automake.info-2   [plain text]


This is automake.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.8 from
automake.texi.

   This manual is for GNU Automake (version 1.10, 15 October 2006), a
program that creates GNU standards-compliant Makefiles from template
files.

   Copyright (C) 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003,
2004, 2005, 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License."

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU Manual, like GNU software.  Copies published by
     the Free Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development."

INFO-DIR-SECTION Software development
START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
* Automake: (automake).         Making GNU standards-compliant Makefiles.
END-INFO-DIR-ENTRY

INFO-DIR-SECTION Individual utilities
START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
* aclocal: (automake)Invoking aclocal.          Generating aclocal.m4.
* automake: (automake)Invoking Automake.        Generating Makefile.in.
END-INFO-DIR-ENTRY


File: automake.info,  Node: Suffixes,  Next: Multilibs,  Prev: Tags,  Up: Miscellaneous

18.2 Handling new file extensions
=================================

It is sometimes useful to introduce a new implicit rule to handle a file
type that Automake does not know about.

   For instance, suppose you had a compiler that could compile `.foo'
files to `.o' files.  You would simply define an suffix rule for your
language:

     .foo.o:
             foocc -c -o $@ $<

   Then you could directly use a `.foo' file in a `_SOURCES' variable
and expect the correct results:

     bin_PROGRAMS = doit
     doit_SOURCES = doit.foo

   This was the simpler and more common case.  In other cases, you will
have to help Automake to figure which extensions you are defining your
suffix rule for.  This usually happens when your extensions does not
start with a dot.  Then, all you have to do is to put a list of new
suffixes in the `SUFFIXES' variable *before* you define your implicit
rule.

   For instance, the following definition prevents Automake to
misinterpret `.idlC.cpp:' as an attempt to transform `.idlC' files into
`.cpp' files.

     SUFFIXES = .idl C.cpp
     .idlC.cpp:
             # whatever

   As you may have noted, the `SUFFIXES' variable behaves like the
`.SUFFIXES' special target of `make'.  You should not touch `.SUFFIXES'
yourself, but use `SUFFIXES' instead and let Automake generate the
suffix list for `.SUFFIXES'.  Any given `SUFFIXES' go at the start of
the generated suffixes list, followed by Automake generated suffixes
not already in the list.


File: automake.info,  Node: Multilibs,  Prev: Suffixes,  Up: Miscellaneous

18.3 Support for Multilibs
==========================

Automake has support for an obscure feature called multilibs.  A
"multilib" is a library that is built for multiple different ABIs at a
single time; each time the library is built with a different target
flag combination.  This is only useful when the library is intended to
be cross-compiled, and it is almost exclusively used for compiler
support libraries.

   The multilib support is still experimental.  Only use it if you are
familiar with multilibs and can debug problems you might encounter.


File: automake.info,  Node: Include,  Next: Conditionals,  Prev: Miscellaneous,  Up: Top

19 Include
**********

Automake supports an `include' directive that  can be used to include
other `Makefile' fragments when `automake' is run.  Note that these
fragments are read and interpreted by `automake', not by `make'.  As
with conditionals, `make' has no idea that `include' is in use.

   There are two forms of `include':

`include $(srcdir)/file'
     Include a fragment that is found relative to the current source
     directory.

`include $(top_srcdir)/file'
     Include a fragment that is found relative to the top source
     directory.

   Note that if a fragment is included inside a conditional, then the
condition applies to the entire contents of that fragment.

   Makefile fragments included this way are always distributed because
they are needed to rebuild `Makefile.in'.


File: automake.info,  Node: Conditionals,  Next: Gnits,  Prev: Include,  Up: Top

20 Conditionals
***************

Automake supports a simple type of conditionals.

Usage
=====

Before using a conditional, you must define it by using
`AM_CONDITIONAL' in the `configure.ac' file (*note Macros::).

 -- Macro: AM_CONDITIONAL (CONDITIONAL, CONDITION)
     The conditional name, CONDITIONAL, should be a simple string
     starting with a letter and containing only letters, digits, and
     underscores.  It must be different from `TRUE' and `FALSE' that
     are reserved by Automake.

     The shell CONDITION (suitable for use in a shell `if' statement)
     is evaluated when `configure' is run.  Note that you must arrange
     for _every_ `AM_CONDITIONAL' to be invoked every time `configure'
     is run.  If `AM_CONDITIONAL' is run conditionally (e.g., in a
     shell `if' statement), then the result will confuse automake.

   Conditionals typically depend upon options that the user provides to
the `configure' script.  Here is an example of how to write a
conditional that is true if the user uses the `--enable-debug' option.

     AC_ARG_ENABLE([debug],
     [  --enable-debug    Turn on debugging],
     [case "${enableval}" in
       yes) debug=true ;;
       no)  debug=false ;;
       *) AC_MSG_ERROR([bad value ${enableval} for --enable-debug]) ;;
     esac],[debug=false])
     AM_CONDITIONAL([DEBUG], [test x$debug = xtrue])

   Here is an example of how to use that conditional in `Makefile.am':

     if DEBUG
     DBG = debug
     else
     DBG =
     endif
     noinst_PROGRAMS = $(DBG)

   This trivial example could also be handled using `EXTRA_PROGRAMS'
(*note Conditional Programs::).

   You may only test a single variable in an `if' statement, possibly
negated using `!'.  The `else' statement may be omitted.  Conditionals
may be nested to any depth.  You may specify an argument to `else' in
which case it must be the negation of the condition used for the
current `if'.  Similarly you may specify the condition that is closed
by an `end':

     if DEBUG
     DBG = debug
     else !DEBUG
     DBG =
     endif !DEBUG

Unbalanced conditions are errors.

   The `else' branch of the above two examples could be omitted, since
assigning the empty string to an otherwise undefined variable makes no
difference.

Portability
===========

Note that conditionals in Automake are not the same as conditionals in
GNU Make.  Automake conditionals are checked at configure time by the
`configure' script, and affect the translation from `Makefile.in' to
`Makefile'.  They are based on options passed to `configure' and on
results that `configure' has discovered about the host system.  GNU
Make conditionals are checked at `make' time, and are based on
variables passed to the make program or defined in the `Makefile'.

   Automake conditionals will work with any make program.

Limits
======

Conditionals should enclose complete statements like variables or rules
definitions.  Automake cannot deal with conditionals used inside a
variable definition, for instance, and is not even able to diagnose
this situation.  The following example would not work:

     # This syntax is not understood by Automake
     AM_CPPFLAGS = \
       -DFEATURE_A \
     if WANT_DEBUG
       -DDEBUG \
     endif
       -DFEATURE_B

   However the intended definition of `AM_CPPFLAGS' can be achieved with

     if WANT_DEBUG
       DEBUGFLAGS = -DDEBUG
     endif
     AM_CPPFLAGS = -DFEATURE_A $(DEBUGFLAGS) -DFEATURE_B

or

     AM_CPPFLAGS = -DFEATURE_A
     if WANT_DEBUG
     AM_CPPFLAGS += -DDEBUG
     endif
     AM_CPPFLAGS += -DFEATURE_B


File: automake.info,  Node: Gnits,  Next: Cygnus,  Prev: Conditionals,  Up: Top

21 The effect of `--gnu' and `--gnits'
**************************************

The `--gnu' option (or `gnu' in the `AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS' variable) causes
`automake' to check the following:

   * The files `INSTALL', `NEWS', `README', `AUTHORS', and `ChangeLog',
     plus one of `COPYING.LIB', `COPYING.LESSER' or `COPYING', are
     required at the topmost directory of the package.

   * The options `no-installman' and `no-installinfo' are prohibited.

   Note that this option will be extended in the future to do even more
checking; it is advisable to be familiar with the precise requirements
of the GNU standards.  Also, `--gnu' can require certain non-standard
GNU programs to exist for use by various maintainer-only rules; for
instance, in the future `pathchk' might be required for `make dist'.

   The `--gnits' option does everything that `--gnu' does, and checks
the following as well:

   * `make installcheck' will check to make sure that the `--help' and
     `--version' really print a usage message and a version string,
     respectively.  This is the `std-options' option (*note Options::).

   * `make dist' will check to make sure the `NEWS' file has been
     updated to the current version.

   * `VERSION' is checked to make sure its format complies with Gnits
     standards.

   * If `VERSION' indicates that this is an alpha release, and the file
     `README-alpha' appears in the topmost directory of a package, then
     it is included in the distribution.  This is done in `--gnits'
     mode, and no other, because this mode is the only one where version
     number formats are constrained, and hence the only mode where
     Automake can automatically determine whether `README-alpha' should
     be included.

   * The file `THANKS' is required.


File: automake.info,  Node: Cygnus,  Next: Not Enough,  Prev: Gnits,  Up: Top

22 The effect of `--cygnus'
***************************

Some packages, notably GNU GCC and GNU gdb, have a build environment
originally written at Cygnus Support (subsequently renamed Cygnus
Solutions, and then later purchased by Red Hat).  Packages with this
ancestry are sometimes referred to as "Cygnus" trees.

   A Cygnus tree has slightly different rules for how a `Makefile.in'
is to be constructed.  Passing `--cygnus' to `automake' will cause any
generated `Makefile.in' to comply with Cygnus rules.

   Here are the precise effects of `--cygnus':

   * Info files are always created in the build directory, and not in
     the source directory.

   * `texinfo.tex' is not required if a Texinfo source file is
     specified.  The assumption is that the file will be supplied, but
     in a place that Automake cannot find.  This assumption is an
     artifact of how Cygnus packages are typically bundled.

   * `make dist' is not supported, and the rules for it are not
     generated.  Cygnus-style trees use their own distribution
     mechanism.

   * Certain tools will be searched for in the build tree as well as in
     the user's `PATH'.  These tools are `runtest', `expect',
     `makeinfo' and `texi2dvi'.

   * `--foreign' is implied.

   * The options `no-installinfo' and `no-dependencies' are implied.

   * The macros `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE' and `AM_CYGWIN32' are required.

   * The `check' target doesn't depend on `all'.

   GNU maintainers are advised to use `gnu' strictness in preference to
the special Cygnus mode.  Some day, perhaps, the differences between
Cygnus trees and GNU trees will disappear (for instance, as GCC is made
more standards compliant).  At that time the special Cygnus mode will be
removed.


File: automake.info,  Node: Not Enough,  Next: Distributing,  Prev: Cygnus,  Up: Top

23 When Automake Isn't Enough
*****************************

In some situations, where Automake is not up to one task, one has to
resort to handwritten rules or even handwritten `Makefile's.

* Menu:

* Extending::                   Adding new rules or overriding existing ones.
* Third-Party Makefiles::       Integrating Non-Automake `Makefile's.


File: automake.info,  Node: Extending,  Next: Third-Party Makefiles,  Up: Not Enough

23.1 Extending Automake Rules
=============================

With some minor exceptions (like `_PROGRAMS' variables being rewritten
to append `$(EXEEXT)'), the contents of a `Makefile.am' is copied to
`Makefile.in' verbatim.

   These copying semantics means that many problems can be worked around
by simply adding some `make' variables and rules to `Makefile.am'.
Automake will ignore these additions.

   Since a `Makefile.in' is built from data gathered from three
different places (`Makefile.am', `configure.ac', and `automake'
itself), it is possible to have conflicting definitions of rules or
variables.  When building `Makefile.in' the following priorities are
respected by `automake' to ensure the user always have the last word.
User defined variables in `Makefile.am' have priority over variables
`AC_SUBST'ed from `configure.ac', and `AC_SUBST'ed variables have
priority over `automake'-defined variables.  As far rules are
concerned, a user-defined rule overrides any `automake'-defined rule
for the same target.

   These overriding semantics make it possible to fine tune some default
settings of Automake, or replace some of its rules.  Overriding
Automake rules is often inadvisable, particularly in the topmost
directory of a package with subdirectories.  The `-Woverride' option
(*note Invoking Automake::) comes handy to catch overridden definitions.

   Note that Automake does not make any difference between rules with
commands and rules that only specify dependencies.  So it is not
possible to append new dependencies to an `automake'-defined target
without redefining the entire rule.

   However, various useful targets have a `-local' version you can
specify in your `Makefile.am'.  Automake will supplement the standard
target with these user-supplied targets.

   The targets that support a local version are `all', `info', `dvi',
`ps', `pdf', `html', `check', `install-data', `install-dvi',
`install-exec', `install-html', `install-info', `install-pdf',
`install-ps', `uninstall', `installdirs', `installcheck' and the
various `clean' targets (`mostlyclean', `clean', `distclean', and
`maintainer-clean').

   Note that there are no `uninstall-exec-local' or
`uninstall-data-local' targets; just use `uninstall-local'.  It doesn't
make sense to uninstall just data or just executables.

   For instance, here is one way to erase a subdirectory during `make
clean' (*note Clean::).

     clean-local:
             -rm -rf testSubDir

   Older version of this manual used to show how to use
`install-data-local' to install a file to some hard-coded location, but
you should avoid this.  (*note Hard-Coded Install Paths::)

   Some rule also have a way to run another rule, called a "hook",
after their work is done.  The hook is named after the principal target,
with `-hook' appended.  The targets allowing hooks are `install-data',
`install-exec', `uninstall', `dist', and `distcheck'.  

   For instance, here is how to create a hard link to an installed
program:

     install-exec-hook:
             ln $(DESTDIR)$(bindir)/program$(EXEEXT) \
                $(DESTDIR)$(bindir)/proglink$(EXEEXT)

   Although cheaper and more portable than symbolic links, hard links
will not work everywhere (for instance, OS/2 does not have `ln').
Ideally you should fall back to `cp -p' when `ln' does not work.  An
easy way, if symbolic links are acceptable to you, is to add
`AC_PROG_LN_S' to `configure.ac' (*note Particular Program Checks:
(autoconf)Particular Programs.) and use `$(LN_S)' in `Makefile.am'.

   For instance, here is how you could install a versioned copy of a
program using `$(LN_S)':

     install-exec-hook:
             cd $(DESTDIR)$(bindir) && \
               mv -f prog$(EXEEXT) prog-$(VERSION)$(EXEEXT) && \
               $(LN_S) prog-$(VERSION)$(EXEEXT) prog$(EXEEXT)

   Note that we rename the program so that a new version will erase the
symbolic link, not the real binary.  Also we `cd' into the destination
directory in order to create relative links.

   When writing `install-exec-hook' or `install-data-hook', please bear
in mind that the exec/data distinction is based on the installation
directory, not on the primary used (*note Install::).  So a
`foo_SCRIPTS' will be installed by `install-data', and a
`barexec_SCRIPTS' will be installed by `install-exec'.  You should
define your hooks consequently.


File: automake.info,  Node: Third-Party Makefiles,  Prev: Extending,  Up: Not Enough

23.2 Third-Party `Makefile's
============================

In most projects all `Makefile's are generated by Automake.  In some
cases, however, projects need to embed subdirectories with handwritten
`Makefile's.  For instance, one subdirectory could be a third-party
project with its own build system, not using Automake.

   It is possible to list arbitrary directories in `SUBDIRS' or
`DIST_SUBDIRS' provided each of these directories has a `Makefile' that
recognizes all the following recursive targets.

   When a user runs one of these targets, that target is run recursively
in all subdirectories.  This is why it is important that even
third-party `Makefile's support them.

`all'
     Compile the entire package.  This is the default target in
     Automake-generated `Makefile's, but it does not need to be the
     default in third-party `Makefile's.

`distdir'
     Copy files to distribute into `$(distdir)', before a tarball is
     constructed.  Of course this target is not required if the
     `no-dist' option (*note Options::) is used.

     The variables `$(top_distdir)' and `$(distdir)' (*note Dist::)
     will be passed from the outer package to the subpackage when the
     `distdir' target is invoked.  These two variables have been
     adjusted for the directory that is being recursed into, so they
     are ready to use.

`install'
`install-data'
`install-exec'
`uninstall'
     Install or uninstall files (*note Install::).

