch 1.2.2.3.2 -> ! 1.2.2.3.2.1 ! / +-------------+ / / +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ Branch 1.2.2 -> _! 1.2.2.1 !----! 1.2.2.2 !----! 1.2.2.3 ! / +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ / / +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ ! 1.1 !----! 1.2 !----! 1.3 !----! 1.4 !----! 1.5 ! <- The main trunk +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ ! ! ! +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ Branch 1.2.4 -> +---! 1.2.4.1 !----! 1.2.4.2 !----! 1.2.4.3 ! +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ @end group @end example @c -- However, at least for me the figure is not enough. I suggest more @c -- text to accompany it. "A picture is worth a thousand words", so you @c -- have to make sure the reader notices the couple of hundred words @c -- *you* had in mind more than the others! @c -- Why an even number of segments? This section implies that this is @c -- how the main trunk is distinguished from branch roots, but you never @c -- explicitly say that this is the purpose of the [by itself rather @c -- surprising] restriction to an even number of segments. The exact details of how the branch number is constructed is not something you normally need to be concerned about, but here is how it works: When @sc{cvs} creates a branch number it picks the first unused even integer, starting with 2. So when you want to create a branch from revision 6.4 it will be numbered 6.4.2. All branch numbers ending in a zero (such as 6.4.0) are used internally by @sc{cvs} (@pxref{Magic branch numbers}). The branch 1.1.1 has a special meaning. @xref{Tracking sources}. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Magic branch numbers @section Magic branch numbers @c Want xref to here from "log"? This section describes a @sc{cvs} feature called @dfn{magic branches}. For most purposes, you need not worry about magic branches; @sc{cvs} handles them for you. However, they are visible to you in certain circumstances, so it may be useful to have some idea of how it works. Externally, branch numbers consist of an odd number of dot-separated decimal integers. @xref{Revision numbers}. That is not the whole truth, however. For efficiency reasons @sc{cvs} sometimes inserts an extra 0 in the second rightmost position (1.2.4 becomes 1.2.0.4, 8.9.10.11.12 becomes 8.9.10.11.0.12 and so on). @sc{cvs} does a pretty good job at hiding these so called magic branches, but in a few places the hiding is incomplete: @itemize @bullet @ignore @c This is in ignore as I'm taking their word for it, @c that this was fixed @c a long time ago. But before deleting this @c entirely, I'd rather verify it (and add a test @c case to the testsuite). @item The magic branch can appear in the output from @code{cvs status} in vanilla @sc{cvs} 1.3. This is fixed in @sc{cvs} 1.3-s2. @end ignore @item The magic branch number appears in the output from @code{cvs log}. @c What output should appear instead? @item You cannot specify a symbolic branch name to @code{cvs admin}. @end itemize @c Can CVS do this automatically the first time @c you check something in to that branch? Should @c it? You can use the @code{admin} command to reassign a symbolic name to a branch the way @sc{rcs} expects it to be. If @code{R4patches} is assigned to the branch 1.4.2 (magic branch number 1.4.0.2) in file @file{numbers.c} you can do this: @example$ cvs admin -NR4patches:1.4.2 numbers.c
@end example

It only works if at least one revision is already
committed on the branch.  Be very careful so that you
do not assign the tag to the wrong number.  (There is
no way to see how the tag was assigned yesterday).

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Merging a branch
@section Merging an entire branch
@cindex Merging a branch
@cindex -j (merging branches)

You can merge changes made on a branch into your working copy by giving
the @samp{-j @var{branchname}} flag to the @code{update} subcommand.  With one
@samp{-j @var{branchname}} option it merges the changes made between the
greatest common ancestor (GCA) of the branch and the destination revision (in
the simple case below the GCA is the point where the branch forked) and the

@cindex Join
The @samp{-j} stands for join''.

@cindex Branch merge example
@cindex Example, branch merge
@cindex Merge, branch example
Consider this revision tree:

@example
+-----+    +-----+    +-----+    +-----+
! 1.1 !----! 1.2 !----! 1.3 !----! 1.4 !      <- The main trunk
+-----+    +-----+    +-----+    +-----+
!
!
!   +---------+    +---------+
Branch R1fix -> +---! 1.2.2.1 !----! 1.2.2.2 !
+---------+    +---------+
@end example

@noindent
The branch 1.2.2 has been given the tag (symbolic name) @samp{R1fix}.  The
following example assumes that the module @samp{mod} contains only one
file, @file{m.c}.

@example
$cvs checkout mod # @r{Retrieve the latest revision, 1.4}$ cvs update -j R1fix m.c        # @r{Merge all changes made on the branch,}
# @r{i.e. the changes between revision 1.2}
# @r{and 1.2.2.2, into your working copy}
# @r{of the file.}

$cvs commit -m "Included R1fix" # @r{Create revision 1.5.} @end example A conflict can result from a merge operation. If that happens, you should resolve it before committing the new revision. @xref{Conflicts example}. If your source files contain keywords (@pxref{Keyword substitution}), you might be getting more conflicts than strictly necessary. See @ref{Merging and keywords}, for information on how to avoid this. The @code{checkout} command also supports the @samp{-j @var{branchname}} flag. The same effect as above could be achieved with this: @example$ cvs checkout -j R1fix mod
$cvs commit -m "Included R1fix" @end example It should be noted that @code{update -j @var{tagname}} will also work but may not produce the desired result. @xref{Merging adds and removals}, for more. @node Merging more than once @section Merging from a branch several times Continuing our example, the revision tree now looks like this: @example +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ ! 1.1 !----! 1.2 !----! 1.3 !----! 1.4 !----! 1.5 ! <- The main trunk +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ ! * ! * ! +---------+ +---------+ Branch R1fix -> +---! 1.2.2.1 !----! 1.2.2.2 ! +---------+ +---------+ @end example @noindent where the starred line represents the merge from the @samp{R1fix} branch to the main trunk, as just discussed. Now suppose that development continues on the @samp{R1fix} branch: @example +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ ! 1.1 !----! 1.2 !----! 1.3 !----! 1.4 !----! 1.5 ! <- The main trunk +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ +-----+ ! * ! * ! +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ Branch R1fix -> +---! 1.2.2.1 !----! 1.2.2.2 !----! 1.2.2.3 ! +---------+ +---------+ +---------+ @end example @noindent and then you want to merge those new changes onto the main trunk. If you just use the @code{cvs update -j R1fix m.c} command again, @sc{cvs} will attempt to merge again the changes which you have already merged, which can have undesirable side effects. So instead you need to specify that you only want to merge the changes on the branch which have not yet been merged into the trunk. To do that you specify two @samp{-j} options, and @sc{cvs} merges the changes from the first revision to the second revision. For example, in this case the simplest way would be @example cvs update -j 1.2.2.2 -j R1fix m.c # @r{Merge changes from 1.2.2.2 to the} # @r{head of the R1fix branch} @end example The problem with this is that you need to specify the 1.2.2.2 revision manually. A slightly better approach might be to use the date the last merge was done: @example cvs update -j R1fix:yesterday -j R1fix m.c @end example Better yet, tag the R1fix branch after every merge into the trunk, and then use that tag for subsequent merges: @example cvs update -j merged_from_R1fix_to_trunk -j R1fix m.c @end example @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Merging two revisions @section Merging differences between any two revisions @cindex Merging two revisions @cindex Revisions, merging differences between @cindex Differences, merging With two @samp{-j @var{revision}} flags, the @code{update} (and @code{checkout}) command can merge the differences between any two revisions into your working file. @cindex Undoing a change @cindex Removing a change @example$ cvs update -j 1.5 -j 1.3 backend.c
@end example

@noindent
will undo all changes made between revision
1.3 and 1.5.  Note the order of the revisions!

If you try to use this option when operating on
multiple files, remember that the numeric revisions will
probably be very different between the various files.
You almost always use symbolic
tags rather than revision numbers when operating on
multiple files.

@cindex Restoring old version of removed file
@cindex Resurrecting old version of dead file
Specifying two @samp{-j} options can also undo file
removals or additions.  For example, suppose you have
a file
named @file{file1} which existed as revision 1.1, and
Now suppose you want to add it again, with the same
contents it had previously.  Here is how to do it:

@example
$cvs update -j 1.2 -j 1.1 file1 U file1$ cvs commit -m test
Checking in file1;
/tmp/cvs-sanity/cvsroot/first-dir/file1,v  <--  file1
new revision: 1.3; previous revision: 1.2
done
$@end example @node Merging adds and removals @section Merging can add or remove files If the changes which you are merging involve removing or adding some files, @code{update -j} will reflect such additions or removals. @c FIXME: This example needs a lot more explanation. @c We also need other examples for some of the other @c cases (not all--there are too many--as long as we present a @c coherent general principle). For example: @example cvs update -A touch a b c cvs add a b c ; cvs ci -m "added" a b c cvs tag -b branchtag cvs update -r branchtag touch d ; cvs add d rm a ; cvs rm a cvs ci -m "added d, removed a" cvs update -A cvs update -jbranchtag @end example After these commands are executed and a @samp{cvs commit} is done, file @file{a} will be removed and file @file{d} added in the main branch. @c (which was determined by trying it) Note that using a single static tag (@samp{-j @var{tagname}}) rather than a dynamic tag (@samp{-j @var{branchname}}) to merge changes from a branch will usually not remove files which were removed on the branch since @sc{cvs} does not automatically add static tags to dead revisions. The exception to this rule occurs when a static tag has been attached to a dead revision manually. Use the branch tag to merge all changes from the branch or use two static tags as merge endpoints to be sure that all intended changes are propagated in the merge. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Merging and keywords @section Merging and keywords @cindex Merging, and keyword substitution @cindex Keyword substitution, and merging @cindex -j (merging branches), and keyword substitution @cindex -kk, to avoid conflicts during a merge If you merge files containing keywords (@pxref{Keyword substitution}), you will normally get numerous conflicts during the merge, because the keywords are expanded differently in the revisions which you are merging. Therefore, you will often want to specify the @samp{-kk} (@pxref{Substitution modes}) switch to the merge command line. By substituting just the name of the keyword, not the expanded value of that keyword, this option ensures that the revisions which you are merging will be the same as each other, and avoid spurious conflicts. For example, suppose you have a file like this: @example +---------+ _! 1.1.2.1 ! <- br1 / +---------+ / / +-----+ +-----+ ! 1.1 !----! 1.2 ! +-----+ +-----+ @end example @noindent and your working directory is currently on the trunk (revision 1.2). Then you might get the following results from a merge: @example$ cat file1
key $@splitrcskeyword{Revision}: 1.2$
. . .
$cvs update -j br1 U file1 RCS file: /cvsroot/first-dir/file1,v retrieving revision 1.1 retrieving revision 1.1.2.1 Merging differences between 1.1 and 1.1.2.1 into file1 rcsmerge: warning: conflicts during merge$ cat file1
@asis{}<<<<<<< file1
key $@splitrcskeyword{Revision}: 1.2$
@asis{}=======
key $@splitrcskeyword{Revision}: 1.1.2.1$
@asis{}>>>>>>> 1.1.2.1
. . .
@end example

What happened was that the merge tried to merge the
differences between 1.1 and 1.1.2.1 into your working
directory.  So, since the keyword changed from
@code{Revision: 1.1} to @code{Revision: 1.1.2.1},
@sc{cvs} tried to merge that change into your working
directory, which conflicted with the fact that your
working directory had contained @code{Revision: 1.2}.

Here is what happens if you had used @samp{-kk}:

@example
$cat file1 key$@splitrcskeyword{Revision}: 1.2 $. . .$ cvs update -kk -j br1
U file1
RCS file: /cvsroot/first-dir/file1,v
retrieving revision 1.1
retrieving revision 1.1.2.1
Merging differences between 1.1 and 1.1.2.1 into file1
$cat file1 key$@splitrcskeyword{Revision}$. . . @end example What is going on here is that revision 1.1 and 1.1.2.1 both expand as plain @code{Revision}, and therefore merging the changes between them into the working directory need not change anything. Therefore, there is no conflict. @strong{WARNING: In versions of @sc{cvs} prior to 1.12.2, there was a major problem with using @samp{-kk} on merges. Namely, @samp{-kk} overrode any default keyword expansion mode set in the archive file in the repository. This could, unfortunately for some users, cause data corruption in binary files (with a default keyword expansion mode set to @samp{-kb}). Therefore, when a repository contained binary files, conflicts had to be dealt with manually rather than using @samp{-kk} in a merge command.} In @sc{cvs} version 1.12.2 and later, the keyword expansion mode provided on the command line to any @sc{cvs} command no longer overrides the @samp{-kb} keyword expansion mode setting for binary files, though it will still override other default keyword expansion modes. You can now safely merge using @samp{-kk} to avoid spurious conflicts on lines containing RCS keywords, even when your repository contains binary files. @c --------------------------------------------------------------------- @node Recursive behavior @chapter Recursive behavior @cindex Recursive (directory descending) @cindex Directory, descending @cindex Descending directories @cindex Subdirectories Almost all of the subcommands of @sc{cvs} work recursively when you specify a directory as an argument. For instance, consider this directory structure: @example @code{$HOME}
|
+--@t{tc}
|   |
+--@t{CVS}
|      (internal @sc{cvs} files)
+--@t{Makefile}
+--@t{backend.c}
+--@t{driver.c}
+--@t{frontend.c}
+--@t{parser.c}
+--@t{man}
|    |
|    +--@t{CVS}
|    |  (internal @sc{cvs} files)
|    +--@t{tc.1}
|
+--@t{testing}
|
+--@t{CVS}
|  (internal @sc{cvs} files)
+--@t{testpgm.t}
+--@t{test2.t}
@end example

@noindent
If @file{tc} is the current working directory, the
following is true:

@itemize @bullet
@item
@samp{cvs update testing} is equivalent to

@example
cvs update testing/testpgm.t testing/test2.t
@end example

@item
@samp{cvs update testing man} updates all files in the
subdirectories

@item
@samp{cvs update .} or just @samp{cvs update} updates
all files in the @code{tc} directory
@end itemize

If no arguments are given to @code{update} it will
update all files in the current working directory and
all its subdirectories.  In other words, @file{.} is a
default argument to @code{update}.  This is also true
for most of the @sc{cvs} subcommands, not only the
@code{update} command.

The recursive behavior of the @sc{cvs} subcommands can be
turned off with the @samp{-l} option.
Conversely, the @samp{-R} option can be used to force recursion if
@samp{-l} is specified in @file{~/.cvsrc} (@pxref{~/.cvsrc}).

@example
$cvs update -l # @r{Don't update files in subdirectories} @end example @c --------------------------------------------------------------------- @node Adding and removing @chapter Adding, removing, and renaming files and directories In the course of a project, one will often add new files. Likewise with removing or renaming, or with directories. The general concept to keep in mind in all these cases is that instead of making an irreversible change you want @sc{cvs} to record the fact that a change has taken place, just as with modifying an existing file. The exact mechanisms to do this in @sc{cvs} vary depending on the situation. @menu * Adding files:: Adding files * Removing files:: Removing files * Removing directories:: Removing directories * Moving files:: Moving and renaming files * Moving directories:: Moving and renaming directories @end menu @node Adding files @section Adding files to a directory @cindex Adding files To add a new file to a directory, follow these steps. @itemize @bullet @item You must have a working copy of the directory. @xref{Getting the source}. @item Create the new file inside your working copy of the directory. @item Use @samp{cvs add @var{filename}} to tell @sc{cvs} that you want to version control the file. If the file contains binary data, specify @samp{-kb} (@pxref{Binary files}). @item Use @samp{cvs commit @var{filename}} to actually check in the file into the repository. Other developers cannot see the file until you perform this step. @end itemize You can also use the @code{add} command to add a new directory. @c FIXCVS and/or FIXME: Adding a directory doesn't @c require the commit step. This probably can be @c considered a CVS bug, but it is possible we should @c warn people since this behavior probably won't be @c changing right away. Unlike most other commands, the @code{add} command is not recursive. You have to expcicitly name files and directories that you wish to add to the repository. However, each directory will need to be added separately before you will be able to add new files to those directories. @example$ mkdir -p foo/bar
$cp ~/myfile foo/bar/myfile$ cvs add foo foo/bar
$cvs add foo/bar/myfile @end example @cindex add (subcommand) @deffn Command {cvs add} [@code{-k} kflag] [@code{-m} message] files @dots{} Schedule @var{files} to be added to the repository. The files or directories specified with @code{add} must already exist in the current directory. To add a whole new directory hierarchy to the source repository (for example, files received from a third-party vendor), use the @code{import} command instead. @xref{import}. The added files are not placed in the source repository until you use @code{commit} to make the change permanent. Doing an @code{add} on a file that was removed with the @code{remove} command will undo the effect of the @code{remove}, unless a @code{commit} command intervened. @xref{Removing files}, for an example. The @samp{-k} option specifies the default way that this file will be checked out; for more information see @ref{Substitution modes}. @c As noted in BUGS, -m is broken client/server (Nov @c 96). Also see testsuite log2-* tests. The @samp{-m} option specifies a description for the file. This description appears in the history log (if it is enabled, @pxref{history file}). It will also be saved in the version history inside the repository when the file is committed. The @code{log} command displays this description. The description can be changed using @samp{admin -t}. @xref{admin}. If you omit the @samp{-m @var{description}} flag, an empty string will be used. You will not be prompted for a description. @end deffn For example, the following commands add the file @file{backend.c} to the repository: @c This example used to specify @c -m "Optimizer and code generation passes." @c to the cvs add command, but that doesn't work @c client/server (see log2 in sanity.sh). Should fix CVS, @c but also seems strange to document things which @c don't work... @example$ cvs add backend.c
$cvs commit -m "Early version. Not yet compilable." backend.c @end example When you add a file it is added only on the branch which you are working on (@pxref{Branching and merging}). You can later merge the additions to another branch if you want (@pxref{Merging adds and removals}). @c Should we mention that earlier versions of CVS @c lacked this feature (1.3) or implemented it in a buggy @c way (well, 1.8 had many bugs in cvs update -j)? @c Should we mention the bug/limitation regarding a @c file being a regular file on one branch and a directory @c on another? @c FIXME: This needs an example, or several, here or @c elsewhere, for it to make much sense. @c Somewhere we need to discuss the aspects of death @c support which don't involve branching, I guess. @c Like the ability to re-create a release from a tag. @c --------------------------------------------------------------------- @node Removing files @section Removing files @cindex Removing files @cindex Deleting files @c FIXME: this node wants to be split into several @c smaller nodes. Could make these children of @c "Adding and removing", probably (death support could @c be its own section, for example, as could the @c various bits about undoing mistakes in adding and @c removing). Directories change. New files are added, and old files disappear. Still, you want to be able to retrieve an exact copy of old releases. Here is what you can do to remove a file, but remain able to retrieve old revisions: @itemize @bullet @c FIXME: should probably be saying something about @c having a working directory in the first place. @item Make sure that you have not made any uncommitted modifications to the file. @xref{Viewing differences}, for one way to do that. You can also use the @code{status} or @code{update} command. If you remove the file without committing your changes, you will of course not be able to retrieve the file as it was immediately before you deleted it. @item Remove the file from your working copy of the directory. You can for instance use @code{rm}. @item Use @samp{cvs remove @var{filename}} to tell @sc{cvs} that you really want to delete the file. @item Use @samp{cvs commit @var{filename}} to actually perform the removal of the file from the repository. @end itemize @c FIXME: Somehow this should be linked in with a more @c general discussion of death support. I don't know @c whether we want to use the term "death support" or @c not (we can perhaps get by without it), but we do @c need to discuss the "dead" state in "cvs log" and @c related subjects. The current discussion is @c scattered around, and not xref'd to each other. @c FIXME: I think this paragraph wants to be moved @c later down, at least after the first example. When you commit the removal of the file, @sc{cvs} records the fact that the file no longer exists. It is possible for a file to exist on only some branches and not on others, or to re-add another file with the same name later. @sc{cvs} will correctly create or not create the file, based on the @samp{-r} and @samp{-D} options specified to @code{checkout} or @code{update}. @c FIXME: This style seems to clash with how we @c document things in general. @cindex Remove (subcommand) @deffn Command {cvs remove} [options] files @dots{} Schedule file(s) to be removed from the repository (files which have not already been removed from the working directory are not processed). This command does not actually remove the file from the repository until you commit the removal. For a full list of options, see @ref{Invoking CVS}. @end deffn Here is an example of removing several files: @example$ cd test
$rm *.c$ cvs remove
cvs remove: Removing .
cvs remove: scheduling a.c for removal
cvs remove: scheduling b.c for removal
cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove these files permanently
$cvs ci -m "Removed unneeded files" cvs commit: Examining . cvs commit: Committing . @end example As a convenience you can remove the file and @code{cvs remove} it in one step, by specifying the @samp{-f} option. For example, the above example could also be done like this: @example$ cd test
$cvs remove -f *.c cvs remove: scheduling a.c for removal cvs remove: scheduling b.c for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove these files permanently$ cvs ci -m "Removed unneeded files"
cvs commit: Examining .
cvs commit: Committing .
@end example

If you execute @code{remove} for a file, and then
change your mind before you commit, you can undo the
@ignore
@c is this worth saying or not?  Somehow it seems
@c confusing to me.
Of course,
since you have removed your copy of file in the working
directory, @sc{cvs} does not necessarily bring back the
contents of the file from right before you executed
@code{remove}; instead it gets the file from the
repository again.
@end ignore

@c FIXME: what if you change your mind after you commit
@c it?  (answer is also "cvs add" but we don't say that...).
@c We need some index entries for thinks like "undoing
@c removal" too.

@example
$ls CVS ja.h oj.c$ rm oj.c
$cvs remove oj.c cvs remove: scheduling oj.c for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently$ cvs add oj.c
U oj.c
cvs add: oj.c, version 1.1.1.1, resurrected
@end example

If you realize your mistake before you run the
@code{remove} command you can use @code{update} to
resurrect the file:

@example
$rm oj.c$ cvs update oj.c
cvs update: warning: oj.c was lost
U oj.c
@end example

When you remove a file it is removed only on the branch
which you are working on (@pxref{Branching and merging}).  You can
later merge the removals to another branch if you want

@node Removing directories
@section Removing directories
@cindex Removing directories
@cindex Directories, removing

In concept, removing directories is somewhat similar to
removing files---you want the directory to not exist in
your current working directories, but you also want to
be able to retrieve old releases in which the directory
existed.

The way that you remove a directory is to remove all
the files in it.  You don't remove the directory
itself; there is no way to do that.
Instead you specify the @samp{-P} option to
@code{cvs update} or @code{cvs checkout},
which will cause @sc{cvs} to remove empty
directories from working directories.
(Note that @code{cvs export} always removes empty directories.)
Probably the
best way to do this is to always specify @samp{-P}; if
you want an empty directory then put a dummy file (for
example @file{.keepme}) in it to prevent @samp{-P} from
removing it.

@c I'd try to give a rationale for this, but I'm not
@c sure there is a particularly convincing one.  What
@c we would _like_ is for CVS to do a better job of version
@c controlling whether directories exist, to eliminate the
@c need for -P and so that a file can be a directory in
@c one revision and a regular file in another.
Note that @samp{-P} is implied by the @samp{-r} or @samp{-D}
options of @code{checkout}.  This way,
@sc{cvs} will be able to correctly create the directory
or not depending on whether the particular version you
are checking out contains any files in that directory.

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Moving files
@section Moving and renaming files
@cindex Moving files
@cindex Renaming files
@cindex Files, moving

Moving files to a different directory or renaming them
is not difficult, but some of the ways in which this
works may be non-obvious.  (Moving or renaming a
directory is even harder.  @xref{Moving directories}.).

The examples below assume that the file @var{old} is renamed to
@var{new}.

* Outside::                     The normal way to Rename
* Inside::                      A tricky, alternative way
* Rename by copying::           Another tricky, alternative way

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Outside
@subsection The Normal way to Rename

@c More rename issues.  Not sure whether these are
@c worth documenting; I'm putting them here because
@c it seems to be as good a place as any to try to
@c set down the issues.
@c * "cvs annotate" will annotate either the new
@c file or the old file; it cannot annotate _each
@c line_ based on whether it was last changed in the
@c new or old file.  Unlike "cvs log", where the
@c consequences of having to select either the new
@c or old name seem fairly benign, this may be a
@c other than as a deletion and an addition.

The normal way to move a file is to copy @var{old} to
@var{new}, and then issue the normal @sc{cvs} commands
to remove @var{old} from the repository, and add
@var{new} to it.
@c The following sentence is not true: one must cd into
@c the directory to run "cvs add".
@c  (Both @var{old} and @var{new} could
@c contain relative paths, for example @file{foo/bar.c}).

@example
$mv @var{old} @var{new}$ cvs remove @var{old}
$cvs add @var{new}$ cvs commit -m "Renamed @var{old} to @var{new}" @var{old} @var{new}
@end example

This is the simplest way to move a file, it is not
error-prone, and it preserves the history of what was
done.  Note that to access the history of the file you
must specify the old or the new name, depending on what
portion of the history you are accessing.  For example,
@code{cvs log @var{old}} will give the log up until the
time of the rename.

When @var{new} is committed its revision numbers will
start again, usually at 1.1, so if that bothers you,
use the @samp{-r @var{tag}} option to commit.  For more
information see @ref{Assigning revisions}.

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Inside
@subsection Moving the history file

This method is more dangerous, since it involves moving
files inside the repository.  Read this entire section
before trying it out!

@example
$cd$CVSROOT/@var{dir}
$mv @var{old},v @var{new},v @end example @noindent Advantages: @itemize @bullet @item The log of changes is maintained intact. @item The revision numbers are not affected. @end itemize @noindent Disadvantages: @itemize @bullet @item Old releases cannot easily be fetched from the repository. (The file will show up as @var{new} even in revisions from the time before it was renamed). @item There is no log information of when the file was renamed. @item Nasty things might happen if someone accesses the history file while you are moving it. Make sure no one else runs any of the @sc{cvs} commands while you move it. @end itemize @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Rename by copying @subsection Copying the history file This way also involves direct modifications to the repository. It is safe, but not without drawbacks. @example # @r{Copy the @sc{rcs} file inside the repository}$ cd $CVSROOT/@var{dir}$ cp @var{old},v @var{new},v
# @r{Remove the old file}
$cd ~/@var{dir}$ rm @var{old}
$cvs remove @var{old}$ cvs commit @var{old}
# @r{Remove all tags from @var{new}}
$cvs update @var{new}$ cvs log @var{new}             # @r{Remember the non-branch tag names}
$cvs tag -d @var{tag1} @var{new}$ cvs tag -d @var{tag2} @var{new}
@dots{}
@end example

By removing the tags you will be able to check out old
revisions.

@noindent

@itemize @bullet
@item
@c FIXME: Is this true about -D now that we have death
@c support?  See 5B.3 in the FAQ.
Checking out old revisions works correctly, as long as
you use @samp{-r @var{tag}} and not @samp{-D @var{date}}
to retrieve the revisions.

@item
The log of changes is maintained intact.

@item
The revision numbers are not affected.
@end itemize

@noindent

@itemize @bullet
@item
You cannot easily see the history of the file across the rename.

@ignore
@c Is this true?  I don't see how the revision numbers
@c _could_ start over, when new,v is just old,v with
@c the tags deleted.
@c If there is some need to reinstate this text,
@c it is "usually 1.1", not "1.0" and it needs an
@c xref to Assigning revisions
@item
Unless you use the @samp{-r @var{tag}} (@pxref{commit
options}) flag when @var{new} is committed its revision
numbers will start at 1.0 again.
@end ignore
@end itemize

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Moving directories
@section Moving and renaming directories
@cindex Moving directories
@cindex Renaming directories
@cindex Directories, moving

The normal way to rename or move a directory is to
rename or move each file within it as described in
@ref{Outside}.  Then check out with the @samp{-P}
option, as described in @ref{Removing directories}.

If you really want to hack the repository to rename or
delete a directory in the repository, you can do it
like this:

@enumerate
@item
Inform everyone who has a checked out copy of the directory that the
directory will be renamed.  They should commit all their changes in all their
copies of the project containing the directory to be removed, and remove
all their working copies of said project, before you take the steps below.

@item
Rename the directory inside the repository.

@example
$cd$CVSROOT/@var{parent-dir}
$mv @var{old-dir} @var{new-dir} @end example @item Fix the @sc{cvs} administrative files, if necessary (for instance if you renamed an entire module). @item Tell everyone that they can check out again and continue working. @end enumerate If someone had a working copy the @sc{cvs} commands will cease to work for him, until he removes the directory that disappeared inside the repository. It is almost always better to move the files in the directory instead of moving the directory. If you move the directory you are unlikely to be able to retrieve old releases correctly, since they probably depend on the name of the directories. @c --------------------------------------------------------------------- @node History browsing @chapter History browsing @cindex History browsing @cindex Traceability @cindex Isolation @ignore @c This is too long for an introduction (goal is @c one 20x80 character screen), and also mixes up a @c variety of issues (parallel development, history, @c maybe even touches on process control). @c -- @quote{To lose ones history is to lose ones soul.} @c -- /// @c -- ///Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. @c -- /// -- George Santayana @c -- /// @sc{cvs} tries to make it easy for a group of people to work together. This is done in two ways: @itemize @bullet @item Isolation---You have your own working copy of the source. You are not affected by modifications made by others until you decide to incorporate those changes (via the @code{update} command---@pxref{update}). @item Traceability---When something has changed, you can always see @emph{exactly} what changed. @end itemize There are several features of @sc{cvs} that together lead to traceability: @itemize @bullet @item Each revision of a file has an accompanying log message. @item All commits are optionally logged to a central history database. @item Logging information can be sent to a user-defined program (@pxref{loginfo}). @end itemize @c -- More text here. This chapter should talk about the history file, the @code{log} command, the usefulness of ChangeLogs even when you run @sc{cvs}, and things like that. @end ignore @c kind of lame, in a lot of ways the above text inside @c the @ignore motivates this chapter better Once you have used @sc{cvs} to store a version control history---what files have changed when, how, and by whom, there are a variety of mechanisms for looking through the history. @c FIXME: should also be talking about how you look at @c old revisions (e.g. "cvs update -p -r 1.2 foo.c"). @menu * log messages:: Log messages * history database:: The history database * user-defined logging:: User-defined logging @end menu @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node log messages @section Log messages @c FIXME: @xref to place where we talk about how to @c specify message to commit. Whenever you commit a file you specify a log message. @c FIXME: bring the information here, and get rid of or @c greatly shrink the "log" node. To look through the log messages which have been specified for every revision which has been committed, use the @code{cvs log} command (@pxref{log}). @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node history database @section The history database @c FIXME: bring the information from the history file @c and history nodes here. Rewrite it to be motivated @c better (start out by clearly explaining what gets @c logged in history, for example). You can use the history file (@pxref{history file}) to log various @sc{cvs} actions. To retrieve the information from the history file, use the @code{cvs history} command (@pxref{history}). Note: you can control what is logged to this file by using the @samp{LogHistory} keyword in the @file{CVSROOT/config} file (@pxref{config}). @c @c The history database has many problems: @c * It is very unclear what field means what. This @c could be improved greatly by better documentation, @c but there are still non-orthogonalities (for @c example, tag does not record the "repository" @c field but most records do). @c * Confusion about files, directories, and modules. @c Some commands record one, some record others. @c * File removal is not logged. There is an 'R' @c record type documented, but CVS never uses it. @c * Tags are only logged for the "cvs rtag" command, @c not "cvs tag". The fix for this is not completely @c clear (see above about modules vs. files). @c * Are there other cases of operations that are not @c logged? One would hope for all changes to the @c repository to be logged somehow (particularly @c operations like tagging, "cvs admin -k", and other @c operations which do not record a history that one @c can get with "cvs log"). Operations on the working @c directory, like export, get, and release, are a @c second category also covered by the current "cvs @c history". @c * The history file does not record the options given @c to a command. The most serious manifestation of @c this is perhaps that it doesn't record whether a command @c was recursive. It is not clear to me whether one @c wants to log at a level very close to the command @c line, as a sort of way of logging each command @c (more or less), or whether one wants @c to log more at the level of what was changed (or @c something in between), but either way the current @c information has pretty big gaps. @c * Further details about a tag--like whether it is a @c branch tag or, if a non-branch tag, which branch it @c is on. One can find out this information about the @c tag as it exists _now_, but if the tag has been @c moved, one doesn't know what it was like at the time @c the history record was written. @c * Whether operating on a particular tag, date, or @c options was implicit (sticky) or explicit. @c @c Another item, only somewhat related to the above, is a @c way to control what is logged in the history file. @c This is probably the only good way to handle @c different people having different ideas about @c information/space tradeoffs. @c @c It isn't really clear that it makes sense to try to @c patch up the history file format as it exists now to @c include all that stuff. It might be better to @c design a whole new CVSROOT/nhistory file and "cvs @c nhistory" command, or some such, or in some other @c way trying to come up with a clean break from the @c past, which can address the above concerns. Another @c open question is how/whether this relates to @c taginfo/loginfo/etc. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node user-defined logging @section User-defined logging @c FIXME: probably should centralize this information @c here, at least to some extent. Maybe by moving the @c loginfo, etc., nodes here and replacing @c the "user-defined logging" node with one node for @c each method. You can customize @sc{cvs} to log various kinds of actions, in whatever manner you choose. These mechanisms operate by executing a script at various times. The script might append a message to a file listing the information and the programmer who created it, or send mail to a group of developers, or, perhaps, post a message to a particular newsgroup. To log commits, use the @file{loginfo} file (@pxref{loginfo}), and to log tagging operations, use the @file{taginfo} file (@pxref{taginfo}). @c FIXME: What is difference between doing it in the @c modules file and using loginfo/taginfo? Why should @c user use one or the other? To log commits, checkouts, exports, and tags, respectively, you can also use the @samp{-i}, @samp{-o}, @samp{-e}, and @samp{-t} options in the modules file. For a more flexible way of giving notifications to various users, which requires less in the way of keeping centralized scripts up to date, use the @code{cvs watch add} command (@pxref{Getting Notified}); this command is useful even if you are not using @code{cvs watch on}. @c --------------------------------------------------------------------- @node Binary files @chapter Handling binary files @cindex Binary files The most common use for @sc{cvs} is to store text files. With text files, @sc{cvs} can merge revisions, display the differences between revisions in a human-visible fashion, and other such operations. However, if you are willing to give up a few of these abilities, @sc{cvs} can store binary files. For example, one might store a web site in @sc{cvs} including both text files and binary images. @menu * Binary why:: More details on issues with binary files * Binary howto:: How to store them @end menu @node Binary why @section The issues with binary files While the need to manage binary files may seem obvious if the files that you customarily work with are binary, putting them into version control does present some additional issues. One basic function of version control is to show the differences between two revisions. For example, if someone else checked in a new version of a file, you may wish to look at what they changed and determine whether their changes are good. For text files, @sc{cvs} provides this functionality via the @code{cvs diff} command. For binary files, it may be possible to extract the two revisions and then compare them with a tool external to @sc{cvs} (for example, word processing software often has such a feature). If there is no such tool, one must track changes via other mechanisms, such as urging people to write good log messages, and hoping that the changes they actually made were the changes that they intended to make. Another ability of a version control system is the ability to merge two revisions. For @sc{cvs} this happens in two contexts. The first is when users make changes in separate working directories (@pxref{Multiple developers}). The second is when one merges explicitly with the @samp{update -j} command (@pxref{Branching and merging}). In the case of text files, @sc{cvs} can merge changes made independently, and signal a conflict if the changes conflict. With binary files, the best that @sc{cvs} can do is present the two different copies of the file, and leave it to the user to resolve the conflict. The user may choose one copy or the other, or may run an external merge tool which knows about that particular file format, if one exists. Note that having the user merge relies primarily on the user to not accidentally omit some changes, and thus is potentially error prone. If this process is thought to be undesirable, the best choice may be to avoid merging. To avoid the merges that result from separate working directories, see the discussion of reserved checkouts (file locking) in @ref{Multiple developers}. To avoid the merges resulting from branches, restrict use of branches. @node Binary howto @section How to store binary files There are two issues with using @sc{cvs} to store binary files. The first is that @sc{cvs} by default converts line endings between the canonical form in which they are stored in the repository (linefeed only), and the form appropriate to the operating system in use on the client (for example, carriage return followed by line feed for Windows NT). The second is that a binary file might happen to contain data which looks like a keyword (@pxref{Keyword substitution}), so keyword expansion must be turned off. @c FIXME: the third is that one can't do merges with @c binary files. xref to Multiple Developers and the @c reserved checkout issues. The @samp{-kb} option available with some @sc{cvs} commands insures that neither line ending conversion nor keyword expansion will be done. Here is an example of how you can create a new file using the @samp{-kb} flag: @example$ echo '$@splitrcskeyword{Id}$' > kotest
$cvs add -kb -m"A test file" kotest$ cvs ci -m"First checkin; contains a keyword" kotest
@end example

If a file accidentally gets added without @samp{-kb},
one can use the @code{cvs admin} command to recover.
For example:

@example
$echo '$@splitrcskeyword{Id}$' > kotest$ cvs add -m"A test file" kotest
$cvs ci -m"First checkin; contains a keyword" kotest$ cvs admin -kb kotest
$cvs update -A kotest # @r{For non-unix systems:} # @r{Copy in a good copy of the file from outside CVS}$ cvs commit -m "make it binary" kotest
@end example

@c Trying to describe this for both unix and non-unix
@c in the same description is very confusing.  Might
@c want to split the two, or just ditch the unix "shortcut"
@c (unixheads don't do much with binary files, anyway).
@c This used to say "(Try the above example, and do a
@c @code{cat kotest} after every command)".  But that
@c only really makes sense for the unix case.
When you check in the file @file{kotest} the file is
not preserved as a binary file, because you did not
check it in as a binary file.  The @code{cvs
admin -kb} command sets the default keyword
substitution method for this file, but it does not
alter the working copy of the file that you have.  If you need to
cope with line endings (that is, you are using
@sc{cvs} on a non-unix system), then you need to
check in a new copy of the file, as shown by the
@code{cvs commit} command above.
On unix, the @code{cvs update -A} command suffices.
@c FIXME: should also describe what the *other users*
@c need to do, if they have checked out copies which
@c have been corrupted by lack of -kb.  I think maybe
@c "cvs update -kb" or "cvs
@c update -A" would suffice, although the user who
@c reported this suggested removing the file, manually
@c removing it from CVS/Entries, and then "cvs update"
(Note that you can use @code{cvs log} to determine the default keyword
substitution method for a file and @code{cvs status} to determine
the keyword substitution method for a working copy.)

However, in using @code{cvs admin -k} to change the
keyword expansion, be aware that the keyword expansion
mode is not version controlled.  This means that, for
example, that if you have a text file in old releases,
and a binary file with the same name in new releases,
@sc{cvs} provides no way to check out the file in text
or binary mode depending on what version you are
checking out.  There is no good workaround for this
problem.