`install-dvi'
`install-html'
`install-info'
`install-ps'
`install-pdf'
     Install only some specific documentation format (*note Texinfo::).

`installdirs'
     Create install directories, but do not install any files.

`check'
`installcheck'
     Check the package (*note Tests::).

`mostlyclean'
`clean'
`distclean'
`maintainer-clean'
     Cleaning rules (*note Clean::).

`dvi'
`pdf'
`ps'
`info'
`html'
     Build the documentation in various formats (*note Texinfo::).

`tags'
`ctags'
     Build `TAGS' and `CTAGS' (*note Tags::).

   If you have ever used Gettext in a project, this is a good example of
how third-party `Makefile's can be used with Automake.  The `Makefile's
`gettextize' puts in the `po/' and `intl/' directories are handwritten
`Makefile's that implement all these targets.  That way they can be
added to `SUBDIRS' in Automake packages.

   Directories that are only listed in `DIST_SUBDIRS' but not in
`SUBDIRS' need only the `distclean', `maintainer-clean', and `distdir'
rules (*note Conditional Subdirectories::).

   Usually, many of these rules are irrelevant to the third-party
subproject, but they are required for the whole package to work.  It's
OK to have a rule that does nothing, so if you are integrating a
third-party project with no documentation or tag support, you could
simply augment its `Makefile' as follows:

     EMPTY_AUTOMAKE_TARGETS = dvi pdf ps info html tags ctags
     .PHONY: $(EMPTY_AUTOMAKE_TARGETS)
     $(EMPTY_AUTOMAKE_TARGETS):

   Another aspect of integrating third-party build systems is whether
they support VPATH builds (*note VPATH Builds::).  Obviously if the
subpackage does not support VPATH builds the whole package will not
support VPATH builds.  This in turns means that `make distcheck' will
not work, because it relies on VPATH builds.  Some people can live
without this (actually, many Automake users have never heard of `make
distcheck').  Other people may prefer to revamp the existing
`Makefile's to support VPATH.  Doing so does not necessarily require
Automake, only Autoconf is needed (*note Build Directories:
(autoconf)Build Directories.).  The necessary substitutions:
`@srcdir@', `@top_srcdir@', and `@top_builddir@' are defined by
`configure' when it processes a `Makefile' (*note Preset Output
Variables: (autoconf)Preset Output Variables.), they are not computed
by the Makefile like the aforementioned `$(distdir)' and
`$(top_distdir)' variables..

   It is sometimes inconvenient to modify a third-party `Makefile' to
introduce the above required targets.  For instance, one may want to
keep the third-party sources untouched to ease upgrades to new versions.

   Here are two other ideas.  If GNU make is assumed, one possibility is
to add to that subdirectory a `GNUmakefile' that defines the required
targets and include the third-party `Makefile'.  For this to work in
VPATH builds, `GNUmakefile' must lie in the build directory; the
easiest way to do this is to write a `GNUmakefile.in' instead, and have
it processed with `AC_CONFIG_FILES' from the outer package.  For
example if we assume `Makefile' defines all targets except the
documentation targets, and that the `check' target is actually called
`test', we could write `GNUmakefile' (or `GNUmakefile.in') like this:

     # First, include the real Makefile
     include Makefile
     # Then, define the other targets needed by Automake Makefiles.
     .PHONY: dvi pdf ps info html check
     dvi pdf ps info html:
     check: test

   A similar idea that does not use `include' is to write a proxy
`Makefile' that dispatches rules to the real `Makefile', either with
`$(MAKE) -f Makefile.real $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) target' (if it's OK to rename
the original `Makefile') or with `cd subdir && $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS)
target' (if it's OK to store the subdirectory project one directory
deeper).  The good news is that this proxy `Makefile' can be generated
with Automake.  All we need are `-local' targets (*note Extending::)
that perform the dispatch.  Of course the other Automake features are
available, so you could decide to let Automake perform distribution or
installation.  Here is a possible `Makefile.am':

     all-local:
             cd subdir && $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) all
     check-local:
             cd subdir && $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) test
     clean-local:
             cd subdir && $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) clean

     # Assuming the package knows how to install itself
     install-data-local:
             cd subdir && $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) install-data
     install-exec-local:
             cd subdir && $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) install-exec
     uninstall-local:
             cd subdir && $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) uninstall

     # Distribute files from here.
     EXTRA_DIST = subdir/Makefile subdir/program.c ...

   Pushing this idea to the extreme, it is also possible to ignore the
subproject build system and build everything from this proxy
`Makefile.am'.  This might sounds very sensible if you need VPATH
builds but the subproject does not support them.


File: automake.info,  Node: Distributing,  Next: API versioning,  Prev: Not Enough,  Up: Top

24 Distributing `Makefile.in's
******************************

Automake places no restrictions on the distribution of the resulting
`Makefile.in's.  We still encourage software authors to distribute
their work under terms like those of the GPL, but doing so is not
required to use Automake.

   Some of the files that can be automatically installed via the
`--add-missing' switch do fall under the GPL.  However, these also have
a special exception allowing you to distribute them with your package,
regardless of the licensing you choose.


File: automake.info,  Node: API versioning,  Next: Upgrading,  Prev: Distributing,  Up: Top

25 Automake API versioning
**************************

New Automake releases usually include bug fixes and new features.
Unfortunately they may also introduce new bugs and incompatibilities.
This makes four reasons why a package may require a particular Automake
version.

   Things get worse when maintaining a large tree of packages, each one
requiring a different version of Automake.  In the past, this meant that
any developer (and sometime users) had to install several versions of
Automake in different places, and switch `$PATH' appropriately for each
package.

   Starting with version 1.6, Automake installs versioned binaries.
This means you can install several versions of Automake in the same
`$prefix', and can select an arbitrary Automake version by running
`automake-1.6' or `automake-1.7' without juggling with `$PATH'.
Furthermore, `Makefile''s generated by Automake 1.6 will use
`automake-1.6' explicitly in their rebuild rules.

   The number `1.6' in `automake-1.6' is Automake's API version, not
Automake's version.  If a bug fix release is made, for instance
Automake 1.6.1, the API version will remain 1.6.  This means that a
package that works with Automake 1.6 should also work with 1.6.1; after
all, this is what people expect from bug fix releases.

   If your package relies on a feature or a bug fix introduced in a
release, you can pass this version as an option to Automake to ensure
older releases will not be used.  For instance, use this in your
`configure.ac':

       AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE([1.6.1])    dnl Require Automake 1.6.1 or better.
   or, in a particular `Makefile.am':

       AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS = 1.6.1   # Require Automake 1.6.1 or better.
   Automake will print an error message if its version is older than
the requested version.

What is in the API
==================

Automake's programming interface is not easy to define.  Basically it
should include at least all *documented* variables and targets that a
`Makefile.am' author can use, any behavior associated with them (e.g.,
the places where `-hook''s are run), the command line interface of
`automake' and `aclocal', ...

What is not in the API
======================

Every undocumented variable, target, or command line option, is not part
of the API.  You should avoid using them, as they could change from one
version to the other (even in bug fix releases, if this helps to fix a
bug).

   If it turns out you need to use such a undocumented feature, contact
<automake@gnu.org> and try to get it documented and exercised by the
test-suite.


File: automake.info,  Node: Upgrading,  Next: FAQ,  Prev: API versioning,  Up: Top

26 Upgrading a Package to a Newer Automake Version
**************************************************

Automake maintains three kind of files in a package.

   * `aclocal.m4'

   * `Makefile.in's

   * auxiliary tools like `install-sh' or `py-compile'

   `aclocal.m4' is generated by `aclocal' and contains some
Automake-supplied M4 macros.  Auxiliary tools are installed by
`automake --add-missing' when needed.  `Makefile.in's are built from
`Makefile.am' by `automake', and rely on the definitions of the M4
macros put in `aclocal.m4' as well as the behavior of the auxiliary
tools installed.

   Because all these files are closely related, it is important to
regenerate all of them when upgrading to a newer Automake release.  The
usual way to do that is

     aclocal # with any option needed (such a -I m4)
     autoconf
     automake --add-missing --force-missing

or more conveniently:

     autoreconf -vfi

   The use of `--force-missing' ensures that auxiliary tools will be
overridden by new versions (*note Invoking Automake::).

   It is important to regenerate all these files each time Automake is
upgraded, even between bug fixes releases.  For instance, it is not
unusual for a bug fix to involve changes to both the rules generated in
`Makefile.in' and the supporting M4 macros copied to `aclocal.m4'.

   Presently `automake' is able to diagnose situations where
`aclocal.m4' has been generated with another version of `aclocal'.
However it never checks whether auxiliary scripts are up-to-date.  In
other words, `automake' will tell you when `aclocal' needs to be rerun,
but it will never diagnose a missing `--force-missing'.

   Before upgrading to a new major release, it is a good idea to read
the file `NEWS'.  This file lists all changes between releases: new
features, obsolete constructs, known incompatibilities, and workarounds.


File: automake.info,  Node: FAQ,  Next: History,  Prev: Upgrading,  Up: Top

27 Frequently Asked Questions about Automake
********************************************

This chapter covers some questions that often come up on the mailing
lists.

* Menu:

* CVS::                         CVS and generated files
* maintainer-mode::             missing and AM_MAINTAINER_MODE
* wildcards::                   Why doesn't Automake support wildcards?
* limitations on file names::   Limitations on source and installed file names
* distcleancheck::              Files left in build directory after distclean
* Flag Variables Ordering::     CFLAGS vs. AM_CFLAGS vs. mumble_CFLAGS
* renamed objects::             Why are object files sometimes renamed?
* Per-Object Flags::            How to simulate per-object flags?
* Multiple Outputs::            Writing rules for tools with many output files
* Hard-Coded Install Paths::    Installing to Hard-Coded Locations


File: automake.info,  Node: CVS,  Next: maintainer-mode,  Up: FAQ

27.1 CVS and generated files
============================

27.1.1 Background: distributed generated files
----------------------------------------------

Packages made with Autoconf and Automake ship with some generated files
like `configure' or `Makefile.in'.  These files were generated on the
developer's host and are distributed so that end-users do not have to
install the maintainer tools required to rebuild them.  Other generated
files like Lex scanners, Yacc parsers, or Info documentation, are
usually distributed on similar grounds.

   Automake outputs rules in `Makefile's to rebuild these files.  For
instance, `make' will run `autoconf' to rebuild `configure' whenever
`configure.ac' is changed.  This makes development safer by ensuring a
`configure' is never out-of-date with respect to `configure.ac'.

   As generated files shipped in packages are up-to-date, and because
`tar' preserves times-tamps, these rebuild rules are not triggered when
a user unpacks and builds a package.

27.1.2 Background: CVS and timestamps
-------------------------------------

Unless you use CVS keywords (in which case files must be updated at
commit time), CVS preserves timestamp during `cvs commit' and `cvs
import -d' operations.

   When you check out a file using `cvs checkout' its timestamp is set
to that of the revision that is being checked out.

   However, during `cvs update', files will have the date of the
update, not the original timestamp of this revision.  This is meant to
make sure that `make' notices sources files have been updated.

   This timestamp shift is troublesome when both sources and generated
files are kept under CVS.  Because CVS processes files in alphabetical
order, `configure.ac' will appear older than `configure' after a `cvs
update' that updates both files, even if `configure' was newer than
`configure.ac' when it was checked in.  Calling `make' will then
trigger a spurious rebuild of `configure'.

27.1.3 Living with CVS in Autoconfiscated projects
--------------------------------------------------

There are basically two clans amongst maintainers: those who keep all
distributed files under CVS, including generated files, and those who
keep generated files _out_ of CVS.

All files in CVS
................

   * The CVS repository contains all distributed files so you know
     exactly what is distributed, and you can checkout any prior
     version entirely.

   * Maintainers can see how generated files evolve (for instance, you
     can see what happens to your `Makefile.in's when you upgrade
     Automake and make sure they look OK).

   * Users do not need the autotools to build a checkout of the
     project, it works just like a released tarball.

   * If users use `cvs update' to update their copy, instead of `cvs
     checkout' to fetch a fresh one, timestamps will be inaccurate.
     Some rebuild rules will be triggered and attempt to run developer
     tools such as `autoconf' or `automake'.

     Actually, calls to such tools are all wrapped into a call to the
     `missing' script discussed later (*note maintainer-mode::).
     `missing' will take care of fixing the timestamps when these tools
     are not installed, so that the build can continue.

   * In distributed development, developers are likely to have different
     version of the maintainer tools installed.  In this case rebuilds
     triggered by timestamp lossage will lead to spurious changes to
     generated files.  There are several solutions to this:

        * All developers should use the same versions, so that the
          rebuilt files are identical to files in CVS.  (This starts to
          be difficult when each project you work on uses different
          versions.)

        * Or people use a script to fix the timestamp after a checkout
          (the GCC folks have such a script).

        * Or `configure.ac' uses `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE', which will
          disable all these rebuild rules by default.  This is further
          discussed in *Note maintainer-mode::.

   * Although we focused on spurious rebuilds, the converse can also
     happen.  CVS's timestamp handling can also let you think an
     out-of-date file is up-to-date.

     For instance, suppose a developer has modified `Makefile.am' and
     has rebuilt `Makefile.in'.  He then decide to do a last-minute
     change to `Makefile.am' right before checking in both files
     (without rebuilding `Makefile.in' to account for the change).

     This last change to `Makefile.am' make the copy of `Makefile.in'
     out-of-date.  Since CVS processes files alphabetically, when
     another developer `cvs update' his or her tree, `Makefile.in' will
     happen to be newer than `Makefile.am'.  This other developer will
     not see `Makefile.in' is out-of-date.


Generated files out of CVS
..........................

One way to get CVS and `make' working peacefully is to never store
generated files in CVS, i.e., do not CVS-control files that are
`Makefile' targets (also called _derived_ files).

   This way developers are not annoyed by changes to generated files.
It does not matter if they all have different versions (assuming they
are compatible, of course).  And finally, timestamps are not lost,
changes to sources files can't be missed as in the
`Makefile.am'/`Makefile.in' example discussed earlier.

   The drawback is that the CVS repository is not an exact copy of what
is distributed and that users now need to install various development
tools (maybe even specific versions) before they can build a checkout.
But, after all, CVS's job is versioning, not distribution.

   Allowing developers to use different versions of their tools can also
hide bugs during distributed development.  Indeed, developers will be
using (hence testing) their own generated files, instead of the
generated files that will be released actually.  The developer who
prepares the tarball might be using a version of the tool that produces
bogus output (for instance a non-portable C file), something other
developers could have noticed if they weren't using their own versions
of this tool.

27.1.4 Third-party files
------------------------

Another class of files not discussed here (because they do not cause
timestamp issues) are files that are shipped with a package, but
maintained elsewhere.  For instance, tools like `gettextize' and
`autopoint' (from Gettext) or `libtoolize' (from Libtool), will install
or update files in your package.

   These files, whether they are kept under CVS or not, raise similar
concerns about version mismatch between developers' tools.  The Gettext
manual has a section about this, see *Note CVS Issues: (gettext)CVS
Issues.


File: automake.info,  Node: maintainer-mode,  Next: wildcards,  Prev: CVS,  Up: FAQ

27.2 `missing' and `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE'
=======================================

27.2.1 `missing'
----------------

The `missing' script is a wrapper around several maintainer tools,
designed to warn users if a maintainer tool is required but missing.
Typical maintainer tools are `autoconf', `automake', `bison', etc.
Because file generated by these tools are shipped with the other
sources of a package, these tools shouldn't be required during a user
build and they are not checked for in `configure'.

   However, if for some reason a rebuild rule is triggered and involves
a missing tool, `missing' will notice it and warn the user.  Besides
the warning, when a tool is missing, `missing' will attempt to fix
timestamps in a way that allows the build to continue.  For instance,
`missing' will touch `configure' if `autoconf' is not installed.  When
all distributed files are kept under CVS, this feature of `missing'
allows user _with no maintainer tools_ to build a package off CVS,
bypassing any timestamp inconsistency implied by `cvs update'.

   If the required tool is installed, `missing' will run it and won't
attempt to continue after failures.  This is correct during
development: developers love fixing failures.  However, users with
wrong versions of maintainer tools may get an error when the rebuild
rule is spuriously triggered, halting the build.  This failure to let
the build continue is one of the arguments of the `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE'
advocates.

27.2.2 `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE'
---------------------------

`AM_MAINTAINER_MODE' disables the so called "rebuild rules" by default.
If you have `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE' in `configure.ac', and run
`./configure && make', then `make' will *never* attempt to rebuilt
`configure', `Makefile.in's, Lex or Yacc outputs, etc.  I.e., this
disables build rules for files that are usually distributed and that
users should normally not have to update.

   If you run `./configure --enable-maintainer-mode', then these
rebuild rules will be active.

   People use `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE' either because they do want their
users (or themselves) annoyed by timestamps lossage (*note CVS::), or
because they simply can't stand the rebuild rules and prefer running
maintainer tools explicitly.

   `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE' also allows you to disable some custom build
rules conditionally.  Some developers use this feature to disable rules
that need exotic tools that users may not have available.

   Several years ago Franc,ois Pinard pointed out several arguments
against this `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE' macro.  Most of them relate to
insecurity.  By removing dependencies you get non-dependable builds:
change to sources files can have no effect on generated files and this
can be very confusing when unnoticed.  He adds that security shouldn't
be reserved to maintainers (what `--enable-maintainer-mode' suggests),
on the contrary.  If one user has to modify a `Makefile.am', then
either `Makefile.in' should be updated or a warning should be output
(this is what Automake uses `missing' for) but the last thing you want
is that nothing happens and the user doesn't notice it (this is what
happens when rebuild rules are disabled by `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE').

   Jim Meyering, the inventor of the `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE' macro was
swayed by Franc,ois's arguments, and got rid of `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE' in
all of his packages.

   Still many people continue to use `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE', because it
helps them working on projects where all files are kept under CVS, and
because `missing' isn't enough if you have the wrong version of the
tools.


File: automake.info,  Node: wildcards,  Next: limitations on file names,  Prev: maintainer-mode,  Up: FAQ

27.3 Why doesn't Automake support wildcards?
============================================

Developers are lazy.  They often would like to use wildcards in
`Makefile.am's, so they don't need to remember they have to update
`Makefile.am's every time they add, delete, or rename a file.

   There are several objections to this:
   * When using CVS (or similar) developers need to remember they have
     to run `cvs add' or `cvs rm' anyway.  Updating `Makefile.am'
     accordingly quickly becomes a reflex.

     Conversely, if your application doesn't compile because you forgot
     to add a file in `Makefile.am', it will help you remember to `cvs
     add' it.

   * Using wildcards makes easy to distribute files by mistake.  For
     instance, some code a developer is experimenting with (a test case,
     say) but that should not be part of the distribution.

   * Using wildcards it's easy to omit some files by mistake.  For
     instance, one developer creates a new file, uses it at many places,
     but forget to commit it.  Another developer then checkout the
     incomplete project and is able to run `make dist' successfully,
     even though a file is missing.

   * Listing files, you control *exactly* what you distribute.  If some
     file that should be distributed is missing from your tree, `make
     dist' will complain.  Besides, you don't distribute more than what
     you listed.

   * Finally it's really hard to `forget' adding a file to
     `Makefile.am', because if you don't add it, it doesn't get
     compiled nor installed, so you can't even test it.

   Still, these are philosophical objections, and as such you may
disagree, or find enough value in wildcards to dismiss all of them.
Before you start writing a patch against Automake to teach it about
wildcards, let's see the main technical issue: portability.

   Although `$(wildcard ...)' works with GNU `make', it is not portable
to other `make' implementations.

   The only way Automake could support `$(wildcard ...)' is by
expending `$(wildcard ...)' when `automake' is run.  Resulting
`Makefile.in's would be portable since they would list all files and
not use `$(wildcard ...)'.  However that means developers need to
remember they must run `automake' each time they add, delete, or rename
files.

   Compared to editing `Makefile.am', this is really little win.  Sure,
it's easier and faster to type `automake; make' than to type `emacs
Makefile.am; make'.  But nobody bothered enough to write a patch add
support for this syntax.  Some people use scripts to generated file
lists in `Makefile.am' or in separate `Makefile' fragments.

   Even if you don't care about portability, and are tempted to use
`$(wildcard ...)' anyway because you target only GNU Make, you should
know there are many places where Automake need to know exactly which
files should be processed.  As Automake doesn't know how to expand
`$(wildcard ...)', you cannot use it in these places.  `$(wildcard
...)' is a black box comparable to `AC_SUBST'ed variables as far
Automake is concerned.

   You can get warnings about `$(wildcard ...') constructs using the
`-Wportability' flag.


File: automake.info,  Node: limitations on file names,  Next: distcleancheck,  Prev: wildcards,  Up: FAQ

27.4 Limitations on file names
==============================

Automake attempts to support all kinds of file names, even those that
contain unusual characters or are unusually long.  However, some
limitations are imposed by the underlying operating system and tools.

   Most operating systems prohibit the use of the null byte in file
names, and reserve `/' as a directory separator.  Also, they require
that file names are properly encoded for the user's locale.  Automake
is subject to these limits.

   Portable packages should limit themselves to POSIX file names.
These can contain ASCII letters and digits, `_', `.', and `-'.  File
names consist of components separated by `/'.  File name components
cannot begin with `-'.

   Portable POSIX file names cannot contain components that exceed a
14-byte limit, but nowadays it's normally safe to assume the
more-generous XOPEN limit of 255 bytes.  POSIX limits file names to 255
bytes (XOPEN allows 1023 bytes), but you may want to limit a source
tarball to file names to 99 bytes to avoid interoperability problems
with old versions of `tar'.

   If you depart from these rules (e.g., by using non-ASCII characters
in file names, or by using lengthy file names), your installers may
have problems for reasons unrelated to Automake.  However, if this does
not concern you, you should know about the limitations imposed by
Automake itself.  These limitations are undesirable, but some of them
seem to be inherent to underlying tools like Autoconf, Make, M4, and
the shell.  They fall into three categories: install directories, build
directories, and file names.

   The following characters:

     newline " # $ ' `

   should not appear in the names of install directories.  For example,
the operand of `configure''s `--prefix' option should not contain these
characters.

   Build directories suffer the same limitations as install directories,
and in addition should not contain the following characters:

     & @ \

   For example, the full name of the directory containing the source
files should not contain these characters.

   Source and installation file names like `main.c' are limited even
further: they should conform to the POSIX/XOPEN rules described above.
In addition, if you plan to port to non-POSIX environments, you should
avoid file names that differ only in case (e.g., `makefile' and
`Makefile').  Nowadays it is no longer worth worrying about the 8.3
limits of DOS file systems.


File: automake.info,  Node: distcleancheck,  Next: Flag Variables Ordering,  Prev: limitations on file names,  Up: FAQ

27.5 Files left in build directory after distclean
==================================================

This is a diagnostic you might encounter while running `make distcheck'.

   As explained in *Note Dist::, `make distcheck' attempts to build and
check your package for errors like this one.

   `make distcheck' will perform a `VPATH' build of your package (*note
VPATH Builds::), and then call `make distclean'.  Files left in the
build directory after `make distclean' has run are listed after this
error.

   This diagnostic really covers two kinds of errors:

   * files that are forgotten by distclean;

   * distributed files that are erroneously rebuilt.

   The former left-over files are not distributed, so the fix is to mark
them for cleaning (*note Clean::), this is obvious and doesn't deserve
more explanations.

   The latter bug is not always easy to understand and fix, so let's
proceed with an example.  Suppose our package contains a program for
which we want to build a man page using `help2man'.  GNU `help2man'
produces simple manual pages from the `--help' and `--version' output
of other commands (*note Overview: (help2man)Top.).  Because we don't
to force want our users to install `help2man', we decide to distribute
the generated man page using the following setup.

     # This Makefile.am is bogus.
     bin_PROGRAMS = foo
     foo_SOURCES = foo.c
     dist_man_MANS = foo.1

     foo.1: foo$(EXEEXT)
             help2man --output=foo.1 ./foo$(EXEEXT)

   This will effectively distribute the man page.  However, `make
distcheck' will fail with:

     ERROR: files left in build directory after distclean:
     ./foo.1

   Why was `foo.1' rebuilt?  Because although distributed, `foo.1'
depends on a non-distributed built file: `foo$(EXEEXT)'.
`foo$(EXEEXT)' is built by the user, so it will always appear to be
newer than the distributed `foo.1'.

   `make distcheck' caught an inconsistency in our package.  Our intent
was to distribute `foo.1' so users do not need installing `help2man',
however since this our rule causes this file to be always rebuilt,
users _do_ need `help2man'.  Either we should ensure that `foo.1' is
not rebuilt by users, or there is no point in distributing `foo.1'.

   More generally, the rule is that distributed files should never
depend on non-distributed built files.  If you distribute something
generated, distribute its sources.

   One way to fix the above example, while still distributing `foo.1'
is to not depend on `foo$(EXEEXT)'.  For instance, assuming `foo
--version' and `foo --help' do not change unless `foo.c' or
`configure.ac' change, we could write the following `Makefile.am':

     bin_PROGRAMS = foo
     foo_SOURCES = foo.c
     dist_man_MANS = foo.1

     foo.1: foo.c $(top_srcdir)/configure.ac
             $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) foo$(EXEEXT)
             help2man --output=foo.1 ./foo$(EXEEXT)

   This way, `foo.1' will not get rebuilt every time `foo$(EXEEXT)'
changes.  The `make' call makes sure `foo$(EXEEXT)' is up-to-date
before `help2man'.  Another way to ensure this would be to use separate
directories for binaries and man pages, and set `SUBDIRS' so that
binaries are built before man pages.

   We could also decide not to distribute `foo.1'.  In this case it's
fine to have `foo.1' dependent upon `foo$(EXEEXT)', since both will
have to be rebuilt.  However it would be impossible to build the
package in a cross-compilation, because building `foo.1' involves an
_execution_ of `foo$(EXEEXT)'.

   Another context where such errors are common is when distributed
files are built by tools that are built by the package.  The pattern is
similar:

     distributed-file: built-tools distributed-sources
             build-command

should be changed to

     distributed-file: distributed-sources
             $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) built-tools
             build-command

or you could choose not to distribute `distributed-file', if
cross-compilation does not matter.

   The points made through these examples are worth a summary:

   * Distributed files should never depend upon non-distributed built
     files.

   * Distributed files should be distributed with all their
     dependencies.

   * If a file is _intended_ to be rebuilt by users, then there is no
     point in distributing it.

   For desperate cases, it's always possible to disable this check by
setting `distcleancheck_listfiles' as documented in *Note Dist::.  Make
sure you do understand the reason why `make distcheck' complains before
you do this.  `distcleancheck_listfiles' is a way to _hide_ errors, not
to fix them.  You can always do better.


File: automake.info,  Node: Flag Variables Ordering,  Next: renamed objects,  Prev: distcleancheck,  Up: FAQ

27.6 Flag Variables Ordering
============================

     What is the difference between `AM_CFLAGS', `CFLAGS', and
     `mumble_CFLAGS'?

     Why does `automake' output `CPPFLAGS' after
     `AM_CPPFLAGS' on compile lines?  Shouldn't it be the converse?

     My `configure' adds some warning flags into `CXXFLAGS'.  In
     one `Makefile.am' I would like to append a new flag, however if I
     put the flag into `AM_CXXFLAGS' it is prepended to the other
     flags, not appended.

27.6.1 Compile Flag Variables
-----------------------------

This section attempts to answer all the above questions.  We will
mostly discuss `CPPFLAGS' in our examples, but actually the answer
holds for all the compile flags used in Automake: `CCASFLAGS',
`CFLAGS', `CPPFLAGS', `CXXFLAGS', `FCFLAGS', `FFLAGS', `GCJFLAGS',
`LDFLAGS', `LFLAGS', `LIBTOOLFLAGS', `OBJCFLAGS', `RFLAGS', `UPCFLAGS',
and `YFLAGS'.

   `CPPFLAGS', `AM_CPPFLAGS', and `mumble_CPPFLAGS' are three variables
that can be used to pass flags to the C preprocessor (actually these
variables are also used for other languages like C++ or preprocessed
Fortran).  `CPPFLAGS' is the user variable (*note User Variables::),
`AM_CPPFLAGS' is the Automake variable, and `mumble_CPPFLAGS' is the
variable specific to the `mumble' target (we call this a per-target
variable, *note Program and Library Variables::).

   Automake always uses two of these variables when compiling C sources
files.  When compiling an object file for the `mumble' target, the
first variable will be `mumble_CPPFLAGS' if it is defined, or
`AM_CPPFLAGS' otherwise.  The second variable is always `CPPFLAGS'.

   In the following example,

     bin_PROGRAMS = foo bar
     foo_SOURCES = xyz.c
     bar_SOURCES = main.c
     foo_CPPFLAGS = -DFOO
     AM_CPPFLAGS = -DBAZ

`xyz.o' will be compiled with `$(foo_CPPFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS)', (because
`xyz.o' is part of the `foo' target), while `main.o' will be compiled
with `$(AM_CPPFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS)' (because there is no per-target
variable for target `bar').

   The difference between `mumble_CPPFLAGS' and `AM_CPPFLAGS' being
clear enough, let's focus on `CPPFLAGS'.  `CPPFLAGS' is a user
variable, i.e., a variable that users are entitled to modify in order
to compile the package.  This variable, like many others, is documented
at the end of the output of `configure --help'.

   For instance, someone who needs to add `/home/my/usr/include' to the
C compiler's search path would configure a package with

     ./configure CPPFLAGS='-I /home/my/usr/include'

and this flag would be propagated to the compile rules of all
`Makefile's.

   It is also not uncommon to override a user variable at `make'-time.
Many installers do this with `prefix', but this can be useful with
compiler flags too.  For instance, if, while debugging a C++ project,
you need to disable optimization in one specific object file, you can
run something like

     rm file.o
     make CXXFLAGS=-O0 file.o
     make

   The reason `$(CPPFLAGS)' appears after `$(AM_CPPFLAGS)' or
`$(mumble_CPPFLAGS)' in the compile command is that users should always
have the last say.  It probably makes more sense if you think about it
while looking at the `CXXFLAGS=-O0' above, which should supersede any
other switch from `AM_CXXFLAGS' or `mumble_CXXFLAGS' (and this of
course replaces the previous value of `CXXFLAGS').

   You should never redefine a user variable such as `CPPFLAGS' in
`Makefile.am'.  Use `automake -Woverride' to diagnose such mistakes.
Even something like

     CPPFLAGS = -DDATADIR=\"$(datadir)\" @CPPFLAGS@

is erroneous.  Although this preserves `configure''s value of
`CPPFLAGS', the definition of `DATADIR' will disappear if a user
attempts to override `CPPFLAGS' from the `make' command line.

     AM_CPPFLAGS = -DDATADIR=\"$(datadir)\"

is all what is needed here if no per-target flags are used.

   You should not add options to these user variables within
`configure' either, for the same reason.  Occasionally you need to
modify these variables to perform a test, but you should reset their
values afterwards.  In contrast, it is OK to modify the `AM_' variables
within `configure' if you `AC_SUBST' them, but it is rather rare that
you need to do this, unless you really want to change the default
definitions of the `AM_' variables in all `Makefile's.

   What we recommend is that you define extra flags in separate
variables.  For instance, you may write an Autoconf macro that computes
a set of warning options for the C compiler, and `AC_SUBST' them in
`WARNINGCFLAGS'; you may also have an Autoconf macro that determines
which compiler and which linker flags should be used to link with
library `libfoo', and `AC_SUBST' these in `LIBFOOCFLAGS' and
`LIBFOOLDFLAGS'.  Then, a `Makefile.am' could use these variables as
follows:

     AM_CFLAGS = $(WARNINGCFLAGS)
     bin_PROGRAMS = prog1 prog2
     prog1_SOURCES = ...
     prog2_SOURCES = ...
     prog2_CFLAGS = $(LIBFOOCFLAGS) $(AM_CFLAGS)
     prog2_LDFLAGS = $(LIBFOOLDFLAGS)

   In this example both programs will be compiled with the flags
substituted into `$(WARNINGCFLAGS)', and `prog2' will additionally be
compiled with the flags required to link with `libfoo'.