You can also set a default for whether @code{cvs add}
and @code{cvs import} treat a file as binary based on
its name; for example you could say that files who
names end in @samp{.exe} are binary.  @xref{Wrappers}.
There is currently no way to have @sc{cvs} detect
whether a file is binary based on its contents.  The
main difficulty with designing such a feature is that
it is not clear how to distinguish between binary and
non-binary files, and the rules to apply would vary
considerably with the operating system.
@c For example, it would be good on MS-DOS-family OSes
@c for anything containing ^Z to be binary.  Having
@c characters with the 8th bit set imply binary is almost
@c surely a bad idea in the context of ISO-8859-* and
@c other such character sets.  On VMS or the Mac, we
@c could use the OS's file typing.  This is a
@c commonly-desired feature, and something of this sort
@c may make sense.  But there are a lot of pitfalls here.
@c
@c Another, probably better, way to tell is to read the
@c file in text mode, write it to a temp file in text
@c mode, and then do a binary mode compare of the two
@c files.  If they differ, it is a binary file.  This
@c might have problems on VMS (or some other system
@c with several different text modes), but in general
@c should be relatively portable.  The only other
@c downside I can think of is that it would be fairly
@c slow, but that is perhaps a small price to pay for
@c not having your files corrupted.  Another issue is
@c what happens if you import a text file with bare
@c linefeeds on Windows.  Such files will show up on
@c Windows sometimes (I think some native windows
@c programs even write them, on occasion).  Perhaps it
@c is reasonable to treat such files as binary; after
@c all it is something of a presumption to assume that
@c the user would want the linefeeds converted to CRLF.

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Multiple developers
@chapter Multiple developers
@cindex Multiple developers
@cindex Team of developers
@cindex File locking
@cindex Locking files
@cindex Working copy
@cindex Reserved checkouts
@cindex Unreserved checkouts
@cindex RCS-style locking

When more than one person works on a software project
things often get complicated.  Often, two people try to
edit the same file simultaneously.  One solution, known
as @dfn{file locking} or @dfn{reserved checkouts}, is
to allow only one person to edit each file at a time.
This is the only solution with some version control
systems, including @sc{rcs} and @sc{sccs}.  Currently
the usual way to get reserved checkouts with @sc{cvs}
options}).  This is not as nicely integrated into
@sc{cvs} as the watch features, described below, but it
seems that most people with a need for reserved
@c Or "find it better than worrying about implementing
@c nicely integrated reserved checkouts" or ...?

As of @sc{cvs} version 1.12.10, another technique for getting most of the
effect of reserved checkouts is to enable advisory locks.  To enable advisory
locks, have all developers put "edit -c", "commit -c" in their
.cvsrc file, and turn on watches in the repository.  This
prevents them from doing a @code{cvs edit} if anyone is
already editting the file.  It also may
be possible to use plain watches together with suitable
procedures (not enforced by software), to avoid having
two people edit at the same time.

@c Our unreserved checkout model might not
@c be quite the same as others.  For example, I
@c think that some systems will tend to create a branch
@c in the case where CVS prints "up-to-date check failed".
@c It isn't clear to me whether we should try to
@c explore these subtleties; it could easily just
@c confuse people.
The default model with @sc{cvs} is known as
@dfn{unreserved checkouts}.  In this model, developers
can edit their own @dfn{working copy} of a file
simultaneously.  The first person that commits his
changes has no automatic way of knowing that another
has started to edit it.  Others will get an error
message when they try to commit the file.  They must
then use @sc{cvs} commands to bring their working copy
up to date with the repository revision.  This process
is almost automatic.

@c FIXME? should probably use the word "watch" here, to
@c tie this into the text below and above.
@sc{cvs} also supports mechanisms which facilitate
various kinds of communication, without actually
enforcing rules like reserved checkouts do.

The rest of this chapter describes how these various
models work, and some of the issues involved in
choosing between them.

@ignore
Here is a draft reserved checkout design or discussion
of the issues.  This seems like as good a place as any
for this.

Might want a cvs lock/cvs unlock--in which the names
differ from edit/unedit because the network must be up
for these to work.  unedit gives an error if there is a
reserved checkout in place (so that people don't
accidentally leave locks around); unlock gives an error
if one is not in place (this is more arguable; perhaps
it should act like unedit in that case).

On the other hand, might want it so that emacs,
scripts, etc., can get ready to edit a file without
having to know which model is in use.  In that case we
would have a "cvs watch lock" (or .cvsrc?) (that is,
three settings, "on", "off", and "lock").  Having cvs
watch lock set would cause a get to record in the CVS
directory which model is in use, and cause "cvs edit"
to change behaviors.  We'd want a way to query which
setting is in effect (this would be handy even if it is
only "on" or "off" as presently).  If lock is in
effect, then commit would require a lock before
allowing a checkin; chmod wouldn't suffice (might be
debatable--see chmod comment below, in watches--but it
is the way people expect RCS to work and I can't think
of any significant downside.  On the other hand, maybe
it isn't worth bothering, because people who are used
to RCS wouldn't think to use chmod anyway).

Implementation: use file attributes or use RCS
locking.  The former avoids more dependence on RCS
behaviors we will need to re-implement as we librarify
RCS, and makes it easier to import/export RCS files (in
that context, want to ignore the locker field).  But
note that RCS locks are per-branch, which is the
correct behavior (this is also an issue for the "watch
on" features; they should be per-branch too).

Here are a few more random notes about implementation
details, assuming "cvs watch lock" and

CVS/Watched file?  Or try to fit this into CVS/Entries somehow?
Cases: (1) file is checked out (unreserved or with watch on) by old
version of @sc{cvs}, now we do something with new one, (2) file is checked
out by new version, now we do something with old one.

Remote protocol would have a "Watched" analogous to "Mode".  Of course
it would apply to all Updated-like requests.  How do we keep this
setting up to date?  I guess that there wants to be a Watched request,
and the server would send a new one if it isn't up to date? (Ugh--hard
to implement and slows down "cvs -q update"--is there an easier way?)

"cvs edit"--checks CVS/Watched, and if watch lock, then sends
"edit-lock" request.  Which comes back with a Checked-in with
appropriate Watched (off, on, lock, locked, or some such?), or error

"cvs commit"--only will commit if off/on/locked.  lock is not OK.

Doc:
note that "cvs edit" must be connected to network if watch lock is in
effect.

Talk about what to do if someone has locked a file and you want to
edit that file.  (breaking locks, or lack thereof).

One other idea (which could work along with the
existing "cvs admin -l" reserved checkouts, as well as
the above):

"cvs editors" could show who has the file locked, if
someone does.

@end ignore

* File status::                 A file can be in several states
* Updating a file::             Bringing a file up-to-date
* Conflicts example::           An informative example
* Informing others::            To cooperate you must inform
* Concurrency::                 Simultaneous repository access
* Watches::                     Mechanisms to track who is editing files
* Choosing a model::            Reserved or unreserved checkouts?

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node File status
@section File status
@cindex File status
@cindex Status of a file

@c introducing the unreserved checkout model?  Before we
@c dive into listing states?
Based on what operations you have performed on a
checked out file, and what operations others have
performed to that file in the repository, one can
classify a file in a number of states.  The states, as
reported by the @code{status} command, are:

@c The order of items is chosen to group logically
@c similar outputs together.
@c People who want alphabetical can use the index...
@table @asis
@cindex Up-to-date
@item Up-to-date
The file is identical with the latest revision in the
repository for the branch in use.
@c FIXME: should we clarify "in use"?  The answer is
@c sticky tags, and trying to distinguish branch sticky
@c tags from non-branch sticky tags seems rather awkward
@c here.
@c FIXME: What happens with non-branch sticky tags?  Is
@c a stuck file "Up-to-date" or "Needs checkout" or what?

@item Locally Modified
@cindex Locally Modified
You have edited the file, and not yet committed your changes.

@c There are many cases involving the file being
@c added/removed/modified in the working directory, and
@c added/removed/modified in the repository, which we
@c don't try to describe here.  I'm not sure that "cvs
@c status" produces a non-confusing output in most of
@c those cases.

@item Locally Removed
@cindex Locally Removed
You have removed the file with @code{remove}, and not yet

@item Needs Checkout
@cindex Needs Checkout
Someone else has committed a newer revision to the
repository.  The name is slightly misleading; you will
ordinarily use @code{update} rather than
@code{checkout} to get that newer revision.

@item Needs Patch
@cindex Needs Patch
@c should probably be changed rather than documented).
Like Needs Checkout, but the @sc{cvs} server will send
a patch rather than the entire file.  Sending a patch or
sending an entire file accomplishes the same thing.

@item Needs Merge
@cindex Needs Merge
Someone else has committed a newer revision to the repository, and you
have also made modifications to the file.

@item Unresolved Conflict
@cindex Unresolved Conflict
@c FIXCVS - This file status needs to be changed to some more informative
@c text that distinguishes it more clearly from each of the Locally Added,
@c File had conflicts on merge, and Unknown status types, but an exact and
@c succinct wording escapes me at the moment.
A file with the same name as this new file has been added to the repository
from a second workspace.  This file will need to be moved out of the way
to allow an @code{update} to complete.

@item File had conflicts on merge
@cindex File had conflicts on merge
@c is it worth saying that this message was "Unresolved
@c Conflict" in CVS 1.9 and earlier?  I'm inclined to
@c think that is unnecessarily confusing to new users.
This is like Locally Modified, except that a previous
@code{update} command gave a conflict.  If you have not
already done so, you need to
resolve the conflict as described in @ref{Conflicts example}.

@item Unknown
@cindex Unknown
example, you have created a new file and have not run
@c
@c "Entry Invalid" and "Classify Error" are also in the
@c status.c.  The latter definitely indicates a CVS bug
@c (should it be worded more like "internal error" so
@c people submit bug reports if they see it?).  The former
@c I'm not as sure; I haven't tracked down whether/when it
@c appears in "cvs status" output.

@end table

To help clarify the file status, @code{status} also
reports the @code{Working revision} which is the
revision that the file in the working directory derives
from, and the @code{Repository revision} which is the
latest revision in the repository for the branch in
use.
The @samp{Commit Identifier} reflects the unique commitid
of the @code{commit}.
@c FIXME: should we clarify "in use"?  The answer is
@c sticky tags, and trying to distinguish branch sticky
@c tags from non-branch sticky tags seems rather awkward
@c here.
@c FIXME: What happens with non-branch sticky tags?
@c What is the Repository Revision there?  See the
@c comment at vn_rcs in cvs.h, which is kind of
@c confused--we really need to document better what this
@c field contains.
@c Q: Should we document "New file!" and other such
@c outputs or are they self-explanatory?
@c FIXME: what about the date to the right of "Working
@c revision"?  It doesn't appear with client/server and
@c seems unnecessary (redundant with "ls -l") so
@c perhaps it should be removed for non-client/server too?
@c FIXME: Need some examples.
@c FIXME: Working revision can also be something like
@c "-1.3" for a locally removed file.  Not at all
@c self-explanatory (and it is possible that CVS should
@c be changed rather than documenting this).

@c Would be nice to have an @example showing output
@c from cvs status, with comments showing the xref
@c where each part of the output is described.  This
@c might fit in nicely if it is desirable to split this
@c node in two; one to introduce "cvs status" and one
@c to list each of the states.
The options to @code{status} are listed in
@ref{Invoking CVS}.  For information on its @code{Sticky tag}
and @code{Sticky date} output, see @ref{Sticky tags}.
For information on its @code{Sticky options} output,
see the @samp{-k} option in @ref{update options}.

You can think of the @code{status} and @code{update}
commands as somewhat complementary.  You use
@code{update} to bring your files up to date, and you
can use @code{status} to give you some idea of what an
@code{update} would do (of course, the state of the
repository might change before you actually run
@code{update}).  In fact, if you want a command to
display file status in a more brief format than is
displayed by the @code{status} command, you can invoke

@cindex update, to display file status
@example
$cvs -n -q update @end example The @samp{-n} option means to not actually do the update, but merely to display statuses; the @samp{-q} option avoids printing the name of each directory. For more information on the @code{update} command, and these options, see @ref{Invoking CVS}. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Updating a file @section Bringing a file up to date @cindex Bringing a file up to date @cindex Updating a file @cindex Merging a file @cindex Update, introduction When you want to update or merge a file, use the @code{cvs update -d} command. For files that are not up to date this is roughly equivalent to a @code{checkout} command: the newest revision of the file is extracted from the repository and put in your working directory. The @code{-d} option, not necessary with @code{checkout}, tells @sc{cvs} that you wish it to create directories added by other developers. Your modifications to a file are never lost when you use @code{update}. If no newer revision exists, running @code{update} has no effect. If you have edited the file, and a newer revision is available, @sc{cvs} will merge all changes into your working copy. For instance, imagine that you checked out revision 1.4 and started editing it. In the meantime someone else committed revision 1.5, and shortly after that revision 1.6. If you run @code{update} on the file now, @sc{cvs} will incorporate all changes between revision 1.4 and 1.6 into your file. @cindex Overlap If any of the changes between 1.4 and 1.6 were made too close to any of the changes you have made, an @dfn{overlap} occurs. In such cases a warning is printed, and the resulting file includes both versions of the lines that overlap, delimited by special markers. @xref{update}, for a complete description of the @code{update} command. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Conflicts example @section Conflicts example @cindex Merge, an example @cindex Example of merge @cindex driver.c (merge example) Suppose revision 1.4 of @file{driver.c} contains this: @example #include <stdio.h> void main() @{ parse(); if (nerr == 0) gencode(); else fprintf(stderr, "No code generated.\n"); exit(nerr == 0 ? 0 : 1); @} @end example @noindent Revision 1.6 of @file{driver.c} contains this: @example #include <stdio.h> int main(int argc, char **argv) @{ parse(); if (argc != 1) @{ fprintf(stderr, "tc: No args expected.\n"); exit(1); @} if (nerr == 0) gencode(); else fprintf(stderr, "No code generated.\n"); exit(!!nerr); @} @end example @noindent Your working copy of @file{driver.c}, based on revision 1.4, contains this before you run @samp{cvs update}: @c -- Really include "cvs"? @example #include <stdlib.h> #include <stdio.h> void main() @{ init_scanner(); parse(); if (nerr == 0) gencode(); else fprintf(stderr, "No code generated.\n"); exit(nerr == 0 ? EXIT_SUCCESS : EXIT_FAILURE); @} @end example @noindent You run @samp{cvs update}: @c -- Really include "cvs"? @example$ cvs update driver.c
RCS file: /usr/local/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc/driver.c,v
retrieving revision 1.4
retrieving revision 1.6
Merging differences between 1.4 and 1.6 into driver.c
rcsmerge warning: overlaps during merge
cvs update: conflicts found in driver.c
C driver.c
@end example

@noindent
@cindex Conflicts (merge example)
@sc{cvs} tells you that there were some conflicts.
Your original working file is saved unmodified in
@file{.#driver.c.1.4}.  The new version of
@file{driver.c} contains this:

@example
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(int argc,
char **argv)
@{
init_scanner();
parse();
if (argc != 1)
@{
fprintf(stderr, "tc: No args expected.\n");
exit(1);
@}
if (nerr == 0)
gencode();
else
fprintf(stderr, "No code generated.\n");
@asis{}<<<<<<< driver.c
exit(nerr == 0 ? EXIT_SUCCESS : EXIT_FAILURE);
@asis{}=======
exit(!!nerr);
@asis{}>>>>>>> 1.6
@}
@end example

@noindent
@cindex Markers, conflict
@cindex Conflict markers
@cindex <<<<<<<
@cindex >>>>>>>
@cindex =======

Note how all non-overlapping modifications are incorporated in your working
copy, and that the overlapping section is clearly marked with
@samp{<<<<<<<}, @samp{=======} and @samp{>>>>>>>}.

@cindex Resolving a conflict
@cindex Conflict resolution
You resolve the conflict by editing the file, removing the markers and
the erroneous line.  Suppose you end up with this file:
@c -- Add xref to the pcl-cvs manual when it talks
@example
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(int argc,
char **argv)
@{
init_scanner();
parse();
if (argc != 1)
@{
fprintf(stderr, "tc: No args expected.\n");
exit(1);
@}
if (nerr == 0)
gencode();
else
fprintf(stderr, "No code generated.\n");
exit(nerr == 0 ? EXIT_SUCCESS : EXIT_FAILURE);
@}
@end example

@noindent
You can now go ahead and commit this as revision 1.7.

@example
$cvs commit -m "Initialize scanner. Use symbolic exit values." driver.c Checking in driver.c; /usr/local/cvsroot/yoyodyne/tc/driver.c,v <-- driver.c new revision: 1.7; previous revision: 1.6 done @end example For your protection, @sc{cvs} will refuse to check in a file if a conflict occurred and you have not resolved the conflict. Currently to resolve a conflict, you must change the timestamp on the file. In previous versions of @sc{cvs}, you also needed to insure that the file contains no conflict markers. Because your file may legitimately contain conflict markers (that is, occurrences of @samp{>>>>>>> } at the start of a line that don't mark a conflict), the current version of @sc{cvs} will print a warning and proceed to check in the file. @c The old behavior was really icky; the only way out @c was to start hacking on @c the @code{CVS/Entries} file or other such workarounds. @c @c If the timestamp thing isn't considered nice enough, @c maybe there should be a "cvs resolved" command @c which clears the conflict indication. For a nice user @c interface, this should be invoked by an interactive @c merge tool like emerge rather than by the user @c directly--such a tool can verify that the user has @c really dealt with each conflict. @cindex emerge If you use release 1.04 or later of pcl-cvs (a @sc{gnu} Emacs front-end for @sc{cvs}) you can use an Emacs package called emerge to help you resolve conflicts. See the documentation for pcl-cvs. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Informing others @section Informing others about commits @cindex Informing others @cindex Spreading information @cindex Mail, automatic mail on commit It is often useful to inform others when you commit a new revision of a file. The @samp{-i} option of the @file{modules} file, or the @file{loginfo} file, can be used to automate this process. @xref{modules}. @xref{loginfo}. You can use these features of @sc{cvs} to, for instance, instruct @sc{cvs} to mail a message to all developers, or post a message to a local newsgroup. @c -- More text would be nice here. @node Concurrency @section Several developers simultaneously attempting to run CVS @cindex Locks, cvs, introduction @c For a discussion of *why* CVS creates locks, see @c the comment at the start of src/lock.c If several developers try to run @sc{cvs} at the same time, one may get the following message: @example [11:43:23] waiting for bach's lock in /usr/local/cvsroot/foo @end example @cindex #cvs.rfl, removing @cindex #cvs.wfl, removing @cindex #cvs.lock, removing @sc{cvs} will try again every 30 seconds, and either continue with the operation or print the message again, if it still needs to wait. If a lock seems to stick around for an undue amount of time, find the person holding the lock and ask them about the cvs command they are running. If they aren't running a cvs command, look in the repository directory mentioned in the message and remove files which they own whose names start with @file{#cvs.rfl}, @file{#cvs.wfl}, or @file{#cvs.lock}. Note that these locks are to protect @sc{cvs}'s internal data structures and have no relationship to the word @dfn{lock} in the sense used by @sc{rcs}---which refers to reserved checkouts (@pxref{Multiple developers}). Any number of people can be reading from a given repository at a time; only when someone is writing do the locks prevent other people from reading or writing. @cindex Atomic transactions, lack of @cindex Transactions, atomic, lack of @c the following talks about what one might call commit/update @c atomicity. @c Probably also should say something about @c commit/commit atomicity, that is, "An update will @c not get partial versions of more than one commit". @c CVS currently has this property and I guess we can @c make it a documented feature. @c For example one person commits @c a/one.c and b/four.c and another commits a/two.c and @c b/three.c. Then an update cannot get the new a/one.c @c and a/two.c and the old b/four.c and b/three.c. One might hope for the following property: @quotation If someone commits some changes in one cvs command, then an update by someone else will either get all the changes, or none of them. @end quotation @noindent but @sc{cvs} does @emph{not} have this property. For example, given the files @example a/one.c a/two.c b/three.c b/four.c @end example @noindent if someone runs @example cvs ci a/two.c b/three.c @end example @noindent and someone else runs @code{cvs update} at the same time, the person running @code{update} might get only the change to @file{b/three.c} and not the change to @file{a/two.c}. @node Watches @section Mechanisms to track who is editing files @cindex Watches For many groups, use of @sc{cvs} in its default mode is perfectly satisfactory. Users may sometimes go to check in a modification only to find that another modification has intervened, but they deal with it and proceed with their check in. Other groups prefer to be able to know who is editing what files, so that if two people try to edit the same file they can choose to talk about who is doing what when rather than be surprised at check in time. The features in this section allow such coordination, while retaining the ability of two developers to edit the same file at the same time. @c Some people might ask why CVS does not enforce the @c rule on chmod, by requiring a cvs edit before a cvs @c commit. The main reason is that it could always be @c circumvented--one could edit the file, and @c then when ready to check it in, do the cvs edit and put @c in the new contents and do the cvs commit. One @c implementation note: if we _do_ want to have cvs commit @c require a cvs edit, we should store the state on @c whether the cvs edit has occurred in the working @c directory, rather than having the server try to keep @c track of what working directories exist. @c FIXME: should the above discussion be part of the @c manual proper, somewhere, not just in a comment? For maximum benefit developers should use @code{cvs edit} (not @code{chmod}) to make files read-write to edit them, and @code{cvs release} (not @code{rm}) to discard a working directory which is no longer in use, but @sc{cvs} is not able to enforce this behavior. If a development team wants stronger enforcement of watches and all team members are using a @sc{cvs} client version 1.12.10 or greater to access a @sc{cvs} server version 1.12.10 or greater, they can enable advisory locks. To enable advisory locks, have all developers put "edit -c" and "commit -c" into all .cvsrc files, and make files default to read only by turning on watches or putting "cvs -r" into all .cvsrc files. This prevents multiple people from editting a file at the same time (unless explicitly overriden with @samp{-f}). @c I'm a little dissatisfied with this presentation, @c because "watch on"/"edit"/"editors" are one set of @c functionality, and "watch add"/"watchers" is another @c which is somewhat orthogonal even though they interact in @c various ways. But I think it might be @c confusing to describe them separately (e.g. "watch @c add" with loginfo). I don't know. @menu * Setting a watch:: Telling CVS to watch certain files * Getting Notified:: Telling CVS to notify you * Editing files:: How to edit a file which is being watched * Watch information:: Information about who is watching and editing * Watches Compatibility:: Watches interact poorly with CVS 1.6 or earlier @end menu @node Setting a watch @subsection Telling CVS to watch certain files To enable the watch features, you first specify that certain files are to be watched. @cindex watch on (subcommand) @deffn Command {cvs watch on} [@code{-lR}] [@var{files}]@dots{} @cindex Read-only files, and watches Specify that developers should run @code{cvs edit} before editing @var{files}. @sc{cvs} will create working copies of @var{files} read-only, to remind developers to run the @code{cvs edit} command before working on them. If @var{files} includes the name of a directory, @sc{cvs} arranges to watch all files added to the corresponding repository directory, and sets a default for files added in the future; this allows the user to set notification policies on a per-directory basis. The contents of the directory are processed recursively, unless the @code{-l} option is given. The @code{-R} option can be used to force recursion if the @code{-l} option is set in @file{~/.cvsrc} (@pxref{~/.cvsrc}). If @var{files} is omitted, it defaults to the current directory. @cindex watch off (subcommand) @end deffn @deffn Command {cvs watch off} [@code{-lR}] [@var{files}]@dots{} Do not create @var{files} read-only on checkout; thus, developers will not be reminded to use @code{cvs edit} and @code{cvs unedit}. @ignore @sc{cvs} will check out @var{files} read-write as usual, unless other permissions override due to the @code{PreservePermissions} option being enabled in the @file{config} administrative file (@pxref{Special Files}, @pxref{config}) @end ignore The @var{files} and options are processed as for @code{cvs watch on}. @end deffn @node Getting Notified @subsection Telling CVS to notify you You can tell @sc{cvs} that you want to receive notifications about various actions taken on a file. You can do this without using @code{cvs watch on} for the file, but generally you will want to use @code{cvs watch on}, to remind developers to use the @code{cvs edit} command. @cindex watch add (subcommand) @deffn Command {cvs watch add} [@code{-lR}] [@code{-a} @var{action}]@dots{} [@var{files}]@dots{} Add the current user to the list of people to receive notification of work done on @var{files}. The @code{-a} option specifies what kinds of events @sc{cvs} should notify the user about. @var{action} is one of the following: @table @code @item edit Another user has applied the @code{cvs edit} command (described below) to a watched file. @item commit Another user has committed changes to one of the named @var{files}. @item unedit Another user has abandoned editing a file (other than by committing changes). They can do this in several ways, by: @itemize @bullet @item applying the @code{cvs unedit} command (described below) to the file @item applying the @code{cvs release} command (@pxref{release}) to the file's parent directory (or recursively to a directory more than one level up) @item deleting the file and allowing @code{cvs update} to recreate it @end itemize @item all All of the above. @item none None of the above. (This is useful with @code{cvs edit}, described below.) @end table The @code{-a} option may appear more than once, or not at all. If omitted, the action defaults to @code{all}. The @var{files} and options are processed as for @code{cvs watch on}. @end deffn @cindex watch remove (subcommand) @deffn Command {cvs watch remove} [@code{-lR}] [@code{-a} @var{action}]@dots{} [@var{files}]@dots{} Remove a notification request established using @code{cvs watch add}; the arguments are the same. If the @code{-a} option is present, only watches for the specified actions are removed. @end deffn @cindex notify (admin file) When the conditions exist for notification, @sc{cvs} calls the @file{notify} administrative file. Edit @file{notify} as one edits the other administrative files (@pxref{Intro administrative files}). This file follows the usual conventions for administrative files (@pxref{syntax}), where each line is a regular expression followed by a command to execute. The command should contain a single occurrence of @samp{%s} which will be replaced by the user to notify; the rest of the information regarding the notification will be supplied to the command on standard input. The standard thing to put in the @code{notify} file is the single line: @example ALL mail %s -s "CVS notification" @end example @noindent This causes users to be notified by electronic mail. @c FIXME: should it be this hard to set up this @c behavior (and the result when one fails to do so, @c silent failure to notify, so non-obvious)? Should @c CVS give a warning if no line in notify matches (and @c document the use of "DEFAULT :" for the case where @c skipping the notification is indeed desired)? @cindex users (admin file) Note that if you set this up in the straightforward way, users receive notifications on the server machine. One could of course write a @file{notify} script which directed notifications elsewhere, but to make this easy, @sc{cvs} allows you to associate a notification address for each user. To do so create a file @file{users} in @file{CVSROOT} with a line for each user in the format @var{user}:@var{value}. Then instead of passing the name of the user to be notified to @file{notify}, @sc{cvs} will pass the @var{value} (normally an email address on some other machine). @sc{cvs} does not notify you for your own changes. Currently this check is done based on whether the user name of the person taking the action which triggers notification matches the user name of the person getting notification. In fact, in general, the watches features only track one edit by each user. It probably would be more useful if watches tracked each working directory separately, so this behavior might be worth changing. @c "behavior might be worth changing" is an effort to @c point to future directions while also not promising @c that "they" (as in "why don't they fix CVS to....") @c will do this. @c one implementation issue is identifying whether a @c working directory is same or different. Comparing @c pathnames/hostnames is hopeless, but having the server @c supply a serial number which the client stores in the @c CVS directory as a magic cookie should work. @node Editing files @subsection How to edit a file which is being watched @cindex Checkout, as term for getting ready to edit Since a file which is being watched is checked out read-only, you cannot simply edit it. To make it read-write, and inform others that you are planning to edit it, use the @code{cvs edit} command. Some systems call this a @dfn{checkout}, but @sc{cvs} uses that term for obtaining a copy of the sources (@pxref{Getting the source}), an operation which those systems call a @dfn{get} or a @dfn{fetch}. @c Issue to think about: should we transition CVS @c towards the "get" terminology? "cvs get" is already a @c synonym for "cvs checkout" and that section of the @c manual refers to "Getting the source". If this is @c done, needs to be done gingerly (for example, we should @c still accept "checkout" in .cvsrc files indefinitely @c even if the CVS's messages are changed from "cvs checkout: " @c to "cvs get: "). @c There is a concern about whether "get" is not as @c good for novices because it is a more general term @c than "checkout" (and thus arguably harder to assign @c a technical meaning for). @cindex edit (subcommand) @deffn Command {cvs edit} [@code{-lR}] [@code{-a} @var{action}]@dots{} [@var{files}]@dots{} Prepare to edit the working files @var{files}. @sc{cvs} makes the @var{files} read-write, and notifies users who have requested @code{edit} notification for any of @var{files}. The @code{cvs edit} command accepts the same options as the @code{cvs watch add} command, and establishes a temporary watch for the user on @var{files}; @sc{cvs} will remove the watch when @var{files} are @code{unedit}ed or @code{commit}ted. If the user does not wish to receive notifications, she should specify @code{-a none}. The @var{files} and the options are processed as for the @code{cvs watch} commands. There are two additional options that @code{cvs edit} understands as of @sc{cvs} client and server versions 1.12.10 but @code{cvs watch} does not. The first is @code{-c}, which causes @code{cvs edit} to fail if anyone else is editting the file. This is probably only useful when @samp{edit -c} and @samp{commit -c} are specified in all developers' @file{.cvsrc} files. This behavior may be overriden this via the @code{-f} option, which overrides @code{-c} and allows multiple edits to succeed. @ignore @strong{Caution: If the @code{PreservePermissions} option is enabled in the repository (@pxref{config}), @sc{cvs} will not change the permissions on any of the @var{files}. The reason for this change is to ensure that using @samp{cvs edit} does not interfere with the ability to store file permissions in the @sc{cvs} repository.} @end ignore @end deffn Normally when you are done with a set of changes, you use the @code{cvs commit} command, which checks in your changes and returns the watched files to their usual read-only state. But if you instead decide to abandon your changes, or not to make any changes, you can use the @code{cvs unedit} command. @cindex unedit (subcommand) @cindex Abandoning work @cindex Reverting to repository version @deffn Command {cvs unedit} [@code{-lR}] [@var{files}]@dots{} Abandon work on the working files @var{files}, and revert them to the repository versions on which they are based. @sc{cvs} makes those @var{files} read-only for which users have requested notification using @code{cvs watch on}. @sc{cvs} notifies users who have requested @code{unedit} notification for any of @var{files}. The @var{files} and options are processed as for the @code{cvs watch} commands. If watches are not in use, the @code{unedit} command probably does not work, and the way to revert to the repository version is with the command @code{cvs update -C file} (@pxref{update}). The meaning is not precisely the same; the latter may also bring in some changes which have been made in the repository since the last time you updated. @c It would be a useful enhancement to CVS to make @c unedit work in the non-watch case as well. @end deffn When using client/server @sc{cvs}, you can use the @code{cvs edit} and @code{cvs unedit} commands even if @sc{cvs} is unable to successfully communicate with the server; the notifications will be sent upon the next successful @sc{cvs} command. @node Watch information @subsection Information about who is watching and editing @cindex watchers (subcommand) @deffn Command {cvs watchers} [@code{-lR}] [@var{files}]@dots{} List the users currently watching changes to @var{files}. The report includes the files being watched, and the mail address of each watcher. The @var{files} and options are processed as for the @code{cvs watch} commands. @end deffn @cindex editors (subcommand) @deffn Command {cvs editors} [@code{-lR}] [@var{files}]@dots{} List the users currently working on @var{files}. The report includes the mail address of each user, the time when the user began working with the file, and the host and path of the working directory containing the file. The @var{files} and options are processed as for the @code{cvs watch} commands. @end deffn @node Watches Compatibility @subsection Using watches with old versions of CVS @cindex CVS 1.6, and watches If you use the watch features on a repository, it creates @file{CVS} directories in the repository and stores the information about watches in that directory. If you attempt to use @sc{cvs} 1.6 or earlier with the repository, you get an error message such as the following (all on one line): @example cvs update: cannot open CVS/Entries for reading: No such file or directory @end example @noindent and your operation will likely be aborted. To use the watch features, you must upgrade all copies of @sc{cvs} which use that repository in local or server mode. If you cannot upgrade, use the @code{watch off} and @code{watch remove} commands to remove all watches, and that will restore the repository to a state which @sc{cvs} 1.6 can cope with. @node Choosing a model @section Choosing between reserved or unreserved checkouts @cindex Choosing, reserved or unreserved checkouts Reserved and unreserved checkouts each have pros and cons. Let it be said that a lot of this is a matter of opinion or what works given different groups' working styles, but here is a brief description of some of the issues. There are many ways to organize a team of developers. @sc{cvs} does not try to enforce a certain organization. It is a tool that can be used in several ways. Reserved checkouts can be very counter-productive. If two persons want to edit different parts of a file, there may be no reason to prevent either of them from doing so. Also, it is common for someone to take out a lock on a file, because they are planning to edit it, but then forget to release the lock. @c "many groups"? specifics? cites to papers on this? @c some way to weasel-word it a bit more so we don't @c need facts :-)? People, especially people who are familiar with reserved checkouts, often wonder how often conflicts occur if unreserved checkouts are used, and how difficult they are to resolve. The experience with many groups is that they occur rarely and usually are relatively straightforward to resolve. The rarity of serious conflicts may be surprising, until one realizes that they occur only when two developers disagree on the proper design for a given section of code; such a disagreement suggests that the team has not been communicating properly in the first place. In order to collaborate under @emph{any} source management regimen, developers must agree on the general design of the system; given this agreement, overlapping changes are usually straightforward to merge. In some cases unreserved checkouts are clearly inappropriate. If no merge tool exists for the kind of file you are managing (for example word processor files or files edited by Computer Aided Design programs), and it is not desirable to change to a program which uses a mergeable data format, then resolving conflicts is going to be unpleasant enough that you generally will be better off to simply avoid the conflicts instead, by using reserved checkouts. The watches features described above in @ref{Watches} can be considered to be an intermediate model between reserved checkouts and unreserved checkouts. When you go to edit a file, it is possible to find out who else is editing it. And rather than having the system simply forbid both people editing the file, it can tell you what the situation is and let you figure out whether it is a problem in that particular case or not. Therefore, for some groups watches can be considered the best of both the reserved checkout and unreserved checkout worlds. As of @sc{cvs} client and server versions 1.12.10, you may also enable advisory locks by putting @samp{edit -c} and @samp{commit -c} in all developers' @file{.cvsrc} files. After this is done, @code{cvs edit} will fail if there are any other editors, and @code{cvs commit} will fail if the committer has not registered to edit the file via @code{cvs edit}. This is most effective in conjunction with files checked out read-only by default, which may be enabled by turning on watches in the repository or by putting @samp{cvs -r} in all @file{.cvsrc} files. @c --------------------------------------------------------------------- @node Revision management @chapter Revision management @cindex Revision management @c -- This chapter could be expanded a lot. @c -- Experiences are very welcome! If you have read this far, you probably have a pretty good grasp on what @sc{cvs} can do for you. This chapter talks a little about things that you still have to decide. If you are doing development on your own using @sc{cvs} you could probably skip this chapter. The questions this chapter takes up become more important when more than one person is working in a repository. @menu * When to commit:: Some discussion on the subject @end menu @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node When to commit @section When to commit? @cindex When to commit @cindex Committing, when to @cindex Policy Your group should decide which policy to use regarding commits. Several policies are possible, and as your experience with @sc{cvs} grows you will probably find out what works for you. If you commit files too quickly you might commit files that do not even compile. If your partner updates his working sources to include your buggy file, he will be unable to compile the code. On the other hand, other persons will not be able to benefit from the improvements you make to the code if you commit very seldom, and conflicts will probably be more common. It is common to only commit files after making sure that they can be compiled. Some sites require that the files pass a test suite. Policies like this can be enforced using the commitinfo file (@pxref{commitinfo}), but you should think twice before you enforce such a convention. By making the development environment too controlled it might become too regimented and thus counter-productive to the real goal, which is to get software written. @c --------------------------------------------------------------------- @node Keyword substitution @chapter Keyword substitution @cindex Keyword substitution @cindex Keyword expansion @cindex Identifying files @comment Be careful when editing this chapter. @comment Remember that this file is kept under @comment version control, so we must not accidentally @comment include a valid keyword in the running text. As long as you edit source files inside a working directory you can always find out the state of your files via @samp{cvs status} and @samp{cvs log}. But as soon as you export the files from your development environment it becomes harder to identify which revisions they are. @sc{cvs} can use a mechanism known as @dfn{keyword substitution} (or @dfn{keyword expansion}) to help identifying the files. Embedded strings of the form @code{$@var{keyword}$} and @code{$@var{keyword}:@dots{}$} in a file are replaced with strings of the form @code{$@var{keyword}:@var{value}$} whenever you obtain a new revision of the file. @menu * Keyword list:: Keywords * Using keywords:: Using keywords * Avoiding substitution:: Avoiding substitution * Substitution modes:: Substitution modes * Configuring keyword expansion:: Configuring keyword expansion * Log keyword:: Problems with the$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$keyword. @end menu @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Keyword list @section Keyword List @cindex Keyword List @c FIXME: need some kind of example here I think, @c perhaps in a @c "Keyword intro" node. The intro in the "Keyword @c substitution" node itself seems OK, but to launch @c into a list of the keywords somehow seems too abrupt. This is a list of the keywords: @table @code @cindex Author keyword @item$@splitrcskeyword{Author}$The login name of the user who checked in the revision. @cindex CVSHeader keyword @item$@splitrcskeyword{CVSHeader}$A standard header (similar to$@splitrcskeyword{Header}$, but with the CVS root stripped off). It contains the relative pathname of the @sc{rcs} file to the CVS root, the revision number, the date (UTC), the author, the state, and the locker (if locked). Files will normally never be locked when you use @sc{cvs}. Note that this keyword has only been recently introduced to @sc{cvs} and may cause problems with existing installations if$@splitrcskeyword{CVSHeader}$is already in the files for a different purpose. This keyword may be excluded using the @code{KeywordExpand=eCVSHeader} in the @file{CVSROOT/config} file. See @ref{Configuring keyword expansion} for more details. @cindex Date keyword @item$@splitrcskeyword{Date}$The date and time (UTC) the revision was checked in. @cindex Header keyword @item$@splitrcskeyword{Header}$A standard header containing the full pathname of the @sc{rcs} file, the revision number, the date (UTC), the author, the state, and the locker (if locked). Files will normally never be locked when you use @sc{cvs}. @cindex Id keyword @item$@splitrcskeyword{Id}$Same as @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Header}$}, except that the @sc{rcs} filename is without a path. @cindex Name keyword @item$@splitrcskeyword{Name}$Tag name used to check out this file. The keyword is expanded only if one checks out with an explicit tag name. For example, when running the command @code{cvs co -r first}, the keyword expands to @samp{Name: first}. @cindex Locker keyword @item$@splitrcskeyword{Locker}$The login name of the user who locked the revision (empty if not locked, which is the normal case unless @code{cvs admin -l} is in use). @cindex Log keyword @cindex MaxCommentLeaderLength @cindex UseArchiveCommentLeader @cindex Log keyword, configuring substitution behavior @item$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$The log message supplied during commit, preceded by a header containing the @sc{rcs} filename, the revision number, the author, and the date (UTC). Existing log messages are @emph{not} replaced. Instead, the new log message is inserted after @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}:@dots{}$}. By default, each new line is prefixed with the same string which precedes the @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$} keyword, unless it exceeds the @code{MaxCommentLeaderLength} set in @file{CVSROOT/config}. For example, if the file contains: @example /* Here is what people have been up to: * *$@splitrcskeyword{Log}: frob.c,v $* Revision 1.1 1997/01/03 14:23:51 joe * Add the superfrobnicate option * */ @end example @noindent then additional lines which are added when expanding the @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$} keyword will be preceded by @samp{ * }. Unlike previous versions of @sc{cvs} and @sc{rcs}, the @dfn{comment leader} from the @sc{rcs} file is not used. The @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$} keyword is useful for accumulating a complete change log in a source file, but for several reasons it can be problematic. If the prefix of the @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$} keyword turns out to be longer than @code{MaxCommentLeaderLength}, CVS will skip expansion of this keyword unless @code{UseArchiveCommentLeader} is also set in @file{CVSROOT/config} and a @samp{comment leader} is set in the RCS archive file, in which case the comment leader will be used instead. For more on setting the comment leader in the RCS archive file, @xref{admin}. For more on configuring the default @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$} substitution behavior, @xref{config}. @xref{Log keyword}. @cindex RCSfile keyword @item$@splitrcskeyword{RCSfile}$The name of the RCS file without a path. @cindex Revision keyword @item$@splitrcskeyword{Revision}$The revision number assigned to the revision. @cindex Source keyword @item$@splitrcskeyword{Source}$The full pathname of the RCS file. @cindex State keyword @item$@splitrcskeyword{State}$The state assigned to the revision. States can be assigned with @code{cvs admin -s}---see @ref{admin options}. @cindex Local keyword @item Local keyword The @code{LocalKeyword} option in the @file{CVSROOT/config} file may be used to specify a local keyword which is to be used as an alias for one of the keywords:$@splitrcskeyword{Id}$,$@splitrcskeyword{Header}$, or$@splitrcskeyword{CVSHeader}$. For example, if the @file{CVSROOT/config} file contains a line with @code{LocalKeyword=MYBSD=CVSHeader}, then a file with the local keyword$@splitrcskeyword{MYBSD}$will be expanded as if it were a$@splitrcskeyword{CVSHeader}$keyword. If the src/frob.c file contained this keyword, it might look something like this: @example /* *$@splitrcskeyword{MYBSD}: src/frob.c,v 1.1 2003/05/04 09:27:45 john Exp $*/ @end example Many repositories make use of a such a local keyword'' feature. An old patch to @sc{cvs} provided the @code{LocalKeyword} feature using a @code{tag=} option and called this the custom tag'' or local tag'' feature. It was used in conjunction with the what they called the @code{tagexpand=} option. In @sc{cvs} this other option is known as the @code{KeywordExpand} option. See @ref{Configuring keyword expansion} for more details. Examples from popular projects include:$@splitrcskeyword{FreeBSD}$,$@splitrcskeyword{NetBSD}$,$@splitrcskeyword{OpenBSD}$,$@splitrcskeyword{XFree86}$,$@splitrcskeyword{Xorg}$. The advantage of this is that you can include your local version information in a file using this local keyword without disrupting the upstream version information (which may be a different local keyword or a standard keyword). Allowing bug reports and the like to more properly identify the source of the original bug to the third-party and reducing the number of conflicts that arise during an import of a new version. All keyword expansion except the local keyword may be disabled using the @code{KeywordExpand} option in the @file{CVSROOT/config} file---see @ref{Configuring keyword expansion} for more details. @end table @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Using keywords @section Using keywords To include a keyword string you simply include the relevant text string, such as @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Id}$}, inside the file, and commit the file. @sc{cvs} will automatically (Or, more accurately, as part of the update run that automatically happens after a commit.) expand the string as part of the commit operation. It is common to embed the @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Id}$} string in the source files so that it gets passed through to generated files. For example, if you are managing computer program source code, you might include a variable which is initialized to contain that string. Or some C compilers may provide a @code{#pragma ident} directive. Or a document management system might provide a way to pass a string through to generated files. @c Would be nice to give an example, but doing this in @c portable C is not possible and the problem with @c picking any one language (VMS HELP files, Ada, @c troff, whatever) is that people use CVS for all @c kinds of files. @cindex Ident (shell command) The @code{ident} command (which is part of the @sc{rcs} package) can be used to extract keywords and their values from a file. This can be handy for text files, but it is even more useful for extracting keywords from binary files. @example$ ident samp.c
samp.c:
$@splitrcskeyword{Id}: samp.c,v 1.5 1993/10/19 14:57:32 ceder Exp$
$gcc samp.c$ ident a.out
a.out:
$@splitrcskeyword{Id}: samp.c,v 1.5 1993/10/19 14:57:32 ceder Exp$
@end example

@cindex What (shell command)
S@sc{ccs} is another popular revision control system.
It has a command, @code{what}, which is very similar to
@code{ident} and used for the same purpose.  Many sites
without @sc{rcs} have @sc{sccs}.  Since @code{what}
looks for the character sequence @code{@@(#)} it is
easy to include keywords that are detected by either
command.  Simply prefix the keyword with the
magic @sc{sccs} phrase, like this:

@example
static char *id="@@(#) $@splitrcskeyword{Id}: ab.c,v 1.5 1993/10/19 14:57:32 ceder Exp$";
@end example

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Avoiding substitution
@section Avoiding substitution

Keyword substitution has its disadvantages.  Sometimes
you might want the literal text string
@samp{$@splitrcskeyword{Author}$} to appear inside a file without
@sc{cvs} interpreting it as a keyword and expanding it
into something like @samp{$@splitrcskeyword{Author}: ceder$}.