   Note that listing `AM_CFLAGS' in a per-target `CFLAGS' variable is a
common idiom to ensure that `AM_CFLAGS' applies to every target in a
`Makefile.in'.

   Using variables like this gives you full control over the ordering of
the flags.  For instance, if there is a flag in $(WARNINGCFLAGS) that
you want to negate for a particular target, you can use something like
`prog1_CFLAGS = $(AM_CFLAGS) -no-flag'.  If all these flags had been
forcefully appended to `CFLAGS', there would be no way to disable one
flag.  Yet another reason to leave user variables to users.

   Finally, we have avoided naming the variable of the example
`LIBFOO_LDFLAGS' (with an underscore) because that would cause Automake
to think that this is actually a per-target variable (like
`mumble_LDFLAGS') for some non-declared `LIBFOO' target.

27.6.2 Other Variables
----------------------

There are other variables in Automake that follow similar principles to
allow user options.  For instance, Texinfo rules (*note Texinfo::) use
`MAKEINFOFLAGS' and `AM_MAKEINFOFLAGS'.  Similarly, DejaGnu tests
(*note Tests::) use `RUNTESTDEFAULTFLAGS' and `AM_RUNTESTDEFAULTFLAGS'.
The tags and ctags rules (*note Tags::) use `ETAGSFLAGS',
`AM_ETAGSFLAGS', `CTAGSFLAGS', and `AM_CTAGSFLAGS'.  Java rules (*note
Java::) use `JAVACFLAGS' and `AM_JAVACFLAGS'.  None of these rules do
support per-target flags (yet).

   To some extent, even `AM_MAKEFLAGS' (*note Subdirectories::) obeys
this naming scheme.  The slight difference is that `MAKEFLAGS' is
passed to sub-`make's implicitly by `make' itself.

   However you should not think that all variables ending with `FLAGS'
follow this convention.  For instance, `DISTCHECK_CONFIGURE_FLAGS'
(*note Dist::), `ACLOCAL_AMFLAGS' (see *Note Rebuilding:: and *Note
Local Macros::), are two variables that are only useful to the
maintainer and have no user counterpart.

   `ARFLAGS' (*note A Library::) is usually defined by Automake and has
neither `AM_' nor per-target cousin.

   Finally you should not think either that the existence of a
per-target variable implies that of an `AM_' variable or that of a user
variable.  For instance, the `mumble_LDADD' per-target variable
overrides the global `LDADD' variable (which is not a user variable),
and `mumble_LIBADD' exists only as a per-target variable.  *Note
Program and Library Variables::.


File: automake.info,  Node: renamed objects,  Next: Per-Object Flags,  Prev: Flag Variables Ordering,  Up: FAQ

27.7 Why are object files sometimes renamed?
============================================

This happens when per-target compilation flags are used.  Object files
need to be renamed just in case they would clash with object files
compiled from the same sources, but with different flags.  Consider the
following example.

     bin_PROGRAMS = true false
     true_SOURCES = generic.c
     true_CPPFLAGS = -DEXIT_CODE=0
     false_SOURCES = generic.c
     false_CPPFLAGS = -DEXIT_CODE=1
   Obviously the two programs are built from the same source, but it
would be bad if they shared the same object, because `generic.o' cannot
be built with both `-DEXIT_CODE=0' _and_ `-DEXIT_CODE=1'.  Therefore
`automake' outputs rules to build two different objects:
`true-generic.o' and `false-generic.o'.

   `automake' doesn't actually look whether source files are shared to
decide if it must rename objects.  It will just rename all objects of a
target as soon as it sees per-target compilation flags are used.

   It's OK to share object files when per-target compilation flags are
not used.  For instance, `true' and `false' will both use `version.o'
in the following example.

     AM_CPPFLAGS = -DVERSION=1.0
     bin_PROGRAMS = true false
     true_SOURCES = true.c version.c
     false_SOURCES = false.c version.c

   Note that the renaming of objects is also affected by the
`_SHORTNAME' variable (*note Program and Library Variables::).


File: automake.info,  Node: Per-Object Flags,  Next: Multiple Outputs,  Prev: renamed objects,  Up: FAQ

27.8 Per-Object Flags Emulation
===============================

     One of my source files needs to be compiled with different flags.  How
     do I do?

   Automake supports per-program and per-library compilation flags (see
*Note Program and Library Variables:: and *Note Flag Variables
Ordering::).  With this you can define compilation flags that apply to
all files compiled for a target.  For instance, in

     bin_PROGRAMS = foo
     foo_SOURCES = foo.c foo.h bar.c bar.h main.c
     foo_CFLAGS = -some -flags

`foo-foo.o', `foo-bar.o', and `foo-main.o' will all be compiled with
`-some -flags'.  (If you wonder about the names of these object files,
see *Note renamed objects::.)  Note that `foo_CFLAGS' gives the flags
to use when compiling all the C sources of the _program_ `foo', it has
nothing to do with `foo.c' or `foo-foo.o' specifically.

   What if `foo.c' needs to be compiled into `foo.o' using some
specific flags, that none of the other files require?  Obviously
per-program flags are not directly applicable here.  Something like
per-object flags are expected, i.e., flags that would be used only when
creating `foo-foo.o'.  Automake does not support that, however this is
easy to simulate using a library that contains only that object, and
compiling this library with per-library flags.

     bin_PROGRAMS = foo
     foo_SOURCES = bar.c bar.h main.c
     foo_CFLAGS = -some -flags
     foo_LDADD = libfoo.a
     noinst_LIBRARIES = libfoo.a
     libfoo_a_SOURCES = foo.c foo.h
     libfoo_a_CFLAGS = -some -other -flags

   Here `foo-bar.o' and `foo-main.o' will all be compiled with `-some
-flags', while `libfoo_a-foo.o' will be compiled using `-some -other
-flags'.  Eventually, all three objects will be linked to form `foo'.

   This trick can also be achieved using Libtool convenience libraries,
for instance `noinst_LTLIBRARIES = libfoo.la' (*note Libtool
Convenience Libraries::).

   Another tempting idea to implement per-object flags is to override
the compile rules `automake' would output for these files.  Automake
will not define a rule for a target you have defined, so you could
think about defining the `foo-foo.o: foo.c' rule yourself.  We
recommend against this, because this is error prone.  For instance, if
you add such a rule to the first example, it will break the day you
decide to remove `foo_CFLAGS' (because `foo.c' will then be compiled as
`foo.o' instead of `foo-foo.o', *note renamed objects::).  Also in
order to support dependency tracking, the two `.o'/`.obj' extensions,
and all the other flags variables involved in a compilation, you will
end up modifying a copy of the rule previously output by `automake' for
this file.  If a new release of Automake generates a different rule,
your copy will need to be updated by hand.


File: automake.info,  Node: Multiple Outputs,  Next: Hard-Coded Install Paths,  Prev: Per-Object Flags,  Up: FAQ

27.9 Handling Tools that Produce Many Outputs
=============================================

This section describes a `make' idiom that can be used when a tool
produces multiple output files.  It is not specific to Automake and can
be used in ordinary `Makefile's.

   Suppose we have a program called `foo' that will read one file
called `data.foo' and produce two files named `data.c' and `data.h'.
We want to write a `Makefile' rule that captures this one-to-two
dependency.

   The naive rule is incorrect:

     # This is incorrect.
     data.c data.h: data.foo
             foo data.foo

What the above rule really says is that `data.c' and `data.h' each
depend on `data.foo', and can each be built by running `foo data.foo'.
In other words it is equivalent to:

     # We do not want this.
     data.c: data.foo
             foo data.foo
     data.h: data.foo
             foo data.foo

which means that `foo' can be run twice.  Usually it will not be run
twice, because `make' implementations are smart enough to check for the
existence of the second file after the first one has been built; they
will therefore detect that it already exists.  However there are a few
situations where it can run twice anyway:

   * The most worrying case is when running a parallel `make'.  If
     `data.c' and `data.h' are built in parallel, two `foo data.foo'
     commands will run concurrently.  This is harmful.

   * Another case is when the dependency (here `data.foo') is (or
     depends upon) a phony target.

   A solution that works with parallel `make' but not with phony
dependencies is the following:

     data.c data.h: data.foo
             foo data.foo
     data.h: data.c

The above rules are equivalent to

     data.c: data.foo
             foo data.foo
     data.h: data.foo data.c
             foo data.foo
   therefore a parallel `make' will have to serialize the builds of
`data.c' and `data.h', and will detect that the second is no longer
needed once the first is over.

   Using this pattern is probably enough for most cases.  However it
does not scale easily to more output files (in this scheme all output
files must be totally ordered by the dependency relation), so we will
explore a more complicated solution.

   Another idea is to write the following:

     # There is still a problem with this one.
     data.c: data.foo
             foo data.foo
     data.h: data.c

The idea is that `foo data.foo' is run only when `data.c' needs to be
updated, but we further state that `data.h' depends upon `data.c'.
That way, if `data.h' is required and `data.foo' is out of date, the
dependency on `data.c' will trigger the build.

   This is almost perfect, but suppose we have built `data.h' and
`data.c', and then we erase `data.h'.  Then, running `make data.h' will
not rebuild `data.h'.  The above rules just state that `data.c' must be
up-to-date with respect to `data.foo', and this is already the case.

   What we need is a rule that forces a rebuild when `data.h' is
missing.  Here it is:

     data.c: data.foo
             foo data.foo
     data.h: data.c
     ## Recover from the removal of $@
             @if test -f $@; then :; else \
               rm -f data.c; \
               $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) data.c; \
             fi

   The above scheme can be extended to handle more outputs and more
inputs.  One of the outputs is selected to serve as a witness to the
successful completion of the command, it depends upon all inputs, and
all other outputs depend upon it.  For instance, if `foo' should
additionally read `data.bar' and also produce `data.w' and `data.x', we
would write:

     data.c: data.foo data.bar
             foo data.foo data.bar
     data.h data.w data.x: data.c
     ## Recover from the removal of $@
             @if test -f $@; then :; else \
               rm -f data.c; \
               $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) data.c; \
             fi

   However there are now two minor problems in this setup.  One is
related to the timestamp ordering of `data.h', `data.w', `data.x', and
`data.c'.  The other one is a race condition if a parallel `make'
attempts to run multiple instances of the recover block at once.

   Let us deal with the first problem.  `foo' outputs four files, but
we do not know in which order these files are created.  Suppose that
`data.h' is created before `data.c'.  Then we have a weird situation.
The next time `make' is run, `data.h' will appear older than `data.c',
the second rule will be triggered, a shell will be started to execute
the `if...fi' command, but actually it will just execute the `then'
branch, that is: nothing.  In other words, because the witness we
selected is not the first file created by `foo', `make' will start a
shell to do nothing each time it is run.

   A simple riposte is to fix the timestamps when this happens.

     data.c: data.foo data.bar
             foo data.foo data.bar
     data.h data.w data.x: data.c
             @if test -f $@; then \
               touch $@; \
             else \
     ## Recover from the removal of $@
               rm -f data.c; \
               $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) data.c; \
             fi

   Another solution is to use a different and dedicated file as witness,
rather than using any of `foo''s outputs.

     data.stamp: data.foo data.bar
             @rm -f data.tmp
             @touch data.tmp
             foo data.foo data.bar
             @mv -f data.tmp $@
     data.c data.h data.w data.x: data.stamp
     ## Recover from the removal of $@
             @if test -f $@; then :; else \
               rm -f data.stamp; \
               $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) data.stamp; \
             fi

   `data.tmp' is created before `foo' is run, so it has a timestamp
older than output files output by `foo'.  It is then renamed to
`data.stamp' after `foo' has run, because we do not want to update
`data.stamp' if `foo' fails.

   This solution still suffers from the second problem: the race
condition in the recover rule.  If, after a successful build, a user
erases `data.c' and `data.h', and runs `make -j', then `make' may start
both recover rules in parallel.  If the two instances of the rule
execute `$(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) data.stamp' concurrently the build is
likely to fail (for instance, the two rules will create `data.tmp', but
only one can rename it).

   Admittedly, such a weird situation does not arise during ordinary
builds.  It occurs only when the build tree is mutilated.  Here
`data.c' and `data.h' have been explicitly removed without also
removing `data.stamp' and the other output files.  `make clean; make'
will always recover from these situations even with parallel makes, so
you may decide that the recover rule is solely to help non-parallel
make users and leave things as-is.  Fixing this requires some locking
mechanism to ensure only one instance of the recover rule rebuilds
`data.stamp'.  One could imagine something along the following lines.

     data.c data.h data.w data.x: data.stamp
     ## Recover from the removal of $@
             @if test -f $@; then :; else \
               trap 'rm -rf data.lock data.stamp 1 2 13 15; \
     ## mkdir is a portable test-and-set
               if mkdir data.lock 2>/dev/null; then \
     ## This code is being executed by the first process.
                 rm -f data.stamp; \
                 $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) data.stamp; \
               else \
     ## This code is being executed by the follower processes.
     ## Wait until the first process is done.
                 while test -d data.lock; do sleep 1; done; \
     ## Succeed if and only if the first process succeeded.
                 test -f data.stamp; exit $$?; \
               fi; \
             fi

   Using a dedicated witness, like `data.stamp', is very handy when the
list of output files is not known beforehand.  As an illustration,
consider the following rules to compile many `*.el' files into `*.elc'
files in a single command.  It does not matter how `ELFILES' is defined
(as long as it is not empty: empty targets are not accepted by POSIX).

     ELFILES = one.el two.el three.el ...
     ELCFILES = $(ELFILES:=c)

     elc-stamp: $(ELFILES)
             @rm -f elc-temp
             @touch elc-temp
             $(elisp_comp) $(ELFILES)
             @mv -f elc-temp $@

     $(ELCFILES): elc-stamp
     ## Recover from the removal of $@
             @if test -f $@; then :; else \
               trap 'rm -rf elc-lock elc-stamp' 1 2 13 15; \
               if mkdir elc-lock 2>/dev/null; then \
     ## This code is being executed by the first process.
                 rm -f elc-stamp; \
                 $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) elc-stamp; \
                 rmdir elc-lock; \
               else \
     ## This code is being executed by the follower processes.
     ## Wait until the first process is done.
                 while test -d elc-lock; do sleep 1; done; \
     ## Succeed if and only if the first process succeeded.
                 test -f elc-stamp; exit $$?; \
               fi; \
             fi

   For completeness it should be noted that GNU `make' is able to
express rules with multiple output files using pattern rules (*note
Pattern Rule Examples: (make)Pattern Examples.).  We do not discuss
pattern rules here because they are not portable, but they can be
convenient in packages that assume GNU `make'.


File: automake.info,  Node: Hard-Coded Install Paths,  Prev: Multiple Outputs,  Up: FAQ

27.10 Installing to Hard-Coded Locations
========================================

     My package needs to install some configuration file.  I tried to use
     the following rule, but `make distcheck' fails.  Why?
          # Do not do this.
          install-data-local:
                  $(INSTALL_DATA) $(srcdir)/afile $(DESTDIR)/etc/afile

     My package needs to populate the installation directory of another
     package at install-time.  I can easily compute that installation
     directory in `configure', but if I install files therein,
     `make distcheck' fails.  How else should I do?

   These two setups share their symptoms: `make distcheck' fails
because they are installing files to hard-coded paths.  In the later
case the path is not really hard-coded in the package, but we can
consider it to be hard-coded in the system (or in whichever tool that
supplies the path).  As long as the path does not use any of the
standard directory variables (`$(prefix)', `$(bindir)', `$(datadir)',
etc.), the effect will be the same: user-installations are impossible.

   When a (non-root) user wants to install a package, he usually has no
right to install anything in `/usr' or `/usr/local'.  So he does
something like `./configure --prefix ~/usr' to install package in his
own `~/usr' tree.

   If a package attempts to install something to some hard-coded path
(e.g., `/etc/afile'), regardless of this `--prefix' setting, then the
installation will fail.  `make distcheck' performs such a `--prefix'
installation, hence it will fail too.

   Now, there are some easy solutions.

   The above `install-data-local' example for installing `/etc/afile'
would be better replaced by

     sysconf_DATA = afile

by default `sysconfdir' will be `$(prefix)/etc', because this is what
the GNU Standards require.  When such a package is installed on a FHS
compliant system, the installer will have to set `--sysconfdir=/etc'.
As the maintainer of the package you should not be concerned by such
site policies: use the appropriate standard directory variable to
install your files so that installer can easily redefine these
variables to match their site conventions.

   Installing files that should be used by another package, is slightly
more involved.  Let's take an example and assume you want to install
shared library that is a Python extension module.  If you ask Python
where to install the library, it will answer something like this:

     % python -c 'from distutils import sysconfig;
                  print sysconfig.get_python_lib(1,0)'
     /usr/lib/python2.3/site-packages

   If you indeed use this absolute path to install your shared library,
non-root users will not be able to install the package, hence distcheck
fails.

   Let's do better.  The `sysconfig.get_python_lib()' function actually
accepts a third argument that will replace Python's installation prefix.

     % python -c 'from distutils import sysconfig;
                  print sysconfig.get_python_lib(1,0,"${exec_prefix}")'
     ${exec_prefix}/lib/python2.3/site-packages

   You can also use this new path.  If you do
   * root users can install your package with the same `--prefix' as
     Python (you get the behavior of the previous attempt)

   * non-root users can install your package too, they will have the
     extension module in a place that is not searched by Python but they
     can work around this using environment variables (and if you
     installed scripts that use this shared library, it's easy to tell
     Python were to look in the beginning of your script, so the script
     works in both cases).

   The `AM_PATH_PYTHON' macro uses similar commands to define
`$(pythondir)' and `$(pyexecdir)' (*note Python::).

   Of course not all tools are as advanced as Python regarding that
substitution of PREFIX.  So another strategy is to figure the part of
the of the installation directory that must be preserved.  For
instance, here is how `AM_PATH_LISPDIR' (*note Emacs Lisp::) computes
`$(lispdir)':

     $EMACS -batch -q -eval '(while load-path
       (princ (concat (car load-path) "\n"))
       (setq load-path (cdr load-path)))' >conftest.out
     lispdir=`sed -n
       -e 's,/$,,'
       -e '/.*\/lib\/x*emacs\/site-lisp$/{
             s,.*/lib/\(x*emacs/site-lisp\)$,${libdir}/\1,;p;q;
           }'
       -e '/.*\/share\/x*emacs\/site-lisp$/{
             s,.*/share/\(x*emacs/site-lisp\),${datarootdir}/\1,;p;q;
           }'
       conftest.out`

   I.e., it just picks the first directory that looks like
`*/lib/*emacs/site-lisp' or `*/share/*emacs/site-lisp' in the search
path of emacs, and then substitutes `${libdir}' or `${datadir}'
appropriately.

   The emacs case looks complicated because it processes a list and
expect two possible layouts, otherwise it's easy, and the benefit for
non-root users are really worth the extra `sed' invocation.


File: automake.info,  Node: History,  Next: Copying This Manual,  Prev: FAQ,  Up: Top

28 History of Automake
**********************

This chapter presents various aspects of the history of Automake.  The
exhausted reader can safely skip it; this will be more of interest to
nostalgic people, or to those curious to learn about the evolution of
Automake.

* Menu:

* Timeline::                    The Automake story.
* Dependency Tracking Evolution::  Evolution of Automatic Dependency Tracking
* Releases::                    Statistics about Automake Releases


File: automake.info,  Node: Timeline,  Next: Dependency Tracking Evolution,  Up: History

28.1 Timeline
=============

1994-09-19 First CVS commit.
     If we can trust the CVS repository, David J. MacKenzie (djm)
     started working on Automake (or AutoMake, as it was spelt then)
     this Monday.

     The first version of the `automake' script looks as follows.

          #!/bin/sh

          status=0

          for makefile
          do
            if test ! -f ${makefile}.am; then
              echo "automake: ${makefile}.am: No such honkin' file"
              status=1
              continue
            fi

            exec 4> ${makefile}.in

          done

     From this you can already see that Automake will be about reading
     `*.am' file and producing `*.in' files.  You cannot see anything
     else, but if you also know that David is the one who created
     Autoconf two years before you can guess the rest.

     Several commits follow, and by the end of the day Automake is
     reported to work for GNU fileutils and GNU m4.

     The modus operandi is the one that is still used today: variables
     assignments in `Makefile.am' files trigger injections of precanned
     `Makefile' fragments into the generated `Makefile.in'.  The use of
     `Makefile' fragments was inspired by the 4.4BSD `make' and include
     files, however Automake aims to be portable and to conform to the
     GNU standards for `Makefile' variables and targets.

     At this point, the most recent release of Autoconf is version 1.11,
     and David is preparing to release Autoconf 2.0 in late October.
     As a matter of fact, he will barely touch Automake after September.

1994-11-05 David MacKenzie's last commit.
     At this point Automake is a 200 line portable shell script, plus
     332 lines of `Makefile' fragments.  In the `README', David states
     his ambivalence between "portable shell" and "more appropriate
     language":

          I wrote it keeping in mind the possibility of it becoming an
          Autoconf macro, so it would run at configure-time.  That
          would slow configuration down a bit, but allow users to
          modify the Makefile.am without needing to fetch the AutoMake
          package.  And, the Makefile.in files wouldn't need to be
          distributed.  But all of AutoMake would.  So I might
          reimplement AutoMake in Perl, m4, or some other more
          appropriate language.

     Automake is described as "an experimental Makefile generator".
     There is no documentation.  Adventurous users are referred to the
     examples and patches needed to use Automake with GNU m4 1.3,
     fileutils 3.9, time 1.6, and development versions of find and
     indent.

     These examples seem to have been lost.  However at the time of
     writing (10 years later in September, 2004) the FSF still
     distributes a package that uses this version of Automake: check
     out GNU termutils 2.0.

1995-11-12 Tom Tromey's first commit.
     After one year of inactivity, Tom Tromey takes over the package.
     Tom was working on GNU cpio back then, and doing this just for fun,
     having trouble finding a project to contribute to.  So while
     hacking he wanted to bring the `Makefile.in' up to GNU standards.
     This was hard, and one day he saw Automake on
     `ftp://alpha.gnu.org/', grabbed it and tried it out.

     Tom didn't talk to djm about it until later, just to make sure he
     didn't mind if he made a release.  He did a bunch of early
     releases to the Gnits folks.

     Gnits was (and still is) totally informal, just a few GNU friends
     who Franc,ois Pinard knew, who were all interested in making a
     common infrastructure for GNU projects, and shared a similar
     outlook on how to do it.  So they were able to make some progress.
     It came along with Autoconf and extensions thereof, and then
     Automake from David and Tom (who were both gnitsians).  One of
     their ideas was to write a document paralleling the GNU standards,
     that was more strict in some ways and more detailed.  They never
     finished the GNITS standards, but the ideas mostly made their way
     into Automake.

1995-11-23 Automake 0.20
     Besides introducing automatic dependency tracking (*note
     Dependency Tracking Evolution::), this version also supplies a
     9-page manual.

     At this time `aclocal' and `AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE' did not exist, so
     many things had to be done by hand.  For instance, here is what a
     configure.in (this is the former name of the `configure.ac' we use
     today) must contain in order to use Automake 0.20:

          PACKAGE=cpio
          VERSION=2.3.911
          AC_DEFINE_UNQUOTED(PACKAGE, "$PACKAGE")
          AC_DEFINE_UNQUOTED(VERSION, "$VERSION")
          AC_SUBST(PACKAGE)
          AC_SUBST(VERSION)
          AC_ARG_PROGRAM
          AC_PROG_INSTALL

     (Today all of the above is achieved by `AC_INIT' and
     `AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE'.)

     Here is how programs are specified in `Makefile.am':

          PROGRAMS = hello
          hello_SOURCES = hello.c

     This looks pretty much like what we do today, except the
     `PROGRAMS' variable has no directory prefix specifying where
     `hello' should be installed: all programs are installed in
     `$(bindir)'.  `LIBPROGRAMS' can be used to specify programs that
     must be built but not installed (it is called `noinst_PROGRAMS'
     nowadays).

     Programs can be built conditionally using `AC_SUBST'itutions:

          PROGRAMS = @progs@
          AM_PROGRAMS = foo bar baz

     (`AM_PROGRAMS' has since then been renamed to `EXTRA_PROGRAMS'.)

     Similarly scripts, static libraries, and data can built and
     installed using the `LIBRARIES', `SCRIPTS', and `DATA' variables.
     However `LIBRARIES' were treated a bit specially in that Automake
     did automatically supply the `lib' and `.a' prefixes.  Therefore
     to build `libcpio.a', one had to write

          LIBRARIES = cpio
          cpio_SOURCES = ...

     Extra files to distribute must be listed in `DIST_OTHER' (the
     ancestor of `EXTRA_DIST').  Also extra directories that are to be
     distributed should appear in `DIST_SUBDIRS', but the manual
     describes this as a temporary ugly hack (today extra directories
     should also be listed in `EXTRA_DIST', and `DIST_SUBDIRS' is used
     for another purpose, *note Conditional Subdirectories::).

1995-11-26 Automake 0.21
     In less time that it takes to cook a frozen pizza, Tom rewrites
     Automake using Perl.  At this time Perl 5 is only one year old, and
     Perl 4.036 is in use at many sites.  Supporting several Perl
     versions has been a source of problems through the whole history
     of Automake.

     If you never used Perl 4, imagine Perl 5 without objects, without
     `my' variables (only dynamically scoped `local' variables),
     without function prototypes, with function calls that needs to be
     prefixed with `&', etc.  Traces of this old style can still be
     found in today's `automake'.

1995-11-28 Automake 0.22
1995-11-29 Automake 0.23
     Bug fixes.

1995-12-08 Automake 0.24
1995-12-10 Automake 0.25
     Releases are raining.  0.24 introduces the uniform naming scheme we
     use today, i.e., `bin_PROGRAMS' instead of `PROGRAMS',
     `noinst_LIBRARIES' instead of `LIBLIBRARIES', etc.  (However
     `EXTRA_PROGRAMS' does not exist yet, `AM_PROGRAMS' is still in
     use; and `TEXINFOS' and `MANS' still have no directory prefixes.)
     Adding support for prefixes like that was one of the major ideas
     in automake; it has lasted pretty well.

     AutoMake is renamed to Automake (Tom seems to recall it was
     Franc,ois Pinard's doing).

     0.25 fixes a Perl 4 portability bug.

1995-12-18 Jim Meyering starts using Automake in GNU Textutils.

1995-12-31 Franc,ois Pinard starts using Automake in GNU tar.

1996-01-03 Automake 0.26
1996-01-03 Automake 0.27
     Of the many change and suggestions sent by Franc,ois Pinard and
     included in 0.26, the most important is perhaps the advise that to
     ease customization a user rule or variable definition should always
     override an Automake rule or definition.

     Gordon Matzigkeit and Jim Meyering are two other early contributors
     that have been sending fixes.

     0.27 fixes yet another Perl 4 portability bug.

1996-01-13 Automake 0.28
     Automake starts scanning `configure.in' for `LIBOBJS' support.
     This is an important step because until this version Automake did
     only know about the `Makefile.am's it processed.  `configure.in'
     was Autoconf's world and the link between Autoconf and Automake
     had to be done by the `Makefile.am' author.  For instance, if
     `config.h' was generated by `configure', it was the package
     maintainer's responsibility to define the `CONFIG_HEADER' variable
     in each `Makefile.am'.

     Succeeding releases will rely more and more on scanning
     `configure.in' to better automate the Autoconf integration.

     0.28 also introduces the `AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS' variable and the
     `--gnu' and `--gnits' options, the latter being stricter.

1996-02-07 Automake 0.29
     Thanks to `configure.in' scanning, `CONFIG_HEADER' is gone, and
     rebuild rules for `configure'-generated file are automatically
     output.

     `TEXINFOS' and `MANS' converted to the uniform naming scheme.

1996-02-24 Automake 0.30
     The test suite is born.  It contains 9 tests.  From now on test
     cases will be added pretty regularly (*note Releases::), and this
     proved to be really helpful later on.

     `EXTRA_PROGRAMS' finally replaces `AM_PROGRAMS'.

     All the third-party Autoconf macros, written mostly by Franc,ois
     Pinard (and later Jim Meyering), are distributed in Automake's
     hand-written `aclocal.m4' file.  Package maintainers are expected
     to extract the necessary macros from this file.  (In previous
     version you had to copy and paste them from the manual...)

1996-03-11 Automake 0.31
     The test suite in 0.30 was run via a long `check-local' rule.  Upon
     Ulrich Drepper's suggestion, 0.31 makes it an Automake rule output
     whenever the `TESTS' variable is defined.

     `DIST_OTHER' is renamed to `EXTRA_DIST', and the `check_' prefix
     is introduced.  The syntax is now the same as today.

1996-03-15 Gordon Matzigkeit starts writing libtool.

1996-04-27 Automake 0.32
     `-hook' targets are introduced; an idea from Dieter Baron.

     `*.info' files, which were output in the build directory are now
     built in the source directory, because they are distributed.  It
     seems these files like to move back and forth as that will happen
     again in future versions.

1996-05-18 Automake 0.33
     Gord Matzigkeit's main two contributions:

        * very preliminary libtool support

        * the distcheck rule

     Although they were very basic at this point, these are probably
     among the top features for Automake today.

     Jim Meyering also provides the infamous `jm_MAINTAINER_MODE',
     since then renamed to `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE' and abandoned by its
     author (*note maintainer-mode::).

1996-05-28 Automake 1.0
     After only six months of heavy development, the automake script is
     3134 lines long, plus 973 lines of `Makefile' fragments.  The
     package has 30 pages of documentation, and 38 test cases.
     `aclocal.m4' contains 4 macros.

     From now on and until version 1.4, new releases will occur at a
     rate of about one a year.  1.1 did not exist, actually 1.1b to
     1.1p have been the name of beta releases for 1.2.  This is the
     first time Automake uses suffix letters to designate beta
     releases, an habit that lasts.

1996-10-10 Kevin Dalley packages Automake 1.0 for Debian GNU/Linux.

1996-11-26 David J. MacKenzie releases Autoconf 2.12.
     Between June and October, the Autoconf development is almost
     staled.  Roland McGrath has been working at the beginning of the
     year.  David comes back in November to release 2.12, but he won't
     touch Autoconf anymore after this year, and Autoconf then really
     stagnates.  The desolate Autoconf `ChangeLog' for 1997 lists only
     7 commits.

1997-02-28 <automake@gnu.ai.mit.edu> list alive
     The mailing list is announced as follows:
          I've created the "automake" mailing list.  It is
          "automake@gnu.ai.mit.edu".  Administrivia, as always, to
          automake-request@gnu.ai.mit.edu.

          The charter of this list is discussion of automake, autoconf, and
          other configuration/portability tools (e.g., libtool).  It is expected
          that discussion will range from pleas for help all the way up to
          patches.

          This list is archived on the FSF machines.  Offhand I don't know if
          you can get the archive without an account there.

          This list is open to anybody who wants to join.  Tell all your
          friends!
          -- Tom Tromey

     Before that people were discussing Automake privately, on the Gnits
     mailing list (which is not public either), and less frequently on
     `gnu.misc.discuss'.