There is unfortunately no way to selectively turn off
keyword substitution.  You can use @samp{-ko}
(@pxref{Substitution modes}) to turn off keyword
substitution entirely.

In many cases you can avoid using keywords in
the source, even though they appear in the final
product.  For example, the source for this manual
contains @samp{$@@asis@{@}Author$} whenever the text
@samp{$@splitrcskeyword{Author}$} should appear.  In @code{nroff}
and @code{troff} you can embed the null-character
@code{\&} inside the keyword for a similar effect.

It is also possible to specify an explicit list of
keywords to include or exclude using the
@code{KeywordExpand} option in the
@file{CVSROOT/config} file--see @ref{Configuring keyword expansion}
for more details. This feature is intended primarily
for use with the @code{LocalKeyword} option--see
@ref{Keyword list}.

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Substitution modes
@section Substitution modes
@cindex Keyword substitution, changing modes
@cindex -k (keyword substitution)
@cindex Kflag

@c FIXME: This could be made more coherent, by expanding it
@c with more examples or something.
Each file has a stored default substitution mode, and
each working directory copy of a file also has a
substitution mode.  The former is set by the @samp{-k}
latter is set by the @samp{-k} or @samp{-A} options to @code{cvs
checkout} or @code{cvs update}.
@code{cvs diff} and @code{cvs rdiff} also
have @samp{-k} options.
For some examples,
see @ref{Binary files}, and @ref{Merging and keywords}.
@c The fact that -A is overloaded to mean both reset
@c sticky options and reset sticky tags/dates is
@c somewhat questionable.  Perhaps there should be
@c separate options to reset sticky options (e.g. -k
@c A") and tags/dates (someone suggested -r HEAD could
@c as in the status quo but I haven't thought much
@c about that idea.  Of course -r .reset or something
@c could be coined if this needs to be a new option).
@c On the other hand, having -A mean "get things back
@c into the state after a fresh checkout" has a certain
@c appeal, and maybe there is no sufficient reason for
@c creeping featurism in this area.

The modes available are:

@table @samp
@item -kkv
Generate keyword strings using the default form, e.g.
@code{$@splitrcskeyword{Revision}: 5.7$} for the @code{Revision}
keyword.

@item -kkvl
Like @samp{-kkv}, except that a locker's name is always
inserted if the given revision is currently locked.
The locker's name is only relevant if @code{cvs admin
-l} is in use.

@item -kk
Generate only keyword names in keyword strings; omit
their values.  For example, for the @code{Revision}
keyword, generate the string @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Revision}$}
instead of @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Revision}: 5.7$}.  This option
is useful to ignore differences due to keyword
substitution when comparing different revisions of a
file (@pxref{Merging and keywords}).

@item -ko
Generate the old keyword string, present in the working
file just before it was checked in.  For example, for
the @code{Revision} keyword, generate the string
@code{$@splitrcskeyword{Revision}: 1.1$} instead of
@code{$@splitrcskeyword{Revision}: 5.7$} if that is how the
string appeared when the file was checked in.

@item -kb
Like @samp{-ko}, but also inhibit conversion of line
endings between the canonical form in which they are
stored in the repository (linefeed only), and the form
appropriate to the operating system in use on the
client.  For systems, like unix, which use linefeed
only to terminate lines, this is very similar to
@ref{Binary files}.  In @sc{cvs} version 1.12.2 and later
@code{cvs import} may not be overridden by a @samp{-k} option
specified on the command line.

@item -kv
Generate only keyword values for keyword strings.  For
example, for the @code{Revision} keyword, generate the string
@code{5.7} instead of @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Revision}: 5.7$}.
This can help generate files in programming languages
where it is hard to strip keyword delimiters like
@code{$@splitrcskeyword{Revision}:$} from a string.  However,
further keyword substitution cannot be performed once
the keyword names are removed, so this option should be
used with care.

One often would like to use @samp{-kv} with @code{cvs
export}---@pxref{export}.  But be aware that doesn't
handle an export containing binary files correctly.

@end table

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Configuring keyword expansion
@section Configuring Keyword Expansion
@cindex Configuring keyword expansion

In a repository that includes third-party software on
vendor branches, it is sometimes helpful to configure
CVS to use a local keyword instead of the standard
$@splitrcskeyword{Id}$ or $@splitrcskeyword{Header}$ keywords. Examples from
real projects include $@splitrcskeyword{Xorg}$, $@splitrcskeyword{XFree86}$,
$@splitrcskeyword{FreeBSD}$, $@splitrcskeyword{NetBSD}$,
$@splitrcskeyword{OpenBSD}$, and even $@splitrcskeyword{dotat}$.
The advantage of this is that
you can include your local version information in a
file using this local keyword (sometimes called a
custom tag'' or a local tag'') without disrupting
the upstream version information (which may be a
different local keyword or a standard keyword). In
these cases, it is typically desirable to disable the
expansion of all keywords except the configured local
keyword.

The @code{KeywordExpand} option in the
@file{CVSROOT/config} file is intended to allow for the
either the explicit exclusion of a keyword or list of
keywords, or for the explicit inclusion of a keyword or
a list of keywords. This list may include the
@code{LocalKeyword} that has been configured.

The @code{KeywordExpand} option is followed by
@code{=} and the next character may either be @code{i}
to start an inclusion list or @code{e} to start an
exclusion list. If the following lines were added to
the @file{CVSROOT/config} file:

@example
# Add a "MyBSD" keyword and restrict keyword
# expansion
KeywordExpand=iMyBSD
@end example

then only the $@splitrcskeyword{MyBSD}$ keyword would be expanded.
A list may be used. The this example:

@example
# Add a "MyBSD" keyword and restrict keyword
# expansion to the MyBSD, Name and Date keywords.
KeywordExpand=iMyBSD,Name,Date
@end example

would allow $@splitrcskeyword{MyBSD}$, $@splitrcskeyword{Name}$, and
$@splitrcskeyword{Date}$ to be expanded.

It is also possible to configure an exclusion list
using the following:

@example
# Do not expand the non-RCS keyword CVSHeader
@end example

This allows @sc{cvs} to ignore the recently introduced
$@splitrcskeyword{CVSHeader}$ keyword and retain all of the
others. The exclusion entry could also contain the
standard RCS keyword list, but this could be confusing
to users that expect RCS keywords to be expanded, so
care should be taken to properly set user expectations
for a repository that is configured in that manner.

If there is a desire to not have any RCS keywords
expanded and not use the @code{-ko} flags everywhere,
an administrator may disable all keyword expansion
using the @file{CVSROOT/config} line:

@example
# Do not expand any RCS keywords
KeywordExpand=i
@end example

this could be confusing to users that expect RCS
keywords like $@splitrcskeyword{Id}$ to be expanded properly,
so care should be taken to properly set user
expectations for a repository so configured.

It should be noted that a patch to provide both the
@code{KeywordExpand} and @code{LocalKeyword} features
has been around a long time. However, that patch
implemented these features using @code{tag=} and
@code{tagexpand=} keywords and those keywords are NOT
recognized.

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Log keyword
@section Problems with the $@splitrcskeyword{Log}$ keyword.

The @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$} keyword is somewhat
controversial.  As long as you are working on your
development system the information is easily accessible
even if you do not use the @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$}
keyword---just do a @code{cvs log}.  Once you export
the file the history information might be useless
anyhow.

A more serious concern is that @sc{cvs} is not good at
handling @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$} entries when a branch is
merged onto the main trunk.  Conflicts often result
from the merging operation.
@c Might want to check whether the CVS implementation
@c of RCS_merge has this problem the same way rcsmerge
@c does.  I would assume so....

People also tend to "fix" the log entries in the file
(correcting spelling mistakes and maybe even factual
errors).  If that is done the information from
@code{cvs log} will not be consistent with the
information inside the file.  This may or may not be a
problem in real life.

It has been suggested that the @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$}
keyword should be inserted @emph{last} in the file, and
not in the files header, if it is to be used at all.
That way the long list of change messages will not
interfere with everyday source file browsing.

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Tracking sources
@chapter Tracking third-party sources
@cindex Third-party sources
@cindex Tracking sources

@c FIXME: Need discussion of added and removed files.
@c FIXME: This doesn't really adequately introduce the
@c concepts of "vendor" and "you".  They don't *have*
@c to be separate organizations or separate people.
@c We want a description which is somewhat more based on
@c the technical issues of which sources go where, but
@c also with enough examples of how this relates to
@c relationships like customer-supplier, developer-QA,
@c maintainer-contributor, or whatever, to make it
@c seem concrete.
If you modify a program to better fit your site, you
probably want to include your modifications when the next

@cindex Vendor
@cindex Vendor branch
@cindex Branch, vendor-
In the terminology used in @sc{cvs}, the supplier of the
program is called a @dfn{vendor}.  The unmodified
distribution from the vendor is checked in on its own
branch, the @dfn{vendor branch}.  @sc{cvs} reserves branch
1.1.1 for this use.

When you modify the source and commit it, your revision
will end up on the main trunk.  When a new release is
made by the vendor, you commit it on the vendor branch
and copy the modifications onto the main trunk.

Use the @code{import} command to create and update
the vendor branch.  When you import a new file,
(usually) the vendor branch is made the head' revision, so
anyone that checks out a copy of the file gets that
revision.  When a local modification is committed it is
revision.

* First import::                Importing for the first time
* Update imports::              Updating with the import command
* Reverting local changes::     Reverting to the latest vendor release
* Binary files in imports::     Binary files require special handling
* Keywords in imports::         Keyword substitution might be undesirable
* Multiple vendor branches::    What if you get sources from several places?

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node First import
@section Importing for the first time
@cindex Importing modules

@c Should mention naming conventions for vendor tags,
@c release tags, and perhaps directory names.
Use the @code{import} command to check in the sources
for the first time.  When you use the @code{import}
command to track third-party sources, the @dfn{vendor
tag} and @dfn{release tags} are useful.  The
@dfn{vendor tag} is a symbolic name for the branch
(which is always 1.1.1, unless you use the @samp{-b
@var{branch}} flag---see @ref{Multiple vendor branches}.).  The
@dfn{release tags} are symbolic names for a particular
release, such as @samp{FSF_0_04}.

@c I'm not completely sure this belongs here.  But
@c we need to say it _somewhere_ reasonably obvious; it
@c is a common misconception among people first learning CVS
Note that @code{import} does @emph{not} change the
directory in which you invoke it.  In particular, it
does not set up that directory as a @sc{cvs} working
directory; if you want to work with the sources import
them first and then check them out into a different
directory (@pxref{Getting the source}).

@cindex wdiff (import example)
Suppose you have the sources to a program called
@code{wdiff} in a directory @file{wdiff-0.04},
and are going to make private modifications that you
want to be able to use even when new releases are made
in the future.  You start by importing the source to

@example
$cd wdiff-0.04$ cvs import -m "Import of FSF v. 0.04" fsf/wdiff FSF_DIST WDIFF_0_04
@end example

The vendor tag is named @samp{FSF_DIST} in the above
example, and the only release tag assigned is
@samp{WDIFF_0_04}.
@c FIXME: Need to say where fsf/wdiff comes from.

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Update imports
@section Updating with the import command

When a new release of the source arrives, you import it into the
repository with the same @code{import} command that you used to set up
the repository in the first place.  The only difference is that you
specify a different release tag this time:

@example
$tar xfz wdiff-0.05.tar.gz$ cd wdiff-0.05
$cvs import -m "Import of FSF v. 0.05" fsf/wdiff FSF_DIST WDIFF_0_05 @end example @strong{WARNING: If you use a release tag that already exists in one of the repository archives, files removed by an import may not be detected.} For files that have not been modified locally, the newly created revision becomes the head revision. If you have made local changes, @code{import} will warn you that you must merge the changes into the main trunk, and tell you to use @samp{checkout -j} to do so: @c FIXME: why "wdiff" here and "fsf/wdiff" in the @c "import"? I think the assumption is that one has @c "wdiff fsf/wdiff" or some such in modules, but it @c would be better to not use modules in this example. @example$ cvs checkout -jFSF_DIST:yesterday -jFSF_DIST wdiff
@end example

@noindent
The above command will check out the latest revision of
@samp{wdiff}, merging the changes made on the vendor branch @samp{FSF_DIST}
since yesterday into the working copy.  If any conflicts arise during
the merge they should be resolved in the normal way (@pxref{Conflicts
example}).  Then, the modified files may be committed.

However, it is much better to use the two release tags rather than using
a date on the branch as suggested above:

@example
$cvs checkout -jWDIFF_0_04 -jWDIFF_0_05 wdiff @end example @noindent The reason this is better is that using a date, as suggested above, assumes that you do not import more than one release of a product per day. More importantly, using the release tags allows @sc{cvs} to detect files that were removed between the two vendor releases and mark them for removal. Since @code{import} has no way to detect removed files, you should do a merge like this even if @code{import} doesn't tell you to. @node Reverting local changes @section Reverting to the latest vendor release You can also revert local changes completely and return to the latest vendor release by changing the head' revision back to the vendor branch on all files. For example, if you have a checked-out copy of the sources in @file{~/work.d/wdiff}, and you want to revert to the vendor's version for all the files in that directory, you would type: @example$ cd ~/work.d/wdiff
$cvs admin -bFSF_DIST . @end example @noindent You must specify the @samp{-bFSF_DIST} without any space after the @samp{-b}. @xref{admin options}. @node Binary files in imports @section How to handle binary files with cvs import Use the @samp{-k} wrapper option to tell import which files are binary. @xref{Wrappers}. @node Keywords in imports @section How to handle keyword substitution with cvs import The sources which you are importing may contain keywords (@pxref{Keyword substitution}). For example, the vendor may use @sc{cvs} or some other system which uses similar keyword expansion syntax. If you just import the files in the default fashion, then the keyword expansions supplied by the vendor will be replaced by keyword expansions supplied by your own copy of @sc{cvs}. It may be more convenient to maintain the expansions supplied by the vendor, so that this information can supply information about the sources that you imported from the vendor. To maintain the keyword expansions supplied by the vendor, supply the @samp{-ko} option to @code{cvs import} the first time you import the file. This will turn off keyword expansion for that file entirely, so if you want to be more selective you'll have to think about what you want and use the @samp{-k} option to @code{cvs update} or @code{cvs admin} as appropriate. @c Supplying -ko to import if the file already existed @c has no effect. Not clear to me whether it should @c or not. @node Multiple vendor branches @section Multiple vendor branches All the examples so far assume that there is only one vendor from which you are getting sources. In some situations you might get sources from a variety of places. For example, suppose that you are dealing with a project where many different people and teams are modifying the software. There are a variety of ways to handle this, but in some cases you have a bunch of source trees lying around and what you want to do more than anything else is just to all put them in @sc{cvs} so that you at least have them in one place. For handling situations in which there may be more than one vendor, you may specify the @samp{-b} option to @code{cvs import}. It takes as an argument the vendor branch to import to. The default is @samp{-b 1.1.1}. For example, suppose that there are two teams, the red team and the blue team, that are sending you sources. You want to import the red team's efforts to branch 1.1.1 and use the vendor tag RED. You want to import the blue team's efforts to branch 1.1.3 and use the vendor tag BLUE. So the commands you might use are: @example$ cvs import dir RED RED_1-0
$cvs import -b 1.1.3 dir BLUE BLUE_1-5 @end example Note that if your vendor tag does not match your @samp{-b} option, @sc{cvs} will not detect this case! For example, @example$ cvs import -b 1.1.3 dir RED RED_1-0
@end example

@noindent
Be careful; this kind of mismatch is sure to sow
confusion or worse.  I can't think of a useful purpose
for the ability to specify a mismatch here, but if you
discover such a use, don't.  @sc{cvs} is likely to make this
an error in some future release.

@c Probably should say more about the semantics of
@c multiple branches.  What about the default branch?
@c What about joining (perhaps not as useful with
@c multiple branches, or perhaps it is.  Either way
@c should be mentioned).

@c I'm not sure about the best location for this.  In
@c one sense, it might belong right after we've introduced
@c CVS's basic version control model, because people need
@c to figure out builds right away.  The current location
@c is based on the theory that it kind of akin to the
@c "Revision management" section.
@node Builds
@chapter How your build system interacts with CVS
@cindex Builds
@cindex make

As mentioned in the introduction, @sc{cvs} does not
contain software for building your software from source
code.  This section describes how various aspects of
your build system might interact with @sc{cvs}.

@c Is there a way to discuss this without reference to
@c tools other than CVS?  I'm not sure there is; I
@c wouldn't think that people who learn CVS first would
@c even have this concern.
One common question, especially from people who are
accustomed to @sc{rcs}, is how to make their build get
an up to date copy of the sources.  The answer to this
with @sc{cvs} is two-fold.  First of all, since
@sc{cvs} itself can recurse through directories, there
is no need to modify your @file{Makefile} (or whatever
configuration file your build tool uses) to make sure
each file is up to date.  Instead, just use two
commands, first @code{cvs -q update} and then
@code{make} or whatever the command is to invoke your
build tool.  Secondly, you do not necessarily
@emph{want} to get a copy of a change someone else made
until you have finished your own work.  One suggested
approach is to first update your sources, then
implement, build and
test the change you were thinking of, and then commit
your sources (updating first if necessary).  By
periodically (in between changes, using the approach
just described) updating your entire tree, you ensure
that your sources are sufficiently up to date.

@cindex Bill of materials
One common need is to record which versions of which
source files went into a particular build.  This kind
of functionality is sometimes called @dfn{bill of
materials} or something similar.  The best way to do
this with @sc{cvs} is to use the @code{tag} command to
record which versions went into a given build
(@pxref{Tags}).

Using @sc{cvs} in the most straightforward manner
possible, each developer will have a copy of the entire
source tree which is used in a particular build.  If
the source tree is small, or if developers are
geographically dispersed, this is the preferred
solution.  In fact one approach for larger projects is
to break a project down into smaller
@c I say subsystem instead of module because they may or
@c may not use the modules file.
separately-compiled subsystems, and arrange a way of
releasing them internally so that each developer need
check out only those subsystems which they are
actively working on.

Another approach is to set up a structure which allows
developers to have their own copies of some files, and
for other files to access source files from a central
location.  Many people have come up with some such a
@c two such people are paul@sander.cupertino.ca.us (for
@c a previous employer)
@c and gunnar.tornblom@se.abb.com (spicm and related tools),
@c but as far as I know
@c no one has nicely packaged or released such a system (or
@c instructions for constructing one).
system using features such as the symbolic link feature
found in many operating systems, or the @code{VPATH}
feature found in many versions of @code{make}.  One build
tool which is designed to help with this kind of thing
is Odin (see
@c Should we be saying more about Odin?  Or how you use
@c it with CVS?  Also, the Prime Time Freeware for Unix
@c disk (see http://www.ptf.com/) has Odin (with a nice
@c paragraph summarizing it on the web), so that might be a
@c semi-"official" place to point people.
@c
@c Of course, many non-CVS systems have this kind of
@c functionality, for example OSF's ODE
@c (http://www.osf.org/ode/) or mk
@c (http://www.grin.net/~pzi/mk-3.18.4.docs/mk_toc.html
@c He has changed providers in the past; a search engine search
@c for "Peter Ziobrzynski" probably won't get too many
@c spurious hits :-).  A more stable URL might be
@c ftp://ftp.uu.net/pub/cmvc/mk).  But I'm not sure
@c there is any point in mentioning them here unless they
@c can work with CVS.

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Special Files
@chapter Special Files

@cindex Special files
@cindex Device nodes
@cindex Ownership, saving in CVS
@cindex Permissions, saving in CVS

In normal circumstances, @sc{cvs} works only with regular
files.  Every file in a project is assumed to be
persistent; it must be possible to open, read and close
them; and so on.  @sc{cvs} also ignores file permissions and
ownerships, leaving such issues to be resolved by the
developer at installation time.  In other words, it is
not possible to "check in" a device into a repository;
if the device file cannot be opened, @sc{cvs} will refuse to
handle it.  Files also lose their ownerships and
permissions during repository transactions.

@ignore
If the configuration variable @code{PreservePermissions}
(@pxref{config}) is set in the repository, @sc{cvs} will
save the following file characteristics in the
repository:

@itemize @bullet
@item user and group ownership
@item permissions
@item major and minor device numbers
@end itemize

Using the @code{PreservePermissions} option affects the
behavior of @sc{cvs} in several ways.  First, some of the
new operations supported by @sc{cvs} are not accessible to
all users.  In particular, file ownership and special
file characteristics may only be changed by the
superuser.  When the @code{PreservePermissions}
configuration variable is set, therefore, users will
have to be root' in order to perform @sc{cvs} operations.

When @code{PreservePermissions} is in use, some @sc{cvs}
operations (such as @samp{cvs status}) will not
recognize a file's hard link structure, and so will
The reason is that @sc{cvs}'s internal structure does not
make it easy for these operations to collect all the
conflicts with inaccurate data.

A more subtle difference is that @sc{cvs} considers a file
to have changed only if its contents have changed
(specifically, if the modification time of the working
file does not match that of the repository's file).
Therefore, if only the permissions, ownership or hard
linkage have changed, or if a device's major or minor
numbers have changed, @sc{cvs} will not notice.  In order to
commit such a change to the repository, you must force
the commit with @samp{cvs commit -f}.  This also means
that if a file's permissions have changed and the
repository file is newer than the working copy,
performing @samp{cvs update} will silently change the
permissions on the working copy.

Changing hard links in a @sc{cvs} repository is particularly
delicate.  Suppose that file @file{foo} is linked to
file @file{old}, but is later relinked to file
@file{new}.  You can wind up in the unusual situation
where, although @file{foo}, @file{old} and @file{new}
only @file{foo} and @file{new} have been modified, so
@file{old} is not considered a candidate for checking
in.  It can be very easy to produce inconsistent
results this way.  Therefore, we recommend that when it
is important to save hard links in a repository, the
prudent course of action is to @code{touch} any file
whose linkage or status has changed since the last
checkin.  Indeed, it may be wise to @code{touch *}
before each commit in a directory with complex hard

It is worth noting that only regular files may
be merged, for reasons that hopefully are obvious.  If
@samp{cvs update} or @samp{cvs checkout -j} attempts to
merge a symbolic link with a regular file, or two
device files for different kinds of devices, @sc{cvs} will
report a conflict and refuse to perform the merge.  At
the same time, @samp{cvs diff} will not report any
differences between these files, since no meaningful
textual comparisons can be made on files which contain
no text.

The @code{PreservePermissions} features do not work
with client/server @sc{cvs}.  Another limitation is
that hard links must be to other files within the same
directory; hard links across directories are not
supported.
@end ignore

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@c ----- START MAN 1 -----
@node CVS commands
@appendix Guide to CVS commands

This appendix describes the overall structure of
@sc{cvs} commands, and describes some commands in
detail (others are described elsewhere; for a quick
reference to @sc{cvs} commands, @pxref{Invoking CVS}).
@c The idea is that we want to move the commands which
@c are described here into the main body of the manual,
@c in the process reorganizing the manual to be
@c organized around what the user wants to do, not
@c organized around CVS commands.
@c
@c Note that many users do expect a manual which is
@c organized by command.  At least some users do.
@c One good addition to the "organized by command"
@c The awk manual might be a good example; it has a
@c reference manual which is more verbose than Invoking
@c CVS but probably somewhat less verbose than CVS
@c Commands.

* Structure::                   Overall structure of CVS commands
* Exit status::                 Indicating CVS's success or failure
* ~/.cvsrc::                    Default options with the ~/.cvsrc file
* Global options::              Options you give to the left of cvs_command
* Common options::              Options you give to the right of cvs_command
* Date input formats::		Acceptable formats for date specifications
* annotate::                    What revision modified each line of a file?
* checkout::                    Checkout sources for editing
* commit::                      Check files into the repository
* diff::                        Show differences between revisions
* export::                      Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
* history::                     Show status of files and users
* import::                      Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
* log::                         Show log messages for files
* ls & rls::                    List files in the repository
* rdiff::                       'patch' format diffs between releases
* release::                     Indicate that a directory is no longer in use
* server & pserver::            Act as a server for a client on stdin/stdout
* update::                      Bring work tree in sync with repository

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Structure
@appendixsec Overall structure of CVS commands
@cindex Structure
@cindex CVS command structure
@cindex Command structure
@cindex Format of CVS commands

The overall format of all @sc{cvs} commands is:

@example
cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]
@end example

@table @code
@item cvs
The name of the @sc{cvs} program.

@item cvs_options
Some options that affect all sub-commands of @sc{cvs}.  These are
described below.

@item cvs_command
One of several different sub-commands.  Some of the commands have
aliases that can be used instead; those aliases are noted in the
reference manual for that command.  There are only two situations
where you may omit @samp{cvs_command}: @samp{cvs -H} elicits a
list of available commands, and @samp{cvs -v} displays version
information on @sc{cvs} itself.

@item command_options
Options that are specific for the command.

@item command_args
Arguments to the commands.
@end table

There is unfortunately some confusion between
@code{cvs_options} and @code{command_options}.
When given as a @code{cvs_option}, some options only
affect some of the commands.  When given as a
@code{command_option} it may have a different meaning, and
be accepted by more commands.  In other words, do not
take the above categorization too seriously.  Look at

@node Exit status
@appendixsec CVS's exit status
@cindex Exit status, of CVS

@sc{cvs} can indicate to the calling environment whether it
succeeded or failed by setting its @dfn{exit status}.
The exact way of testing the exit status will vary from
one operating system to another.  For example in a unix
shell script the @samp{$?} variable will be 0 if the last command returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status indicated failure. If @sc{cvs} is successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an error, it prints an error message and returns a failure status. The one exception to this is the @code{cvs diff} command. It will return a successful status if it found no differences, or a failure status if there were differences or if there was an error. Because this behavior provides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is possible that @code{cvs diff} will be changed to behave like the other @sc{cvs} commands. @c It might seem like checking whether cvs -q diff @c produces empty or non-empty output can tell whether @c there were differences or not. But it seems like @c there are cases with output but no differences @c (testsuite basica-8b). It is not clear to me how @c useful it is for a script to be able to check @c whether there were differences. @c FIXCVS? In previous versions of CVS, cvs diff @c returned 0 for no differences, 1 for differences, or @c 2 for errors. Is this behavior worth trying to @c bring back (but what does it mean for VMS?)? @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node ~/.cvsrc @appendixsec Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file @cindex .cvsrc file @cindex Option defaults There are some @code{command_options} that are used so often that you might have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always specify that option. One example (the one that drove the implementation of the @file{.cvsrc} support, actually) is that many people find the default output of the @samp{diff} command to be very hard to read, and that either context diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand. The @file{~/.cvsrc} file is a way that you can add default options to @code{cvs_commands} within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts. The format of the @file{~/.cvsrc} file is simple. The file is searched for a line that begins with the same name as the @code{cvs_command} being executed. If a match is found, then the remainder of the line is split up (at whitespace characters) into separate options and added to the command arguments @emph{before} any options from the command line. If a command has two names (e.g., @code{checkout} and @code{co}), the official name, not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match against the file. So if this is the contents of the user's @file{~/.cvsrc} file: @example log -N diff -uN rdiff -u update -Pd checkout -P release -d @end example @noindent the command @samp{cvs checkout foo} would have the @samp{-P} option added to the arguments, as well as @samp{cvs co foo}. With the example file above, the output from @samp{cvs diff foobar} will be in unidiff format. @samp{cvs diff -c foobar} will provide context diffs, as usual. Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more complicated, because @code{diff} doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format, so you would need @samp{cvs -f diff foobar}. In place of the command name you can use @code{cvs} to specify global options (@pxref{Global options}). For example the following line in @file{.cvsrc} @example cvs -z6 @end example @noindent causes @sc{cvs} to use compression level 6. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Global options @appendixsec Global options @cindex Options, global @cindex Global options @cindex Left-hand options The available @samp{cvs_options} (that are given to the left of @samp{cvs_command}) are: @table @code @item --allow-root=@var{rootdir} May be invoked multiple times to specify one legal @sc{cvsroot} directory with each invocation. Also causes CVS to preparse the configuration file for each specified root, which can be useful when configuring write proxies, See @ref{Password authentication server} & @ref{Write proxies}. @cindex Authentication, stream @cindex Stream authentication @item -a Authenticate all communication between the client and the server. Only has an effect on the @sc{cvs} client. As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI connection (@pxref{GSSAPI authenticated}). Authentication prevents certain sorts of attacks involving hijacking the active @sc{tcp} connection. Enabling authentication does not enable encryption. @cindex RCSBIN, overriding @cindex Overriding RCSBIN @item -b @var{bindir} In @sc{cvs} 1.9.18 and older, this specified that @sc{rcs} programs are in the @var{bindir} directory. Current versions of @sc{cvs} do not run @sc{rcs} programs; for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing. @cindex TMPDIR, environment variable @cindex temporary file directory, set via command line @cindex temporary file directory, set via environment variable @cindex temporary file directory, set via config @cindex temporary files, location of @item -T @var{tempdir} Use @var{tempdir} as the directory where temporary files are located. The @sc{cvs} client and server store temporary files in a temporary directory. The path to this temporary directory is set via, in order of precedence: @itemize @bullet @item The argument to the global @samp{-T} option. @item The value set for @code{TmpDir} in the config file (server only - @pxref{config}). @item The contents of the @code{$TMPDIR} environment variable (@code{%TMPDIR%} on
Windows - @pxref{Environment variables}).

@item
/tmp

@end itemize

Temporary directories should always be specified as an absolute pathname.
When running a CVS client, @samp{-T} affects only the local process;
specifying @samp{-T} for the client has no effect on the server and
vice versa.

@cindex CVSROOT, overriding
@cindex Overriding CVSROOT
@item -d @var{cvs_root_directory}
Use @var{cvs_root_directory} as the root directory
pathname of the repository.  Overrides the setting of
the @code{$CVSROOT} environment variable. @xref{Repository}. @cindex EDITOR, overriding @cindex Overriding EDITOR @item -e @var{editor} Use @var{editor} to enter revision log information. Overrides the setting of the @code{$CVSEDITOR} and @code{$EDITOR} environment variables. For more information, see @ref{Committing your changes}. @item -f Do not read the @file{~/.cvsrc} file. This option is most often used because of the non-orthogonality of the @sc{cvs} option set. For example, the @samp{cvs log} option @samp{-N} (turn off display of tag names) does not have a corresponding option to turn the display on. So if you have @samp{-N} in the @file{~/.cvsrc} entry for @samp{log}, you may need to use @samp{-f} to show the tag names. @item -H @itemx --help Display usage information about the specified @samp{cvs_command} (but do not actually execute the command). If you don't specify a command name, @samp{cvs -H} displays overall help for @sc{cvs}, including a list of other help options. @c It seems to me it is better to document it this way @c rather than trying to update this documentation @c every time that we add a --help-foo option. But @c perhaps that is confusing... @cindex Read-only repository mode @item -R Turns on read-only repository mode. This allows one to check out from a read-only repository, such as within an anoncvs server, or from a @sc{cd-rom} repository. Same effect as if the @code{CVSREADONLYFS} environment variable is set. Using @samp{-R} can also considerably speed up checkouts over NFS. @cindex Read-only mode @item -n Do not change any files. Attempt to execute the @samp{cvs_command}, but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing files, or create any new files. Note that @sc{cvs} will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as without @samp{-n}. In some cases the output will be the same, but in other cases @sc{cvs} will skip some of the processing that would have been required to produce the exact same output. @item -Q Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate output for serious problems. @item -q Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages, such as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed. @cindex Read-only files, and -r @item -r Make new working files read-only. Same effect as if the @code{$CVSREAD} environment variable is set
(@pxref{Environment variables}).  The default is to
make working files writable, unless watches are on
(@pxref{Watches}).

@item -s @var{variable}=@var{value}
Set a user variable (@pxref{Variables}).

@cindex Trace
@item -t
Trace program execution; display messages showing the steps of
@sc{cvs} activity.  Particularly useful with @samp{-n} to explore the
potential impact of an unfamiliar command.

@item -v
@item --version
Display version and copyright information for @sc{cvs}.

@item -w
Make new working files read-write.  Overrides the
setting of the @code{$CVSREAD} environment variable. Files are created read-write by default, unless @code{$CVSREAD} is
set or @samp{-r} is given.
@c Note that -w only overrides -r and CVSREAD; it has
@c no effect on files which are readonly because of
@c "cvs watch on".  My guess is that is the way it
@c should be (or should "cvs -w get" on a watched file
@c be the same as a get and a cvs edit?), but I'm not
@c completely sure whether to document it this way.

@item -x
@cindex Encryption
Encrypt all communication between the client and the
server.  Only has an effect on the @sc{cvs} client.  As
of this writing, this is only implemented when using a
GSSAPI connection (@pxref{GSSAPI authenticated}) or a
Kerberos connection (@pxref{Kerberos authenticated}).
Enabling encryption implies that message traffic is
also authenticated.  Encryption support is not
available by default; it must be enabled using a
special configure option, @file{--enable-encryption},
when you build @sc{cvs}.

@item -z @var{level}
@cindex Compression
@cindex Gzip
Request compression @var{level} for network traffic.
@sc{cvs} interprets @var{level} identically to the @code{gzip} program.
Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low compression) to
9 (low speed, high compression), or 0 to disable
compression (the default).  Data sent to the server will
be compressed at the requested level and the client will request
the server use the same compression level for data returned.  The
server will use the closest level allowed by the server administrator to
compress returned data.  This option only has an effect when passed to
the @sc{cvs} client.
@end table

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Common options
@appendixsec Common command options
@cindex Common options
@cindex Right-hand options

This section describes the @samp{command_options} that
are available across several @sc{cvs} commands.  These
options are always given to the right of
@samp{cvs_command}. Not all
commands support all of these options; each option is
only supported for commands where it makes sense.
However, when a command has one of these options you
can almost always count on the same behavior of the
option as in other commands.  (Other command options,
which are listed with the individual commands, may have
different behavior from one @sc{cvs} command to the other).

@strong{Note: the @samp{history} command is an exception; it supports
many options that conflict even with these standard options.}

@table @code
@cindex Dates
@cindex Time
@cindex Specifying dates
@item -D @var{date_spec}
Use the most recent revision no later than @var{date_spec}.
@var{date_spec} is a single argument, a date description
specifying a date in the past.

The specification is @dfn{sticky} when you use it to make a
private copy of a source file; that is, when you get a working
file using @samp{-D}, @sc{cvs} records the date you specified, so that
further updates in the same directory will use the same date

@samp{-D} is available with the @code{annotate}, @code{checkout},
@code{diff}, @code{export}, @code{history}, @code{ls},
@code{rdiff}, @code{rls}, @code{rtag}, @code{tag}, and @code{update} commands.
(The @code{history} command uses this option in a
slightly different way; @pxref{history options}).