     `gnu.ai.mit.edu' is now `gnu.org', in case you never noticed.  The
     archives of the early years of the `automake@gnu.org' list have
     been lost, so today it is almost impossible to find traces of
     discussions that occurred before 1999.  This has been annoying
     more than once, as such discussions can be useful to understand
     the rationale behind a piece of uncommented code that was
     introduced back then.

1997-06-22 Automake 1.2
     Automake developments continues, and more and more new Autoconf
     macros are required.  Distributing them in `aclocal.m4' and
     requiring people to browse this file to extract the relevant
     macros becomes uncomfortable.  Ideally, some of them should be
     contributed to Autoconf so that they can be used directly, however
     Autoconf is currently inactive.  Automake 1.2 consequently
     introduces `aclocal' (`aclocal' was actually started on
     1996-07-28), a tool that automatically constructs an `aclocal.m4'
     file from a repository of third-party macros.  Because Autoconf has
     stalled, Automake also becomes a kind of repository for such
     third-party macros, even macros completely unrelated to Automake
     (for instance macros that fix broken Autoconf macros).

     The 1.2 release contains 20 macros, among which the
     `AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE' macro that simplifies the creation of
     `configure.in'.

     Libtool is fully supported using `*_LTLIBRARIES'.

     The missing script is introduced by Franc,ois Pinard; it is meant
     to be a better solution than `AM_MAINTAINER_MODE' (*note
     maintainer-mode::).

     Conditionals support was implemented by Ian Lance Taylor.  At the
     time, Tom and Ian were working on an internal project at Cygnus.
     They were using ILU, which is pretty similar to CORBA.  They
     wanted to integrate ILU into their build, which was all
     `configure'-based, and Ian thought that adding conditionals to
     `automake' was simpler than doing all the work in `configure'
     (which was the standard at the time).  So this was actually funded
     by Cygnus.

     This very useful but tricky feature will take a lot of time to
     stabilize.  (At the time this text is written, there are still
     primaries that have not been updated to support conditional
     definitions in Automake 1.9.)

     The `automake' script has almost doubled: 6089 lines of Perl, plus
     1294 lines of `Makefile' fragments.

1997-07-08 Gordon Matzigkeit releases Libtool 1.0.

1998-04-05 Automake 1.3
     This is a small advance compared to 1.2.  It add support for
     assembly, and preliminary support for Java.

     Perl 5.004_04 is out, but fixes to support Perl 4 are still
     regularly submitted whenever Automake breaks it.

1998-09-06 `sourceware.cygnus.com' is on-line.
     Sourceware was setup by Jason Molenda to host open source projects.

1998-09-19  Automake CVS repository moved to `sourceware.cygnus.com'
1998-10-26  `sourceware.cygnus.com' announces it hosts Automake
     Automake is now hosted on `sourceware.cygnus.com'.  It has a
     publicly accessible CVS repository.  This CVS repository is a copy
     of the one Tom was using on his machine, which in turn is based on
     a copy of the CVS repository of David MacKenzie.  This is why we
     still have to full source history.  (Automake is still on
     Sourceware today, but the host has been renamed to
     `sources.redhat.com'.)

     The oldest file in the administrative directory of the CVS
     repository that was created on Sourceware is dated 1998-09-19,
     while the announcement that `automake' and `autoconf' had joined
     `sourceware' was made on 1998-10-26.  They were among the first
     projects to be hosted there.

     The heedful reader will have noticed Automake was exactly
     4-year-old on 1998-09-19.

1999-01-05 Ben Elliston releases Autoconf 2.13.

1999-01-14 Automake 1.4
     This release adds support for Fortran 77 and for the `include'
     statement.  Also, `+=' assignments are introduced, but it is still
     quite easy to fool Automake when mixing this with conditionals.

     These two releases, Automake 1.4 and Autoconf 2.13 makes a duo that
     will be used together for years.

     `automake' is 7228 lines, plus 1591 lines of Makefile fragment, 20
     macros (some 1.3 macros were finally contributed back to
     Autoconf), 197 test cases, and 51 pages of documentation.

1999-03-27 The `user-dep-branch' is created on the CVS repository.
     This implements a new dependency tracking schemed that should be
     able to handle automatic dependency tracking using any compiler
     (not just gcc) and any make (not just GNU `make').  In addition,
     the new scheme should be more reliable than the old one, as
     dependencies are generated on the end user's machine.  Alexandre
     Oliva creates depcomp for this purpose.

     *Note Dependency Tracking Evolution::, for more details about the
     evolution of automatic dependency tracking in Automake.

1999-11-21 The `user-dep-branch' is merged into the main trunk.
     This was a huge problem since we also had patches going in on the
     trunk.  The merge took a long time and was very painful.

2000-05-10
     Since September 1999 and until 2003, Akim Demaille will be
     zealously revamping Autoconf.

          I think the next release should be called "3.0".
          Let's face it: you've basically rewritten autoconf.
          Every weekend there are 30 new patches.
          I don't see how we could call this "2.15" with a straight
          face.
          - Tom Tromey on <autoconf@gnu.org>

     Actually Akim works like a submarine: he will pile up patches
     while he works off-line during the weekend, and flush them in
     batch when he resurfaces on Monday.

2001-01-24
     On this Wednesday, Autoconf 2.49c, the last beta before Autoconf
     2.50 is out, and Akim has to find something to do during his
     week-end :)

2001-01-28
     Akim sends a batch of 14 patches to <automake@gnu.org>.

          Aiieeee!  I was dreading the day that the Demaillator turned
          his sights on automake... and now it has arrived! - Tom Tromey

     It's only the beginning: in two months he will send 192 patches.
     Then he would slow down so Tom can catch up and review all this.
     Initially Tom actually read all these patches, then he probably
     trustingly answered OK to most of them, and finally gave up and
     let Akim apply whatever he wanted.  There was no way to keep up
     with that patch rate.

          Anyway the patch below won't apply since it predates Akim's
          sourcequake; I have yet to figure where the relevant passage
          has been moved :) - Alexandre Duret-Lutz

     All these patches were sent to and discussed on
     <automake@gnu.org>, so subscribed users were literally drown in
     technical mails.  Eventually, the <automake-patches@gnu.org>
     mailing list was created in May.

     Year after year, Automake had drifted away from its initial design:
     construct `Makefile.in' by assembling various `Makefile'
     fragments.  In 1.4, lots of `Makefile' rules are being emitted at
     various places in the `automake' script itself; this does not help
     ensuring a consistent treatment of these rules (for instance
     making sure that user-defined rules override Automake's own rules).
     One of Akim's goal was moving all these hard-coded rules to
     separate `Makefile' fragments, so the logic could be centralized
     in a `Makefile' fragment processor.

     Another significant contribution of Akim is the interface with the
     "trace" feature of Autoconf.  The way to scan `configure.in' at
     this time was to read the file and grep the various macro of
     interest to Automake.  Doing so could break in many unexpected
     ways; automake could miss some definition (for instance
     `AC_SUBST([$1], [$2])' where the arguments are known only when M4
     is run), or conversely it could detect some macro that was not
     expanded (because it is called conditionally).  In the CVS version
     of Autoconf, Akim had implemented the `--trace' option, which
     provides accurate information about where macros are actually
     called and with what arguments.  Akim will equip Automake with a
     second `configure.in' scanner that uses this `--trace' interface.
     Since it was not sensible to drop the Autoconf 2.13 compatibility
     yet, this experimental scanner was only used when an environment
     variable was set, the traditional grep-scanner being still the
     default.

2001-04-25 Gary V. Vaughan releases Libtool 1.4
     It has been more than two years since Automake 1.4, CVS Automake
     has suffered lot's of heavy changes and still is not ready for
     release.  Libtool 1.4 had to be distributed with a patch against
     Automake 1.4.

2001-05-08 Automake 1.4-p1
2001-05-24 Automake 1.4-p2
     Gary V. Vaughan, the principal Libtool maintainer, makes a "patch
     release" of Automake:

          The main purpose of this release is to have a stable automake
          which is compatible with the latest stable libtool.

     The release also contains obvious fixes for bugs in Automake 1.4,
     some of which were reported almost monthly.

2001-05-21 Akim Demaille releases Autoconf 2.50

2001-06-07 Automake 1.4-p3
2001-06-10 Automake 1.4-p4
2001-07-15 Automake 1.4-p5
     Gary continues his patch-release series.  These also add support
     for some new Autoconf 2.50 idioms.  Essentially, Autoconf now
     advocates `configure.ac' over `configure.in', and it introduces a
     new syntax for `AC_OUTPUT'ing files.

2001-08-23 Automake 1.5
     A major and long-awaited release, that comes more than two years
     after 1.4.  It brings many changes, among which:
        * The new dependency tracking scheme that uses `depcomp'.
          Aside from the improvement on the dependency tracking itself
          (*note Dependency Tracking Evolution::), this also
          streamlines the use of automake generated `Makefile.in's as
          the `Makefile.in's used during development are now the same
          as those used in distributions.  Before that the
          `Makefile.in's generated for maintainers required GNU `make'
          and GCC, they were different from the portable `Makefile'
          generated for distribution; this was causing some confusion.

        * Support for per-target compilation flags.

        * Support for reference to files in subdirectories in most
          `Makefile.am' variables.

        * Introduction of the `dist_', `nodist_', and `nobase_'
          prefixes.

        * Perl 4 support is finally dropped.

     1.5 did broke several packages that worked with 1.4.  Enough so
     that Linux distributions could not easily install the new Automake
     version without breaking many of the packages for which they had
     to run `automake'.

     Some of these breakages were effectively bugs that would
     eventually be fixed in the next release.  However, a lot of damage
     was caused by some changes made deliberately to render Automake
     stricter on some setup we did consider bogus.  For instance, `make
     distcheck' was improved to check that `make uninstall' did remove
     all the files `make install' installed, that `make distclean' did
     not omit some file, and that a VPATH build would work even if the
     source directory was read-only.  Similarly, Automake now rejects
     multiple definitions of the same variable (because that would mix
     very badly with conditionals), and `+=' assignments with no
     previous definition.  Because these changes all occurred suddenly
     after 1.4 had been established for more than two years, it hurt
     users.

     To make matter worse, meanwhile Autoconf (now at version 2.52) was
     facing similar troubles, for similar reasons.

2002-03-05 Automake 1.6
     This release introduced versioned installation (*note API
     versioning::).  This was mainly pushed by Havoc Pennington, taking
     the GNOME source tree as motive: due to incompatibilities between
     the autotools it's impossible for the GNOME packages to switch to
     Autoconf 2.53 and Automake 1.5 all at once, so they are currently
     stuck with Autoconf 2.13 and Automake 1.4.

     The idea was to call this version `automake-1.6', call all its
     bug-fix versions identically, and switch to `automake-1.7' for the
     next release that adds new features or changes some rules.  This
     scheme implies maintaining a bug-fix branch in addition to the
     development trunk, which means more work from the maintainer, but
     providing regular bug-fix releases proved to be really worthwhile.

     Like 1.5, 1.6 also introduced a bunch of incompatibilities, meant
     or not.  Perhaps the more annoying was the dependence on the newly
     released Autoconf 2.53.  Autoconf seemed to have stabilized enough
     since its explosive 2.50 release, and included changes required to
     fix some bugs in Automake.  In order to upgrade to Automake 1.6,
     people now had to upgrade Autoconf too; for some packages it was
     no picnic.

     While versioned installation helped people to upgrade, it also
     unfortunately allowed people not to upgrade.  At the time of
     writing, some Linux distributions are shipping packages for
     Automake 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, and 1.9.  Most of these still
     install 1.4 by default.  Some distribution also call 1.4 the
     "stable" version, and present "1.9" as the development version;
     this does not really makes sense since 1.9 is way more solid than
     1.4.  All this does not help the newcomer.

2002-04-11 Automake 1.6.1
     1.6, and the upcoming 1.4-p6 release were the last release by Tom.
     This one and those following will be handled by Alexandre
     Duret-Lutz.  Tom is still around, and will be there until about
     1.7, but his interest into Automake is drifting away towards
     projects like `gcj'.

     Alexandre has been using Automake since 2000, and started to
     contribute mostly on Akim's incitement (Akim and Alexandre have
     been working in the same room from 1999 to 2002).  In 2001 and
     2002 he had a lot of free time to enjoy hacking Automake.

2002-06-14 Automake 1.6.2

2002-07-28 Automake 1.6.3
2002-07-28 Automake 1.4-p6
     Two releases on the same day.  1.6.3 is a bug-fix release.

     Tom Tromey backported the versioned installation mechanism on the
     1.4 branch, so that Automake 1.6.x and Automake 1.4-p6 could be
     installed side by side.  Another request from the GNOME folks.

2002-09-25 Automake 1.7
     This release switches to the new `configure.ac' scanner Akim was
     experimenting in 1.5.

2002-10-16 Automake 1.7.1
2002-12-06 Automake 1.7.2
2003-02-20 Automake 1.7.3
2003-04-23 Automake 1.7.4
2003-05-18 Automake 1.7.5
2003-07-10 Automake 1.7.6
2003-09-07 Automake 1.7.7
2003-10-07 Automake 1.7.8
     Many bug-fix releases.  1.7 lasted because the development version
     (upcoming 1.8) was suffering some major internal revamping.

2003-10-26 Automake on screen
     Episode 49, `Repercussions', in the third season of the `Alias' TV
     show is first aired.

     Marshall, one of the character, is working on a computer virus
     that he has to modify before it gets into the wrong hands or
     something like that.  The screenshots you see do not show any
     program code, they show a `Makefile.in' `generated by automake'...

2003-11-09 Automake 1.7.9

2003-12-10 Automake 1.8
     The most striking update is probably that of `aclocal'.

     `aclocal' now uses `m4_include' in the produced `aclocal.m4' when
     the included macros are already distributed with the package (an
     idiom used in many packages), which reduces code duplication.
     Many people liked that, but in fact this change was really
     introduced to fix a bug in rebuild rules: `Makefile.in' must be
     rebuilt whenever a dependency of `configure' changes, but all the
     `m4' files included in `aclocal.m4' where unknown from `automake'.
     Now `automake' can just trace the `m4_include's to discover the
     dependencies.

     `aclocal' also starts using the `--trace' Autoconf option in order
     to discover used macros more accurately.  This will turn out to be
     very tricky (later releases will improve this) as people had
     devised many ways to cope with the limitation of previous
     `aclocal' versions, notably using handwritten `m4_include's:
     `aclocal' must make sure not to redefine a rule that is already
     included by such statement.

     Automake also has seen its guts rewritten.  Although this rewriting
     took a lot of efforts, it is only apparent to the users in that
     some constructions previously disallowed by the implementation now
     work nicely.  Conditionals, Locations, Variable and Rule
     definitions, Options: these items on which Automake works have
     been rewritten as separate Perl modules, and documented.

2004-01-11 Automake 1.8.1
2004-01-12 Automake 1.8.2
2004-03-07 Automake 1.8.3
2004-04-25 Automake 1.8.4
2004-05-16 Automake 1.8.5

2004-07-28 Automake 1.9
     This release tries to simplify the compilation rules it outputs to
     reduce the size of the Makefile.  The complaint initially come from
     the libgcj developers.  Their `Makefile.in' generated with
     Automake 1.4 and custom build rules (1.4 did not support compiled
     Java) is 250KB.  The one generated by 1.8 was over 9MB!  1.9 gets
     it down to 1.2MB.

     Aside from this it contains mainly minor changes and bug-fixes.

2004-08-11 Automake 1.9.1
2004-09-19 Automake 1.9.2
     Automake has ten years.  This chapter of the manual was initially
     written for this occasion.



File: automake.info,  Node: Dependency Tracking Evolution,  Next: Releases,  Prev: Timeline,  Up: History

28.2 Dependency Tracking in Automake
====================================

Over the years Automake has deployed three different dependency
tracking methods.  Each method, including the current one, has had
flaws of various sorts.  Here we lay out the different dependency
tracking methods, their flaws, and their fixes.  We conclude with
recommendations for tool writers, and by indicating future directions
for dependency tracking work in Automake.

28.2.1 First Take
-----------------

Description
...........

Our first attempt at automatic dependency tracking was based on the
method recommended by GNU `make'.  (*note Generating Prerequisites
Automatically: (make)Automatic Prerequisites.)

   This version worked by precomputing dependencies ahead of time.  For
each source file, it had a special `.P' file that held the
dependencies.  There was a rule to generate a `.P' file by invoking the
compiler appropriately.  All such `.P' files were included by the
`Makefile', thus implicitly becoming dependencies of `Makefile'.

Bugs
....

This approach had several critical bugs.

   * The code to generate the `.P' file relied on `gcc'.  (A
     limitation, not technically a bug.)

   * The dependency tracking mechanism itself relied on GNU `make'.  (A
     limitation, not technically a bug.)

   * Because each `.P' file was a dependency of `Makefile', this meant
     that dependency tracking was done eagerly by `make'.  For
     instance, `make clean' would cause all the dependency files to be
     updated, and then immediately removed.  This eagerness also caused
     problems with some configurations; if a certain source file could
     not be compiled on a given architecture for some reason,
     dependency tracking would fail, aborting the entire build.

   * As dependency tracking was done as a pre-pass, compile times were
     doubled-the compiler had to be run twice per source file.

   * `make dist' re-ran `automake' to generate a `Makefile' that did
     not have automatic dependency tracking (and that was thus portable
     to any version of `make').  In order to do this portably, Automake
     had to scan the dependency files and remove any reference that was
     to a source file not in the distribution.  This process was
     error-prone.  Also, if `make dist' was run in an environment where
     some object file had a dependency on a source file that was only
     conditionally created, Automake would generate a `Makefile' that
     referred to a file that might not appear in the end user's build.
     A special, hacky mechanism was required to work around this.

Historical Note
...............

The code generated by Automake is often inspired by the `Makefile'
style of a particular author.  In the case of the first implementation
of dependency tracking, I believe the impetus and inspiration was Jim
Meyering.  (I could be mistaken.  If you know otherwise feel free to
correct me.)

28.2.2 Dependencies As Side Effects
-----------------------------------

Description
...........

The next refinement of Automake's automatic dependency tracking scheme
was to implement dependencies as side effects of the compilation.  This
was aimed at solving the most commonly reported problems with the first
approach.  In particular we were most concerned with eliminating the
weird rebuilding effect associated with make clean.

   In this approach, the `.P' files were included using the `-include'
command, which let us create these files lazily.  This avoided the
`make clean' problem.

   We only computed dependencies when a file was actually compiled.
This avoided the performance penalty associated with scanning each file
twice.  It also let us avoid the other problems associated with the
first, eager, implementation.  For instance, dependencies would never
be generated for a source file that was not compilable on a given
architecture (because it in fact would never be compiled).

Bugs
....

   * This approach also relied on the existence of `gcc' and GNU
     `make'.  (A limitation, not technically a bug.)

   * Dependency tracking was still done by the developer, so the
     problems from the first implementation relating to massaging of
     dependencies by `make dist' were still in effect.

   * This implementation suffered from the "deleted header file"
     problem.  Suppose a lazily-created `.P' file includes a dependency
     on a given header file, like this:

          maude.o: maude.c something.h

     Now suppose that the developer removes `something.h' and updates
     `maude.c' so that this include is no longer needed.  If he runs
     `make', he will get an error because there is no way to create
     `something.h'.

     We fixed this problem in a later release by further massaging the
     output of `gcc' to include a dummy dependency for each header file.

28.2.3 Dependencies for the User
--------------------------------

Description
...........

The bugs associated with `make dist', over time, became a real problem.
Packages using Automake were being built on a large number of
platforms, and were becoming increasingly complex.  Broken dependencies
were distributed in "portable" `Makefile.in's, leading to user
complaints.  Also, the requirement for `gcc' and GNU `make' was a
constant source of bug reports.  The next implementation of dependency
tracking aimed to remove these problems.

   We realized that the only truly reliable way to automatically track
dependencies was to do it when the package itself was built.  This
meant discovering a method portable to any version of make and any
compiler.  Also, we wanted to preserve what we saw as the best point of
the second implementation: dependency computation as a side effect of
compilation.

   In the end we found that most modern make implementations support
some form of include directive.  Also, we wrote a wrapper script that
let us abstract away differences between dependency tracking methods for
compilers.  For instance, some compilers cannot generate dependencies
as a side effect of compilation.  In this case we simply have the
script run the compiler twice.  Currently our wrapper script
(`depcomp') knows about twelve different compilers (including a
"compiler" that simply invokes `makedepend' and then the real compiler,
which is assumed to be a standard Unix-like C compiler with no way to
do dependency tracking).

Bugs
....

   * Running a wrapper script for each compilation slows down the build.

   * Many users don't really care about precise dependencies.

   * This implementation, like every other automatic dependency tracking
     scheme in common use today (indeed, every one we've ever heard of),
     suffers from the "duplicated new header" bug.

     This bug occurs because dependency tracking tools, such as the
     compiler, only generate dependencies on the successful opening of a
     file, and not on every probe.

     Suppose for instance that the compiler searches three directories
     for a given header, and that the header is found in the third
     directory.  If the programmer erroneously adds a header file with
     the same name to the first directory, then a clean rebuild from
     scratch could fail (suppose the new header file is buggy), whereas
     an incremental rebuild will succeed.

     What has happened here is that people have a misunderstanding of
     what a dependency is.  Tool writers think a dependency encodes
     information about which files were read by the compiler.  However,
     a dependency must actually encode information about what the
     compiler tried to do.

     This problem is not serious in practice.  Programmers typically do
     not use the same name for a header file twice in a given project.
     (At least, not in C or C++.  This problem may be more troublesome
     in Java.)  This problem is easy to fix, by modifying dependency
     generators to record every probe, instead of every successful open.

   * Since automake generates dependencies as a side effect of
     compilation, there is a bootstrapping problem when header files
     are generated by running a program.  The problem is that, the
     first time the build is done, there is no way by default to know
     that the headers are required, so make might try to run a
     compilation for which the headers have not yet been built.

     This was also a problem in the previous dependency tracking
     implementation.

     The current fix is to use `BUILT_SOURCES' to list built headers
     (*note Sources::).  This causes them to be built before any other
     other build rules are run.  This is unsatisfactory as a general
     solution, however in practice it seems sufficient for most actual
     programs.

   This code is used since Automake 1.5.

   In GCC 3.0, we managed to convince the maintainers to add special
command-line options to help Automake more efficiently do its job.  We
hoped this would let us avoid the use of a wrapper script when
Automake's automatic dependency tracking was used with `gcc'.

   Unfortunately, this code doesn't quite do what we want.  In
particular, it removes the dependency file if the compilation fails;
we'd prefer that it instead only touch the file in any way if the
compilation succeeds.

   Nevertheless, since Automake 1.7, when a recent `gcc' is detected at
`configure' time, we inline the dependency-generation code and do not
use the `depcomp' wrapper script.  This makes compilations faster for
those using this compiler (probably our primary user base).  The
counterpart is that because we have to encode two compilation rules in
`Makefile' (with or without `depcomp'), the produced `Makefile's are
larger.

28.2.4 Techniques for Computing Dependencies
--------------------------------------------

There are actually several ways for a build tool like Automake to cause
tools to generate dependencies.

`makedepend'
     This was a commonly-used method in the past.  The idea is to run a
     special program over the source and have it generate dependency
     information.  Traditional implementations of `makedepend' are not
     completely precise; ordinarily they were conservative and
     discovered too many dependencies.

The tool
     An obvious way to generate dependencies is to simply write the
     tool so that it can generate the information needed by the build
     tool.  This is also the most portable method.  Many compilers have
     an option to generate dependencies.  Unfortunately, not all tools
     provide such an option.

The file system
     It is possible to write a special file system that tracks opens,
     reads, writes, etc, and then feed this information back to the
     build tool.  `clearmake' does this.  This is a very powerful
     technique, as it doesn't require cooperation from the tool.
     Unfortunately it is also very difficult to implement and also not
     practical in the general case.

`LD_PRELOAD'
     Rather than use the file system, one could write a special library
     to intercept `open' and other syscalls.  This technique is also
     quite powerful, but unfortunately it is not portable enough for
     use in `automake'.

28.2.5 Recommendations for Tool Writers
---------------------------------------

We think that every compilation tool ought to be able to generate
dependencies as a side effect of compilation.  Furthermore, at least
while `make'-based tools are nearly universally in use (at least in the
free software community), the tool itself should generate dummy
dependencies for header files, to avoid the deleted header file bug.
Finally, the tool should generate a dependency for each probe, instead
of each successful file open, in order to avoid the duplicated new
header bug.

28.2.6 Future Directions for Automake's Dependency Tracking
-----------------------------------------------------------

Currently, only languages and compilers understood by Automake can have
dependency tracking enabled.  We would like to see if it is practical
(and worthwhile) to let this support be extended by the user to
languages unknown to Automake.


File: automake.info,  Node: Releases,  Prev: Dependency Tracking Evolution,  Up: History

28.3 Release Statistics
=======================

The following table (inspired by `perlhist(1)') quantifies the
evolution of Automake using these metrics:

Date, Rel
     The date and version of the release.

am
     The number of lines of the `automake' script.

acl
     The number of lines of the `aclocal' script.

pm
     The number of lines of the `Perl' supporting modules.

`*.am'
     The number of lines of the `Makefile' fragments.  The number in
     parenthesis is the number of files.

m4
     The number of lines (and files) of Autoconf macros.

doc
     The number of pages of the documentation (the Postscript version).

t
     The number of test cases in the test suite.

Date         Rel      am     acl    pm     `*.am'      m4          doc   t
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
1994-09-19   CVS      141                  299 (24)                      
1994-11-05   CVS      208                  332 (28)                      
1995-11-23   0.20     533                  458 (35)                9     
1995-11-26   0.21     613                  480 (36)                11    
1995-11-28   0.22     1116                 539 (38)                12    
1995-11-29   0.23     1240                 541 (38)                12    
1995-12-08   0.24     1462                 504 (33)                14    
1995-12-10   0.25     1513                 511 (37)                15    
1996-01-03   0.26     1706                 438 (36)                16    
1996-01-03   0.27     1706                 438 (36)                16    
1996-01-13   0.28     1964                 934 (33)                16    
1996-02-07   0.29     2299                 936 (33)                17    
1996-02-24   0.30     2544                 919 (32)    85 (1)      20    9
1996-03-11   0.31     2877                 919 (32)    85 (1)      29    17
1996-04-27   0.32     3058                 921 (31)    85 (1)      30    26
1996-05-18   0.33     3110                 926 (31)    105 (1)     30    35
1996-05-28   1.0      3134                 973 (32)    105 (1)     30    38
1997-06-22   1.2      6089   385           1294 (36)   592 (20)    37    126
1998-04-05   1.3      6415   422           1470 (39)   741 (23)    39    156
1999-01-14   1.4      7240   426           1591 (40)   734 (20)    51    197
2001-05-08   1.4-p1   7251   426           1591 (40)   734 (20)    51    197
2001-05-24   1.4-p2   7268   439           1591 (40)   734 (20)    49    197
2001-06-07   1.4-p3   7312   439           1591 (40)   734 (20)    49    197
2001-06-10   1.4-p4   7321   439           1591 (40)   734 (20)    49    198
2001-07-15   1.4-p5   7228   426           1596 (40)   734 (20)    51    198
2001-08-23   1.5      8016   475    600    2654 (39)   1166 (29)   63    327
2002-03-05   1.6      8465   475    1136   2732 (39)   1603 (27)   66    365
2002-04-11   1.6.1    8544   475    1136   2741 (39)   1603 (27)   66    372
2002-06-14   1.6.2    8575   475    1136   2800 (39)   1609 (27)   67    386
2002-07-28   1.6.3    8600   475    1153   2809 (39)   1609 (27)   67    391
2002-07-28   1.4-p6   7332   455           1596 (40)   735 (20)    49    197
2002-09-25   1.7      9189   471    1790   2965 (39)   1606 (28)   73    430
2002-10-16   1.7.1    9229   475    1790   2977 (39)   1606 (28)   73    437
2002-12-06   1.7.2    9334   475    1790   2988 (39)   1606 (28)   77    445
2003-02-20   1.7.3    9389   475    1790   3023 (39)   1651 (29)   84    448
2003-04-23   1.7.4    9429   475    1790   3031 (39)   1644 (29)   85    458
2003-05-18   1.7.5    9429   475    1790   3033 (39)   1645 (29)   85    459
2003-07-10   1.7.6    9442   475    1790   3033 (39)   1660 (29)   85    461
2003-09-07   1.7.7    9443   475    1790   3041 (39)   1660 (29)   90    467
2003-10-07   1.7.8    9444   475    1790   3041 (39)   1660 (29)   90    468
2003-11-09   1.7.9    9444   475    1790   3048 (39)   1660 (29)   90    468
2003-12-10   1.8      7171   585    7730   3236 (39)   1666 (31)   104   521
2004-01-11   1.8.1    7217   663    7726   3287 (39)   1686 (31)   104   525
2004-01-12   1.8.2    7217   663    7726   3288 (39)   1686 (31)   104   526
2004-03-07   1.8.3    7214   686    7735   3303 (39)   1695 (31)   111   530
2004-04-25   1.8.4    7214   686    7736   3310 (39)   1701 (31)   112   531
2004-05-16   1.8.5    7240   686    7736   3299 (39)   1701 (31)   112   533
2004-07-28   1.9      7508   715    7794   3352 (40)   1812 (32)   115   551
2004-08-11   1.9.1    7512   715    7794   3354 (40)   1812 (32)   115   552
2004-09-19   1.9.2    7512   715    7794   3354 (40)   1812 (32)   132   554
2004-11-01   1.9.3    7507   718    7804   3354 (40)   1812 (32)   134   556
2004-12-18   1.9.4    7508   718    7856   3361 (40)   1811 (32)   140   560
2005-02-13   1.9.5    7523   719    7859   3373 (40)   1453 (32)   142   562
2005-07-10   1.9.6    7539   699    7867   3400 (40)   1453 (32)   144   570
2006-10-15   1.10     7859   1072   8024   3512 (40)   1496 (34)   172   604


File: automake.info,  Node: Copying This Manual,  Next: Indices,  Prev: History,  Up: Top

Appendix A Copying This Manual
******************************

* Menu:

* GNU Free Documentation License::  License for copying this manual


File: automake.info,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Copying This Manual

A.1 GNU Free Documentation License
==================================

                      Version 1.2, November 2002

     Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this
     License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
     Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
     The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document
     does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
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     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
     composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
     widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
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     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
     markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
     modification by readers is not Transparent.  An image format is
     not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.  A
     copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
     standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for
     human modification.  Examples of transparent image formats include
     PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or
     XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF
     produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
          section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section
          titles.

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
          Section.

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other
     attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is
     void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
     License.  However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
     from you under this License will not have their licenses
     terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     `http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/'.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.

A.1.1 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
----------------------------------------------------------

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.