For a complete description of the date formats accepted by @sc{cvs},
@ref{Date input formats}.
@c What other formats should we accept?  I don't want
@c to start accepting a whole mess of non-standard
@c new formats (there are a lot which are in wide use in
@c one context or another), but practicality does
@c dictate some level of flexibility.
@c * POSIX.2 (e.g. touch, ls output, date) and other
@c POSIX and/or de facto unix standards (e.g. at).  The
@c practice here is too inconsistent to be of any use.
@c * VMS dates.  This is not a formal standard, but
@c there is a published specification (see SYS$ASCTIM @c and SYS$BINTIM in the _VMS System Services Reference
@c Manual_), it is implemented consistently in VMS
@c utilities, and VMS users will expect CVS running on
@c VMS to support this format (and if we're going to do
@c that, better to make CVS support it on all
@c platforms.  Maybe).
@c
@c One more note: In output, CVS should consistently
@c use one date format, and that format should be one that
@c it accepts in input as well.  The former isn't
@c really true (see survey below), and I'm not
@c sure that either of those formats is accepted in
@c input.
@c
@c cvs log
@c   current 1996/01/02 13:45:31
@c   Internet 02 Jan 1996 13:45:31 UT
@c   ISO 1996-01-02 13:45:31
@c cvs ann
@c   current 02-Jan-96
@c   Internet-like 02 Jan 96
@c   ISO 96-01-02
@c cvs status
@c   current Tue Jun 11 02:54:53 1996
@c   Internet [Tue,] 11 Jun 1996 02:54:53
@c   ISO 1996-06-11 02:54:53
@c   note: date possibly should be omitted entirely for
@c   other reasons.
@c cvs editors
@c   current Tue Jun 11 02:54:53 1996 GMT
@c cvs history
@c   current 06/11 02:54 +0000
@c any others?
@c There is a good chance the proper solution has to
@c involve at least some level of letting the user
@c decide which format (with the default being the
@c formats CVS has always used; changing these might be
@c _very_ disruptive since scripts may very well be
@c parsing them).
@c
@c Another random bit of prior art concerning dates is
@c the strptime function which takes templates such as
@c "%m/%d/%y", and apparent a variant of getdate()
@c which also honors them.  See
@c X/Open CAE Specification, System Interfaces and
@c Headers Issue 4, Version 2 (September 1994), in the
@c entry for getdate() on page 231

Remember to quote the argument to the @samp{-D}
flag so that your shell doesn't interpret spaces as
argument separators.  A command using the @samp{-D}
flag can look like this:

@example
$cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo @end example @cindex Forcing a tag match @item -f When you specify a particular date or tag to @sc{cvs} commands, they normally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or did not exist prior to the date) that you specified. Use the @samp{-f} option if you want files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or date. (The most recent revision of the file will be used). Note that even with @samp{-f}, a tag that you specify must exist (that is, in some file, not necessary in every file). This is so that @sc{cvs} will continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name. @need 800 @samp{-f} is available with these commands: @code{annotate}, @code{checkout}, @code{export}, @code{rdiff}, @code{rtag}, and @code{update}. @strong{WARNING: The @code{commit} and @code{remove} commands also have a @samp{-f} option, but it has a different behavior for those commands. See @ref{commit options}, and @ref{Removing files}.} @item -k @var{kflag} Override the default processing of RCS keywords other than @samp{-kb}. @xref{Keyword substitution}, for the meaning of @var{kflag}. Used with the @code{checkout} and @code{update} commands, your @var{kflag} specification is @dfn{sticky}; that is, when you use this option with a @code{checkout} or @code{update} command, @sc{cvs} associates your selected @var{kflag} with any files it operates on, and continues to use that @var{kflag} with future commands on the same files until you specify otherwise. The @samp{-k} option is available with the @code{add}, @code{checkout}, @code{diff}, @code{export}, @code{import}, @code{rdiff}, and @code{update} commands. @strong{WARNING: Prior to CVS version 1.12.2, the @samp{-k} flag overrode the @samp{-kb} indication for a binary file. This could sometimes corrupt binary files. @xref{Merging and keywords}, for more.} @item -l Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recursing through subdirectories. Available with the following commands: @code{annotate}, @code{checkout}, @code{commit}, @code{diff}, @code{edit}, @code{editors}, @code{export}, @code{log}, @code{rdiff}, @code{remove}, @code{rtag}, @code{status}, @code{tag}, @code{unedit}, @code{update}, @code{watch}, and @code{watchers}. @cindex Editor, avoiding invocation of @cindex Avoiding editor invocation @item -m @var{message} Use @var{message} as log information, instead of invoking an editor. Available with the following commands: @code{add}, @code{commit} and @code{import}. @item -n Do not run any tag program. (A program can be specified to run in the modules database (@pxref{modules}); this option bypasses it). @strong{Note: this is not the same as the @samp{cvs -n} program option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command!} Available with the @code{checkout}, @code{commit}, @code{export}, and @code{rtag} commands. @item -P Prune empty directories. See @ref{Removing directories}. @item -p Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output, rather than writing them in the current directory. Available with the @code{checkout} and @code{update} commands. @item -R Process directories recursively. This is the default for all @sc{cvs} commands, with the exception of @code{ls} & @code{rls}. Available with the following commands: @code{annotate}, @code{checkout}, @code{commit}, @code{diff}, @code{edit}, @code{editors}, @code{export}, @code{ls}, @code{rdiff}, @code{remove}, @code{rls}, @code{rtag}, @code{status}, @code{tag}, @code{unedit}, @code{update}, @code{watch}, and @code{watchers}. @item -r @var{tag} @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] @cindex HEAD, special tag @cindex BASE, special tag Use the revision specified by the @var{tag} argument (and the @var{date} argument for the commands which accept it) instead of the default @dfn{head} revision. As well as arbitrary tags defined with the @code{tag} or @code{rtag} command, two special tags are always available: @samp{HEAD} refers to the most recent version available in the repository, and @samp{BASE} refers to the revision you last checked out into the current working directory. @c FIXME: What does HEAD really mean? I believe that @c the current answer is the head of the default branch @c for all cvs commands except diff. For diff, it @c seems to be (a) the head of the trunk (or the default @c branch?) if there is no sticky tag, (b) the head of the @c branch for the sticky tag, if there is a sticky tag. @c (b) is ugly as it differs @c from what HEAD means for other commands, but people @c and/or scripts are quite possibly used to it. @c See "head" tests in sanity.sh. @c Probably the best fix is to introduce two new @c special tags, ".thead" for the head of the trunk, @c and ".bhead" for the head of the current branch. @c Then deprecate HEAD. This has the advantage of @c not surprising people with a change to HEAD, and a @c side benefit of also phasing out the poorly-named @c HEAD (see discussion of reserved tag names in node @c "Tags"). Of course, .thead and .bhead should be @c carefully implemented (with the implementation the @c same for "diff" as for everyone else), test cases @c written (similar to the ones in "head"), new tests @c cases written for things like default branches, &c. The tag specification is sticky when you use this with @code{checkout} or @code{update} to make your own copy of a file: @sc{cvs} remembers the tag and continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify otherwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, @pxref{Sticky tags}). The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in @ref{Tags}, or the name of a branch, as described in @ref{Branching and merging}. When @var{tag} is the name of a branch, some commands accept the optional @var{date} argument to specify the revision as of the given date on the branch. When a command expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is interpreted as the most recent revision on that branch. Specifying the @samp{-q} global option along with the @samp{-r} command option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the @sc{rcs} file does not contain the specified tag. @strong{Note: this is not the same as the overall @samp{cvs -r} option, which you can specify to the left of a @sc{cvs} command!} @samp{-r @var{tag}} is available with the @code{commit} and @code{history} commands. @samp{-r @var{tag}[:@var{date}]} is available with the @code{annotate}, @code{checkout}, @code{diff}, @code{export}, @code{rdiff}, @code{rtag}, and @code{update} commands. @item -W Specify file names that should be filtered. You can use this option repeatedly. The spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the @file{.cvswrappers} file. Available with the following commands: @code{import}, and @code{update}. @end table @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @include getdate-cvs.texi @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node admin @appendixsec admin---Administration @cindex Admin (subcommand) @itemize @bullet @item Requires: repository, working directory. @item Changes: repository. @item Synonym: rcs @end itemize This is the @sc{cvs} interface to assorted administrative facilities. Some of them have questionable usefulness for @sc{cvs} but exist for historical purposes. Some of the questionable options are likely to disappear in the future. This command @emph{does} work recursively, so extreme care should be used. @cindex cvsadmin @cindex UserAdminOptions, in CVSROOT/config On unix, if there is a group named @code{cvsadmin}, only members of that group can run @code{cvs admin} commands, except for those specified using the @code{UserAdminOptions} configuration option in the @file{CVSROOT/config} file. Options specified using @code{UserAdminOptions} can be run by any user. See @ref{config} for more on @code{UserAdminOptions}. The @code{cvsadmin} group should exist on the server, or any system running the non-client/server @sc{cvs}. To disallow @code{cvs admin} for all users, create a group with no users in it. On NT, the @code{cvsadmin} feature does not exist and all users can run @code{cvs admin}. @menu * admin options:: admin options @end menu @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node admin options @appendixsubsec admin options Some of these options have questionable usefulness for @sc{cvs} but exist for historical purposes. Some even make it impossible to use @sc{cvs} until you undo the effect! @table @code @item -A@var{oldfile} Might not work together with @sc{cvs}. Append the access list of @var{oldfile} to the access list of the @sc{rcs} file. @item -a@var{logins} Might not work together with @sc{cvs}. Append the login names appearing in the comma-separated list @var{logins} to the access list of the @sc{rcs} file. @item -b[@var{rev}] Set the default branch to @var{rev}. In @sc{cvs}, you normally do not manipulate default branches; sticky tags (@pxref{Sticky tags}) are a better way to decide which branch you want to work on. There is one reason to run @code{cvs admin -b}: to revert to the vendor's version when using vendor branches (@pxref{Reverting local changes}). There can be no space between @samp{-b} and its argument. @c Hmm, we don't document the usage where rev is @c omitted. Maybe that usage can/should be deprecated @c (and replaced with -bHEAD or something?) (so we can toss @c the optional argument). Note that -bHEAD does not @c work, as of 17 Sep 1997, but probably will once "cvs @c admin" is internal to CVS. @cindex Comment leader @item -c@var{string} Sets the comment leader to @var{string}. The comment leader is not used by current versions of @sc{cvs} or @sc{rcs} 5.7. Therefore, you can almost surely not worry about it. @xref{Keyword substitution}. @item -e[@var{logins}] Might not work together with @sc{cvs}. Erase the login names appearing in the comma-separated list @var{logins} from the access list of the RCS file. If @var{logins} is omitted, erase the entire access list. There can be no space between @samp{-e} and its argument. @item -I Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal. This option does not work with the client/server @sc{cvs} and is likely to disappear in a future release of @sc{cvs}. @item -i Useless with @sc{cvs}. This creates and initializes a new @sc{rcs} file, without depositing a revision. With @sc{cvs}, add files with the @code{cvs add} command (@pxref{Adding files}). @item -k@var{subst} Set the default keyword substitution to @var{subst}. @xref{Keyword substitution}. Giving an explicit @samp{-k} option to @code{cvs update}, @code{cvs export}, or @code{cvs checkout} overrides this default. @item -l[@var{rev}] Lock the revision with number @var{rev}. If a branch is given, lock the latest revision on that branch. If @var{rev} is omitted, lock the latest revision on the default branch. There can be no space between @samp{-l} and its argument. This can be used in conjunction with the @file{rcslock.pl} script in the @file{contrib} directory of the @sc{cvs} source distribution to provide reserved checkouts (where only one user can be editing a given file at a time). See the comments in that file for details (and see the @file{README} file in that directory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature of contrib). According to comments in that file, locking must set to strict (which is the default). @item -L Set locking to strict. Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS file is not exempt from locking for checkin. For use with @sc{cvs}, strict locking must be set; see the discussion under the @samp{-l} option above. @cindex Changing a log message @cindex Replacing a log message @cindex Correcting a log message @cindex Fixing a log message @cindex Log message, correcting @item -m@var{rev}:@var{msg} Replace the log message of revision @var{rev} with @var{msg}. @c The rcs -M option, to suppress sending mail, has never been @c documented as a cvs admin option. @item -N@var{name}[:[@var{rev}]] Act like @samp{-n}, except override any previous assignment of @var{name}. For use with magic branches, see @ref{Magic branch numbers}. @item -n@var{name}[:[@var{rev}]] Associate the symbolic name @var{name} with the branch or revision @var{rev}. It is normally better to use @samp{cvs tag} or @samp{cvs rtag} instead. Delete the symbolic name if both @samp{:} and @var{rev} are omitted; otherwise, print an error message if @var{name} is already associated with another number. If @var{rev} is symbolic, it is expanded before association. A @var{rev} consisting of a branch number followed by a @samp{.} stands for the current latest revision in the branch. A @samp{:} with an empty @var{rev} stands for the current latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. For example, @samp{cvs admin -n@var{name}:} associates @var{name} with the current latest revision of all the RCS files; this contrasts with @samp{cvs admin -n@var{name}:$} which
associates @var{name} with the revision numbers
extracted from keyword strings in the corresponding
working files.

@cindex Deleting revisions
@cindex Outdating revisions
@cindex Saving space
@item -o@var{range}
Deletes (@dfn{outdates}) the revisions given by
@var{range}.

Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless
you know @emph{exactly} what you are doing (for example
see the warnings below about how the
@var{rev1}:@var{rev2} syntax is confusing).

But think twice before using it---there is no way short
of restoring the latest backup to undo this command!
If you delete different revisions than you planned,
either due to carelessness or (heaven forbid) a @sc{cvs}
bug, there is no opportunity to correct the error
before the revisions are deleted.  It probably would be
a good idea to experiment on a copy of the repository
first.

Specify @var{range} in one of the following ways:

@table @code
@item @var{rev1}::@var{rev2}
Collapse all revisions between rev1 and rev2, so that
@sc{cvs} only stores the differences associated with going
from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps.  For
example, after @samp{-o 1.3::1.5} one can retrieve
revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get
from 1.3 to 1.5, but not the revision 1.4, or the
differences between 1.3 and 1.4.  Other examples:
@samp{-o 1.3::1.4} and @samp{-o 1.3::1.3} have no
effect, because there are no intermediate revisions to
remove.

@item ::@var{rev}
Collapse revisions between the beginning of the branch
containing @var{rev} and @var{rev} itself.  The
branchpoint and @var{rev} are left intact.  For
example, @samp{-o ::1.3.2.6} deletes revision 1.3.2.1,
revision 1.3.2.5, and everything in between, but leaves
1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact.

@item @var{rev}::
Collapse revisions between @var{rev} and the end of the
branch containing @var{rev}.  Revision @var{rev} is
left intact but the head revision is deleted.

@item @var{rev}
Delete the revision @var{rev}.  For example, @samp{-o
1.3} is equivalent to @samp{-o 1.2::1.4}.

@item @var{rev1}:@var{rev2}
Delete the revisions from @var{rev1} to @var{rev2},
inclusive, on the same branch.  One will not be able to
retrieve @var{rev1} or @var{rev2} or any of the
revisions in between.  For example, the command
@samp{cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 .} is rarely useful.
It means to delete revisions up to, and including, the
tag R_1_02.  But beware!  If there are files that have not
changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will have
@emph{the same} numerical revision number assigned to
the tags R_1_02 and R_1_03.  So not only will it be
impossible to retrieve R_1_02; R_1_03 will also have to
be restored from the tapes!  In most cases you want to

@item :@var{rev}
Delete revisions from the beginning of the
branch containing @var{rev} up to and including
@var{rev}.

@item @var{rev}:
Delete revisions from revision @var{rev}, including
@var{rev} itself, to the end of the branch containing
@var{rev}.
@end table

None of the revisions to be deleted may have
branches or locks.

If any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic
names, and one specifies one of the @samp{::} syntaxes,
then @sc{cvs} will give an error and not delete any
revisions.  If you really want to delete both the
symbolic names and the revisions, first delete the
symbolic names with @code{cvs tag -d}, then run
@code{cvs admin -o}.  If one specifies the
non-@samp{::} syntaxes, then @sc{cvs} will delete the
revisions but leave the symbolic names pointing to
nonexistent revisions.  This behavior is preserved for
compatibility with previous versions of @sc{cvs}, but
because it isn't very useful, in the future it may
change to be like the @samp{::} case.

Due to the way @sc{cvs} handles branches @var{rev}
cannot be specified symbolically if it is a branch.
@xref{Magic branch numbers}, for an explanation.
@c FIXME: is this still true?  I suspect not.

Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of the
revision you outdate.  Strange things will happen if he
starts to edit it and tries to check it back in.  For
this reason, this option is not a good way to take back
a bogus commit; commit a new revision undoing the bogus

@item -q
Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.

@item -s@var{state}[:@var{rev}]
Useful with @sc{cvs}.  Set the state attribute of the
revision @var{rev} to @var{state}.  If @var{rev} is a
branch number, assume the latest revision on that
branch.  If @var{rev} is omitted, assume the latest
revision on the default branch.  Any identifier is
acceptable for @var{state}.  A useful set of states is
@samp{Exp} (for experimental), @samp{Stab} (for
stable), and @samp{Rel} (for released).  By default,
the state of a new revision is set to @samp{Exp} when
it is created.  The state is visible in the output from
@var{cvs log} (@pxref{log}), and in the
@samp{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$} and @samp{$@splitrcskeyword{State}$} keywords
(@pxref{Keyword substitution}).  Note that @sc{cvs}
uses the @code{dead} state for its own purposes (@pxref{Attic}); to
take a file to or from the @code{dead} state use
commands like @code{cvs remove} and @code{cvs add}

@item -t[@var{file}]
Useful with @sc{cvs}.  Write descriptive text from the
contents of the named @var{file} into the RCS file,
deleting the existing text.  The @var{file} pathname
may not begin with @samp{-}.  The descriptive text can be seen in the
output from @samp{cvs log} (@pxref{log}).
There can be no space between @samp{-t} and its argument.

If @var{file} is omitted,
obtain the text from standard input, terminated by
end-of-file or by a line containing @samp{.} by itself.
Prompt for the text if interaction is possible; see
@samp{-I}.

@item -t-@var{string}
Similar to @samp{-t@var{file}}. Write descriptive text
from the @var{string} into the @sc{rcs} file, deleting
the existing text.
There can be no space between @samp{-t} and its argument.

@c The rcs -T option, do not update last-mod time for
@c minor changes, has never been documented as a

@item -U
Set locking to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means
that the owner of a file need not lock a revision for
checkin.  For use with @sc{cvs}, strict locking must be
set; see the discussion under the @samp{-l} option
above.

@item -u[@var{rev}]
See the option @samp{-l} above, for a discussion of
using this option with @sc{cvs}.  Unlock the revision
with number @var{rev}.  If a branch is given, unlock
the latest revision on that branch.  If @var{rev} is
omitted, remove the latest lock held by the caller.
Normally, only the locker of a revision may unlock it;
somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the lock.
This causes the original locker to be sent a @code{commit}
There can be no space between @samp{-u} and its argument.

@item -V@var{n}
In previous versions of @sc{cvs}, this option meant to
write an @sc{rcs} file which would be acceptable to
@sc{rcs} version @var{n}, but it is now obsolete and
specifying it will produce an error.
@c Note that -V without an argument has never been
@c documented as a cvs admin option.

@item -x@var{suffixes}
In previous versions of @sc{cvs}, this was documented
as a way of specifying the names of the @sc{rcs}
files.  However, @sc{cvs} has always required that the
@sc{rcs} files used by @sc{cvs} end in @samp{,v}, so
this option has never done anything useful.

@c The rcs -z option, to specify the timezone, has
@c never been documented as a cvs admin option.
@end table

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node annotate
@appendixsec annotate---What revision modified each line of a file?
@cindex annotate (subcommand)

@itemize @bullet
@item
Synopsis: annotate [options] files@dots{}
@item
Requires: repository.
@item
Changes: nothing.
@end itemize

For each file in @var{files}, print the head revision
of the trunk, together with information on the last
modification for each line.

* annotate options::            annotate options
* annotate example::            annotate example

@c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
@node annotate options
@appendixsubsec annotate options

These standard options are supported by @code{annotate}
(@pxref{Common options}, for a complete description of
them):

@table @code
@item -l
Local directory only, no recursion.

@item -R
Process directories recursively.

@item -f

@item -F
Annotate binary files.

@item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}]
Annotate file as of specified revision/tag or, when @var{date} is specified
and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it
existed on @var{date}.  See @ref{Common options}.

@item -D @var{date}
Annotate file as of specified date.
@end table

@c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
@node annotate example
@appendixsubsec annotate example

For example:

@example
$cvs annotate ssfile Annotations for ssfile *************** 1.1 (mary 27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1 1.2 (joe 28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2 @end example The file @file{ssfile} currently contains two lines. The @code{ssfile line 1} line was checked in by @code{mary} on March 27. Then, on March 28, @code{joe} added a line @code{ssfile line 2}, without modifying the @code{ssfile line 1} line. This report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or replaced; you need to use @code{cvs diff} for that (@pxref{diff}). The options to @code{cvs annotate} are listed in @ref{Invoking CVS}, and can be used to select the files and revisions to annotate. The options are described in more detail there and in @ref{Common options}. @c FIXME: maybe an example using the options? Just @c what it means to select a revision might be worth a @c few words of explanation ("you want to see who @c changed this line *before* 1.4"...). @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node checkout @appendixsec checkout---Check out sources for editing @cindex checkout (subcommand) @cindex co (subcommand) @itemize @bullet @item Synopsis: checkout [options] modules@dots{} @item Requires: repository. @item Changes: working directory. @item Synonyms: co, get @end itemize Create or update a working directory containing copies of the source files specified by @var{modules}. You must execute @code{checkout} before using most of the other @sc{cvs} commands, since most of them operate on your working directory. The @var{modules} are either symbolic names for some collection of source directories and files, or paths to directories or files in the repository. The symbolic names are defined in the @samp{modules} file. @xref{modules}. @c Needs an example, particularly of the non-"modules" @c case but probably of both. @c FIXME: this seems like a very odd place to introduce @c people to how CVS works. The bit about unreserved @c checkouts is also misleading as it depends on how @c things are set up. Depending on the modules you specify, @code{checkout} may recursively create directories and populate them with the appropriate source files. You can then edit these source files at any time (regardless of whether other software developers are editing their own copies of the sources); update them to include new changes applied by others to the source repository; or commit your work as a permanent change to the source repository. Note that @code{checkout} is used to create directories. The top-level directory created is always added to the directory where @code{checkout} is invoked, and usually has the same name as the specified module. In the case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a different name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and that @code{checkout} will show the relative path leading to each file as it is extracted into your private work area (unless you specify the @samp{-Q} global option). The files created by @code{checkout} are created read-write, unless the @samp{-r} option to @sc{cvs} (@pxref{Global options}) is specified, the @code{CVSREAD} environment variable is specified (@pxref{Environment variables}), or a watch is in effect for that file (@pxref{Watches}). Note that running @code{checkout} on a directory that was already built by a prior @code{checkout} is also permitted. This is similar to specifying the @samp{-d} option to the @code{update} command in the sense that new directories that have been created in the repository will appear in your work area. However, @code{checkout} takes a module name whereas @code{update} takes a directory name. Also to use @code{checkout} this way it must be run from the top level directory (where you originally ran @code{checkout} from), so before you run @code{checkout} to update an existing directory, don't forget to change your directory to the top level directory. For the output produced by the @code{checkout} command see @ref{update output}. @menu * checkout options:: checkout options * checkout examples:: checkout examples @end menu @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node checkout options @appendixsubsec checkout options These standard options are supported by @code{checkout} (@pxref{Common options}, for a complete description of them): @table @code @item -D @var{date} Use the most recent revision no later than @var{date}. This option is sticky, and implies @samp{-P}. See @ref{Sticky tags}, for more information on sticky tags/dates. @item -f Only useful with the @samp{-D} or @samp{-r} flags. If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). @item -k @var{kflag} Process keywords according to @var{kflag}. See @ref{Keyword substitution}. This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use the same @var{kflag}. The @code{status} command can be viewed to see the sticky options. See @ref{Invoking CVS}, for more information on the @code{status} command. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. @item -n Do not run any checkout program (as specified with the @samp{-o} option in the modules file; @pxref{modules}). @item -P Prune empty directories. See @ref{Moving directories}. @item -p Pipe files to the standard output. @item -R Checkout directories recursively. This option is on by default. @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Checkout the revision specified by @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. This option is sticky, and implies @samp{-P}. See @ref{Sticky tags}, for more information on sticky tags/dates. Also, see @ref{Common options}. @end table In addition to those, you can use these special command options with @code{checkout}: @table @code @item -A Reset any sticky tags, dates, or @samp{-k} options. See @ref{Sticky tags}, for more information on sticky tags/dates. @item -c Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of creating or modifying any files or directories in your working directory. @item -d @var{dir} Create a directory called @var{dir} for the working files, instead of using the module name. In general, using this flag is equivalent to using @samp{mkdir @var{dir}; cd @var{dir}} followed by the checkout command without the @samp{-d} flag. There is an important exception, however. It is very convenient when checking out a single item to have the output appear in a directory that doesn't contain empty intermediate directories. In this case @emph{only}, @sc{cvs} tries to shorten'' pathnames to avoid those empty directories. For example, given a module @samp{foo} that contains the file @samp{bar.c}, the command @samp{cvs co -d dir foo} will create directory @samp{dir} and place @samp{bar.c} inside. Similarly, given a module @samp{bar} which has subdirectory @samp{baz} wherein there is a file @samp{quux.c}, the command @samp{cvs co -d dir bar/baz} will create directory @samp{dir} and place @samp{quux.c} inside. Using the @samp{-N} flag will defeat this behavior. Given the same module definitions above, @samp{cvs co -N -d dir foo} will create directories @samp{dir/foo} and place @samp{bar.c} inside, while @samp{cvs co -N -d dir bar/baz} will create directories @samp{dir/bar/baz} and place @samp{quux.c} inside. @item -j @var{tag} With two @samp{-j} options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first @samp{-j} option to the revision specified with the second @samp{j} option, into the working directory. With one @samp{-j} option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the revision specified with the @samp{-j} option, into the working directory. The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of the revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in the @samp{-j} option. In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date specification which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within a specific date. An optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: @samp{-j@var{Symbolic_Tag}:@var{Date_Specifier}}. @xref{Branching and merging}. @item -N Only useful together with @samp{-d @var{dir}}. With this option, @sc{cvs} will not shorten'' module paths in your working directory when you check out a single module. See the @samp{-d} flag for examples and a discussion. @item -s Like @samp{-c}, but include the status of all modules, and sort it by the status string. @xref{modules}, for info about the @samp{-s} option that is used inside the modules file to set the module status. @end table @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node checkout examples @appendixsubsec checkout examples Get a copy of the module @samp{tc}: @example$ cvs checkout tc
@end example

Get a copy of the module @samp{tc} as it looked one day
ago:

@example
$cvs checkout -D yesterday tc @end example @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node commit @appendixsec commit---Check files into the repository @cindex commit (subcommand) @itemize @bullet @item Synopsis: commit [-lnRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision] [files@dots{}] @item Requires: working directory, repository. @item Changes: repository. @item Synonym: ci @end itemize Use @code{commit} when you want to incorporate changes from your working source files into the source repository. If you don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files in your working current directory are examined. @code{commit} is careful to change in the repository only those files that you have really changed. By default (or if you explicitly specify the @samp{-R} option), files in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they have changed; you can use the @samp{-l} option to limit @code{commit} to the current directory only. @code{commit} verifies that the selected files are up to date with the current revisions in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit without committing, if any of the specified files must be made current first with @code{update} (@pxref{update}). @code{commit} does not call the @code{update} command for you, but rather leaves that for you to do when the time is right. When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to enter a log message that will be written to one or more logging programs (@pxref{modules}, and @pxref{loginfo}) and placed in the @sc{rcs} file inside the repository. This log message can be retrieved with the @code{log} command; see @ref{log}. You can specify the log message on the command line with the @samp{-m @var{message}} option, and thus avoid the editor invocation, or use the @samp{-F @var{file}} option to specify that the argument file contains the log message. At @code{commit}, a unique commitid is placed in the @sc{rcs} file inside the repository. All files committed at once get the same commitid. The commitid can be retrieved with the @code{log} and @code{status} command; see @ref{log}, @ref{File status}. @menu * commit options:: commit options * commit examples:: commit examples @end menu @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node commit options @appendixsubsec commit options These standard options are supported by @code{commit} (@pxref{Common options}, for a complete description of them): @table @code @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. @item -R Commit directories recursively. This is on by default. @item -r @var{revision} Commit to @var{revision}. @var{revision} must be either a branch, or a revision on the main trunk that is higher than any existing revision number (@pxref{Assigning revisions}). You cannot commit to a specific revision on a branch. @c FIXME: Need xref for branch case. @end table @code{commit} also supports these options: @table @code @item -c Refuse to commit files unless the user has registered a valid edit on the file via @code{cvs edit}. This is most useful when @samp{commit -c} and @samp{edit -c} have been placed in all @file{.cvsrc} files. A commit can be forced anyways by either regestering an edit retroactively via @code{cvs edit} (no changes to the file will be lost) or using the @code{-f} option to commit. Support for @code{commit -c} requires both client and a server versions 1.12.10 or greater. @item -F @var{file} Read the log message from @var{file}, instead of invoking an editor. @item -f Note that this is not the standard behavior of the @samp{-f} option as defined in @ref{Common options}. Force @sc{cvs} to commit a new revision even if you haven't made any changes to the file. As of @sc{cvs} version 1.12.10, it also causes the @code{-c} option to be ignored. If the current revision of @var{file} is 1.7, then the following two commands are equivalent: @example$ cvs commit -f @var{file}
$cvs commit -r 1.8 @var{file} @end example @c This is odd, but it's how CVS has worked for some @c time. The @samp{-f} option disables recursion (i.e., it implies @samp{-l}). To force @sc{cvs} to commit a new revision for all files in all subdirectories, you must use @samp{-f -R}. @item -m @var{message} Use @var{message} as the log message, instead of invoking an editor. @end table @need 2000 @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node commit examples @appendixsubsec commit examples @c FIXME: this material wants to be somewhere @c in "Branching and merging". @appendixsubsubsec Committing to a branch You can commit to a branch revision (one that has an even number of dots) with the @samp{-r} option. To create a branch revision, use the @samp{-b} option of the @code{rtag} or @code{tag} commands (@pxref{Branching and merging}). Then, either @code{checkout} or @code{update} can be used to base your sources on the newly created branch. From that point on, all @code{commit} changes made within these working sources will be automatically added to a branch revision, thereby not disturbing main-line development in any way. For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2 version of the product, even though the 2.0 version is already under development, you might do: @example$ cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
$cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module$ cd product_module
[[ hack away ]]
$cvs commit @end example @noindent This works automatically since the @samp{-r} option is sticky. @appendixsubsubsec Creating the branch after editing Say you have been working on some extremely experimental software, based on whatever revision you happened to checkout last week. If others in your group would like to work on this software with you, but without disturbing main-line development, you could commit your change to a new branch. Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and utilize the full benefit of @sc{cvs} conflict resolution. The scenario might look like: @c FIXME: Should we be recommending tagging the branchpoint? @example [[ hacked sources are present ]]$ cvs tag -b EXPR1
$cvs update -r EXPR1$ cvs commit
@end example

The @code{update} command will make the @samp{-r
EXPR1} option sticky on all files.  Note that your
changes to the files will never be removed by the
@code{update} command.  The @code{commit} will
automatically commit to the correct branch, because the
@samp{-r} is sticky.  You could also do like this:

@c FIXME: Should we be recommending tagging the branchpoint?
@example
[[ hacked sources are present ]]
$cvs tag -b EXPR1$ cvs commit -r EXPR1
@end example

@noindent
but then, only those files that were changed by you
will have the @samp{-r EXPR1} sticky flag.  If you hack
away, and commit without specifying the @samp{-r EXPR1}
flag, some files may accidentally end up on the main
trunk.

To work with you on the experimental change, others
would simply do

@example
cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module @end example @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node diff @appendixsec diff---Show differences between revisions @cindex diff (subcommand) @itemize @bullet @item Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k kflag] [format_options] [(-r rev1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r rev2[:date2] | -D date2]] [files@dots{}] @item Requires: working directory, repository. @item Changes: nothing. @end itemize The @code{diff} command is used to compare different revisions of files. The default action is to compare your working files with the revisions they were based on, and report any differences that are found. If any file names are given, only those files are compared. If any directories are given, all files under them will be compared. The exit status for diff is different than for other @sc{cvs} commands; for details @ref{Exit status}. @menu * diff options:: diff options * diff examples:: diff examples @end menu @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node diff options @appendixsubsec diff options These standard options are supported by @code{diff} (@pxref{Common options}, for a complete description of them): @table @code @item -D @var{date} Use the most recent revision no later than @var{date}. See @samp{-r} for how this affects the comparison. @item -k @var{kflag} Process keywords according to @var{kflag}. See @ref{Keyword substitution}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. @item -R Examine directories recursively. This option is on by default. @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Compare with revision specified by @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. Zero, one or two @samp{-r} options can be present. With no @samp{-r} option, the working file will be compared with the revision it was based on. With one @samp{-r}, that revision will be compared to your current working file. With two @samp{-r} options those two revisions will be compared (and your working file will not affect the outcome in any way). @c We should be a lot more explicit, with examples, @c about the difference between "cvs diff" and "cvs @c diff -r HEAD". This often confuses new users. One or both @samp{-r} options can be replaced by a @samp{-D @var{date}} option, described above. @end table @c Conceptually, this is a disaster. There are 3 @c zillion diff formats that we support via the diff @c library. It is not obvious to me that we should @c document them all. Maybe just the most common ones @c like -c and -u, and think about phasing out the @c obscure ones. @c FIXCVS: also should be a way to specify an external @c diff program (which can be different for different @c file types) and pass through @c arbitrary options, so that the user can do @c "--pass=-Z --pass=foo" or something even if CVS @c doesn't know about the "-Z foo" option to diff. @c This would fit nicely with deprecating/eliminating @c the obscure options of the diff library, because it @c would let people specify an external GNU diff if @c they are into that sort of thing. The following options specify the format of the output. They have the same meaning as in GNU diff. Most options have two equivalent names, one of which is a single letter preceded by @samp{-}, and the other of which is a long name preceded by @samp{--}. @table @samp @item -@var{lines} Show @var{lines} (an integer) lines of context. This option does not specify an output format by itself; it has no effect unless it is combined with @samp{-c} or @samp{-u}. This option is obsolete. For proper operation, @code{patch} typically needs at least two lines of context. @item -a Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not seem to be text. @item -b Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white space characters to be equivalent. @item -B Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines. @item --binary Read and write data in binary mode. @item --brief Report only whether the files differ, not the details of the differences. @item -c Use the context output format. @item -C @var{lines} @itemx --context@r{[}=@var{lines}@r{]} Use the context output format, showing @var{lines} (an integer) lines of context, or three if @var{lines} is not given. For proper operation, @code{patch} typically needs at least two lines of context. @item --changed-group-format=@var{format} Use @var{format} to output a line group containing differing lines from both files in if-then-else format. @xref{Line group formats}. @item -d Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes. This makes @code{diff} slower (sometimes much slower). @item -e @itemx --ed Make output that is a valid @code{ed} script. @item --expand-tabs Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input files. @item -f Make output that looks vaguely like an @code{ed} script but has changes in the order they appear in the file. @item -F @var{regexp} In context and unified format, for each hunk of differences, show some of the last preceding line that matches @var{regexp}. @item --forward-ed Make output that looks vaguely like an @code{ed} script but has changes in the order they appear in the file. @item -H Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous scattered small changes. @item --horizon-lines=@var{lines} Do not discard the last @var{lines} lines of the common prefix and the first @var{lines} lines of the common suffix. @item -i Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equivalent. @item -I @var{regexp} Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match @var{regexp}. @item --ifdef=@var{name} Make merged if-then-else output using @var{name}. @item --ignore-all-space Ignore white space when comparing lines. @item --ignore-blank-lines Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines. @item --ignore-case Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case to be the same. @item --ignore-matching-lines=@var{regexp} Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match @var{regexp}. @item --ignore-space-change Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white space characters to be equivalent. @item --initial-tab Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format. This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal. @item -L @var{label} Use @var{label} instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers. @item --label=@var{label} Use @var{label} instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers. @item --left-column Print only the left column of two common lines in side by side format. @item --line-format=@var{format} Use @var{format} to output all input lines in if-then-else format. @xref{Line formats}. @item --minimal Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes. This makes @code{diff} slower (sometimes much slower). @item -n Output RCS-format diffs; like @samp{-f} except that each command specifies the number of lines affected. @item -N @itemx --new-file In directory comparison, if a file is found in only one directory, treat it as present but empty in the other directory. @item --new-group-format=@var{format} Use @var{format} to output a group of lines taken from just the second file in if-then-else format. @xref{Line group formats}. @item --new-line-format=@var{format} Use @var{format} to output a line taken from just the second file in if-then-else format. @xref{Line formats}. @item --old-group-format=@var{format} Use @var{format} to output a group of lines taken from just the first file in if-then-else format. @xref{Line group formats}. @item --old-line-format=@var{format} Use @var{format} to output a line taken from just the first file in if-then-else format. @xref{Line formats}. @item -p Show which C function each change is in. @item --rcs Output RCS-format diffs; like @samp{-f} except that each command specifies the number of lines affected. @item --report-identical-files @itemx -s Report when two files are the same. @item --show-c-function Show which C function each change is in. @item --show-function-line=@var{regexp} In context and unified format, for each hunk of differences, show some of the last preceding line that matches @var{regexp}. @item --side-by-side Use the side by side output format. @item --speed-large-files Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous scattered small changes. @item --suppress-common-lines Do not print common lines in side by side format. @item -t Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input files. @item -T Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format. This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal. @item --text Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not appear to be text. @item -u Use the unified output format. @item --unchanged-group-format=@var{format} Use @var{format} to output a group of common lines taken from both files in if-then-else format. @xref{Line group formats}. @item --unchanged-line-format=@var{format} Use @var{format} to output a line common to both files in if-then-else format. @xref{Line formats}. @item -U @var{lines} @itemx --unified@r{[}=@var{lines}@r{]} Use the unified output format, showing @var{lines} (an integer) lines of context, or three if @var{lines} is not given. For proper operation, @code{patch} typically needs at least two lines of context. @item -w Ignore white space when comparing lines. @item -W @var{columns} @itemx --width=@var{columns} Use an output width of @var{columns} in side by side format. @item -y Use the side by side output format. @end table @menu * Line group formats:: Line group formats * Line formats:: Line formats @end menu @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node Line group formats @appendixsubsubsec Line group formats Line group formats let you specify formats suitable for many applications that allow if-then-else input, including programming languages and text formatting languages. A line group format specifies the output format for a contiguous group of similar lines. For example, the following command compares the TeX file @file{myfile} with the original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file in which old regions are surrounded by @samp{\begin@{em@}}-@samp{\end@{em@}} lines, and new regions are surrounded by @samp{\begin@{bf@}}-@samp{\end@{bf@}} lines. @example cvs diff \ --old-group-format='\begin@{em@} %<\end@{em@} ' \ --new-group-format='\begin@{bf@} %>\end@{bf@} ' \ myfile @end example The following command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a little more verbose, because it spells out the default line group formats. @example cvs diff \ --old-group-format='\begin@{em@} %<\end@{em@} ' \ --new-group-format='\begin@{bf@} %>\end@{bf@} ' \ --unchanged-group-format='%=' \ --changed-group-format='\begin@{em@} %<\end@{em@} \begin@{bf@} %>\end@{bf@} ' \ myfile @end example Here is a more advanced example, which outputs a diff listing with headers containing line numbers in a plain English'' style. @example cvs diff \ --unchanged-group-format='' \ --old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df: %<' \ --new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de: %>' \ --changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df: %<-------- to: %>' \ myfile @end example To specify a line group format, use one of the options listed below. You can specify up to four line group formats, one for each kind of line group. You should quote @var{format}, because it typically contains shell metacharacters. @table @samp @item --old-group-format=@var{format} These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the first file. The default old group format is the same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the line group as-is. @item --new-group-format=@var{format} These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the second file. The default new group format is same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the line group as-is. @item --changed-group-format=@var{format} These line groups are hunks containing lines from both files. The default changed group format is the concatenation of the old and new group formats. @item --unchanged-group-format=@var{format} These line groups contain lines common to both files. The default unchanged group format is a format that outputs the line group as-is. @end table In a line group format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion specifications start with @samp{%} and have one of the following forms. @table @samp @item %< stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the old line format (@pxref{Line formats}). @item %> stands for the lines from the second file, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the new line format. @item %= stands for the lines common to both files, including the trailing newline. Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line format. @item %% stands for @samp{%}. @item %c'@var{C}' where @var{C} is a single character, stands for @var{C}. @var{C} may not be a backslash or an apostrophe. For example, @samp{%c':'} stands for a colon, even inside the then-part of an if-then-else format, which a colon would normally terminate. @item %c'\@var{O}' where @var{O} is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code @var{O}. For example, @samp{%c'\0'} stands for a null character. @item @var{F}@var{n} where @var{F} is a @code{printf} conversion specification and @var{n} is one of the following letters, stands for @var{n}'s value formatted with @var{F}. @table @samp @item e The line number of the line just before the group in the old file. @item f The line number of the first line in the group in the old file; equals @var{e} + 1. @item l The line number of the last line in the group in the old file. @item m The line number of the line just after the group in the old file; equals @var{l} + 1. @item n The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals @var{l} - @var{f} + 1. @item E, F, L, M, N Likewise, for lines in the new file. @end table The @code{printf} conversion specification can be @samp{%d}, @samp{%o}, @samp{%x}, or @samp{%X}, specifying decimal, octal, lower case hexadecimal, or upper case hexadecimal output respectively. After the @samp{%} the following options can appear in sequence: a @samp{-} specifying left-justification; an integer specifying the minimum field width; and a period followed by an optional integer specifying the minimum number of digits. For example, @samp{%5dN} prints the number of new lines in the group in a field of width 5 characters, using the @code{printf} format @code{"%5d"}. @item (@var{A}=@var{B}?@var{T}:@var{E}) If @var{A} equals @var{B} then @var{T} else @var{E}. @var{A} and @var{B} are each either a decimal constant or a single letter interpreted as above. This format spec is equivalent to @var{T} if @var{A}'s value equals @var{B}'s; otherwise it is equivalent to @var{E}. For example, @samp{%(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s)} is equivalent to @samp{no lines} if @var{N} (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to @samp{1 line} if @var{N} is 1, and to @samp{%dN lines} otherwise. @end table @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node Line formats @appendixsubsubsec Line formats Line formats control how each line taken from an input file is output as part of a line group in if-then-else format. For example, the following command outputs text with a one-column change indicator to the left of the text. The first column of output is @samp{-} for deleted lines, @samp{|} for added lines, and a space for unchanged lines. The formats contain newline characters where newlines are desired on output. @example cvs diff \ --old-line-format='-%l ' \ --new-line-format='|%l ' \ --unchanged-line-format=' %l ' \ myfile @end example To specify a line format, use one of the following options. You should quote @var{format}, since it often contains shell metacharacters. @table @samp @item --old-line-format=@var{format} formats lines just from the first file. @item --new-line-format=@var{format} formats lines just from the second file. @item --unchanged-line-format=@var{format} formats lines common to both files. @item --line-format=@var{format} formats all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options simultaneously. @end table In a line format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion specifications start with @samp{%} and have one of the following forms. @table @samp @item %l stands for the contents of the line, not counting its trailing newline (if any). This format ignores whether the line is incomplete. @item %L stands for the contents of the line, including its trailing newline (if any). If a line is incomplete, this format preserves its incompleteness. @item %% stands for @samp{%}. @item %c'@var{C}' where @var{C} is a single character, stands for @var{C}. @var{C} may not be a backslash or an apostrophe. For example, @samp{%c':'} stands for a colon. @item %c'\@var{O}' where @var{O} is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code @var{O}. For example, @samp{%c'\0'} stands for a null character. @item @var{F}n where @var{F} is a @code{printf} conversion specification, stands for the line number formatted with @var{F}. For example, @samp{%.5dn} prints the line number using the @code{printf} format @code{"%.5d"}. @xref{Line group formats}, for more about printf conversion specifications. @end table The default line format is @samp{%l} followed by a newline character. If the input contains tab characters and it is important that they line up on output, you should ensure that @samp{%l} or @samp{%L} in a line format is just after a tab stop (e.g.@: by preceding @samp{%l} or @samp{%L} with a tab character), or you should use the @samp{-t} or @samp{--expand-tabs} option. Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify many different formats. For example, the following command uses a format similar to @code{diff}'s normal format. You can tailor this command to get fine control over @code{diff}'s output. @example cvs diff \ --old-line-format='< %l ' \ --new-line-format='> %l ' \ --old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE %<' \ --new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL) %>' \ --changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL) %<--- %>' \ --unchanged-group-format='' \ myfile @end example @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node diff examples @appendixsubsec diff examples The following line produces a Unidiff (@samp{-u} flag) between revision 1.14 and 1.19 of @file{backend.c}. Due to the @samp{-kk} flag no keywords are substituted, so differences that only depend on keyword substitution are ignored. @example cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c
@end example

Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was based on a
set of files tagged RELEASE_1_0.  To see what has
happened on that branch, the following can be used:

@example
$cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1 @end example A command like this can be used to produce a context diff between two releases: @example$ cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs
@end example

If you are maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the following
the ChangeLog entry.  All local modifications that have
not yet been committed will be printed.

@example
$cvs diff -u | less @end example @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node export @appendixsec export---Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout @cindex export (subcommand) @itemize @bullet @item Synopsis: export [-flNnR] (-r rev[:date] | -D date) [-k subst] [-d dir] module@dots{} @item Requires: repository. @item Changes: current directory. @end itemize This command is a variant of @code{checkout}; use it when you want a copy of the source for module without the @sc{cvs} administrative directories. For example, you might use @code{export} to prepare source for shipment off-site. This command requires that you specify a date or tag (with @samp{-D} or @samp{-r}), so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship to others (and thus it always prunes empty directories). One often would like to use @samp{-kv} with @code{cvs export}. This causes any keywords to be expanded such that an import done at some other site will not lose the keyword revision information. But be aware that doesn't handle an export containing binary files correctly. Also be aware that after having used @samp{-kv}, one can no longer use the @code{ident} command (which is part of the @sc{rcs} suite---see ident(1)) which looks for keyword strings. If you want to be able to use @code{ident} you must not use @samp{-kv}. @menu * export options:: export options @end menu @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node export options @appendixsubsec export options These standard options are supported by @code{export} (@pxref{Common options}, for a complete description of them): @table @code @item -D @var{date} Use the most recent revision no later than @var{date}. @item -f If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. @item -n Do not run any checkout program. @item -R Export directories recursively. This is on by default. @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Export the revision specified by @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. See @ref{Common options}. @end table In addition, these options (that are common to @code{checkout} and @code{export}) are also supported: @table @code @item -d @var{dir} Create a directory called @var{dir} for the working files, instead of using the module name. @xref{checkout options}, for complete details on how @sc{cvs} handles this flag. @item -k @var{subst} Set keyword expansion mode (@pxref{Substitution modes}). @item -N Only useful together with @samp{-d @var{dir}}. @xref{checkout options}, for complete details on how @sc{cvs} handles this flag. @end table @ignore @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @c @node export examples @appendixsubsec export examples Contributed examples are gratefully accepted. @c -- Examples here!! @end ignore @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node history @appendixsec history---Show status of files and users @cindex history (subcommand) @itemize @bullet @item Synopsis: history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files@dots{}] @item Requires: the file @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history}
@item
Changes: nothing.
@end itemize

@sc{cvs} can keep a history log that tracks each use of most @sc{cvs}
commands.  You can use @code{history} to display this information in
various formats.

To enable logging, the @samp{LogHistory} config option must be set to
some value other than the empty string and the history file specified by
the @samp{HistoryLogPath} option must be writable by all users who may run
the @sc{cvs} executable (@pxref{config}).

To enable the @code{history} command, logging must be enabled as above and
the @samp{HistorySearchPath} config option (@pxref{config}) must be set to
specify some number of the history logs created thereby and these files must
be readable by each user who might run the @code{history} command.

Creating a repository via the @code{cvs init} command will enable logging of
all possible events to a single history log file
(@file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history}) with read and write permissions for all users (@pxref{Creating a repository}). @strong{Note: @code{history} uses @samp{-f}, @samp{-l}, @samp{-n}, and @samp{-p} in ways that conflict with the normal use inside @sc{cvs} (@pxref{Common options}).} @menu * history options:: history options @end menu @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node history options @appendixsubsec history options Several options (shown above as @samp{-report}) control what kind of report is generated: @table @code @item -c Report on each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository was modified). @item -e Everything (all record types). Equivalent to specifying @samp{-x} with all record types. Of course, @samp{-e} will also include record types which are added in a future version of @sc{cvs}; if you are writing a script which can only handle certain record types, you'll want to specify @samp{-x}. @item -m @var{module} Report on a particular module. (You can meaningfully use @samp{-m} more than once on the command line.) @item -o Report on checked-out modules. This is the default report type. @item -T Report on all tags. @item -x @var{type} Extract a particular set of record types @var{type} from the @sc{cvs} history. The types are indicated by single letters, which you may specify in combination. Certain commands have a single record type: @table @code @item F release @item O checkout @item E export @item T rtag @end table @noindent One of five record types may result from an update: @table @code @item C A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring manual merging). @item G A merge was necessary and it succeeded. @item U A working file was copied from the repository. @item P A working file was patched to match the repository. @item W The working copy of a file was deleted during update (because it was gone from the repository). @end table @noindent One of three record types results from commit: @table @code @item A A file was added for the first time. @item M A file was modified. @item R A file was removed. @end table @end table The options shown as @samp{-flags} constrain or expand the report without requiring option arguments: @table @code @item -a Show data for all users (the default is to show data only for the user executing @code{history}). @item -l Show last modification only. @item -w Show only the records for modifications done from the same working directory where @code{history} is executing. @end table The options shown as @samp{-options @var{args}} constrain the report based on an argument: @table @code @item -b @var{str} Show data back to a record containing the string @var{str} in either the module name, the file name, or the repository path. @item -D @var{date} Show data since @var{date}. This is slightly different from the normal use of @samp{-D @var{date}}, which selects the newest revision older than @var{date}. @item -f @var{file} Show data for a particular file (you can specify several @samp{-f} options on the same command line). This is equivalent to specifying the file on the command line. @item -n @var{module} Show data for a particular module (you can specify several @samp{-n} options on the same command line). @item -p @var{repository} Show data for a particular source repository (you can specify several @samp{-p} options on the same command line). @item -r @var{rev} Show records referring to revisions since the revision or tag named @var{rev} appears in individual @sc{rcs} files. Each @sc{rcs} file is searched for the revision or tag. @item -t @var{tag} Show records since tag @var{tag} was last added to the history file. This differs from the @samp{-r} flag above in that it reads only the history file, not the @sc{rcs} files, and is much faster. @item -u @var{name} Show records for user @var{name}. @item -z @var{timezone} Show times in the selected records using the specified time zone instead of UTC. @end table @ignore @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @c @node history examples @appendixsubsec history examples Contributed examples will gratefully be accepted. @c -- Examples here! @end ignore @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node import @appendixsec import---Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches @cindex import (subcommand) @c FIXME: This node is way too long for one which has subnodes. @itemize @bullet @item Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag@dots{} @item Requires: Repository, source distribution directory. @item Changes: repository. @end itemize Use @code{import} to incorporate an entire source distribution from an outside source (e.g., a source vendor) into your source repository directory. You can use this command both for initial creation of a repository, and for wholesale updates to the module from the outside source. @xref{Tracking sources}, for a discussion on this subject. The @var{repository} argument gives a directory name (or a path to a directory) under the @sc{cvs} root directory for repositories; if the directory did not exist, import creates it. When you use import for updates to source that has been modified in your source repository (since a prior import), it will notify you of any files that conflict in the two branches of development; use @samp{checkout -j} to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you to do. If @sc{cvs} decides a file should be ignored (@pxref{cvsignore}), it does not import it and prints @samp{I } followed by the filename (@pxref{import output}, for a complete description of the output). If the file @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers} exists,
any file whose names match the specifications in that
file will be treated as packages and the appropriate
filtering will be performed on the file/directory
before being imported.  @xref{Wrappers}.

The outside source is saved in a first-level
branch, by default 1.1.1.  Updates are leaves of this
branch; for example, files from the first imported
collection of source will be revision 1.1.1.1, then
files from the first imported update will be revision
1.1.1.2, and so on.

At least three arguments are required.
@var{repository} is needed to identify the collection
of source.  @var{vendortag} is a tag for the entire
branch (e.g., for 1.1.1).  You must also specify at
least one @var{releasetag} to uniquely identify the files at
the leaves created each time you execute @code{import}.  The
@var{releasetag} should be new, not previously existing in the
repository file, and uniquely identify the imported release,

@c I'm not completely sure this belongs here.  But
@c we need to say it _somewhere_ reasonably obvious; it
@c is a common misconception among people first learning CVS
Note that @code{import} does @emph{not} change the
directory in which you invoke it.  In particular, it
does not set up that directory as a @sc{cvs} working
directory; if you want to work with the sources import
them first and then check them out into a different
directory (@pxref{Getting the source}).

* import options::              import options
* import output::               import output
* import examples::             import examples

@c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
@node import options
@appendixsubsec import options

This standard option is supported by @code{import}
(@pxref{Common options}, for a complete description):

@table @code
@item -m @var{message}
invoking an editor.
@end table

There are the following additional special options.

@table @code
@item -b @var{branch}
See @ref{Multiple vendor branches}.

@item -k @var{subst}
Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired.  This
setting will apply to all files created during the
import, but not to any files that previously existed in
the repository.  See @ref{Substitution modes}, for a
list of valid @samp{-k} settings.

@item -I @var{name}
Specify file names that should be ignored during
import.  You can use this option repeatedly.  To avoid
ignoring any files at all (even those ignored by
default), specify -I !'.

@var{name} can be a file name pattern of the same type
that you can specify in the @file{.cvsignore} file.
@xref{cvsignore}.
@c -- Is this really true?

@item -W @var{spec}
Specify file names that should be filtered during
import.  You can use this option repeatedly.

@var{spec} can be a file name pattern of the same type
that you can specify in the @file{.cvswrappers}
file. @xref{Wrappers}.

@item -X
Modify the algorithm used by @sc{cvs} when importing new files
so that new files do not immediately appear on the main trunk.

Specifically, this flag causes @sc{cvs} to mark new files as
if they were deleted on the main trunk, by taking the following
steps for each file in addition to those normally taken on import:
creating a new revision on the main trunk indicating that
the new file is @code{dead}, resetting the new file's default branch,
and placing the file in the Attic (@pxref{Attic}) directory.

Use of this option can be forced on a repository-wide basis
by setting the @samp{ImportNewFilesToVendorBranchOnly} option in
CVSROOT/config (@pxref{config}).
@end table

@c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
@node import output
@appendixsubsec import output

@code{import} keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line
for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:

@table @code
@item U @var{file}
The file already exists in the repository and has not been locally
modified; a new revision has been created (if necessary).

@item N @var{file}
The file is a new file which has been added to the repository.

@item C @var{file}
The file already exists in the repository but has been locally modified;
you will have to merge the changes.

@item I @var{file}
The file is being ignored (@pxref{cvsignore}).

@c FIXME: also (somewhere else) probably
@c should be documenting what happens if you "cvs add"
@c a symbolic link.  Also maybe what happens if
@c you manually create symbolic links within the
@c repository (? - not sure why we'd want to suggest
@c doing that).
@item L @var{file}
People periodically suggest that this behavior should
be changed, but if there is a consensus on what it
should be changed to, it is not apparent.
(Various options in the @file{modules} file can be used
to recreate symbolic links on checkout, update, etc.;
@pxref{modules}.)
@end table

@c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
@node import examples
@appendixsubsec import examples

See @ref{Tracking sources}, and @ref{From files}.

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node log
@cindex log (subcommand)

@itemize @bullet
@item
Synopsis: log [options] [files@dots{}]
@item
Requires: repository, working directory.
@item
Changes: nothing.
@end itemize

call the @sc{rcs} utility @code{rlog}.  Although this
is no longer true in the current sources, this history
determines the format of the output and the options,
which are not quite in the style of the other @sc{cvs}
commands.

@cindex Timezone, in output
@cindex Zone, time, in output
The output includes the location of the @sc{rcs} file,
the @dfn{head} revision (the latest revision on the
trunk), all symbolic names (tags) and some other
things.  For each revision, the revision number, the
date, the author, the number of lines added/deleted, the commitid
and the log message are printed.  All dates are displayed
in local time at the client. This is typically specified in
the @code{$TZ} environment variable, which can be set to govern how @code{log} displays dates. @strong{Note: @code{log} uses @samp{-R} in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside @sc{cvs} (@pxref{Common options}).} @menu * log options:: log options * log examples:: log examples @end menu @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node log options @appendixsubsec log options By default, @code{log} prints all information that is available. All other options restrict the output. Note that the revision selection options (@code{-d}, @code{-r}, @code{-s}, and @code{-w}) have no effect, other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic directories, when used in conjunction with the options that restrict the output to only @code{log} header fields (@code{-b}, @code{-h}, @code{-R}, and @code{-t}) unless the @code{-S} option is also specified. @table @code @item -b Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally the highest branch on the trunk. @item -d @var{dates} Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time in the range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates. The date formats accepted are those accepted by the @samp{-D} option to many other @sc{cvs} commands (@pxref{Common options}). Dates can be combined into ranges as follows: @c Should we be thinking about accepting ISO8601 @c ranges? For example "1972-09-10/1972-09-12". @table @code @item @var{d1}<@var{d2} @itemx @var{d2}>@var{d1} Select the revisions that were deposited between @var{d1} and @var{d2}. @item <@var{d} @itemx @var{d}> Select all revisions dated @var{d} or earlier. @item @var{d}< @itemx >@var{d} Select all revisions dated @var{d} or later. @item @var{d} Select the single, latest revision dated @var{d} or earlier. @end table The @samp{>} or @samp{<} characters may be followed by @samp{=} to indicate an inclusive range rather than an exclusive one. Note that the separator is a semicolon (;). @item -h Print only the name of the @sc{rcs} file, name of the file in the working directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names, and suffix. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. (Default is to run recursively). @item -N Do not print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing over 3 pages of tag information, the log information is presented without tags at all. @item -R Print only the name of the @sc{rcs} file. @c Note that using a bare revision (in addition to not @c being explicitly documented here) is potentially @c confusing; it shows the log message to get from the @c previous revision to that revision. "-r1.3 -r1.6" @c (equivalent to "-r1.3,1.6") is even worse; it @c prints the messages to get from 1.2 to 1.3 and 1.5 @c to 1.6. By analogy with "cvs diff", users might @c expect that it is more like specifying a range. @c It is not 100% clear to me how much of this should @c be documented (for example, multiple -r options @c perhaps could/should be deprecated given the false @c analogy with "cvs diff"). @c In general, this section should be rewritten to talk @c about messages to get from revision rev1 to rev2, @c rather than messages for revision rev2 (that is, the @c messages are associated with a change not a static @c revision and failing to make this distinction causes @c much confusion). @item -r@var{revisions} Print information about revisions given in the comma-separated list @var{revisions} of revisions and ranges. The following table explains the available range formats: @table @code @item @var{rev1}:@var{rev2} Revisions @var{rev1} to @var{rev2} (which must be on the same branch). @item @var{rev1}::@var{rev2} The same, but excluding @var{rev1}. @item :@var{rev} @itemx ::@var{rev} Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including @var{rev}. @item @var{rev}: Revisions starting with @var{rev} to the end of the branch containing @var{rev}. @item @var{rev}:: Revisions starting just after @var{rev} to the end of the branch containing @var{rev}. @item @var{branch} An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch. @item @var{branch1}:@var{branch2} @itemx @var{branch1}::@var{branch2} A range of branches means all revisions on the branches in that range. @item @var{branch}. The latest revision in @var{branch}. @end table A bare @samp{-r} with no revisions means the latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. There can be no space between the @samp{-r} option and its argument. @item -S Suppress the header if no revisions are selected. @item -s @var{states} Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of the states given in the comma-separated list @var{states}. Individual states may be any text string, though @sc{cvs} commonly only uses two states, @samp{Exp} and @samp{dead}. See @ref{admin options} for more information. @item -t Print the same as @samp{-h}, plus the descriptive text. @item -w@var{logins} Print information about revisions checked in by users with login names appearing in the comma-separated list @var{logins}. If @var{logins} is omitted, the user's login is assumed. There can be no space between the @samp{-w} option and its argument. @end table @code{log} prints the intersection of the revisions selected with the options @samp{-d}, @samp{-s}, and @samp{-w}, intersected with the union of the revisions selected by @samp{-b} and @samp{-r}. @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node log examples @appendixsubsec log examples @cindex Timezone, in output @cindex Zone, time, in output Since @code{log} shows dates in local time, you might want to see them in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or some other timezone. To do this you can set your @code{$TZ} environment
variable before invoking @sc{cvs}:

@example
$TZ=UTC cvs log foo.c$ TZ=EST cvs log bar.c
@end example

(If you are using a @code{csh}-style shell, like @code{tcsh},
you would need to prefix the examples above with @code{env}.)

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node ls & rls
@appendixsec ls & rls
@cindex ls (subcommand)
@cindex rls (subcommand)

@itemize @bullet
@item
ls [-e | -l] [-RP] [-r tag[:date]] [-D date] [path@dots{}]
@item
Requires: repository for @code{rls}, repository & working directory for
@code{ls}.
@item
Changes: nothing.
@item
Synonym: @code{dir} & @code{list} are synonyms for @code{ls} and @code{rdir}
& @code{rlist} are synonyms for @code{rls}.
@end itemize

The @code{ls} and @code{rls} commands are used to list
files and directories in the repository.

By default @code{ls} lists the files and directories
that belong in your working directory, what would be
there after an @code{update}.

By default @code{rls} lists the files and directories
on the tip of the trunk in the topmost directory of the
repository.

Both commands accept an optional list of file and
directory names, relative to the working directory for
@code{ls} and the topmost directory of the repository
for @code{rls}.  Neither is recursive by default.

* ls & rls options::         ls & rls options
* rls examples:              rls examples

@node ls & rls options
@appendixsubsec ls & rls options

These standard options are supported by @code{ls} & @code{rls}:

@table @code
@item -d
Show dead revisions (with tag when specified).

@item -e
Display in CVS/Entries format.  This format is meant to remain easily parsable
by automation.

@item -l
Display all details.

@item -P
Don't list contents of empty directories when recursing.

@item -R
List recursively.

@item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}]
Show files specified by @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified
and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it
existed on @var{date}.  See @ref{Common options}.

@item -D @var{date}
Show files from date.
@end table

@c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
@node rls examples
@appendixsubsec rls examples

@example
$cvs rls cvs rls: Listing module: .' CVSROOT first-dir @end example @example$ cvs rls CVSROOT
cvs rls: Listing module: CVSROOT'
checkoutlist
commitinfo
config
cvswrappers
modules
notify
rcsinfo
taginfo
verifymsg

@end example

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node rdiff
@appendixsec rdiff---'patch' format diffs between releases
@cindex rdiff (subcommand)

@itemize @bullet
@item
rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] (-r tag1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r tag2[:date2] | -D date2] modules@dots{}
@item
Requires: repository.
@item
Changes: nothing.
@item
Synonym: patch
@end itemize

Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two
releases, that can be fed directly into the @code{patch}
program to bring an old release up-to-date with the new
release.  (This is one of the few @sc{cvs} commands that
operates directly from the repository, and doesn't
require a prior checkout.) The diff output is sent to
the standard output device.

You can specify (using the standard @samp{-r} and
@samp{-D} options) any combination of one or two
revisions or dates.  If only one revision or date is
specified, the patch file reflects differences between
that revision or date and the current head revisions in
the @sc{rcs} file.

Note that if the software release affected is contained
in more than one directory, then it may be necessary to
specify the @samp{-p} option to the @code{patch} command when
patching the old sources, so that @code{patch} is able to find
the files that are located in other directories.

* rdiff options::               rdiff options
* rdiff examples::              rdiff examples

@c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
@node rdiff options
@appendixsubsec rdiff options

These standard options are supported by @code{rdiff}
(@pxref{Common options}, for a complete description of
them):

@table @code
@item -D @var{date}
Use the most recent revision no later than @var{date}.

@item -f
If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most
recent revision (instead of ignoring the file).

@item -k @var{kflag}
Process keywords according to @var{kflag}.  See
@ref{Keyword substitution}.

@item -l
Local; don't descend subdirectories.

@item -R
Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

@item -r @var{tag}
Use the revision specified by @var{tag}, or when @var{date} is specified
and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it
existed on @var{date}.  See @ref{Common options}.
@end table

In addition to the above, these options are available:

@table @code
@item -c
Use the context diff format.  This is the default format.

@item -s
Create a summary change report instead of a patch.  The
summary includes information about files that were
changed or added between the releases.  It is sent to
the standard output device.  This is useful for finding
out, for example, which files have changed between two
dates or revisions.

@item -t
A diff of the top two revisions is sent to the standard
output device.  This is most useful for seeing what the
last change to a file was.

@item -u
Use the unidiff format for the context diffs.
Remember that old versions
of the @code{patch} program can't handle the unidiff
format, so if you plan to post this patch to the net
you should probably not use @samp{-u}.

@item -V @var{vn}
Expand keywords according to the rules current in
@sc{rcs} version @var{vn} (the expansion format changed with
@sc{rcs} version 5).  Note that this option is no
longer accepted.  @sc{cvs} will always expand keywords the
way that @sc{rcs} version 5 does.
@end table

@c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
@node rdiff examples
@appendixsubsec rdiff examples

update from release 1.2 to 1.4 of the tc compiler.  You
have no such patches on hand, but with @sc{cvs} that can
easily be fixed with a command such as this:

@example
$cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \ $$Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo@@example.net @end example Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called @samp{R_1_3fix} for bug fixes. @samp{R_1_3_1} corresponds to release 1.3.1, which was made some time ago. Now, you want to see how much development has been done on the branch. This command can be used: @example cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6 File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4 File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2 @end example @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node release @appendixsec release---Indicate that a Module is no longer in use @cindex release (subcommand) @itemize @bullet @item release [-d] directories@dots{} @item Requires: Working directory. @item Changes: Working directory, history log. @end itemize This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of @samp{cvs checkout}. Since @sc{cvs} doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this command. You can always simply delete your working directory, if you like; but you risk losing changes you may have forgotten, and you leave no trace in the @sc{cvs} history file (@pxref{history file}) that you've abandoned your checkout. Use @samp{cvs release} to avoid these problems. This command checks that no uncommitted changes are present; that you are executing it from immediately above a @sc{cvs} working directory; and that the repository recorded for your files is the same as the repository defined in the module database. If all these conditions are true, @samp{cvs release} leaves a record of its execution (attesting to your intentionally abandoning your checkout) in the @sc{cvs} history log. @menu * release options:: release options * release output:: release output * release examples:: release examples @end menu @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node release options @appendixsubsec release options The @code{release} command supports one command option: @table @code @item -d Delete your working copy of the file if the release succeeds. If this flag is not given your files will remain in your working directory. @strong{WARNING: The @code{release} command deletes all directories and files recursively. This has the very serious side-effect that any directory that you have created inside your checked-out sources, and not added to the repository (using the @code{add} command; @pxref{Adding files}) will be silently deleted---even if it is non-empty!} @end table @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node release output @appendixsubsec release output Before @code{release} releases your sources it will print a one-line message for any file that is not up-to-date. @table @code @item U @var{file} @itemx P @var{file} There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you have not modified your local copy of the file (@samp{U} and @samp{P} mean the same thing). @item A @var{file} The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been committed to the repository. If you delete your copy of the sources this file will be lost. @item R @var{file} The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been removed from the repository, since you have not yet committed the removal. @xref{commit}. @item M @var{file} The file is modified in your working directory. There might also be a newer revision inside the repository. @item ? @var{file} @var{file} is in your working directory, but does not correspond to anything in the source repository, and is not in the list of files for @sc{cvs} to ignore (see the description of the @samp{-I} option, and @pxref{cvsignore}). If you remove your working sources, this file will be lost. @end table @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node release examples @appendixsubsec release examples Release the @file{tc} directory, and delete your local working copy of the files. @example cd .. # @r{You must stand immediately above the} # @r{sources when you issue @samp{cvs release}.} cvs release -d tc You have [0] altered files in this repository. Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory tc': y @end example @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node server & pserver @appendixsec server & pserver---Act as a server for a client on stdin/stdout @cindex pserver (subcommand) @cindex server (subcommand) @itemize @bullet @item pserver [-c path] server [-c path] @item Requires: repository, client conversation on stdin/stdout @item Changes: Repository or, indirectly, client working directory. @end itemize The @sc{cvs} @code{server} and @code{pserver} commands are used to provide repository access to remote clients and expect a client conversation on stdin & stdout. Typically these commands are launched from @code{inetd} or via @code{ssh} (@pxref{Remote repositories}). @code{server} expects that the client has already been authenticated somehow, typically via @sc{ssh}, and @code{pserver} attempts to authenticate the client itself. Only one option is available with the @code{server} and @code{pserver} commands: @cindex configuration file @table @code @item -c path Load configuration from @var{path} rather than the default location @file{CVSROOT/CVSROOT/config} (@pxref{config}). @var{path} must be @file{/etc/cvs.conf} or prefixed by @file{/etc/cvs/}. This option is supported beginning with @sc{cvs} release 1.12.13. @end table @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node update @appendixsec update---Bring work tree in sync with repository @cindex update (subcommand) @itemize @bullet @item update [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag] [-r tag[:date] | -D date] [-W spec] files@dots{} @item Requires: repository, working directory. @item Changes: working directory. @end itemize After you've run checkout to create your private copy of source from the common repository, other developers will continue changing the central source. From time to time, when it is convenient in your development process, you can use the @code{update} command from within your working directory to reconcile your work with any revisions applied to the source repository since your last checkout or update. Without the @code{-C} option, @code{update} will also merge any differences between the local copy of files and their base revisions into any destination revisions specified with @code{-r}, @code{-D}, or @code{-A}. @menu * update options:: update options * update output:: update output @end menu @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node update options @appendixsubsec update options These standard options are available with @code{update} (@pxref{Common options}, for a complete description of them): @table @code @item -D date Use the most recent revision no later than @var{date}. This option is sticky, and implies @samp{-P}. See @ref{Sticky tags}, for more information on sticky tags/dates. @item -f Only useful with the @samp{-D} or @samp{-r} flags. If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). @item -k @var{kflag} Process keywords according to @var{kflag}. See @ref{Keyword substitution}. This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use the same @var{kflag}. The @code{status} command can be viewed to see the sticky options. See @ref{Invoking CVS}, for more information on the @code{status} command. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -P Prune empty directories. See @ref{Moving directories}. @item -p Pipe files to the standard output. @item -R Update directories recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Retrieve the revisions specified by @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. This option is sticky, and implies @samp{-P}. See @ref{Sticky tags}, for more information on sticky tags/dates. Also see @ref{Common options}. @end table @need 800 These special options are also available with @code{update}. @table @code @item -A Reset any sticky tags, dates, or @samp{-k} options. See @ref{Sticky tags}, for more information on sticky tags/dates. @item -C Overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from the repository (the modified file is saved in @file{.#@var{file}.@var{revision}}, however). @item -d Create any directories that exist in the repository if they're missing from the working directory. Normally, @code{update} acts only on directories and files that were already enrolled in your working directory. This is useful for updating directories that were created in the repository since the initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate side effect. If you deliberately avoided certain directories in the repository when you created your working directory (either through use of a module name or by listing explicitly the files and directories you wanted on the command line), then updating with @samp{-d} will create those directories, which may not be what you want. @item -I @var{name} Ignore files whose names match @var{name} (in your working directory) during the update. You can specify @samp{-I} more than once on the command line to specify several files to ignore. Use @samp{-I !} to avoid ignoring any files at all. @xref{cvsignore}, for other ways to make @sc{cvs} ignore some files. @item -W@var{spec} Specify file names that should be filtered during update. You can use this option repeatedly. @var{spec} can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the @file{.cvswrappers} file. @xref{Wrappers}. @item -j@var{revision} With two @samp{-j} options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first @samp{-j} option to the revision specified with the second @samp{j} option, into the working directory. With one @samp{-j} option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the revision specified with the @samp{-j} option, into the working directory. The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of the revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in the @samp{-j} option. Note that using a single @samp{-j @var{tagname}} option rather than @samp{-j @var{branchname}} to merge changes from a branch will often not remove files which were removed on the branch. @xref{Merging adds and removals}, for more. In addition, each @samp{-j} option can contain an optional date specification which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within a specific date. An optional date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: @samp{-j@var{Symbolic_Tag}:@var{Date_Specifier}}. @xref{Branching and merging}. @end table @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node update output @appendixsubsec update output @code{update} and @code{checkout} keep you informed of their progress by printing a line for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file: @table @code @item U @var{file} The file was brought up to date with respect to the repository. This is done for any file that exists in the repository but not in your working directory, and for files that you haven't changed but are not the most recent versions available in the repository. @item P @var{file} Like @samp{U}, but the @sc{cvs} server sends a patch instead of an entire file. This accomplishes the same thing as @samp{U} using less bandwidth. @item A @var{file} The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, and will be added to the source repository when you run @code{commit} on the file. This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed. @item R @var{file} The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, and will be removed from the source repository when you run @code{commit} on the file. This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed. @item M @var{file} The file is modified in your working directory. @samp{M} can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on: either there were no modifications to the same file in the repository, so that your file remains as you last saw it; or there were modifications in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were merged successfully, without conflict, in your working directory. @sc{cvs} will print some messages if it merges your work, and a backup copy of your working file (as it looked before you ran @code{update}) will be made. The exact name of that file is printed while @code{update} runs. @item C @var{file} @cindex .# files @cindex __ files (VMS) A conflict was detected while trying to merge your changes to @var{file} with changes from the source repository. @var{file} (the copy in your working directory) is now the result of attempting to merge the two revisions; an unmodified copy of your file is also in your working directory, with the name @file{.#@var{file}.@var{revision}} where @var{revision} is the revision that your modified file started from. Resolve the conflict as described in @ref{Conflicts example}. @c "some systems" as in out-of-the-box OSes? Not as @c far as I know. We need to advise sysadmins as well @c as users how to set up this kind of purge, if that is @c what they want. @c We also might want to think about cleaner solutions, @c like having CVS remove the .# file once the conflict @c has been resolved or something like that. (Note that some systems automatically purge files that begin with @file{.#} if they have not been accessed for a few days. If you intend to keep a copy of your original file, it is a very good idea to rename it.) Under @sc{vms}, the file name starts with @file{__} rather than @file{.#}. @item ? @var{file} @var{file} is in your working directory, but does not correspond to anything in the source repository, and is not in the list of files for @sc{cvs} to ignore (see the description of the @samp{-I} option, and @pxref{cvsignore}). @end table @c ----- END MAN 1 ----- @c --------------------------------------------------------------------- @node Invoking CVS @appendix Quick reference to CVS commands @cindex Command reference @cindex Reference, commands @cindex Invoking CVS This appendix describes how to invoke @sc{cvs}, with references to where each command or feature is described in detail. For other references run the @code{cvs --help} command, or see @ref{Index}. A @sc{cvs} command looks like: @example cvs [ @var{global_options} ] @var{command} [ @var{command_options} ] [ @var{command_args} ] @end example Global options: @table @code @item --allow-root=@var{rootdir} Specify legal @sc{cvsroot} directory (server only) (not in @sc{cvs} 1.9 and older). See @ref{Password authentication server}. @item -a Authenticate all communication (client only) (not in @sc{cvs} 1.9 and older). See @ref{Global options}. @item -b Specify RCS location (@sc{cvs} 1.9 and older). See @ref{Global options}. @item -d @var{root} Specify the @sc{cvsroot}. See @ref{Repository}. @item -e @var{editor} Edit messages with @var{editor}. See @ref{Committing your changes}. @item -f Do not read the @file{~/.cvsrc} file. See @ref{Global options}. @item -H @itemx --help Print a help message. See @ref{Global options}. @item -n Do not change any files. See @ref{Global options}. @item -Q Be really quiet. See @ref{Global options}. @item -q Be somewhat quiet. See @ref{Global options}. @item -r Make new working files read-only. See @ref{Global options}. @item -s @var{variable}=@var{value} Set a user variable. See @ref{Variables}. @item -T @var{tempdir} Put temporary files in @var{tempdir}. See @ref{Global options}. @item -t Trace @sc{cvs} execution. See @ref{Global options}. @item -v @item --version Display version and copyright information for @sc{cvs}. @item -w Make new working files read-write. See @ref{Global options}. @item -x Encrypt all communication (client only). See @ref{Global options}. @item -z @var{gzip-level} @cindex Compression @cindex Gzip Set the compression level (client only). See @ref{Global options}. @end table Keyword expansion modes (@pxref{Substitution modes}): @example -kkv @splitrcskeyword{Id}: file1,v 1.1 1993/12/09 03:21:13 joe Exp -kkvl @splitrcskeyword{Id}: file1,v 1.1 1993/12/09 03:21:13 joe Exp harry -kk @splitrcskeyword{Id} -kv file1,v 1.1 1993/12/09 03:21:13 joe Exp -ko @i{no expansion} -kb @i{no expansion, file is binary} @end example Keywords (@pxref{Keyword list}): @example @splitrcskeyword{Author}: joe @splitrcskeyword{Date}: 1993/12/09 03:21:13 @splitrcskeyword{CVSHeader}: files/file1,v 1.1 1993/12/09 03:21:13 joe Exp harry @splitrcskeyword{Header}: /home/files/file1,v 1.1 1993/12/09 03:21:13 joe Exp harry @splitrcskeyword{Id}: file1,v 1.1 1993/12/09 03:21:13 joe Exp harry @splitrcskeyword{Locker}: harry @splitrcskeyword{Name}: snapshot_1_14 @splitrcskeyword{RCSfile}: file1,v @splitrcskeyword{Revision}: 1.1 @splitrcskeyword{Source}: /home/files/file1,v @splitrcskeyword{State}: Exp @splitrcskeyword{Log}: file1,v Revision 1.1 1993/12/09 03:30:17 joe Initial revision @end example @c The idea behind this table is that we want each item @c to be a sentence or two at most. Preferably a @c single line. @c @c In some cases refs to "foo options" are just to get @c this thing written quickly, not because the "foo @c options" node is really the best place to point. Commands, command options, and command arguments: @table @code @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item add [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] Add a new file/directory. See @ref{Adding files}. @table @code @item -k @var{kflag} Set keyword expansion. @item -m @var{msg} Set file description. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item admin [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] Administration of history files in the repository. See @ref{admin}. @c This list omits those options which are not @c documented as being useful with CVS. That might be @c a mistake... @table @code @item -b[@var{rev}] Set default branch. See @ref{Reverting local changes}. @item -c@var{string} Set comment leader. @item -k@var{subst} Set keyword substitution. See @ref{Keyword substitution}. @item -l[@var{rev}] Lock revision @var{rev}, or latest revision. @item -m@var{rev}:@var{msg} Replace the log message of revision @var{rev} with @var{msg}. @item -o@var{range} Delete revisions from the repository. See @ref{admin options}. @item -q Run quietly; do not print diagnostics. @item -s@var{state}[:@var{rev}] Set the state. See @ref{admin options} for more information on possible states. @c Does not work for client/server CVS @item -t Set file description from standard input. @item -t@var{file} Set file description from @var{file}. @item -t-@var{string} Set file description to @var{string}. @item -u[@var{rev}] Unlock revision @var{rev}, or latest revision. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item annotate [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] Show last revision where each line was modified. See @ref{annotate}. @table @code @item -D @var{date} Annotate the most recent revision no later than @var{date}. See @ref{Common options}. @item -F Force annotation of binary files. (Without this option, binary files are skipped with a message.) @item -f Use head revision if tag/date not found. See @ref{Common options}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Annotate revisions specified by @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. See @ref{Common options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item checkout [@var{options}] @var{modules}@dots{} Get a copy of the sources. See @ref{checkout}. @table @code @item -A Reset any sticky tags/date/options. See @ref{Sticky tags} and @ref{Keyword substitution}. @item -c Output the module database. See @ref{checkout options}. @item -D @var{date} Check out revisions as of @var{date} (is sticky). See @ref{Common options}. @item -d @var{dir} Check out into @var{dir}. See @ref{checkout options}. @item -f Use head revision if tag/date not found. See @ref{Common options}. @c Probably want to use rev1/rev2 style like for diff @c -r. Here and in on-line help. @item -j @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Merge in the change specified by @var{tag}, or when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. See @ref{checkout options}. @item -k @var{kflag} Use @var{kflag} keyword expansion. See @ref{Substitution modes}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -N Don't shorten'' module paths if -d specified. See @ref{checkout options}. @item -n Do not run module program (if any). See @ref{checkout options}. @item -P Prune empty directories. See @ref{Moving directories}. @item -p Check out files to standard output (avoids stickiness). See @ref{checkout options}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Checkout the revision already tagged with @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. This . See @ref{Common options}. @item -s Like -c, but include module status. See @ref{checkout options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item commit [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] Check changes into the repository. See @ref{commit}. @table @code @item -c Check for valid edits before committing. Requires a @sc{cvs} client and server both version 1.12.10 or greater. @item -F @var{file} Read log message from @var{file}. See @ref{commit options}. @item -f @c What is this "disables recursion"? It is from the @c on-line help; is it documented in this manual? Force the file to be committed; disables recursion. See @ref{commit options}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -m @var{msg} Use @var{msg} as log message. See @ref{commit options}. @item -n Do not run module program (if any). See @ref{commit options}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -r @var{rev} Commit to @var{rev}. See @ref{commit options}. @c FIXME: should be dragging over text from @c commit options, especially if it can be cleaned up @c and made concise enough. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item diff [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] Show differences between revisions. See @ref{diff}. In addition to the options shown below, accepts a wide variety of options to control output style, for example @samp{-c} for context diffs. @table @code @item -D @var{date1} Diff revision for date against working file. See @ref{diff options}. @item -D @var{date2} Diff @var{rev1}/@var{date1} against @var{date2}. See @ref{diff options}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -N Include diffs for added and removed files. See @ref{diff options}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -r @var{tag1}[:@var{date1}] Diff the revisions specified by @var{tag1} or, when @var{date1} is specified and @var{tag1} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag1} as it existed on @var{date1}, against the working file. See @ref{diff options} and @ref{Common options}. @item -r @var{tag2}[:@var{date2}] Diff the revisions specified by @var{tag2} or, when @var{date2} is specified and @var{tag2} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag2} as it existed on @var{date2}, against @var{rev1}/@var{date1}. See @ref{diff options} and @ref{Common options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item edit [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] Get ready to edit a watched file. See @ref{Editing files}. @table @code @item -a @var{actions} Specify actions for temporary watch, where @var{actions} is @code{edit}, @code{unedit}, @code{commit}, @code{all}, or @code{none}. See @ref{Editing files}. @item -c Check edits: Edit fails if someone else is already editting the file. Requires a @sc{cvs} client and server both of version 1.12.10 or greater. @item -f Force edit; ignore other edits. Added in CVS 1.12.10. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item editors [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] See who is editing a watched file. See @ref{Watch information}. @table @code @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item export [@var{options}] @var{modules}@dots{} Export files from @sc{cvs}. See @ref{export}. @table @code @item -D @var{date} Check out revisions as of @var{date}. See @ref{Common options}. @item -d @var{dir} Check out into @var{dir}. See @ref{export options}. @item -f Use head revision if tag/date not found. See @ref{Common options}. @item -k @var{kflag} Use @var{kflag} keyword expansion. See @ref{Substitution modes}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -N Don't shorten'' module paths if -d specified. See @ref{export options}. @item -n Do not run module program (if any). See @ref{export options}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Export the revisions specified by @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. See @ref{Common options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item history [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] Show repository access history. See @ref{history}. @table @code @item -a All users (default is self). See @ref{history options}. @item -b @var{str} Back to record with @var{str} in module/file/repos field. See @ref{history options}. @item -c Report on committed (modified) files. See @ref{history options}. @item -D @var{date} Since @var{date}. See @ref{history options}. @item -e Report on all record types. See @ref{history options}. @item -l Last modified (committed or modified report). See @ref{history options}. @item -m @var{module} Report on @var{module} (repeatable). See @ref{history options}. @item -n @var{module} In @var{module}. See @ref{history options}. @item -o Report on checked out modules. See @ref{history options}. @item -p @var{repository} In @var{repository}. See @ref{history options}. @item -r @var{rev} Since revision @var{rev}. See @ref{history options}. @item -T @c What the @#@# is a TAG? Same as a tag? This @c wording is also in the online-line help. Produce report on all TAGs. See @ref{history options}. @item -t @var{tag} Since tag record placed in history file (by anyone). See @ref{history options}. @item -u @var{user} For user @var{user} (repeatable). See @ref{history options}. @item -w Working directory must match. See @ref{history options}. @item -x @var{types} Report on @var{types}, one or more of @code{TOEFWUPCGMAR}. See @ref{history options}. @item -z @var{zone} Output for time zone @var{zone}. See @ref{history options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item import [@var{options}] @var{repository} @var{vendor-tag} @var{release-tags}@dots{} Import files into @sc{cvs}, using vendor branches. See @ref{import}. @table @code @item -b @var{bra} Import to vendor branch @var{bra}. See @ref{Multiple vendor branches}. @item -d Use the file's modification time as the time of import. See @ref{import options}. @item -k @var{kflag} Set default keyword substitution mode. See @ref{import options}. @item -m @var{msg} Use @var{msg} for log message. See @ref{import options}. @item -I @var{ign} More files to ignore (! to reset). See @ref{import options}. @item -W @var{spec} More wrappers. See @ref{import options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item init Create a @sc{cvs} repository if it doesn't exist. See @ref{Creating a repository}. @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item kserver Kerberos authenticated server. See @ref{Kerberos authenticated}. @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item log [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] Print out history information for files. See @ref{log}. @table @code @item -b Only list revisions on the default branch. See @ref{log options}. @item -d @var{dates} Specify dates (@var{d1}<@var{d2} for range, @var{d} for latest before). See @ref{log options}. @item -h Only print header. See @ref{log options}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -N Do not list tags. See @ref{log options}. @item -R Only print name of RCS file. See @ref{log options}. @item -r@var{revs} Only list revisions @var{revs}. See @ref{log options}. @item -s @var{states} Only list revisions with specified states. See @ref{log options}. @item -t Only print header and descriptive text. See @ref{log options}. @item -w@var{logins} Only list revisions checked in by specified logins. See @ref{log options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item login Prompt for password for authenticating server. See @ref{Password authentication client}. @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item logout Remove stored password for authenticating server. See @ref{Password authentication client}. @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item pserver Password authenticated server. See @ref{Password authentication server}. @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item rannotate [@var{options}] [@var{modules}@dots{}] Show last revision where each line was modified. See @ref{annotate}. @table @code @item -D @var{date} Annotate the most recent revision no later than @var{date}. See @ref{Common options}. @item -F Force annotation of binary files. (Without this option, binary files are skipped with a message.) @item -f Use head revision if tag/date not found. See @ref{Common options}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Annotate the revision specified by @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. See @ref{Common options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item rdiff [@var{options}] @var{modules}@dots{} Show differences between releases. See @ref{rdiff}. @table @code @item -c Context diff output format (default). See @ref{rdiff options}. @item -D @var{date} Select revisions based on @var{date}. See @ref{Common options}. @item -f Use head revision if tag/date not found. See @ref{Common options}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Select the revisions specified by @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. See @ref{diff options} and @ref{Common options}. @item -s Short patch - one liner per file. See @ref{rdiff options}. @item -t Top two diffs - last change made to the file. See @ref{diff options}. @item -u Unidiff output format. See @ref{rdiff options}. @item -V @var{vers} Use RCS Version @var{vers} for keyword expansion (obsolete). See @ref{rdiff options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item release [@var{options}] @var{directory} Indicate that a directory is no longer in use. See @ref{release}. @table @code @item -d Delete the given directory. See @ref{release options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item remove [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] Remove an entry from the repository. See @ref{Removing files}. @table @code @item -f Delete the file before removing it. See @ref{Removing files}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item rlog [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] Print out history information for modules. See @ref{log}. @table @code @item -b Only list revisions on the default branch. See @ref{log options}. @item -d @var{dates} Specify dates (@var{d1}<@var{d2} for range, @var{d} for latest before). See @ref{log options}. @item -h Only print header. See @ref{log options}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -N Do not list tags. See @ref{log options}. @item -R Only print name of RCS file. See @ref{log options}. @item -r@var{revs} Only list revisions @var{revs}. See @ref{log options}. @item -s @var{states} Only list revisions with specified states. See @ref{log options}. @item -t Only print header and descriptive text. See @ref{log options}. @item -w@var{logins} Only list revisions checked in by specified logins. See @ref{log options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item rtag [@var{options}] @var{tag} @var{modules}@dots{} Add a symbolic tag to a module. See @ref{Revisions} and @ref{Branching and merging}. @table @code @item -a Clear tag from removed files that would not otherwise be tagged. See @ref{Tagging add/remove}. @item -b Create a branch named @var{tag}. See @ref{Branching and merging}. @item -B Used in conjunction with -F or -d, enables movement and deletion of branch tags. Use with extreme caution. @item -D @var{date} Tag revisions as of @var{date}. See @ref{Tagging by date/tag}. @item -d Delete @var{tag}. See @ref{Modifying tags}. @item -F Move @var{tag} if it already exists. See @ref{Modifying tags}. @item -f Force a head revision match if tag/date not found. See @ref{Tagging by date/tag}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -n No execution of tag program. See @ref{Common options}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Tag the revision already tagged with @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. See @ref{Tagging by date/tag} and @ref{Common options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item server Rsh server. See @ref{Connecting via rsh}. @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item status [@var{options}] @var{files}@dots{} Display status information in a working directory. See @ref{File status}. @table @code @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -v Include tag information for file. See @ref{Tags}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item tag [@var{options}] @var{tag} [@var{files}@dots{}] Add a symbolic tag to checked out version of files. See @ref{Revisions} and @ref{Branching and merging}. @table @code @item -b Create a branch named @var{tag}. See @ref{Branching and merging}. @item -c Check that working files are unmodified. See @ref{Tagging the working directory}. @item -D @var{date} Tag revisions as of @var{date}. See @ref{Tagging by date/tag}. @item -d Delete @var{tag}. See @ref{Modifying tags}. @item -F Move @var{tag} if it already exists. See @ref{Modifying tags}. @item -f Force a head revision match if tag/date not found. See @ref{Tagging by date/tag}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Tag the revision already tagged with @var{tag}, or when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. See @ref{Tagging by date/tag} and @ref{Common options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item unedit [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] Undo an edit command. See @ref{Editing files}. @table @code @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item update [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] Bring work tree in sync with repository. See @ref{update}. @table @code @item -A Reset any sticky tags/date/options. See @ref{Sticky tags} and @ref{Keyword substitution}. @item -C Overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from the repository (the modified file is saved in @file{.#@var{file}.@var{revision}}, however). @item -D @var{date} Check out revisions as of @var{date} (is sticky). See @ref{Common options}. @item -d Create directories. See @ref{update options}. @item -f Use head revision if tag/date not found. See @ref{Common options}. @item -I @var{ign} More files to ignore (! to reset). See @ref{import options}. @c Probably want to use rev1/rev2 style like for diff @c -r. Here and in on-line help. @item -j @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Merge in changes from revisions specified by @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. See @ref{update options}. @item -k @var{kflag} Use @var{kflag} keyword expansion. See @ref{Substitution modes}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -P Prune empty directories. See @ref{Moving directories}. @item -p Check out files to standard output (avoids stickiness). See @ref{update options}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @item -r @var{tag}[:@var{date}] Checkout the revisions specified by @var{tag} or, when @var{date} is specified and @var{tag} is a branch tag, the version from the branch @var{tag} as it existed on @var{date}. See @ref{Common options}. @item -W @var{spec} More wrappers. See @ref{import options}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item version @cindex version (subcommand) Display the version of @sc{cvs} being used. If the repository is remote, display both the client and server versions. @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item watch [on|off|add|remove] [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] on/off: turn on/off read-only checkouts of files. See @ref{Setting a watch}. add/remove: add or remove notification on actions. See @ref{Getting Notified}. @table @code @item -a @var{actions} Specify actions for temporary watch, where @var{actions} is @code{edit}, @code{unedit}, @code{commit}, @code{all}, or @code{none}. See @ref{Editing files}. @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @end table @c ------------------------------------------------------------ @item watchers [@var{options}] [@var{files}@dots{}] See who is watching a file. See @ref{Watch information}. @table @code @item -l Local; run only in current working directory. See @ref{Recursive behavior}. @item -R Operate recursively (default). @xref{Recursive behavior}. @end table @end table @c --------------------------------------------------------------------- @node Administrative files @appendix Reference manual for Administrative files @cindex Administrative files (reference) @cindex Files, reference manual @cindex Reference manual (files) @cindex CVSROOT (file) Inside the repository, in the directory @file{CVSROOT/CVSROOT}, there are a number of supportive files for @sc{cvs}. You can use @sc{cvs} in a limited fashion without any of them, but if they are set up properly they can help make life easier. For a discussion of how to edit them, see @ref{Intro administrative files}. The most important of these files is the @file{modules} file, which defines the modules inside the repository. @menu * modules:: Defining modules * Wrappers:: Specify binary-ness based on file name * Trigger Scripts:: Launch scripts in response to server events * rcsinfo:: Templates for the log messages * cvsignore:: Ignoring files via cvsignore * checkoutlist:: Adding your own administrative files * history file:: History information * Variables:: Various variables are expanded * config:: Miscellaneous CVS configuration @end menu @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node modules @appendixsec The modules file @cindex Modules (admin file) @cindex Defining modules (reference manual) The @file{modules} file records your definitions of names for collections of source code. @sc{cvs} will use these definitions if you use @sc{cvs} to update the modules file (use normal commands like @code{add}, @code{commit}, etc). The @file{modules} file may contain blank lines and comments (lines beginning with @samp{#}) as well as module definitions. Long lines can be continued on the next line by specifying a backslash (@samp{\}) as the last character on the line. There are three basic types of modules: alias modules, regular modules, and ampersand modules. The difference between them is the way that they map files in the repository to files in the working directory. In all of the following examples, the top-level repository contains a directory called @file{first-dir}, which contains two files, @file{file1} and @file{file2}, and a directory @file{sdir}. @file{first-dir/sdir} contains a file @file{sfile}. @c FIXME: should test all the examples in this section. @menu * Alias modules:: The simplest kind of module * Regular modules:: * Ampersand modules:: * Excluding directories:: Excluding directories from a module * Module options:: Regular and ampersand modules can take options * Module program options:: How the modules program options'' programs are run. @end menu @node Alias modules @appendixsubsec Alias modules @cindex Alias modules @cindex -a, in modules file Alias modules are the simplest kind of module: @table @code @item @var{mname} -a @var{aliases}@dots{} This represents the simplest way of defining a module @var{mname}. The @samp{-a} flags the definition as a simple alias: @sc{cvs} will treat any use of @var{mname} (as a command argument) as if the list of names @var{aliases} had been specified instead. @var{aliases} may contain either other module names or paths. When you use paths in aliases, @code{checkout} creates all intermediate directories in the working directory, just as if the path had been specified explicitly in the @sc{cvs} arguments. @end table For example, if the modules file contains: @example amodule -a first-dir @end example @noindent then the following two commands are equivalent: @example cvs co amodule cvs co first-dir @end example @noindent and they each would provide output such as: @example cvs checkout: Updating first-dir U first-dir/file1 U first-dir/file2 cvs checkout: Updating first-dir/sdir U first-dir/sdir/sfile @end example @node Regular modules @appendixsubsec Regular modules @cindex Regular modules @table @code @item @var{mname} [ options ] @var{dir} [ @var{files}@dots{} ] In the simplest case, this form of module definition reduces to @samp{@var{mname} @var{dir}}. This defines all the files in directory @var{dir} as module mname. @var{dir} is a relative path (from @code{CVSROOT}) to a directory of source in the source repository. In this case, on checkout, a single directory called @var{mname} is created as a working directory; no intermediate directory levels are used by default, even if @var{dir} was a path involving several directory levels. @end table For example, if a module is defined by: @example regmodule first-dir @end example @noindent then regmodule will contain the files from first-dir: @example cvs co regmodule cvs checkout: Updating regmodule U regmodule/file1 U regmodule/file2 cvs checkout: Updating regmodule/sdir U regmodule/sdir/sfile @end example By explicitly specifying files in the module definition after @var{dir}, you can select particular files from directory @var{dir}. Here is an example: @example regfiles first-dir/sdir sfile @end example @noindent With this definition, getting the regfiles module will create a single working directory @file{regfiles} containing the file listed, which comes from a directory deeper in the @sc{cvs} source repository: @example cvs co regfiles U regfiles/sfile @end example @node Ampersand modules @appendixsubsec Ampersand modules @cindex Ampersand modules @cindex &, in modules file A module definition can refer to other modules by including @samp{&@var{module}} in its definition. @example @var{mname} [ options ] @var{&module}@dots{} @end example Then getting the module creates a subdirectory for each such module, in the directory containing the module. For example, if modules contains @example ampermod &first-dir @end example @noindent then a checkout will create an @code{ampermod} directory which contains a directory called @code{first-dir}, which in turns contains all the directories and files which live there. For example, the command @example cvs co ampermod @end example @noindent will create the following files: @example ampermod/first-dir/file1 ampermod/first-dir/file2 ampermod/first-dir/sdir/sfile @end example There is one quirk/bug: the messages that @sc{cvs} prints omit the @file{ampermod}, and thus do not correctly display the location to which it is checking out the files: @example cvs co ampermod cvs checkout: Updating first-dir U first-dir/file1 U first-dir/file2 cvs checkout: Updating first-dir/sdir U first-dir/sdir/sfile @end example Do not rely on this buggy behavior; it may get fixed in a future release of @sc{cvs}. @c FIXCVS: What happens if regular and & modules are @c combined, as in "ampermodule first-dir &second-dir"? @c When I tried it, it seemed to just ignore the @c "first-dir". I think perhaps it should be an error @c (but this needs further investigation). @c In addition to discussing what each one does, we @c should put in a few words about why you would use one or @c the other in various situations. @node Excluding directories @appendixsubsec Excluding directories @cindex Excluding directories, in modules file @cindex !, in modules file An alias module may exclude particular directories from other modules by using an exclamation mark (@samp{!}) before the name of each directory to be excluded. For example, if the modules file contains: @example exmodule -a !first-dir/sdir first-dir @end example @noindent then checking out the module @samp{exmodule} will check out everything in @samp{first-dir} except any files in the subdirectory @samp{first-dir/sdir}. @c Note that the "!first-dir/sdir" sometimes must be listed @c before "first-dir". That seems like a probable bug, in which @c case perhaps it should be fixed (to allow either @c order) rather than documented. See modules4 in testsuite. @node Module options @appendixsubsec Module options @cindex Options, in modules file Either regular modules or ampersand modules can contain options, which supply additional information concerning the module. @table @code @cindex -d, in modules file @item -d @var{name} Name the working directory something other than the module name. @c FIXME: Needs a bunch of examples, analogous to the @c examples for alias, regular, and ampersand modules @c which show where the files go without -d. @cindex Export program @cindex -e, in modules file @item -e @var{prog} Specify a program @var{prog} to run whenever files in a module are exported. @var{prog} runs with a single argument, the module name. @c FIXME: Is it run on server? client? @cindex Checkout program @cindex -o, in modules file @item -o @var{prog} Specify a program @var{prog} to run whenever files in a module are checked out. @var{prog} runs with a single argument, the module name. See @ref{Module program options} for information on how @var{prog} is called. @c FIXME: Is it run on server? client? @cindex Status of a module @cindex Module status @cindex -s, in modules file @item -s @var{status} Assign a status to the module. When the module file is printed with @samp{cvs checkout -s} the modules are sorted according to primarily module status, and secondarily according to the module name. This option has no other meaning. You can use this option for several things besides status: for instance, list the person that is responsible for this module. @cindex Tag program @cindex -t, in modules file @item -t @var{prog} Specify a program @var{prog} to run whenever files in a module are tagged with @code{rtag}. @var{prog} runs with two arguments: the module name and the symbolic tag specified to @code{rtag}. It is not run when @code{tag} is executed. Generally you will find that the @file{taginfo} file is a better solution (@pxref{taginfo}). @c FIXME: Is it run on server? client? @c Problems with -t include: @c * It is run after the tag not before @c * It doesn't get passed all the information that @c taginfo does ("mov", &c). @c * It only is run for rtag, not tag. @end table You should also see @pxref{Module program options} about how the program options'' programs are run. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Module program options @appendixsubsec How the modules file program options'' programs are run @cindex Modules file program options @cindex -t, in modules file @cindex -o, in modules file @cindex -e, in modules file @noindent For checkout, rtag, and export, the program is server-based, and as such the following applies:- If using remote access methods (pserver, ext, etc.), @sc{cvs} will execute this program on the server from a temporary directory. The path is searched for this program. If using local access'' (on a local or remote NFS file system, i.e. repository set just to a path), the program will be executed from the newly checked-out tree, if found there, or alternatively searched for in the path if not. The programs are all run after the operation has effectively completed. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Wrappers @appendixsec The cvswrappers file @cindex cvswrappers (admin file) @cindex CVSWRAPPERS, environment variable @cindex Wrappers @c FIXME: need some better way of separating this out @c by functionality. -m is @c one feature, and -k is a another. And this discussion @c should be better motivated (e.g. start with the @c problems, then explain how the feature solves it). Wrappers refers to a @sc{cvs} feature which lets you control certain settings based on the name of the file which is being operated on. The settings are @samp{-k} for binary files, and @samp{-m} for nonmergeable text files. The @samp{-m} option specifies the merge methodology that should be used when a non-binary file is updated. @code{MERGE} means the usual @sc{cvs} behavior: try to merge the files. @code{COPY} means that @code{cvs update} will refuse to merge files, as it also does for files specified as binary with @samp{-kb} (but if the file is specified as binary, there is no need to specify @samp{-m 'COPY'}). @sc{cvs} will provide the user with the two versions of the files, and require the user using mechanisms outside @sc{cvs}, to insert any necessary changes. @strong{WARNING: do not use @code{COPY} with @sc{cvs} 1.9 or earlier - such versions of @sc{cvs} will copy one version of your file over the other, wiping out the previous contents.} @c Ordinarily we don't document the behavior of old @c versions. But this one is so dangerous, I think we @c must. I almost renamed it to -m 'NOMERGE' so we @c could say "never use -m 'COPY'". The @samp{-m} wrapper option only affects behavior when merging is done on update; it does not affect how files are stored. See @ref{Binary files}, for more on binary files. The basic format of the file @file{cvswrappers} is: @c FIXME: @example is all wrong for this. Use @deffn or @c something more sensible. @example wildcard [option value][option value]... where option is one of -m update methodology value: MERGE or COPY -k keyword expansion value: expansion mode and value is a single-quote delimited value. @end example @ignore @example *.nib -f 'unwrap %s' -t 'wrap %s %s' -m 'COPY' *.c -t 'indent %s %s' @end example @c When does the filter need to be an absolute pathname @c and when will something like the above work? I @c suspect it relates to the PATH of the server (which @c in turn depends on all kinds of stuff, e.g. inetd @c for pserver). I'm not sure whether/where to discuss @c this. @c FIXME: What do the %s's stand for? @noindent The above example of a @file{cvswrappers} file states that all files/directories that end with a @code{.nib} should be filtered with the @file{wrap} program before checking the file into the repository. The file should be filtered though the @file{unwrap} program when the file is checked out of the repository. The @file{cvswrappers} file also states that a @code{COPY} methodology should be used when updating the files in the repository (that is, no merging should be performed). @c What pitfalls arise when using indent this way? Is @c it a winning thing to do? Would be nice to at least @c hint at those issues; we want our examples to tell @c how to solve problems, not just to say that cvs can @c do certain things. The last example line says that all files that end with @code{.c} should be filtered with @file{indent} before being checked into the repository. Unlike the previous example, no filtering of the @code{.c} file is done when it is checked out of the repository. @noindent The @code{-t} filter is called with two arguments, the first is the name of the file/directory to filter and the second is the pathname to where the resulting filtered file should be placed. @noindent The @code{-f} filter is called with one argument, which is the name of the file to filter from. The end result of this filter will be a file in the users directory that they can work on as they normally would. Note that the @samp{-t}/@samp{-f} features do not conveniently handle one portion of @sc{cvs}'s operation: determining when files are modified. @sc{cvs} will still want a file (or directory) to exist, and it will use its modification time to determine whether a file is modified. If @sc{cvs} erroneously thinks a file is unmodified (for example, a directory is unchanged but one of the files within it is changed), you can force it to check in the file anyway by specifying the @samp{-f} option to @code{cvs commit} (@pxref{commit options}). @c This is, of course, a serious design flaw in -t/-f. @c Probably the whole functionality needs to be @c redesigned (starting from requirements) to fix this. @end ignore @c FIXME: We don't document -W or point to where it is @c documented. Or .cvswrappers. For example, the following command imports a directory, treating files whose name ends in @samp{.exe} as binary: @example cvs import -I ! -W "*.exe -k 'b'" first-dir vendortag reltag @end example @c Another good example, would be storing files @c (e.g. binary files) compressed in the repository. @c :::::::::::::::::: @c cvswrappers @c :::::::::::::::::: @c *.t12 -m 'COPY' @c *.t[0-9][0-9] -f 'gunzipcp %s' -t 'gzipcp %s %s' -m 'COPY' @c @c :::::::::::::::::: @c gunzipcp @c :::::::::::::::::: @c : @c [ -f 1 ] || exit 1 @c zcat 1 > /tmp/.#1.$$ @c mv /tmp/.#$1. $1 @c @c :::::::::::::::::: @c gzipcp @c :::::::::::::::::: @c : @c DIRNAME=echo$1 | sed -e "s|/.*/||g"
@c	if [ ! -d $DIRNAME ] ; then @c DIRNAME=echo$1 | sed -e "s|.*/||g"
@c	fi
@c	gzip -c  $DIRNAME >$2
@c One catch--"cvs diff" will not invoke the wrappers
@c (probably a CVS bug, although I haven't thought it out).

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node Trigger Scripts
@appendixsec The Trigger Scripts
@cindex info files
@cindex trigger scripts
@cindex script hooks

@c FIXME
@c Somewhere there needs to be a more "how-to" guide to writing these.
@c One particular issue that people sometimes are worried about is performance,
@c and the impact of writing in perl or sh or ____.  Performance comparisons
@c should probably remain outside the scope of this document, but at least
@c _that_ much could be referenced, perhaps with links to other sources.

Several of the administrative files support triggers, or the launching external
scripts or programs at specific times before or after particular events, during
the execution of @sc{cvs} commands.  These hooks can be used to prevent certain
actions, log them, and/or maintain anything else you deem practical.

All the trigger scripts are launched in a copy of the user sandbox being
committed, on the server, in client-server mode.  In local mode, the scripts
are actually launched directly from the user sandbox directory being committed.
For most intents and purposes, the same scripts can be run in both locations
without alteration.

* syntax::                      The common syntax
* Trigger Script Security::	Trigger script security

* commit files::                The commit support files (commitinfo,
*   commitinfo::                Pre-commit checking
*   verifymsg::                 How are log messages evaluated?
*   loginfo::                   Where should log messages be sent?

* taginfo::                     Verifying/Logging tags
* posttag::                     Logging tags
* postwatch::			Logging watch commands

* preproxy::			Launch a script on a secondary server prior
to becoming a write proxy
* postproxy::			Launch a script on a secondary server after
completing proxy operations

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node syntax
@appendixsubsec The common syntax
@cindex info files, common syntax
@cindex script hooks, common syntax
@cindex trigger script hooks, common syntax
@cindex syntax of trigger script hooks

@c FIXME: having this so totally separate from the
@c Variables node is rather bogus.

The administrative files such as @file{commitinfo},
all have a common format.  The purpose of the files are
described later on.  The common syntax is described
here.

@cindex Regular expression syntax
Each line contains the following:

@itemize @bullet
@cindex @samp{ALL} keyword, in lieu of regular expressions in script hooks
@cindex @samp{DEFAULT} keyword, in lieu of regular expressions in script hooks
@item
A regular expression or the literal string @samp{DEFAULT}.  Some script hooks
also support the literal string @samp{ALL}.  Other than the @samp{ALL} and
@samp{DEFAULT} keywords, this is a basic regular expression in the syntax used
by GNU emacs.  See the descriptions of the individual script hooks for
information on whether the @samp{ALL} keyword is supported
(@pxref{Trigger Scripts}).
@c FIXME: What we probably should be saying is "POSIX Basic
@c Regular Expression with the following extensions ($$' @c \|' '+' etc)" @c rather than define it with reference to emacs. @c The reference to emacs is not strictly speaking @c true, as we don't support \=, \s, or \S. Also it isn't @c clear we should document and/or promise to continue to @c support all the obscure emacs extensions like \<. @c Also need to better cite (or include) full @c documentation for the syntax. @c Also see comment in configure.in about what happens to the @c syntax if we pick up a system-supplied regexp matcher. @item A whitespace separator---one or more spaces and/or tabs. @item A file name or command-line template. @end itemize @noindent Blank lines are ignored. Lines that start with the character @samp{#} are treated as comments. Long lines unfortunately can @emph{not} be broken in two parts in any way. The first regular expression that matches the current directory name in the repository or the first line containing @samp{DEFAULT} in lieu of a regular expression is used and all lines containing @samp{ALL} is used for the hooks which support the @samp{ALL} keyword. The rest of the line is used as a file name or command-line template as appropriate. See the descriptions of the individual script hooks for information on whether the @samp{ALL} keyword is supported (@pxref{Trigger Scripts}). @cindex format strings @cindex format strings, common syntax @cindex info files, common syntax, format strings @cindex Common syntax of info files, format strings @noindent @emph{Note: The following information on format strings is valid as long as the line @code{UseNewInfoFmtStrings=yes} appears in your repository's config file (@pxref{config}). Otherwise, default format strings may be appended to the command line and the @samp{loginfo} file, especially, can exhibit slightly different behavior. For more information, @xref{Updating Commit Files}.} In the cases where the second segment of the matched line is a command line template (e.g. @file{commitinfo}, @file{loginfo}, & @file{verifymsg}), the command line template may contain format strings which will be replaced with specific values before the script is run. @c FIXCVS then FIXME - it really would make sense to allow %r & maybe even %p @c to be used in rcsinfo to construct a path, but I haven't @c coded this yet. Format strings can represent a single variable or one or more attributes of a list variable. An example of a list variable would be the list available to scripts hung on the loginfo hooks - the list of files which were just committed. In the case of loginfo, three attributes are available for each list item: file name, precommit version, and postcommit version. Format strings consist of a @samp{%} character followed by an optional @samp{@{} (required in the multiple list attribute case), a single format character representing a variable or a single attribute of list elements or multiple format characters representing attributes of list elements, and a closing @samp{@}} when the open bracket was present. @emph{Flat format strings}, or single format characters which get replaced with a single value, will generate a single argument to the called script, regardless of whether the replacement variable contains white space or other special characters. @emph{List attributes} will generate an argument for each attribute requested for each list item. For example, @samp{%@{sVv@}} in a @file{loginfo} command template will generate three arguments (file name, precommit version, postcommit version, ...) for each file committed. As in the flat format string case, each attribute will be passed in as a single argument regardless of whether it contains white space or other special characters. @samp{%%} will be replaced with a literal @samp{%}. The format strings available to all script hooks are: @table @t @item c The canonical name of the command being executed. For instance, in the case of a hook run from @code{cvs up}, @sc{cvs} would replace @samp{%c} with the string @samp{update} and, in the case of a hook run from @code{cvs ci}, @sc{cvs} would replace @samp{%c} with the string @samp{commit}. @item n The null, or empty, string. @item p The name of the directory being operated on within the repository. @item r The name of the repository (the path portion of @code{CVSROOT}). @item R On a server, the name of the referrer, if any. The referrer is the CVSROOT the client reports it used to contact a server which then referred it to this server. Should usually be set on a primary server with a write proxy setup. @end table Other format strings are file specific. See the docs on the particular script hooks for more information (@pxref{Trigger Scripts}). As an example, the following line in a @file{loginfo} file would match only the directory @file{module} and any subdirectories of @file{module}: @example ^module\(/\|$$ (echo; echo %p; echo %@{sVv@}; cat) >>$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/commitlog @end example Using this same line and assuming a commit of new revisions 1.5.4.4 and 1.27.4.1 based on old revisions 1.5.4.3 and 1.27, respectively, of file1 and file2 in module, something like the following log message should be appended to commitlog: @example module file1 1.5.4.3 1.5.4.4 file2 1.27 1.27.4.1 Update of /cvsroot/module In directory localhost.localdomain:/home/jrandom/work/module Modified Files: file1 file2 Log Message: A log message. @end example @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node Trigger Script Security @appendixsubsec Security and the Trigger Scripts @cindex info files, security @cindex script hooks, security @cindex trigger scripts, security Security is a huge subject, and implementing a secure system is a non-trivial task. This section will barely touch on all the issues involved, but it is well to note that, as with any script you will be allowing an untrusted user to run on your server, there are measures you can take to help prevent your trigger scripts from being abused. For instance, since the CVS trigger scripts all run in a copy of the user's sandbox on the server, a naively coded Perl trigger script which attempts to use a Perl module that is not installed on the system can be hijacked by any user with commit access who is checking in a file with the correct name. Other scripting languages may be vulnerable to similar hacks. One way to make a script more secure, at least with Perl, is to use scripts which invoke the @code{-T}, or "taint-check" switch on their @code{#!} line. In the most basic terms, this causes Perl to avoid running code that may have come from an external source. Please run the @code{perldoc perlsec} command for more on Perl security. Again, other languages may implement other security verification hooks which look more or less like Perl's "taint-check" mechanism. @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node commit files @appendixsubsec The commit support files @cindex Commits, administrative support files @cindex commit files, see Info files The @samp{-i} flag in the @file{modules} file can be used to run a certain program whenever files are committed (@pxref{modules}). The files described in this section provide other, more flexible, ways to run programs whenever something is committed. There are three kinds of programs that can be run on commit. They are specified in files in the repository, as described below. The following table summarizes the file names and the purpose of the corresponding programs. @table @file @item commitinfo The program is responsible for checking that the commit is allowed. If it exits with a non-zero exit status the commit will be aborted. @xref{commitinfo}. @item verifymsg The specified program is used to evaluate the log message, and possibly verify that it contains all required fields. This is most useful in combination with the @file{rcsinfo} file, which can hold a log message template (@pxref{rcsinfo}). @xref{verifymsg}. @item loginfo The specified program is called when the commit is complete. It receives the log message and some additional information and can store the log message in a file, or mail it to appropriate persons, or maybe post it to a local newsgroup, or@dots{} Your imagination is the limit! @xref{loginfo}. @end table @menu * Updating Commit Files:: Updating legacy repositories to stop using deprecated command line template formats @end menu @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node Updating Commit Files @appendixsubsubsec Updating legacy repositories to stop using deprecated command line template formats @cindex info files, common syntax, updating legacy repositories @cindex Syntax of info files, updating legacy repositories @cindex Common syntax of info files, updating legacy repositories New repositories are created set to use the new format strings by default, so if you are creating a new repository, you shouldn't have to worry about this section. If you are attempting to maintain a legacy repository which was making use of the @file{commitinfo}, @file{editinfo}, @file{verifymsg}, @file{loginfo}, and/or @file{taginfo} script hooks, you should have no immediate problems with using the current @sc{cvs} executable, but your users will probably start to see deprecation warnings. The reason for this is that all of the script hooks have been updated to use a new command line parser that extensibly supports multiple @file{loginfo} & @file{notify} style format strings (@pxref{syntax}) and this support is not completely compatible with the old style format strings. The quick upgrade method is to stick a @samp{1} after each format string in your old @file{loginfo} file. For example: @example DEFAULT (echo ""; id; echo %@{sVv@}; date; cat) >>$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/commitlog
@end example

would become:

@example
DEFAULT (echo ""; id; echo %1@{sVv@}; date; cat) >> $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/commitlog @end example If you were counting on the fact that only the first @samp{%} in the line was replaced as a format string, you may also have to double up any further percent signs on the line. If you did this all at once and checked it in, everything should still be running properly. Now add the following line to your config file (@pxref{config}): @example UseNewInfoFmtStrings=yes @end example Everything should still be running properly, but your users will probably start seeing new deprecation warnings. Dealing with the deprecation warnings now generated by @file{commitinfo}, @file{editinfo}, @file{verifymsg}, and @file{taginfo} should be easy. Simply specify what are currently implicit arguments explicitly. This means appending the following strings to each active command line template in each file: @table @code @item commitinfo @samp{ %r/%p %s} @item editinfo @samp{ %l} @item taginfo @samp{ %t %o %p %@{sv@}} @item verifymsg @samp{ %l} @end table If you don't desire that any of the newly available information be passed to the scripts hanging off of these hooks, no further modifications to these files should be necessary to insure current and future compatibility with @sc{cvs}'s format strings. Fixing @file{loginfo} could be a little tougher. The old style @file{loginfo} format strings caused a single space and comma separated argument to be passed in in place of the format string. This is what will continue to be generated due to the deprecated @samp{1} you inserted into the format strings. Since the new format separates each individual item and passes it into the script as a separate argument (for a good reason - arguments containing commas and/or white space are now parsable), to remove the deprecated @samp{1} from your @file{loginfo} command line templates, you will most likely have to rewrite any scripts called by the hook to handle the new argument format. Also note that the way @samp{%} followed by unrecognized characters and by @samp{@{@}} was treated in past versions of CVS is not strictly adhered to as there were bugs in the old versions. Specifically, @samp{%@{@}} would eat the next character and unrecognized strings resolved only to the empty string, which was counter to what was stated in the documentation. This version will do what the documentation said it should have (if you were using only some combination of @samp{%@{sVv@}}, e.g. @samp{%@{sVv@}}, @samp{%@{sV@}}, or @samp{%v}, you should have no troubles). On the bright side, you should have plenty of time to do this before all support for the old format strings is removed from @sc{cvs}, so you can just put up with the deprecation warnings for awhile if you like. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node commitinfo @appendixsubsec Commitinfo @cindex @file{commitinfo} @cindex Commits, precommit verification of @cindex commitinfo (admin file) @cindex info files, commitinfo @cindex script hooks, commitinfo @cindex trigger scripts, commitinfo @cindex info files, precommit verification of commits @cindex script hooks, precommit verification of commits @cindex trigger scripts, precommit verification of commits The @file{commitinfo} file defines programs to execute whenever @samp{cvs commit} is about to execute. These programs are used for pre-commit checking to verify that the modified, added and removed files are really ready to be committed. This could be used, for instance, to verify that the changed files conform to to your site's standards for coding practice. The @file{commitinfo} file has the standard form for script hooks (@pxref{Trigger Scripts}), where each line is a regular expression followed by a command to execute. It supports only the DEFAULT keywords. @cindex format strings, commitinfo admin file In addition to the common format strings (@pxref{syntax}), @file{commitinfo} supports: @table @t @item @{s@} a list of the names of files to be committed @end table @cindex commitinfo (admin file), updating legacy repositories @cindex compatibility notes, commitinfo admin file Currently, if no format strings are specified, a default string of @samp{ %r/%p %@{s@}} will be appended to the command line template before replacement is performed, but this feature is deprecated. It is simply in place so that legacy repositories will remain compatible with the new @sc{cvs} application. For information on updating, @pxref{Updating Commit Files}. @cindex Exit status, of commitinfo @cindex commitinfo (admin file), exit status The first line with a regular expression matching the directory within the repository will be used. If the command returns a non-zero exit status the commit will be aborted. @c FIXME: need example(s) of what "directory within the @c repository" means. @cindex @file{commitinfo}, working directory @cindex @file{commitinfo}, command environment The command will be run in the root of the workspace containing the new versions of any files the user would like to modify (commit), @emph{or in a copy of the workspace on the server (@pxref{Remote repositories})}. If a file is being removed, there will be no copy of the file under the current directory. If a file is being added, there will be no corresponding archive file in the repository unless the file is being resurrected. Note that both the repository directory and the corresponding Attic (@pxref{Attic}) directory may need to be checked to locate the archive file corresponding to any given file being committed. Much of the information about the specific commit request being made, including the destination branch, commit message, and command line options specified, is not available to the command. @c FIXME: should discuss using commitinfo to control @c who has checkin access to what (e.g. Joe can check into @c directories a, b, and c, and Mary can check into @c directories b, c, and d--note this case cannot be @c conveniently handled with unix groups). Of course, @c adding a new set of features to CVS might be a more @c natural way to fix this problem than telling people to @c use commitinfo. @c FIXME: Should make some reference, especially in @c the context of controlling who has access, to the fact @c that commitinfo can be circumvented. Perhaps @c mention SETXID (but has it been carefully examined @c for holes?). This fits in with the discussion of @c general CVS security in "Password authentication @c security" (the bit which is not pserver-specific). @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node verifymsg @appendixsubsec Verifying log messages @cindex @file{verifymsg} (admin file) @cindex Log message, verifying @cindex logging, commits Once you have entered a log message, you can evaluate that message to check for specific content, such as a bug ID. Use the @file{verifymsg} file to specify a program that is used to verify the log message. This program could be a simple script that checks that the entered message contains the required fields. The @file{verifymsg} file is often most useful together with the @file{rcsinfo} file, which can be used to specify a log message template (@pxref{rcsinfo}). The @file{verifymsg} file has the standard form for script hooks (@pxref{Trigger Scripts}), where each line is a regular expression followed by a command to execute. It supports only the DEFAULT keywords. @cindex format strings, verifymsg admin file In addition to the common format strings (@pxref{syntax}), @file{verifymsg} supports: @table @t @item l the full path to the file containing the log message to be verified @item @{sV@} File attributes, where: @table @t @item s file name @item V old version number (pre-checkin) @end table @end table @cindex verifymsg (admin/commit file), updating legacy repositories @cindex compatibility notes, verifymsg admin file Currently, if no format strings are specified, a default string of @samp{ %l} will be appended to the command line template before replacement is performed, but this feature is deprecated. It is simply in place so that legacy repositories will remain compatible with the new @sc{cvs} application. For information on updating, @pxref{Updating Commit Files}. One thing that should be noted is that the @samp{ALL} keyword is not supported. If more than one matching line is found, the first one is used. This can be useful for specifying a default verification script in a directory, and then overriding it in a subdirectory. @cindex Exit status, of @file{verifymsg} If the verification script exits with a non-zero exit status, the commit is aborted. @cindex @file{verifymsg}, changing the log message In the default configuration, CVS allows the verification script to change the log message. This is controlled via the RereadLogAfterVerify CVSROOT/config option. When @samp{RereadLogAfterVerify=always} or @samp{RereadLogAfterVerify=stat}, the log message will either always be reread after the verification script is run or reread only if the log message file status has changed. @xref{config}, for more on CVSROOT/config options. It is NOT a good idea for a @file{verifymsg} script to interact directly with the user in the various client/server methods. For the @code{pserver} method, there is no protocol support for communicating between @file{verifymsg} and the client on the remote end. For the @code{ext} and @code{server} methods, it is possible for CVS to become confused by the characters going along the same channel as the CVS protocol messages. See @ref{Remote repositories}, for more information on client/server setups. In addition, at the time the @file{verifymsg} script runs, the CVS server has locks in place in the repository. If control is returned to the user here then other users may be stuck waiting for access to the repository. This option can be useful if you find yourself using an rcstemplate that needs to be modified to remove empty elements or to fill in default values. It can also be useful if the rcstemplate has changed in the repository and the CVS/Template was not updated, but is able to be adapted to the new format by the verification script that is run by @file{verifymsg}. An example of an update might be to change all occurrences of 'BugId:' to be 'DefectId:' (which can be useful if the rcstemplate has recently been changed and there are still checked-out user trees with cached copies in the CVS/Template file of the older version). Another example of an update might be to delete a line that contains 'BugID: none' from the log message after validation of that value as being allowed is made. @menu * verifymsg example:: Verifymsg example @end menu @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node verifymsg example @appendixsubsubsec Verifying log messages @cindex verifymsg, example The following is a little silly example of a @file{verifymsg} file, together with the corresponding @file{rcsinfo} file, the log message template and a verification script. We begin with the log message template. We want to always record a bug-id number on the first line of the log message. The rest of log message is free text. The following template is found in the file @file{/usr/cvssupport/tc.template}. @example BugId: @end example The script @file{/usr/cvssupport/bugid.verify} is used to evaluate the log message. @example #!/bin/sh # # bugid.verify filename # # Verify that the log message contains a valid bugid # on the first line. # if sed 1q <$1 | grep '^BugId:[ ]*[0-9][0-9]*$' > /dev/null; then exit 0 elif sed 1q <$1 | grep '^BugId:[ ]*none$' > /dev/null; then # It is okay to allow commits with 'BugId: none', # but do not put that text into the real log message. grep -v '^BugId:[ ]*none$' > $1.rewrite mv$1.rewrite $1 exit 0 else echo "No BugId found." exit 1 fi @end example The @file{verifymsg} file contains this line: @example ^tc /usr/cvssupport/bugid.verify %l @end example The @file{rcsinfo} file contains this line: @example ^tc /usr/cvssupport/tc.template @end example The @file{config} file contains this line: @example RereadLogAfterVerify=always @end example @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node loginfo @appendixsubsec Loginfo @cindex loginfo (admin file) @cindex logging, commits @cindex Storing log messages @cindex Mailing log messages @cindex Distributing log messages @cindex Log messages The @file{loginfo} file is used to control where log information is sent after versioned changes are made to repository archive files and after directories are added ot the repository. @ref{posttag} for how to log tagging information and @ref{postadmin} for how to log changes due to the @code{admin} command. The @file{loginfo} file has the standard form for script hooks (@pxref{Trigger Scripts}), where each line is a regular expression followed by a command to execute. It supports the ALL and DEFAULT keywords. Any specified scripts are called: @table @code @item commit Once per directory, immediately after a successfully completing the commit of all files within that directory. @item import Once per import, immediately after completion of all write operations. @item add Immediately after the successful @code{add} of a directory. @end table Any script called via @file{loginfo} will be fed the log information on its standard input. Note that the filter program @strong{must} read @strong{all} of the log information from its standard input or @sc{cvs} may fail with a broken pipe signal. @cindex format strings, loginfo admin file In addition to the common format strings (@pxref{syntax}), @file{loginfo} supports: @table @t @item @{stVv@} File attributes, where: @table @t @item s file name @item T tag name of destination, or the empty string when there is no associated tag name (this usually means the trunk) @item V old version number (pre-checkin) @item v new version number (post-checkin) @end table @end table For example, some valid format strings are @samp{%%}, @samp{%s}, @samp{%@{s@}}, and @samp{%@{stVv@}}. @cindex loginfo (admin file), updating legacy repositories @cindex compatibility notes, loginfo admin file Currently, if @samp{UseNewInfoFmtStrings} is not set in the @file{config} administration file (@pxref{config}), the format strings will be substituted as they were in past versions of @sc{cvs}, but this feature is deprecated. It is simply in place so that legacy repositories will remain compatible with the new @sc{cvs} application. For information on updating, please see @ref{Updating Commit Files}. As an example, if @samp{/u/src/master/yoyodyne/tc} is the repository, @samp{%p} and @samp{%@{sVv@}} are the format strings, and three files (@t{ChangeLog}, @t{Makefile}, @t{foo.c}) were modified, the output might be: @example yoyodyne/tc ChangeLog 1.1 1.2 Makefile 1.3 1.4 foo.c 1.12 1.13 @end example Note: when @sc{cvs} is accessing a remote repository, @file{loginfo} will be run on the @emph{remote} (i.e., server) side, not the client side (@pxref{Remote repositories}). @menu * loginfo example:: Loginfo example * Keeping a checked out copy:: Updating a tree on every checkin @end menu @c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . @node loginfo example @appendixsubsubsec Loginfo example The following @file{loginfo} file, together with the tiny shell-script below, appends all log messages to the file @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/commitlog},
and any commits to the administrative files (inside
the @file{CVSROOT} directory) are also logged in
Commits to the @file{prog1} directory are mailed to @t{ceder}.

@c FIXME: is it a CVS feature or bug that only the
@c first matching line is used?  It is documented
@c above, but is it useful?  For example, if we wanted
@c to run both "cvs-log" and "Mail" for the CVSROOT
@c directory, it is kind of awkward if
@c only the first matching line is used.
@example
ALL                     /usr/local/bin/cvs-log $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/commitlog$USER
^CVSROOT$$/\|$$        /usr/local/bin/cvs-log /usr/adm/cvsroot-log $USER ^prog1$$/\|$$ Mail -s "%p %s" ceder @end example The shell-script @file{/usr/local/bin/cvs-log} looks like this: @example #!/bin/sh (echo "------------------------------------------------------"; echo -n "$2  ";
date;
echo;
cat) >> $1 @end example @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node Keeping a checked out copy @appendixsubsubsec Keeping a checked out copy @c What other index entries? It seems like @c people might want to use a lot of different @c words for this functionality. @cindex Keeping a checked out copy @cindex Checked out copy, keeping @cindex Web pages, maintaining with CVS It is often useful to maintain a directory tree which contains files which correspond to the latest version in the repository. For example, other developers might want to refer to the latest sources without having to check them out, or you might be maintaining a web site with @sc{cvs} and want every checkin to cause the files used by the web server to be updated. @c Can we offer more details on the web example? Or @c point the user at how to figure it out? This text @c strikes me as sufficient for someone who already has @c some idea of what we mean but not enough for the naive @c user/sysadmin to understand it and set it up. The way to do this is by having loginfo invoke @code{cvs update}. Doing so in the naive way will cause a problem with locks, so the @code{cvs update} must be run in the background. @c Should we try to describe the problem with locks? @c It seems like a digression for someone who just @c wants to know how to make it work. @c Another choice which might work for a single file @c is to use "cvs -n update -p" which doesn't take @c out locks (I think) but I don't see many advantages @c of that and we might as well document something which @c works for multiple files. Here is an example for unix (this should all be on one line): @example ^cyclic-pages$$/\|$$ (date; cat; (sleep 2; cd /u/www/local-docs; cvs -q update -d) &) >>$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/updatelog 2>&1
@end example

This will cause checkins to repository directory @code{cyclic-pages}
and its subdirectories to update the checked
out tree in @file{/u/www/local-docs}.
@c More info on some of the details?  The "sleep 2" is
@c so if we are lucky the lock will be gone by the time
@c we start and we can wait 2 seconds instead of 30.

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

command modifies files.  The @file{postadmin} file has the standard form
for script hooks (@pxref{Trigger Scripts}), where each line is a regular
expression followed by a command to execute.  It supports the ALL and DEFAULT
keywords.

The @file{postadmin} file supports no format strings other than the common
ones (@pxref{syntax}),

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node taginfo
@appendixsubsec Taginfo
@cindex script hook, taginfo
@cindex Tags, logging
@cindex Tags, verifying
The @file{taginfo} file defines programs to execute
when someone executes a @code{tag} or @code{rtag}
command.  The @file{taginfo} file has the standard form
for script hooks (@pxref{Trigger Scripts}), where each line
is a regular expression followed by a command to execute.
It supports the ALL and DEFAULT keywords.

@cindex format strings, taginfo admin file
In addition to the common format strings (@pxref{syntax}),
@file{taginfo} supports:

@table @t
@item b
tag type (@code{T} for branch, @code{N} for not-branch, or @code{?} for
unknown, as during delete operations)
@item o
operation (@code{add} for @code{tag}, @code{mov} for @code{tag -F}, or
@code{del} for @code{tag -d})
@item t
new tag name
@item @{sTVv@}
file attributes, where:
@table @t
@item s
file name
@item T
tag name of destination, or the empty string when there is no associated
tag name (this usually means the trunk)
@item V
old version number (for a move or delete operation)
@item v
new version number (for an add or move operation)
@end table
@end table

For example, some valid format strings are @samp{%%}, @samp{%p}, @samp{%t},
@samp{%s}, @samp{%@{s@}}, and @samp{%@{sVv@}}.

@cindex taginfo (admin file), updating legacy repositories
@cindex compatibility notes, taginfo admin file
Currently, if no format strings are specified, a default
string of @samp{ %t %o %p %@{sv@}} will be appended to the command
line template before replacement is performed, but this
feature is deprecated.  It is simply in place so that legacy
repositories will remain compatible with the new @sc{cvs} application.
For information on updating, @pxref{Updating Commit Files}.

@cindex Exit status, of taginfo admin file
@cindex taginfo (admin file), exit status
A non-zero exit of the filter program will cause the tag to be
aborted.

Here is an example of using @file{taginfo} to log @code{tag} and @code{rtag}
commands.  In the @file{taginfo} file put:

@example
ALL /usr/local/cvsroot/CVSROOT/loggit %t %b %o %p %@{sVv@}
@end example

@noindent
Where @file{/usr/local/cvsroot/CVSROOT/loggit} contains the
following script:

@example
#!/bin/sh
echo "$@@" >>/home/kingdon/cvsroot/CVSROOT/taglog @end example @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node posttag @appendixsubsec Logging tags @cindex posttag (admin file) @cindex script hook, posttag @cindex Tags, logging The @file{posttag} file defines programs to execute after a @code{tag} or @code{rtag} command modifies files. The @file{posttag} file has the standard form for script hooks (@pxref{Trigger Scripts}), where each line is a regular expression followed by a command to execute. It supports the ALL and DEFAULT keywords. @cindex format strings, posttag admin file The @file{posttag} admin file supports the same format strings as the @file{taginfo} file (@pxref{taginfo}), @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node postwatch @appendixsubsec Logging watch commands @cindex postwatch (admin file) @cindex script hook, postwatch @cindex Watch family of commands, logging The @file{postwatch} file defines programs to execute after any command (for instance, @code{watch}, @code{edit}, @code{unedit}, or @code{commit}) modifies any @file{CVS/fileattr} file in the repository (@pxref{Watches}). The @file{postwatch} file has the standard form for script hooks (@pxref{Trigger Scripts}), where each line is a regular expression followed by a command to execute. It supports the ALL and DEFAULT keywords. @cindex format strings, postwatch admin file The @file{postwatch} file supports no format strings other than the common ones (@pxref{syntax}), but it is worth noting that the @code{%c} format string may not be replaced as you might expect. Client runs of @code{edit} and @code{unedit} can sometimes skip contacting the @sc{cvs} server and cache the notification of the file attribute change to be sent the next time the client contacts the server for whatever other reason, @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node preproxy @appendixsubsec Launch a Script before Proxying @cindex preproxy (admin file) @cindex script hook, preproxy @cindex Write proxy, verifying @cindex Write proxy, logging The @file{preproxy} file defines programs to execute after a secondary server receives a write request from a client, just before it starts up the primary server and becomes a write proxy. This hook could be used to dial a modem, launch an SSH tunnel, establish a VPN, or anything else that might be necessary to do before contacting the primary server. @file{preproxy} scripts are called once, at the time of the write request, with the repository argument (if requested) set from the topmost directory sent by the client. The @file{preproxy} file has the standard form for script hooks (@pxref{Trigger Scripts}), where each line is a regular expression followed by a command to execute. It supports the ALL and DEFAULT keywords. @cindex format strings, preproxy admin file In addition to the common format strings, the @file{preproxy} file supports the following format string: @table @t @item P the CVSROOT string which specifies the primary server @end table @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node postproxy @appendixsubsec Launch a Script after Proxying @cindex postproxy (admin file) @cindex script hook, postproxy @cindex Write proxy, logging @cindex Write proxy, pull updates @cindex secondary server, pull updates The @file{postproxy} file defines programs to execute after a secondary server notes that the connection to the primary server has shut down and before it releases the client by shutting down the connection to the client. This could hook could be used to disconnect a modem, an SSH tunnel, a VPN, or anything else that might be necessary to do after contacting the primary server. This hook should also be used to pull updates from the primary server before allowing the client which did the write to disconnect since otherwise the client's next read request may generate error messages and fail upon encountering an out of date repository on the secondary server. @file{postproxy} scripts are called once per directory. The @file{postproxy} file has the standard form for script hooks (@pxref{Trigger Scripts}), where each line is a regular expression followed by a command to execute. It supports the ALL and DEFAULT keywords. @cindex format strings, postproxy admin file In addition to the common format strings, the @file{postproxy} file supports the following format string: @table @t @item P the CVSROOT string which specifies the primary server @end table @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node rcsinfo @appendixsec Rcsinfo @cindex rcsinfo (admin file) @cindex Form for log message @cindex Log message template @cindex Template for log message @cindex logging, commits The @file{rcsinfo} file can be used to specify a form to edit when filling out the commit log. The @file{rcsinfo} file has a syntax similar to the @file{verifymsg}, @file{commitinfo} and @file{loginfo} files. @xref{syntax}. Unlike the other files the second part is @emph{not} a command-line template. Instead, the part after the regular expression should be a full pathname to a file containing the log message template. If the repository name does not match any of the regular expressions in this file, the @samp{DEFAULT} line is used, if it is specified. All occurrences of the name @samp{ALL} appearing as a regular expression are used in addition to the first matching regular expression or @samp{DEFAULT}. @c FIXME: should be offering advice, somewhere around @c here, about where to put the template file. The @c verifymsg example uses /usr/cvssupport but doesn't @c say anything about what that directory is for or @c whether it is hardwired into CVS or who creates @c it or anything. In particular we should say @c how to version control the template file. A @c probably better answer than the /usr/cvssupport @c stuff is to use checkoutlist (with xref to the @c checkoutlist doc). @c Also I am starting to see a connection between @c this and the Keeping a checked out copy node. @c Probably want to say something about that. The log message template will be used as a default log message. If you specify a log message with @samp{cvs commit -m @var{message}} or @samp{cvs commit -f @var{file}} that log message will override the template. @xref{verifymsg}, for an example @file{rcsinfo} file. When @sc{cvs} is accessing a remote repository, the contents of @file{rcsinfo} at the time a directory is first checked out will specify a template. This template will be updated on all @samp{cvs update} commands. It will also be added to new directories added with a @samp{cvs add new-directory} command. In versions of @sc{cvs} prior to version 1.12, the @file{CVS/Template} file was not updated. If the @sc{cvs} server is at version 1.12 or higher an older client may be used and the @file{CVS/Template} will be updated from the server. @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @node cvsignore @appendixsec Ignoring files via cvsignore @cindex cvsignore (admin file), global @cindex Global cvsignore @cindex Ignoring files @c -- This chapter should maybe be moved to the @c tutorial part of the manual? There are certain file names that frequently occur inside your working copy, but that you don't want to put under @sc{cvs} control. Examples are all the object files that you get while you compile your sources. Normally, when you run @samp{cvs update}, it prints a line for each file it encounters that it doesn't know about (@pxref{update output}). @sc{cvs} has a list of files (or sh(1) file name patterns) that it should ignore while running @code{update}, @code{import} and @code{release}. @c -- Are those the only three commands affected? This list is constructed in the following way. @itemize @bullet @item The list is initialized to include certain file name patterns: names associated with @sc{cvs} administration, or with other common source control systems; common names for patch files, object files, archive files, and editor backup files; and other names that are usually artifacts of assorted utilities. Currently, the default list of ignored file name patterns is: @cindex Ignored files @cindex Automatically ignored files @example RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$*     *$*.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core @end example @item The per-repository list in @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvsignore} is appended to
the list, if that file exists.

@item
The per-user list in @file{.cvsignore} in your home
directory is appended to the list, if it exists.

@item
Any entries in the environment variable
@code{$CVSIGNORE} is appended to the list. @item Any @samp{-I} options given to @sc{cvs} is appended. @item As @sc{cvs} traverses through your directories, the contents of any @file{.cvsignore} will be appended to the list. The patterns found in @file{.cvsignore} are only valid for the directory that contains them, not for any sub-directories. @end itemize In any of the 5 places listed above, a single exclamation mark (@samp{!}) clears the ignore list. This can be used if you want to store any file which normally is ignored by @sc{cvs}. Specifying @samp{-I !} to @code{cvs import} will import everything, which is generally what you want to do if you are importing files from a pristine distribution or any other source which is known to not contain any extraneous files. However, looking at the rules above you will see there is a fly in the ointment; if the distribution contains any @file{.cvsignore} files, then the patterns from those files will be processed even if @samp{-I !} is specified. The only workaround is to remove the @file{.cvsignore} files in order to do the import. Because this is awkward, in the future @samp{-I !} might be modified to override @file{.cvsignore} files in each directory. Note that the syntax of the ignore files consists of a series of lines, each of which contains a space separated list of filenames. This offers no clean way to specify filenames which contain spaces, but you can use a workaround like @file{foo?bar} to match a file named @file{foo bar} (it also matches @file{fooxbar} and the like). Also note that there is currently no way to specify comments. @c FIXCVS? I don't _like_ this syntax at all, but @c changing it raises all the usual compatibility @c issues and I'm also not sure what to change it to. @node checkoutlist @appendixsec The checkoutlist file @cindex checkoutlist It may be helpful to use @sc{cvs} to maintain your own files in the @file{CVSROOT} directory. For example, suppose that you have a script @file{logcommit.pl} which you run by including the following line in the @file{commitinfo} administrative file: @example ALL$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/logcommit.pl %r/%p %s
@end example

To maintain @file{logcommit.pl} with @sc{cvs} you would
add the following line to the @file{checkoutlist}

@example
logcommit.pl
@end example

The format of @file{checkoutlist} is one line for each
file that you want to maintain using @sc{cvs}, giving
the name of the file, followed optionally by more whitespace
and any error message that should print if the file cannot be
checked out into CVSROOT after a commit:

@example
logcommit.pl	Could not update CVSROOT/logcommit.pl.
@end example

After setting up @file{checkoutlist} in this fashion,
the files listed there will function just like
@sc{cvs}'s built-in administrative files.  For example,
when checking in one of the files you should get a
message such as:

@example
cvs commit: Rebuilding administrative file database
@end example

@noindent
and the checked out copy in the @file{CVSROOT}
directory should be updated.

authentication server}) in @file{checkoutlist} is not
recommended for security reasons.

For information about keeping a checkout out copy in a
more general context than the one provided by
@file{checkoutlist}, see @ref{Keeping a checked out
copy}.

@c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
@node history file
@appendixsec The history file
@cindex History file

By default, the file @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history} is used to log information for the @code{history} command (@pxref{history}). This file name may be changed with the @samp{HistoryLogPath} and @samp{HistorySearchPath} config options (@pxref{config}). The file format of the @file{history} file is documented only in comments in the @sc{cvs} source code, but generally programs should use the @code{cvs history} command to access it anyway, in case the format changes with future releases of @sc{cvs}. @node Variables @appendixsec Expansions in administrative files @cindex Internal variables @cindex Variables Sometimes in writing an administrative file, you might want the file to be able to know various things based on environment @sc{cvs} is running in. There are several mechanisms to do that. To find the home directory of the user running @sc{cvs} (from the @code{HOME} environment variable), use @samp{~} followed by @samp{/} or the end of the line. Likewise for the home directory of @var{user}, use @samp{~@var{user}}. These variables are expanded on the server machine, and don't get any reasonable expansion if pserver (@pxref{Password authenticated}) is in use; therefore user variables (see below) may be a better choice to customize behavior based on the user running @sc{cvs}. @c Based on these limitations, should we deprecate ~? @c What is it good for? Are people using it? One may want to know about various pieces of information internal to @sc{cvs}. A @sc{cvs} internal variable has the syntax @code{$@{@var{variable}@}},
where @var{variable} starts with a letter and consists
of alphanumeric characters and @samp{_}.  If the
character following @var{variable} is a
non-alphanumeric character other than @samp{_}, the
@samp{@{} and @samp{@}} can be omitted.  The @sc{cvs}
internal variables are:

@table @code
@item CVSROOT
@cindex CVSROOT, internal variable
This is the absolute path to the current @sc{cvs} root directory.
@xref{Repository}, for a description of the various
ways to specify this, but note that the internal
variable contains just the directory and not any
of the access method information.

@item RCSBIN
@cindex RCSBIN, internal variable
In @sc{cvs} 1.9.18 and older, this specified the
directory where @sc{cvs} was looking for @sc{rcs}
programs.  Because @sc{cvs} no longer runs @sc{rcs}
programs, specifying this internal variable is now an
error.

@item CVSEDITOR
@cindex CVSEDITOR, internal variable
@itemx EDITOR
@cindex EDITOR, internal variable
@itemx VISUAL
@cindex VISUAL, internal variable
These all expand to the same value, which is the editor
that @sc{cvs} is using.  @xref{Global options}, for how
to specify this.

@item USER
@cindex USER, internal variable
Username of the user running @sc{cvs} (on the @sc{cvs}
server machine).
When using pserver, this is the user specified in the repository
specification which need not be the same as the username the
server is running as (@pxref{Password authentication server}).
Do not confuse this with the environment variable of the same name.

@item SESSIONID
@cindex COMMITID, internal variable
Unique Session ID of the @sc{cvs} process. This is a
random string of printable characters of at least 16
characters length. Users should assume that it may
someday grow to at most 256 characters in length.

@item COMMITID
@cindex COMMITID, internal variable
Unique Session ID of the @sc{cvs} process. This is a
random string of printable characters of at least 16
characters length. Users should assume that it may
someday grow to at most 256 characters in length.
@end table

If you want to pass a value to the administrative files
which the user who is running @sc{cvs} can specify,
use a user variable.
@cindex User variables
To expand a user variable, the
@code{$@{=@var{variable}@}}. To set a user variable, specify the global option @samp{-s} to @sc{cvs}, with argument @code{@var{variable}=@var{value}}. It may be particularly useful to specify this option via @file{.cvsrc} (@pxref{~/.cvsrc}). For example, if you want the administrative file to refer to a test directory you might create a user variable @code{TESTDIR}. Then if @sc{cvs} is invoked as @example cvs -s TESTDIR=/work/local/tests @end example @noindent and the administrative file contains @code{sh$@{=TESTDIR@}/runtests}, then that string is expanded
to @code{sh /work/local/tests/runtests}.

All other strings containing @samp{$} are reserved; there is no way to quote a @samp{$} character so that
@samp{$} represents itself. Environment variables passed to administrative files are: @table @code @cindex environment variables, passed to administrative files @item CVS_USER @cindex CVS_USER, environment variable The @sc{cvs}-specific username provided by the user, if it can be provided (currently just for the pserver access method), and to the empty string otherwise. (@code{CVS_USER} and @code{USER} may differ when @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/passwd}

@item LOGNAME
@cindex LOGNAME, environment variable
The username of the system user.

@item USER
@cindex USER, environment variable
Same as @code{LOGNAME}.
Do not confuse this with the internal variable of the same name.
@end table

@node config
@appendixsec The CVSROOT/config configuration file

@cindex configuration file
@cindex config, in CVSROOT
@cindex CVSROOT/config

Usually, the @file{config} file is found at @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/config}, but this may be overridden on the @code{pserver} and @code{server} command lines (@pxref{server & pserver}). The administrative file @file{config} contains various miscellaneous settings which affect the behavior of @sc{cvs}. The syntax is slightly different from the other administrative files. Leading white space on any line is ignored, though the syntax is very strict and will reject spaces and tabs almost anywhere else. Empty lines, lines containing nothing but white space, and lines which start with @samp{#} (discounting any leading white space) are ignored. @c FIXME: where do we define comments for the other @c administrative files. Other lines consist of the optional leading white space, a keyword, @samp{=}, and a value. Please note again that this syntax is very strict. Extraneous spaces or tabs, other than the leading white space, are not permitted on these lines. @c See comments in parseinfo.c:parse_config for more @c discussion of this strictness. As of CVS 1.12.13, lines of the form @samp{[@var{CVSROOT}]} mark the subsequent section of the config file as applying only to certain repositories. Multiple @samp{[@var{CVSROOT}]} lines without intervening @samp{@var{KEYWORD}=@var{VALUE}} pairs cause processing to fall through, processing subsequent keywords for any root in the list. Finally, keywords and values which appear before any @samp{[@var{CVSROOT}]} lines are defaults, and may to apply to any repository. For example, consider the following file: @example # Defaults LogHistory=TMAR [/cvsroots/team1] LockDir=/locks/team1 [/cvsroots/team2] LockDir=/locks/team2 [/cvsroots/team3] LockDir=/locks/team3 [/cvsroots/team4] LockDir=/locks/team4 [/cvsroots/team3] [/cvsroots/team4] # Override logged commands for teams 3 & 4. LogHistory=all @end example This example file sets up separate lock directories for each project, as well as a default set of logged commands overridden for the example's team 3 & team 4. This syntax could be useful, for instance, if you wished to share a single config file, for instance @file{/etc/cvs.conf}, among several repositories. Currently defined keywords are: @table @code @cindex HistoryLogPath, in CVSROOT/config @item HistorySearchPath=@var{pattern} Request that @sc{cvs} look for its history information in files matching @var{pattern}, which is a standard UNIX file glob. If @var{pattern} matches multiple files, all will be searched in lexicographically sorted order. @xref{history}, and @ref{history file}, for more. If no value is supplied for this option, it defaults to @file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history}.

@cindex HistorySearchPath, in CVSROOT/config
@item HistoryLogPath=@var{path}
Control where @sc{cvs} logs its history.  If the file does not exist, @sc{cvs}
will attempt to create it.  Format strings, as available to the GNU C
@code{strftime} function and often the UNIX date command, and the string
@var{$CVSROOT} will be substituted in this path. For example, consider the line: @example HistoryLogPath=$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history/%Y-%m-%d
@end example

This line would cause @sc{cvs} to attempt to create its history file in a
subdirectory (@file{history}) of the configuration directory (@file{CVSROOT})
with a name equal to the current date representation in the ISO8601 format (for
example, on May 11, 2005, @sc{cvs} would attempt to log its history under the
repository root directory in a file named @file{CVSROOT/history/2005-05-11}).
@xref{history}, and @ref{history file}, for more.

If no value is supplied for this option, it defaults to
@file{$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history}. @cindex ImportNewFilesToVendorBranchOnly, in CVSROOT/config @cindex import, config admin file @cindex config (admin file), import @item ImportNewFilesToVendorBranchOnly=@var{value} Specify whether @code{cvs import} should always behave as if the @samp{-X} flag was specified on the command line. @var{value} may be either @samp{yes} or @samp{no}. If set to @samp{yes}, all uses of @code{cvs import} on the repository will behave as if the @samp{-X} flag was set. The default value is @samp{no}. @cindex KeywordExpand, in CVSROOT/config @item KeywordExpand=@var{value} Specify @samp{i} followed by a list of keywords to be expanded (for example, @samp{KeywordExpand=iMYCVS,Name,Date}), or @samp{e} followed by a list of keywords not to be expanded (for example, @samp{KeywordExpand=eCVSHeader}). For more on keyword expansion, see @ref{Configuring keyword expansion}. @cindex LocalKeyword, in CVSROOT/config @item LocalKeyword=@var{value} Specify a local alias for a standard keyword. For example, @samp{LocalKeyword=MYCVS=CVSHeader}. For more on local keywords, see @ref{Keyword substitution}. @cindex LockDir, in CVSROOT/config @item LockDir=@var{directory} Put @sc{cvs} lock files in @var{directory} rather than directly in the repository. This is useful if you want to let users read from the repository while giving them write access only to @var{directory}, not to the repository. It can also be used to put the locks on a very fast in-memory file system to speed up locking and unlocking the repository. You need to create @var{directory}, but @sc{cvs} will create subdirectories of @var{directory} as it needs them. For information on @sc{cvs} locks, see @ref{Concurrency}. @c Mention this in Compatibility section? Before enabling the LockDir option, make sure that you have tracked down and removed any copies of @sc{cvs} 1.9 or older. Such versions neither support LockDir, nor will give an error indicating that they don't support it. The result, if this is allowed to happen, is that some @sc{cvs} users will put the locks one place, and others will put them another place, and therefore the repository could become corrupted. @sc{cvs} 1.10 does not support LockDir but it will print a warning if run on a repository with LockDir enabled. @cindex LogHistory, in CVSROOT/config @item LogHistory=@var{value} Control what is logged to the @file{CVSROOT/history} file (@pxref{history}). Default of @samp{TOEFWUPCGMAR} (or simply @samp{all}) will log all transactions. Any subset of the default is legal. (For example, to only log transactions that modify the @file{*,v} files, use @samp{LogHistory=TMAR}.) To disable history logging completely, use @samp{LogHistory=}. @cindex MaxCommentLeaderLength, in CVSROOT/config @cindex Log keyword, configuring substitution behavior @item MaxCommentLeaderLength=@var{length} Set to some length, in bytes, where a trailing @samp{k}, @samp{M}, @samp{G}, or @samp{T} causes the preceding nubmer to be interpreted as kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terrabytes, respectively, will cause @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$} keywords (@pxref{Keyword substitution}), with more than @var{length} bytes preceding it on a line to be ignored (or to fall back on the comment leader set in the RCS archive file - see @code{UseArchiveCommentLeader} below). Defaults to 20 bytes to allow checkouts to proceed normally when they include binary files containing @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$} keywords and which users have neglected to mark as binary. @cindex MinCompressionLevel, in CVSROOT/config @cindex MaxCompressionLevel, in CVSROOT/config @cindex Compression levels, restricting on server @item MinCompressionLevel=@var{value} @itemx MaxCompressionLevel=@var{value} Restricts the level of compression used by the @sc{cvs} server to a @var{value} between 0 and 9. @var{value}s 1 through 9 are the same @sc{zlib} compression levels accepted by the @samp{-z} option (@pxref{Global options}), and 0 means no compression. When one or both of these keys are set and a client requests a level outside the specified range, the server will simply use the closest permissable level. Clients will continue compressing at the level requested by the user. The exception is when level 0 (no compression) is not available and the client fails to request any compression. The @sc{cvs} server will then exit with an error message when it becomes apparent that the client is not going to request compression. This will not happen with clients version 1.12.13 and later since these client versions allow the server to notify them that they must request some level of compression. @ignore @cindex PreservePermissions, in CVSROOT/config @item PreservePermissions=@var{value} Enable support for saving special device files, symbolic links, file permissions and ownerships in the repository. The default value is @samp{no}. @xref{Special Files}, for the full implications of using this keyword. @end ignore @cindex PrimaryServer, in CVSROOT/config @cindex Primary server @cindex Secondary server @cindex proxy, write @cindex write proxy @item PrimaryServer=@var{CVSROOT} When specified, and the repository specified by @var{CVSROOT} is not the one currently being accessed, then the server will turn itself into a transparent proxy to @var{CVSROOT} for write requests. The @var{hostname} configured as part of @var{CVSROOT} must resolve to the same string returned by the @command{uname} command on the primary server for this to work. Host name resolution is performed via some combination of @command{named}, a broken out line from @file{/etc/hosts}, and the Network Information Service (NIS or YP), depending on the configuration of the particular system. Only the @samp{:ext:} method is currently supported for primaries (actually, @samp{:fork:} is supported as well, but only for testing - if you find another use for accessing a primary via the @samp{:fork:} method, please send a note to @email{bug-cvs@@nongnu.org} about it). See @ref{Write proxies} for more on configuring and using write proxies. @cindex RCSBIN, in CVSROOT/config @item RCSBIN=@var{bindir} For @sc{cvs} 1.9.12 through 1.9.18, this setting told @sc{cvs} to look for @sc{rcs} programs in the @var{bindir} directory. Current versions of @sc{cvs} do not run @sc{rcs} programs; for compatibility this setting is accepted, but it does nothing. @cindex RereadLogAfterVerify, in CVSROOT/config @cindex @file{verifymsg}, changing the log message @item RereadLogAfterVerify=@var{value} Modify the @samp{commit} command such that CVS will reread the log message after running the program specified by @file{verifymsg}. @var{value} may be one of @samp{yes} or @samp{always}, indicating that the log message should always be reread; @samp{no} or @samp{never}, indicating that it should never be reread; or @var{value} may be @samp{stat}, indicating that the file should be checked with the file system @samp{stat()} function to see if it has changed (see warning below) before rereading. The default value is @samp{always}. @strong{Note: the stat' mode can cause CVS to pause for up to one extra second per directory committed. This can be less IO and CPU intensive but is not recommended for use with large repositories} @xref{verifymsg}, for more information on how verifymsg may be used. @cindex SystemAuth, in CVSROOT/config @item SystemAuth=@var{value} If @var{value} is @samp{yes}, then pserver should check for users in the system's user database if not found in @file{CVSROOT/passwd}. If it is @samp{no}, then all pserver users must exist in @file{CVSROOT/passwd}. The default is @samp{yes}. For more on pserver, see @ref{Password authenticated}. @cindex TmpDir, in config @cindex temporary files, location of @cindex temporary directory, set in config @item TmpDir=@var{path} Specify @var{path} as the directory to create temporary files in. @xref{Global options}, for more on setting the path to the temporary directory. This option first appeared with @sc{cvs} release 1.12.13. @cindex TopLevelAdmin, in CVSROOT/config @item TopLevelAdmin=@var{value} Modify the @samp{checkout} command to create a @samp{CVS} directory at the top level of the new working directory, in addition to @samp{CVS} directories created within checked-out directories. The default value is @samp{no}. This option is useful if you find yourself performing many commands at the top level of your working directory, rather than in one of the checked out subdirectories. The @file{CVS} directory created there will mean you don't have to specify @code{CVSROOT} for each command. It also provides a place for the @file{CVS/Template} file (@pxref{Working directory storage}). @cindex UseArchiveCommentLeader, in CVSROOT/config @cindex Log keyword, configuring substitution behavior @item UseArchiveCommentLeader=@var{value} Set to @code{true}, if the text preceding a @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$} keyword is found to exceed @code{MaxCommentLeaderLength} (above) bytes, then the comment leader set in the RCS archive file (@pxref{admin}), if any, will be used instead. If there is no comment leader set in the archive file or @var{value} is set to @samp{false}, then the keyword will not be expanded (@pxref{Keyword list}). To force the comment leader in the RCS archive file to be used exclusively (and @code{$@splitrcskeyword{Log}$} expansion skipped in files where the comment leader has not been set in the archive file), set @var{value} and set @code{MaxCommentLeaderLength} to @code{0}. @cindex UseNewInfoFmtStrings, in CVSROOT/config @cindex format strings, config admin file @cindex config (admin file), updating legacy repositories @cindex compatibility notes, config admin file @item UseNewInfoFmtStrings=@var{value} Specify whether @sc{cvs} should support the new or old command line template model for the commit support files (@pxref{commit files}). This configuration variable began life in deprecation and is only here in order to give people time to update legacy repositories to use the new format string syntax before support for the old syntax is removed. For information on updating your repository to support the new model, please see @ref{Updating Commit Files}. @emph{Note that new repositories (created with the @code{cvs init} command) will have this value set to @samp{yes}, but the default value is @samp{no}.} @cindex UserAdminOptions, in CVSROOT/config @item UserAdminOptions=@var{value} Control what options will be allowed with the @code{cvs admin} command (@pxref{admin}) for users not in the @code{cvsadmin} group. The @var{value} string is a list of single character options which should be allowed. If a user who is not a member of the @code{cvsadmin} group tries to execute any @code{cvs admin} option which is not listed they will will receive an error message reporting that the option is restricted. If no @code{cvsadmin} group exists on the server, @sc{cvs} will ignore the @code{UserAdminOptions} keyword (@pxref{admin}). When not specified, @code{UserAdminOptions} defaults to @samp{k}. In other words, it defaults to allowing users outside of the @code{cvsadmin} group to use the @code{cvs admin} command only to change the default keyword expansion mode for files. As an example, to restrict users not in the @code{cvsadmin} group to using @code{cvs admin} to change the default keyword substitution mode, lock revisions, unlock revisions, and replace the log message, use @samp{UserAdminOptions=klum}. @end table @c --------------------------------------------------------------------- @node Environment variables @appendix All environment variables which affect CVS @cindex Environment variables @cindex Reference manual for variables This is a complete list of all environment variables that affect @sc{cvs} (Windows users, please bear with this list;$VAR is equivalent to %VAR% at the Windows command prompt).

@table @code
@cindex CVSIGNORE, environment variable
@item $CVSIGNORE A whitespace-separated list of file name patterns that @sc{cvs} should ignore. @xref{cvsignore}. @cindex CVSWRAPPERS, environment variable @item$CVSWRAPPERS
A whitespace-separated list of file name patterns that
@sc{cvs} should treat as wrappers. @xref{Wrappers}.

@item $CVSREAD If this is set, @code{checkout} and @code{update} will try hard to make the files in your working directory read-only. When this is not set, the default behavior is to permit modification of your working files. @cindex CVSREADONLYFS, environment variable @item$CVSREADONLYFS
Turns on read-only repository mode. This allows one to
check out from a read-only repository, such as within
an anoncvs server, or from a @sc{cd-rom} repository.

It has the same effect as if the @samp{-R} command-line
option is used. This can also allow the use of

@item $CVSUMASK Controls permissions of files in the repository. See @ref{File permissions}. @item$CVSROOT
Should contain the full pathname to the root of the @sc{cvs}
source repository (where the @sc{rcs} files are
kept).  This information must be available to @sc{cvs} for
most commands to execute; if @code{$CVSROOT} is not set, or if you wish to override it for one invocation, you can supply it on the command line: @samp{cvs -d cvsroot cvs_command@dots{}} Once you have checked out a working directory, @sc{cvs} stores the appropriate root (in the file @file{CVS/Root}), so normally you only need to worry about this when initially checking out a working directory. @item$CVSEDITOR
@cindex CVSEDITOR, environment variable
@itemx $EDITOR @cindex EDITOR, environment variable @itemx$VISUAL
@cindex VISUAL, environment variable
Specifies the program to use for recording log messages
during commit.  @code{$CVSEDITOR} overrides @code{$EDITOR}, which overrides @code{$VISUAL}. See @ref{Committing your changes} for more or @ref{Global options} for alternative ways of specifying a log editor. @cindex PATH, environment variable @item$PATH
If @code{$RCSBIN} is not set, and no path is compiled into @sc{cvs}, it will use @code{$PATH} to try to find all
programs it uses.

@cindex HOME, environment variable
@item $HOME @cindex HOMEPATH, environment variable @item$HOMEPATH
@cindex HOMEDRIVE, environment variable
@item $HOMEDRIVE Used to locate the directory where the @file{.cvsrc} file, and other such files, are searched. On Unix, @sc{cvs} just checks for @code{HOME}. On Windows NT, the system will set @code{HOMEDRIVE}, for example to @samp{d:} and @code{HOMEPATH}, for example to @file{\joe}. On Windows 95, you'll probably need to set @code{HOMEDRIVE} and @code{HOMEPATH} yourself. @c We are being vague about whether HOME works on @c Windows; see long comment in windows-NT/filesubr.c. @cindex CVS_RSH, environment variable @item$CVS_RSH
Specifies the external program which @sc{cvs} connects with,
when @code{:ext:} access method is specified.
@pxref{Connecting via rsh}.

@item $CVS_SERVER Used in client-server mode when accessing a remote repository using @sc{rsh}. It specifies the name of the program to start on the server side (and any necessary arguments) when accessing a remote repository using the @code{:ext:}, @code{:fork:}, or @code{:server:} access methods. The default value for @code{:ext:} and @code{:server:} is @code{cvs}; the default value for @code{:fork:} is the name used to run the client. @pxref{Connecting via rsh} @item$CVS_PASSFILE
Used in client-server mode when accessing the @code{cvs
login server}.  Default value is @file{$HOME/.cvspass}. @pxref{Password authentication client} @cindex CVS_CLIENT_PORT @item$CVS_CLIENT_PORT
Used in client-server mode to set the port to use when accessing the server
via Kerberos, GSSAPI, or @sc{cvs}'s password authentication protocol
if the port is not specified in the CVSROOT.
@pxref{Remote repositories}

@cindex CVS_PROXY_PORT
@item $CVS_PROXY_PORT Used in client-server mode to set the port to use when accessing a server via a web proxy, if the port is not specified in the CVSROOT. Works with GSSAPI, and the password authentication protocol. @pxref{Remote repositories} @cindex CVS_RCMD_PORT, environment variable @item$CVS_RCMD_PORT
Used in client-server mode.  If set, specifies the port
number to be used when accessing the @sc{rcmd} demon on
the server side. (Currently not used for Unix clients).

@cindex CVS_CLIENT_LOG, environment variable
@item $CVS_CLIENT_LOG Used for debugging only in client-server mode. If set, everything sent to the server is logged into @file{@code{$CVS_CLIENT_LOG}.in} and everything
sent from the server is logged into
@file{@code{$CVS_CLIENT_LOG}.out}. @cindex CVS_SERVER_SLEEP, environment variable @item$CVS_SERVER_SLEEP
Used only for debugging the server side in
client-server mode.  If set, delays the start of the
server child process the specified amount of
seconds so that you can attach to it with a debugger.

@cindex CVS_IGNORE_REMOTE_ROOT, environment variable
@item $CVS_IGNORE_REMOTE_ROOT For @sc{cvs} 1.10 and older, setting this variable prevents @sc{cvs} from overwriting the @file{CVS/Root} file when the @samp{-d} global option is specified. Later versions of @sc{cvs} do not rewrite @file{CVS/Root}, so @code{CVS_IGNORE_REMOTE_ROOT} has no effect. @cindex CVS_LOCAL_BRANCH_NUM, environment variable @item$CVS_LOCAL_BRANCH_NUM
Setting this variable allows some control over the
branch number that is assigned. This is specifically to
support the local commit feature of CVSup. If one sets
@code{CVS_LOCAL_BRANCH_NUM} to (say) 1000 then branches
the local repository, the revision numbers will look
like 1.66.1000.xx. There is almost a dead-set certainty
that there will be no conflicts with version numbers.

@cindex COMSPEC, environment variable
@item $COMSPEC Used under OS/2 only. It specifies the name of the command interpreter and defaults to @sc{cmd.exe}. @cindex TMPDIR, environment variable @cindex temporary file directory, set via environment variable @cindex temporary files, location of @item$TMPDIR
Directory in which temporary files are located.
@xref{Global options}, for more on setting the temporary directory.

@cindex CVS_PID, environment variable
@item $CVS_PID This is the process identification (aka pid) number of the @sc{cvs} process. It is often useful in the programs and/or scripts specified by the @file{commitinfo}, @file{verifymsg}, @file{loginfo} files. @end table @node Compatibility @appendix Compatibility between CVS Versions @cindex CVS, versions of @cindex Versions, of CVS @cindex Compatibility, between CVS versions @c We don't mention versions older than CVS 1.3 @c on the theory that it would clutter it up for the vast @c majority of people, who don't have anything that old. @c The repository format is compatible going back to @sc{cvs} 1.3. But see @ref{Watches Compatibility}, if you have copies of @sc{cvs} 1.6 or older and you want to use the optional developer communication features. @c If you "cvs rm" and commit using 1.3, then you'll @c want to run "rcs -sdead <file,v>" on each of the @c files in the Attic if you then want 1.5 and @c later to recognize those files as dead (I think the @c symptom if this is not done is that files reappear @c in joins). (Wait: the above will work but really to @c be strictly correct we should suggest checking @c in a new revision rather than just changing the @c state of the head revision, shouldn't we?). @c The old convert.sh script was for this, but it never @c did get updated to reflect use of the RCS "dead" @c state. @c Note: this is tricky to document without confusing @c people--need to carefully say what CVS version we @c are talking about and keep in mind the distinction @c between a @c repository created with 1.3 and on which one now @c uses 1.5+, and a repository on which one wants to @c use both versions side by side (e.g. during a @c transition period). @c Wait, can't CVS just detect the case in which a file @c is in the Attic but the head revision is not dead? @c Not sure whether this should produce a warning or @c something, and probably needs further thought, but @c it would appear that the situation can be detected. @c @c We might want to separate out the 1.3 compatibility @c section (for repository & working directory) from the @c rest--that might help avoid confusing people who @c are upgrading (for example) from 1.6 to 1.8. @c @c A minor incompatibility is if a current version of CVS @c puts "Nfoo" into CVS/Tag, then CVS 1.9 or older will @c see this as if there is no tag. Seems to me this is @c too obscure to mention. The working directory format is compatible going back to @sc{cvs} 1.5. It did change between @sc{cvs} 1.3 and @sc{cvs} 1.5. If you run @sc{cvs} 1.5 or newer on a working directory checked out with @sc{cvs} 1.3, @sc{cvs} will convert it, but to go back to @sc{cvs} 1.3 you need to check out a new working directory with @sc{cvs} 1.3. The remote protocol is interoperable going back to @sc{cvs} 1.5, but no further (1.5 was the first official release with the remote protocol, but some older versions might still be floating around). In many cases you need to upgrade both the client and the server to take advantage of new features and bug fixes, however. @c Perhaps should be saying something here about the @c "D" lines in Entries (written by CVS 1.9; 1.8 and @c older don't use them). These are supposed to be @c compatible in both directions, but I'm not sure @c they quite are 100%. One common gripe is if you @c "rm -r" a directory and 1.9 gets confused, as it @c still sees it in Entries. That one is fixed in @c (say) 1.9.6. Someone else reported problems with @c starting with a directory which was checked out with @c an old version, and then using a new version, and @c some "D" lines appeared, but not for every @c directory, causing some directories to be skipped. @c They weren't sure how to reproduce this, though. @c --------------------------------------------------------------------- @node Troubleshooting @appendix Troubleshooting If you are having trouble with @sc{cvs}, this appendix may help. If there is a particular error message which you are seeing, then you can look up the message alphabetically. If not, you can look through the section on other problems to see if your problem is mentioned there. @menu * Error messages:: Partial list of CVS errors * Connection:: Trouble making a connection to a CVS server * Other problems:: Problems not readily listed by error message @end menu @ignore @c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - @c @node Bad administrative files @appendixsec Bad administrative files @c -- Give hints on how to fix them @end ignore @node Error messages @appendixsec Partial list of error messages Here is a partial list of error messages that you may see from @sc{cvs}. It is not a complete list---@sc{cvs} is capable of printing many, many error messages, often with parts of them supplied by the operating system, but the intention is to list the common and/or potentially confusing error messages. The messages are alphabetical, but introductory text such as @samp{cvs update: } is not considered in ordering them. In some cases the list includes messages printed by old versions of @sc{cvs} (partly because users may not be sure which version of @sc{cvs} they are using at any particular moment). @c If we want to start retiring messages, perhaps we @c should pick a cutoff version (for example, no more @c messages which are specific to versions before 1.9) @c and then move the old messages to an "old messages" @c node rather than deleting them completely. @table @code @c FIXME: What is the correct way to format a multiline @c error message here? Maybe @table is the wrong @c choice? Texinfo gurus? @item @var{file}:@var{line}: Assertion '@var{text}' failed The exact format of this message may vary depending on your system. It indicates a bug in @sc{cvs}, which can be handled as described in @ref{BUGS}. @item cvs @var{command}: authorization failed: server @var{host} rejected access This is a generic response when trying to connect to a pserver server which chooses not to provide a specific reason for denying authorization. Check that the username and password specified are correct and that the @code{CVSROOT} specified is allowed by @samp{--allow-root} in @file{inetd.conf}. See @ref{Password authenticated}. @item cvs @var{command}: conflict: removed @var{file} was modified by second party This message indicates that you removed a file, and someone else modified it. To resolve the conflict, first run @samp{cvs add @var{file}}. If desired, look at the other party's modification to decide whether you still want to remove it. If you don't want to remove it, stop here. If you do want to remove it, proceed with @samp{cvs remove @var{file}} and commit your removal. @c Tests conflicts2-142b* in sanity.sh test for this. @item cannot change permissions on temporary directory @example Operation not permitted @end example This message has been happening in a non-reproducible, occasional way when we run the client/server testsuite, both on Red Hat Linux 3.0.3 and 4.1. We haven't been able to figure out what causes it, nor is it known whether it is specific to Linux (or even to this particular machine!). If the problem does occur on other unices, @samp{Operation not permitted} would be likely to read @samp{Not owner} or whatever the system in question uses for the unix @code{EPERM} error. If you have any information to add, please let us know as described in @ref{BUGS}. If you experience this error while using @sc{cvs}, retrying the operation which produced it should work fine. @c This has been seen in a variety of tests, including @c multibranch-2, multibranch-5, and basic1-24-rm-rm, @c so it doesn't seem particularly specific to any one @c test. @item cvs [server aborted]: Cannot check out files into the repository itself The obvious cause for this message (especially for non-client/server @sc{cvs}) is that the @sc{cvs} root is, for example, @file{/usr/local/cvsroot} and you try to check out files when you are in a subdirectory, such as @file{/usr/local/cvsroot/test}. However, there is a more subtle cause, which is that the temporary directory on the server is set to a subdirectory of the root (which is also not allowed). If this is the problem, set the temporary directory to somewhere else, for example @file{/var/tmp}; see @code{TMPDIR} in @ref{Environment variables}, for how to set the temporary directory. @item cannot commit files as 'root' See @samp{'root' is not allowed to commit files}. @c For one example see basica-1a10 in the testsuite @c For another example, "cvs co ." on NT; see comment @c at windows-NT/filesubr.c (expand_wild). @c For another example, "cvs co foo/bar" where foo exists. @item cannot open CVS/Entries for reading: No such file or directory This generally indicates a @sc{cvs} internal error, and can be handled as with other @sc{cvs} bugs (@pxref{BUGS}). Usually there is a workaround---the exact nature of which would depend on the situation but which hopefully could be figured out. @c This is more obscure than it might sound; it only @c happens if you run "cvs init" from a directory which @c contains a CVS/Root file at the start. @item cvs [init aborted]: cannot open CVS/Root: No such file or directory This message is harmless. Provided it is not accompanied by other errors, the operation has completed successfully. This message should not occur with current versions of @sc{cvs}, but it is documented here for the benefit of @sc{cvs} 1.9 and older. @item cvs server: cannot open /root/.cvsignore: Permission denied @itemx cvs [server aborted]: can't chdir(/root): Permission denied See @ref{Connection}. @item cvs [checkout aborted]: cannot rename file @var{file} to CVS/,,@var{file}: Invalid argument This message has been reported as intermittently happening with @sc{cvs} 1.9 on Solaris 2.5. The cause is unknown; if you know more about what causes it, let us know as described in @ref{BUGS}. @item cvs [@var{command} aborted]: cannot start server via rcmd This, unfortunately, is a rather nonspecific error message which @sc{cvs} 1.9 will print if you are running the @sc{cvs} client and it is having trouble connecting to the server. Current versions of @sc{cvs} should print a much more specific error message. If you get this message when you didn't mean to run the client at all, you probably forgot to specify @code{:local:}, as described in @ref{Repository}. @item ci: @var{file},v: bad diff output line: Binary files - and /tmp/T2a22651 differ @sc{cvs} 1.9 and older will print this message when trying to check in a binary file if @sc{rcs} is not correctly installed. Re-read the instructions that came with your @sc{rcs} distribution and the @sc{install} file in the @sc{cvs} distribution. Alternately, upgrade to a current version of @sc{cvs}, which checks in files itself rather than via @sc{rcs}. @item cvs checkout: could not check out @var{file} With @sc{cvs} 1.9, this can mean that the @code{co} program (part of @sc{rcs}) returned a failure. It should be preceded by another error message, however it has been observed without another error message and the cause is not well-understood. With the current version of @sc{cvs}, which does not run @code{co}, if this message occurs without another error message, it is definitely a @sc{cvs} bug (@pxref{BUGS}). @c My current suspicion is that the RCS in the rcs (not @c cvs/winnt/rcs57nt.zip) directory on the _Practical_ @c CD is bad (remains to be confirmed). @c There is also a report of something which looks @c very similar on SGI, Irix 5.2, so I dunno. @item cvs [login aborted]: could not find out home directory This means that you need to set the environment variables that @sc{cvs} uses to locate your home directory. See the discussion of @code{HOME}, @code{HOMEDRIVE}, and @code{HOMEPATH} in @ref{Environment variables}. @item cvs update: could not merge revision @var{rev} of @var{file}: No such file or directory @sc{cvs} 1.9 and older will print this message if there was a problem finding the @code{rcsmerge} program. Make sure that it is in your @code{PATH}, or upgrade to a current version of @sc{cvs}, which does not require an external @code{rcsmerge} program. @item cvs [update aborted]: could not patch @var{file}: No such file or directory This means that there was a problem finding the @code{patch} program. Make sure that it is in your @code{PATH}. Note that despite appearances the message is @emph{not} referring to whether it can find @var{file}. If both the client and the server are running a current version of @sc{cvs}, then there is no need for an external patch program and you should not see this message. But if either client or server is running @sc{cvs} 1.9, then you need @code{patch}. @item cvs update: could not patch @var{file}; will refetch This means that for whatever reason the client was unable to apply a patch that the server sent. The message is nothing to be concerned about, because inability to apply the patch only slows things down and has no effect on what @sc{cvs} does. @c xref to update output. Or File status? @c Or some place else that @c explains this whole "patch"/P/Needs Patch thing? @item dying gasps from @var{server} unexpected There is a known bug in the server for @sc{cvs} 1.9.18 and older which can cause this. For me, this was reproducible if I used the @samp{-t} global option. It was fixed by Andy Piper's 14 Nov 1997 change to src/filesubr.c, if anyone is curious. If you see the message, you probably can just retry the operation which failed, or if you have discovered information concerning its cause, please let us know as described in @ref{BUGS}. @item end of file from server (consult above messages if any) The most common cause for this message is if you are using an external @code{rsh} program and it exited with an error. In this case the @code{rsh} program should have printed a message, which will appear before the above message. For more information on setting up a @sc{cvs} client and server, see @ref{Remote repositories}. @item cvs [update aborted]: EOF in key in RCS file @var{file},v @itemx cvs [checkout aborted]: EOF while looking for end of string in RCS file @var{file},v This means that there is a syntax error in the given @sc{rcs} file. Note that this might be true even if @sc{rcs} can read the file OK; @sc{cvs} does more error checking of errors in the RCS file. That is why you may see this message when upgrading from @sc{cvs} 1.9 to @sc{cvs} 1.10. The likely cause for the original corruption is hardware, the operating system, or the like. Of course, if you find a case in which @sc{cvs} seems to corrupting the file, by all means report it, (@pxref{BUGS}). There are quite a few variations of this error message, depending on exactly where in the @sc{rcs} file @sc{cvs} finds the syntax error. @cindex mkmodules @item cvs commit: Executing 'mkmodules' This means that your repository is set up for a version of @sc{cvs} prior to @sc{cvs} 1.8. When using @sc{cvs} 1.8 or later, the above message will be preceded by @example cvs commit: Rebuilding administrative file database @end example If you see both messages, the database is being rebuilt twice, which is unnecessary but harmless. If you wish to avoid the duplication, and you have no versions of @sc{cvs} 1.7 or earlier in use, remove @code{-i mkmodules} every place it appears in your @code{modules} file. For more information on the @code{modules} file, see @ref{modules}. @c This message comes from "co", and I believe is @c possible only with older versions of CVS which call @c co. The problem with being able to create the bogus @c RCS file still exists, though (and I think maybe @c there is a different symptom(s) now). @c FIXME: Would be nice to have a more exact wording @c for this message. @item missing author Typically this can happen if you created an RCS file with your username set to empty. @sc{cvs} will, bogusly, create an illegal RCS file with no value for the author field. The solution is to make sure your username is set to a non-empty value and re-create the RCS file. @c "make sure your username is set" is complicated in @c and of itself, as there are the environment @c variables the system login name, &c, and it depends @c on the version of CVS. @item cvs [checkout aborted]: no such tag @var{tag} This message means that @sc{cvs} isn't familiar with the tag @var{tag}. Usually the root cause is that you have mistyped a tag name. Ocassionally this can also occur because the users creating tags do not have permissions to write to the @file{CVSROOT/val-tags} file (@pxref{File permissions}, for more). Prior to @sc{cvs} version 1.12.10, there were a few relatively obscure cases where a given tag could be created in an archive file in the repository but @sc{cvs} would require the user to @c Search sanity.sh for "no such tag" to see some of @c the relatively obscure cases. try a few other @sc{cvs} commands involving that tag until one was found whch caused @sc{cvs} to update @cindex CVSROOT/val-tags file, forcing tags into @cindex val-tags file, forcing tags into the @file{val-tags} file, at which point the originally failing command would begin to work. This same method can be used to repair a @file{val-tags} file that becomes out of date due to the permissions problem mentioned above. This updating is only required once per tag - once a tag is listed in @file{val-tags}, it stays there. Note that using @samp{tag -f} to not require tag matches did not and does not override this check (@pxref{Common options}). @item *PANIC* administration files missing This typically means that there is a directory named @sc{cvs} but it does not contain the administrative files which @sc{cvs} puts in a CVS directory. If the problem is that you created a CVS directory via some mechanism other than @sc{cvs}, then the answer is simple, use a name other than @sc{cvs}. If not, it indicates a @sc{cvs} bug (@pxref{BUGS}). @item rcs error: Unknown option: -x,v/ This message will be followed by a usage message for @sc{rcs}. It means that you have an old version of @sc{rcs} (probably supplied with your operating system), as well as an old version of @sc{cvs}. @sc{cvs} 1.9.18 and earlier only work with @sc{rcs} version 5 and later; current versions of @sc{cvs} do not run @sc{rcs} programs. @c For more information on installing @sc{cvs}, see @c (FIXME: where? it depends on whether you are @c getting binaries or sources or what). @c The message can also say "ci error" or something @c instead of "rcs error", I suspect. @item cvs [server aborted]: received broken pipe signal This message can be caused by a loginfo program that fails to read all of the log information from its standard input. If you find it happening in any other circumstances, please let us know as described in @ref{BUGS}. @item 'root' is not allowed to commit files When committing a permanent change, @sc{cvs} makes a log entry of who committed the change. If you are committing the change logged in as "root" (not under "su" or other root-priv giving program), @sc{cvs} cannot determine who is actually making the change. As such, by default, @sc{cvs} disallows changes to be committed by users logged in as "root". (You can disable this option by passing the @code{--enable-rootcommit} option to @file{configure} and recompiling @sc{cvs}. On some systems this means editing the appropriate @file{config.h} file before building @sc{cvs}.) @item cvs [server aborted]: Secondary out of sync with primary! This usually means that the version of @sc{cvs} running on a secondary server is incompatible with the version running on the primary server (@pxref{Write proxies}). This will not occur if the client supports redirection. It is not the version number that is significant here, but the list of supported requests that the servers provide to the client. For example, even if both servers were the same version, if the secondary was compiled with GSSAPI support and the primary was not, the list of supported requests provided by the two servers would be different and the secondary would not work as a transparent proxy to the primary. Conversely, even if the two servers were radically different versions but both provided the same list of valid requests to the client, the transparent proxy would succeed. @item Terminated with fatal signal 11 This message usually indicates that @sc{cvs} (the server, if you're using client/server mode) has run out of (virtual) memory. Although @sc{cvs} tries to catch the error and issue a more meaningful message, there are many circumstances where that is not possible. If you appear to have lots of memory available to the system, the problem is most likely that you're running into a system-wide limit on the amount of memory a single process can use or a similar process-specific limit. The mechanisms for displaying and setting such limits vary from system to system, so you'll have to consult an expert for your particular system if you don't know how to do that. @item Too many arguments! This message is typically printed by the @file{log.pl} script which is in the @file{contrib} directory in the @sc{cvs} source distribution. In some versions of @sc{cvs}, @file{log.pl} has been part of the default @sc{cvs} installation. The @file{log.pl} script gets called from the @file{loginfo} administrative file. Check that the arguments passed in @file{loginfo} match what your version of @file{log.pl} expects. In particular, the @file{log.pl} from @sc{cvs} 1.3 and older expects the log file as an argument whereas the @file{log.pl} from @sc{cvs} 1.5 and newer expects the log file to be specified with a @samp{-f} option. Of course, if you don't need @file{log.pl} you can just comment it out of @file{loginfo}. @item cvs [update aborted]: unexpected EOF reading @var{file},v See @samp{EOF in key in RCS file}. @item cvs [login aborted]: unrecognized auth response from @var{server} This message typically means that the server is not set up properly. For example, if @file{inetd.conf} points to a nonexistent cvs executable. To debug it further, find the log file which inetd writes (@file{/var/log/messages} or whatever inetd uses on your system). For details, see @ref{Connection}, and @ref{Password authentication server}. @item cvs commit: Up-to-date check failed for @var{file}' This means that someone else has committed a change to that file since the last time that you did a @code{cvs update}. So before proceeding with your @code{cvs commit} you need to @code{cvs update}. @sc{cvs} will merge the changes that you made and the changes that the other person made. If it does not detect any conflicts it will report @samp{M @var{file}} and you are ready to @code{cvs commit}. If it detects conflicts it will print a message saying so, will report @samp{C @var{file}}, and you need to manually resolve the conflict. For more details on this process see @ref{Conflicts example}. @item Usage: diff3 [-exEX3 [-i | -m] [-L label1 -L label3]] file1 file2 file3 @example Only one of [exEX3] allowed @end example This indicates a problem with the installation of @code{diff3} and @code{rcsmerge}. Specifically @code{rcsmerge} was compiled to look for GNU diff3, but it is finding unix diff3 instead. The exact text of the message will vary depending on the system. The simplest solution is to upgrade to a current version of @sc{cvs}, which does not rely on external @code{rcsmerge} or @code{diff3} programs. @item warning: unrecognized response @var{text}' from cvs server If @var{text} contains a valid response (such as @samp{ok}) followed by an extra carriage return character (on many systems this will cause the second part of the message to overwrite the first part), then it probably means that you are using the @samp{:ext:} access method with a version of rsh, such as most non-unix rsh versions, which does not by default provide a transparent data stream. In such cases you probably want to try @samp{:server:} instead of @samp{:ext:}. If @var{text} is something else, this may signify a problem with your @sc{cvs} server. Double-check your installation against the instructions for setting up the @sc{cvs} server. @c FIXCVS: should be printing CR as \r or \015 or some @c such, probably. @item cvs commit: [@var{time}] waiting for @var{user}'s lock in @var{directory} This is a normal message, not an error. See @ref{Concurrency}, for more details. @item cvs commit: warning: editor session failed @cindex Exit status, of editor This means that the editor which @sc{cvs} is using exits with a nonzero exit status. Some versions of vi will do this even when there was not a problem editing the file. If so, point the @code{CVSEDITOR} environment variable to a small script such as: @example #!/bin/sh vi$*
exit 0
@end example

@item cvs update: warning: @var{file} was lost
This means that the working copy of @var{file} has been deleted
but it has not been removed from @sc{cvs}.
This is nothing to be concerned about,
the update will just recreate the local file from the repository.
(This is a convenient way to discard local changes to a file:
just delete it and then run @code{cvs update}.)

@item cvs update: warning: @var{file} is not (any longer) pertinent
This means that the working copy of @var{file} has been deleted,
it has not been removed from @sc{cvs} in the current working directory,
but it has been removed from @sc{cvs} in some other working directory.
This is nothing to be concerned about,
the update would have removed the local file anyway.

@end table

@node Connection
@appendixsec Trouble making a connection to a CVS server

This section concerns what to do if you are having
trouble making a connection to a @sc{cvs} server.  If
you are running the @sc{cvs} command line client
running on Windows, first upgrade the client to
@sc{cvs} 1.9.12 or later.  The error reporting in
earlier versions provided much less information about
what the problem was.  If the client is non-Windows,
@sc{cvs} 1.9 should be fine.

If the error messages are not sufficient to track down
the problem, the next steps depend largely on which
access method you are using.

@table @code
@cindex :ext:, troubleshooting
@item :ext:
Try running the rsh program from the command line.  For
example: "rsh servername cvs -v" should print @sc{cvs}
version information.  If this doesn't work, you need to
fix it before you can worry about @sc{cvs} problems.

@cindex :server:, troubleshooting
@item :server:
You don't need a command line rsh program to use this
access method, but if you have an rsh program around,
it may be useful as a debugging tool.  Follow the
directions given for :ext:.

@cindex :pserver:, troubleshooting
@item :pserver:
Errors along the lines of "connection refused" typically indicate
that inetd isn't even listening for connections on port 2401
whereas errors like "connection reset by peer",
"received broken pipe signal", "recv() from server: EOF",
or "end of file from server"
typically indicate that inetd is listening for
connections but is unable to start @sc{cvs} (this is frequently
caused by having an incorrect path in @file{inetd.conf}
or by firewall software rejecting the connection).
"unrecognized auth response" errors are caused by a bad command
line in @file{inetd.conf}, typically an invalid option or forgetting
to put the @samp{pserver} command at the end of the line.
Another less common problem is invisible control characters that

One good debugging tool is to "telnet servername
2401".  After connecting, send any text (for example
"foo" followed by return).  If @sc{cvs} is working
correctly, it will respond with

@example
cvs [pserver aborted]: bad auth protocol start: foo
@end example

@example
Usage: cvs [cvs-options] command [command-options-and-arguments]
...
@end example

@noindent
then you're missing the @samp{pserver} command at the end of the
line in @file{inetd.conf}; check to make sure that the entire command
is on one line and that it's complete.

Likewise, if you get something like:

@example
Unknown command: pserved'

CVS commands are:
...
@end example

@noindent
then you've misspelled @samp{pserver} in some way.  If it isn't
obvious, check for invisible control characters (particularly
carriage returns) in @file{inetd.conf}.

If it fails to work at all, then make sure inetd is working
right.  Change the invocation in @file{inetd.conf} to run the
echo program instead of cvs.  For example:

@example
2401  stream  tcp  nowait  root /bin/echo echo hello
@end example

After making that change and instructing inetd to
re-read its configuration file, "telnet servername
2401" should show you the text hello and then the
server should close the connection.  If this doesn't
work, you need to fix it before you can worry about
@sc{cvs} problems.

On AIX systems, the system will often have its own
program trying to use port 2401.  This is AIX's problem
in the sense that port 2401 is registered for use with
@sc{cvs}.  I hear that there is an AIX patch available

Another good debugging tool is the @samp{-d}
(debugging) option to inetd.  Consult your system

If you seem to be connecting but get errors like:

@example
cvs server: cannot open /root/.cvsignore: Permission denied
cvs [server aborted]: can't chdir(/root): Permission denied
@end example

@noindent
then you probably haven't specified @samp{-f} in @file{inetd.conf}.
(In releases prior to @sc{cvs} 1.11.1, this problem can be caused by
your system setting the @code{$HOME} environment variable for programs being run by inetd. In this case, you can either have inetd run a shell script that unsets @code{$HOME} and then runs
@sc{cvs}, or you can use @code{env} to run @sc{cvs} with a pristine
environment.)

If you can connect successfully for a while but then can't,
you've probably hit inetd's rate limit.
(If inetd receives too many requests for the same service
in a short period of time, it assumes that something is wrong
and temporarily disables the service.)
rate limit (some versions of inetd have a single rate limit,
others allow you to set the limit for each service separately.)
@end table

@node Other problems
@appendixsec Other common problems

Here is a list of problems which do not fit into the
above categories.  They are in no particular order.

@itemize @bullet
@item
On Windows, if there is a 30 second or so delay when
you run a @sc{cvs} command, it may mean that you have
your home directory set to @file{C:/}, for example (see
@code{HOMEDRIVE} and @code{HOMEPATH} in
@ref{Environment variables}).  @sc{cvs} expects the home
directory to not end in a slash, for example @file{C:}
or @file{C:\cvs}.
@c FIXCVS: CVS should at least detect this and print an
@c error, presumably.

@item
If you are running @sc{cvs} 1.9.18 or older, and
@code{cvs update} finds a conflict and tries to
merge, as described in @ref{Conflicts example}, but
doesn't tell you there were conflicts, then you may
have an old version of @sc{rcs}.  The easiest solution
probably is to upgrade to a current version of
@sc{cvs}, which does not rely on external @sc{rcs}
programs.
@end itemize

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Credits
@appendix Credits

@cindex Contributors (manual)
@cindex Credits (manual)
Roland Pesch, then of Cygnus Support <@t{roland@@wrs.com}>
wrote the manual pages which were distributed with
@sc{cvs} 1.3.  Much of their text was copied into this
manual.  He also read an early draft
of this manual and contributed many ideas and
corrections.

The mailing-list @code{info-cvs} is sometimes
informative. I have included information from postings
David G. Grubbs <@t{dgg@@think.com}>.

Some text has been extracted from the man pages for
@sc{rcs}.

The @sc{cvs} @sc{faq} by David G. Grubbs has provided
useful material.  The @sc{faq} is no longer maintained,
however, and this manual is about the closest thing there
is to a successor (with respect to documenting how to
use @sc{cvs}, at least).

In addition, the following persons have helped by

@display
Roxanne Brunskill <@t{rbrunski@@datap.ca}>,
Kathy Dyer <@t{dyer@@phoenix.ocf.llnl.gov}>,
Karl Pingle <@t{pingle@@acuson.com}>,
Thomas A Peterson <@t{tap@@src.honeywell.com}>,
Inge Wallin <@t{ingwa@@signum.se}>,
Dirk Koschuetzki <@t{koschuet@@fmi.uni-passau.de}>
and Michael Brown <@t{brown@@wi.extrel.com}>.
@end display

The list of contributors here is not comprehensive; for a more
complete list of who has contributed to this manual see
the file @file{doc/ChangeLog} in the @sc{cvs} source
distribution.

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node BUGS
@appendix Dealing with bugs in CVS or this manual

@cindex Bugs in this manual or CVS
Neither @sc{cvs} nor this manual is perfect, and they
probably never will be.  If you are having trouble
using @sc{cvs}, or think you have found a bug, there
are a number of things you can do about it.  Note that
if the manual is unclear, that can be considered a bug
in the manual, so these problems are often worth doing
something about as well as problems with @sc{cvs} itself.

@cindex Reporting bugs
@cindex Bugs, reporting
@cindex Errors, reporting
@itemize @bullet
@item
If you want someone to help you and fix bugs that you
report, there are companies which will do that for a
fee.  One such company is:

@cindex Ximbiot
@cindex Support, getting CVS support
@example
Ximbiot
319 S. River St.
Harrisburg, PA  17104-1657
USA
Email: info@@ximbiot.com
Phone: (717) 579-6168
Fax:   (717) 234-3125
@url{http://ximbiot.com/}

@end example

@item
If you got @sc{cvs} through a distributor, such as an
operating system vendor or a vendor of freeware
@sc{cd-rom}s, you may wish to see whether the
distributor provides support.  Often, they will provide
no support or minimal support, but this may vary from
distributor to distributor.

@item
If you have the skills and time to do so, you may wish
to fix the bug yourself.  If you wish to submit your
fix for inclusion in future releases of @sc{cvs}, see
the file @sc{hacking} in the @sc{cvs} source
process of submitting fixes.

@item
There may be resources on the net which can help.  A
good place to start is:

@example
@url{http://cvs.nongnu.org/}
@end example

If you are so inspired, increasing the information
available on the net is likely to be appreciated.  For
example, before the standard @sc{cvs} distribution
worked on Windows 95, there was a web page with some
explanation and patches for running @sc{cvs} on Windows
95, and various people helped out by mentioning this
page on mailing lists or newsgroups when the subject
came up.

@item
It is also possible to report bugs to @email{bug-cvs@@nongnu.org}.
Note that someone may or may not want to do anything
with your bug report---if you need a solution consider
one of the options mentioned above.  People probably do
want to hear about bugs which are particularly severe
in consequences and/or easy to fix, however.  You can
also increase your odds by being as clear as possible
about the exact nature of the bug and any other
relevant information.  The way to report bugs is to
send email to @email{bug-cvs@@nongnu.org}.  Note
that submissions to @email{bug-cvs@@nongnu.org} may be distributed
under the terms of the @sc{gnu} Public License, so if
you don't like this, don't submit them.  There is
usually no justification for sending mail directly to
one of the @sc{cvs} maintainers rather than to
@email{bug-cvs@@nongnu.org}; those maintainers who want to hear
that sending a bug report to other mailing lists or
newsgroups is @emph{not} a substitute for sending it to
@email{bug-cvs@@nongnu.org}.  It is fine to discuss @sc{cvs} bugs on
whatever forum you prefer, but there are not
necessarily any maintainers reading bug reports sent
anywhere except @email{bug-cvs@@nongnu.org}.
@end itemize

@cindex Known bugs in this manual or CVS
People often ask if there is a list of known bugs or
whether a particular bug is a known one.  The file
@sc{bugs} in the @sc{cvs} source distribution is one
list of known bugs, but it doesn't necessarily try to
be comprehensive.  Perhaps there will never be a
comprehensive, detailed list of known bugs.

@c ---------------------------------------------------------------------
@node Index
@unnumbered Index
@cindex Index

@printindex cp

@bye

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