File: automake.info,  Node: Indices,  Prev: Copying This Manual,  Up: Top

Appendix B Indices
******************

* Menu:

* Macro Index::                 Index of Autoconf macros
* Variable Index::              Index of Makefile variables
* General Index::               General index


File: automake.info,  Node: Macro Index,  Next: Variable Index,  Up: Indices

B.1 Macro Index
===============

[index]
* Menu:

* _AM_DEPENDENCIES:                      Private macros.      (line  12)
* AC_CANONICAL_BUILD:                    Optional.            (line  11)
* AC_CANONICAL_HOST:                     Optional.            (line  12)
* AC_CANONICAL_TARGET:                   Optional.            (line  13)
* AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIR <1>:                 Subpackages.         (line   6)
* AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIR:                     Optional.            (line  19)
* AC_CONFIG_FILES:                       Requirements.        (line  15)
* AC_CONFIG_HEADERS:                     Optional.            (line  46)
* AC_CONFIG_LIBOBJ_DIR <1>:              LIBOBJS.             (line  48)
* AC_CONFIG_LIBOBJ_DIR:                  Optional.            (line  41)
* AC_CONFIG_LINKS:                       Optional.            (line  55)
* AC_CONFIG_SUBDIRS:                     Subpackages.         (line   6)
* AC_DEFUN:                              Extending aclocal.   (line  33)
* AC_F77_LIBRARY_LDFLAGS:                Optional.            (line  98)
* AC_INIT:                               Public macros.       (line  25)
* AC_LIBOBJ <1>:                         LIBOBJS.             (line  11)
* AC_LIBOBJ <2>:                         LTLIBOBJS.           (line   6)
* AC_LIBOBJ:                             Optional.            (line  65)
* AC_LIBSOURCE <1>:                      LIBOBJS.             (line  17)
* AC_LIBSOURCE:                          Optional.            (line  66)
* AC_LIBSOURCES:                         Optional.            (line  67)
* AC_OUTPUT:                             Requirements.        (line  15)
* AC_PREREQ:                             Extending aclocal.   (line  33)
* AC_PROG_CC_C_O:                        Public macros.       (line  80)
* AC_PROG_CXX:                           Optional.            (line  85)
* AC_PROG_F77:                           Optional.            (line  93)
* AC_PROG_FC:                            Optional.            (line 104)
* AC_PROG_LEX <1>:                       Public macros.       (line  86)
* AC_PROG_LEX:                           Optional.            (line 119)
* AC_PROG_LIBTOOL:                       Optional.            (line 109)
* AC_PROG_OBJC:                          Optional.            (line  89)
* AC_PROG_RANLIB:                        Optional.            (line  81)
* AC_PROG_YACC:                          Optional.            (line 113)
* AC_REQUIRE_AUX_FILE:                   Optional.            (line 123)
* AC_SUBST:                              Optional.            (line 131)
* AM_C_PROTOTYPES <1>:                   ANSI.                (line  34)
* AM_C_PROTOTYPES <2>:                   Obsolete macros.     (line  13)
* AM_C_PROTOTYPES:                       Optional.            (line 142)
* AM_CONDITIONAL:                        Conditionals.        (line  11)
* AM_CONFIG_HEADER:                      Obsolete macros.     (line  20)
* AM_DEP_TRACK:                          Private macros.      (line  14)
* AM_ENABLE_MULTILIB:                    Public macros.       (line   7)
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT:                        Optional.            (line 146)
* AM_GNU_GETTEXT_INTL_SUBDIR:            Optional.            (line 152)
* AM_HEADER_TIOCGWINSZ_NEEDS_SYS_IOCTL:  Obsolete macros.     (line  25)
* AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE <1>:                  Public macros.       (line  16)
* AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE:                      Requirements.        (line   6)
* AM_MAINTAINER_MODE <1>:                maintainer-mode.     (line  36)
* AM_MAINTAINER_MODE <2>:                Rebuilding.          (line   9)
* AM_MAINTAINER_MODE:                    Optional.            (line 157)
* AM_MAKE_INCLUDE:                       Private macros.      (line  20)
* AM_OUTPUT_DEPENDENCY_COMMANDS:         Private macros.      (line  15)
* AM_PATH_LISPDIR:                       Public macros.       (line  60)
* AM_PATH_PYTHON:                        Python.              (line  29)
* AM_PROG_AS:                            Public macros.       (line  75)
* AM_PROG_CC_C_O:                        Public macros.       (line  80)
* AM_PROG_GCJ:                           Public macros.       (line  91)
* AM_PROG_INSTALL_STRIP:                 Private macros.      (line  25)
* AM_PROG_LEX:                           Public macros.       (line  86)
* AM_PROG_MKDIR_P:                       Obsolete macros.     (line  31)
* AM_PROG_UPC:                           Public macros.       (line  96)
* AM_SANITY_CHECK:                       Private macros.      (line  30)
* AM_SET_DEPDIR:                         Private macros.      (line  13)
* AM_SYS_POSIX_TERMIOS:                  Obsolete macros.     (line  53)
* AM_WITH_DMALLOC:                       Public macros.       (line 102)
* AM_WITH_REGEX:                         Public macros.       (line 107)
* m4_include <1>:                        Dist.                (line  17)
* m4_include:                            Optional.            (line 165)


File: automake.info,  Node: Variable Index,  Next: General Index,  Prev: Macro Index,  Up: Indices

B.2 Variable Index
==================

[index]
* Menu:

* _DATA:                                 Data.                (line   6)
* _HEADERS:                              Headers.             (line   6)
* _LIBRARIES:                            A Library.           (line   6)
* _LISP:                                 Emacs Lisp.          (line   6)
* _LTLIBRARIES:                          Libtool Libraries.   (line   6)
* _MANS:                                 Man pages.           (line   6)
* _PROGRAMS <1>:                         Program Sources.     (line   6)
* _PROGRAMS:                             Uniform.             (line  11)
* _PYTHON:                               Python.              (line   6)
* _SCRIPTS:                              Scripts.             (line   6)
* _SOURCES <1>:                          Default _SOURCES.    (line   6)
* _SOURCES:                              Program Sources.     (line  32)
* _TEXINFOS:                             Texinfo.             (line   6)
* ACLOCAL_AMFLAGS <1>:                   Rebuilding.          (line  12)
* ACLOCAL_AMFLAGS:                       Local Macros.        (line  19)
* ALLOCA <1>:                            LIBOBJS.             (line   6)
* ALLOCA:                                LTLIBOBJS.           (line   6)
* AM_CCASFLAGS:                          Assembly Support.    (line   9)
* AM_CFLAGS:                             Program variables.   (line  36)
* AM_CPPFLAGS <1>:                       Assembly Support.    (line   9)
* AM_CPPFLAGS:                           Program variables.   (line  15)
* AM_CXXFLAGS:                           C++ Support.         (line  22)
* AM_ETAGSFLAGS:                         Tags.                (line  25)
* AM_FCFLAGS:                            Fortran 9x Support.  (line  22)
* AM_FFLAGS:                             Fortran 77 Support.  (line  22)
* AM_GCJFLAGS:                           Java Support.        (line  24)
* AM_INSTALLCHECK_STD_OPTIONS_EXEMPT:    Options.             (line 120)
* AM_JAVACFLAGS:                         Java.                (line  36)
* AM_LDFLAGS <1>:                        Program variables.   (line  46)
* AM_LDFLAGS:                            Linking.             (line  10)
* AM_LFLAGS:                             Yacc and Lex.        (line  56)
* AM_LIBTOOLFLAGS:                       Libtool Flags.       (line   6)
* AM_MAKEFLAGS:                          Subdirectories.      (line  29)
* AM_MAKEINFOFLAGS:                      Texinfo.             (line 101)
* AM_MAKEINFOHTMLFLAGS:                  Texinfo.             (line 102)
* AM_OBJCFLAGS:                          Objective C Support. (line  22)
* AM_RFLAGS:                             Fortran 77 Support.  (line  28)
* AM_RUNTESTFLAGS:                       Tests.               (line  75)
* AM_UPCFLAGS:                           Unified Parallel C Support.
                                                              (line  21)
* AM_YFLAGS:                             Yacc and Lex.        (line  33)
* ANSI2KNR:                              Obsolete macros.     (line  13)
* AUTOCONF:                              Invoking Automake.   (line  28)
* AUTOM4TE:                              Invoking aclocal.    (line  45)
* AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS <1>:                  Options.             (line  11)
* AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS <2>:                  Dependencies.        (line  34)
* AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS <3>:                  ANSI.                (line  21)
* AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS:                      Public macros.       (line  19)
* bin_PROGRAMS:                          Program Sources.     (line   6)
* bin_SCRIPTS:                           Scripts.             (line  18)
* build_triplet:                         Optional.            (line  14)
* BUILT_SOURCES:                         Sources.             (line  27)
* CC:                                    Program variables.   (line  11)
* CCAS <1>:                              Assembly Support.    (line   9)
* CCAS:                                  Public macros.       (line  75)
* CCASFLAGS <1>:                         Assembly Support.    (line   9)
* CCASFLAGS:                             Public macros.       (line  75)
* CFLAGS:                                Program variables.   (line  11)
* check_:                                Uniform.             (line  74)
* check_LTLIBRARIES:                     Libtool Convenience Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* check_PROGRAMS <1>:                    Default _SOURCES.    (line  29)
* check_PROGRAMS:                        Program Sources.     (line   6)
* check_SCRIPTS:                         Scripts.             (line  18)
* CLASSPATH_ENV:                         Java.                (line  45)
* CLEANFILES:                            Clean.               (line  13)
* COMPILE:                               Program variables.   (line  42)
* CONFIG_STATUS_DEPENDENCIES:            Rebuilding.          (line  19)
* CONFIGURE_DEPENDENCIES:                Rebuilding.          (line  19)
* CPPFLAGS <1>:                          Assembly Support.    (line   9)
* CPPFLAGS:                              Program variables.   (line  11)
* CXX:                                   C++ Support.         (line  16)
* CXXCOMPILE:                            C++ Support.         (line  25)
* CXXFLAGS:                              C++ Support.         (line  19)
* CXXLINK <1>:                           How the Linker is Chosen.
                                                              (line  12)
* CXXLINK:                               C++ Support.         (line  29)
* DATA <1>:                              Data.                (line   7)
* DATA:                                  Uniform.             (line  79)
* data_DATA:                             Data.                (line   9)
* DEFS:                                  Program variables.   (line  11)
* DEJATOOL:                              Tests.               (line  70)
* DESTDIR <1>:                           Install.             (line  79)
* DESTDIR:                               DESTDIR.             (line   6)
* dist_ <1>:                             Dist.                (line  53)
* dist_:                                 Alternative.         (line  30)
* dist_lisp_LISP:                        Emacs Lisp.          (line  11)
* dist_noinst_LISP:                      Emacs Lisp.          (line  11)
* DIST_SUBDIRS <1>:                      Dist.                (line  41)
* DIST_SUBDIRS:                          Conditional Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  84)
* DISTCHECK_CONFIGURE_FLAGS:             Dist.                (line 117)
* distcleancheck_listfiles <1>:          distcleancheck.      (line 115)
* distcleancheck_listfiles:              Dist.                (line 111)
* DISTCLEANFILES <1>:                    Dist.                (line 133)
* DISTCLEANFILES:                        Clean.               (line  13)
* distdir <1>:                           Third-Party Makefiles.
                                                              (line  25)
* distdir:                               Dist.                (line  89)
* distuninstallcheck_listfiles:          Dist.                (line 111)
* DVIPS:                                 Texinfo.             (line 127)
* EMACS:                                 Public macros.       (line  60)
* ETAGS_ARGS:                            Tags.                (line  25)
* ETAGSFLAGS:                            Tags.                (line  25)
* EXPECT:                                Tests.               (line  70)
* EXTRA_DIST:                            Dist.                (line  30)
* EXTRA_maude_SOURCES:                   Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line  53)
* EXTRA_PROGRAMS:                        Conditional Programs.
                                                              (line  15)
* F77:                                   Fortran 77 Support.  (line  16)
* F77COMPILE:                            Fortran 77 Support.  (line  31)
* F77LINK:                               How the Linker is Chosen.
                                                              (line  14)
* FC:                                    Fortran 9x Support.  (line  16)
* FCCOMPILE:                             Fortran 9x Support.  (line  25)
* FCFLAGS:                               Fortran 9x Support.  (line  19)
* FCLINK <1>:                            Fortran 9x Support.  (line  29)
* FCLINK:                                How the Linker is Chosen.
                                                              (line  16)
* FFLAGS:                                Fortran 77 Support.  (line  19)
* FLIBS:                                 Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line  21)
* FLINK:                                 Fortran 77 Support.  (line  35)
* GCJ:                                   Public macros.       (line  91)
* GCJFLAGS <1>:                          Java Support.        (line  14)
* GCJFLAGS:                              Public macros.       (line  91)
* GCJLINK:                               How the Linker is Chosen.
                                                              (line  10)
* GTAGS_ARGS:                            Tags.                (line  49)
* GZIP_ENV:                              Dist.                (line  13)
* HEADERS:                               Uniform.             (line  79)
* host_triplet:                          Optional.            (line  14)
* include_HEADERS:                       Headers.             (line   6)
* INCLUDES:                              Program variables.   (line  30)
* info_TEXINFOS:                         Texinfo.             (line   6)
* JAVA:                                  Uniform.             (line  79)
* JAVAC:                                 Java.                (line  29)
* JAVACFLAGS:                            Java.                (line  32)
* JAVAROOT:                              Java.                (line  41)
* LDADD:                                 Linking.             (line  10)
* LDFLAGS:                               Program variables.   (line  11)
* LFLAGS:                                Yacc and Lex.        (line  56)
* lib_LIBRARIES:                         A Library.           (line   6)
* lib_LTLIBRARIES:                       Libtool Libraries.   (line   6)
* libexec_PROGRAMS:                      Program Sources.     (line   6)
* libexec_SCRIPTS:                       Scripts.             (line  18)
* LIBOBJS <1>:                           LIBOBJS.             (line   6)
* LIBOBJS <2>:                           LTLIBOBJS.           (line   6)
* LIBOBJS:                               Optional.            (line  68)
* LIBRARIES:                             Uniform.             (line  79)
* LIBS:                                  Program variables.   (line  11)
* LIBTOOLFLAGS:                          Libtool Flags.       (line   6)
* LINK <1>:                              How the Linker is Chosen.
                                                              (line  22)
* LINK:                                  Program variables.   (line  51)
* LISP:                                  Uniform.             (line  79)
* lisp_LISP:                             Emacs Lisp.          (line   6)
* lispdir:                               Public macros.       (line  60)
* localstate_DATA:                       Data.                (line   9)
* LTALLOCA <1>:                          LIBOBJS.             (line   6)
* LTALLOCA:                              LTLIBOBJS.           (line   6)
* LTLIBOBJS <1>:                         LIBOBJS.             (line   6)
* LTLIBOBJS:                             LTLIBOBJS.           (line   6)
* MAINTAINERCLEANFILES:                  Clean.               (line  13)
* MAKE:                                  Subdirectories.      (line  29)
* MAKEINFO:                              Texinfo.             (line  85)
* MAKEINFOFLAGS:                         Texinfo.             (line  95)
* MAKEINFOHTML:                          Texinfo.             (line  91)
* man_MANS:                              Man pages.           (line   6)
* MANS:                                  Uniform.             (line  79)
* maude_AR:                              Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line  68)
* maude_CCASFLAGS:                       Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 160)
* maude_CFLAGS:                          Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 161)
* maude_CPPFLAGS:                        Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 162)
* maude_CXXFLAGS:                        Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 163)
* maude_DEPENDENCIES <1>:                Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 118)
* maude_DEPENDENCIES:                    Linking.             (line  41)
* maude_FFLAGS:                          Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 164)
* maude_GCJFLAGS:                        Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 165)
* maude_LDADD <1>:                       Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line  86)
* maude_LDADD:                           Linking.             (line  17)
* maude_LDFLAGS <1>:                     Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 106)
* maude_LDFLAGS:                         Linking.             (line  37)
* maude_LFLAGS:                          Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 166)
* maude_LIBADD <1>:                      Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line  78)
* maude_LIBADD:                          A Library.           (line  26)
* maude_LIBTOOLFLAGS <1>:                Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 111)
* maude_LIBTOOLFLAGS:                    Libtool Flags.       (line   6)
* maude_LINK:                            Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 149)
* maude_OBJCFLAGS:                       Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 167)
* maude_RFLAGS:                          Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 168)
* maude_SHORTNAME:                       Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 201)
* maude_SOURCES:                         Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line  18)
* maude_UPCFLAGS:                        Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 169)
* maude_YFLAGS:                          Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 170)
* mkdir_p:                               Obsolete macros.     (line  31)
* MKDIR_P:                               Obsolete macros.     (line  31)
* MOSTLYCLEANFILES:                      Clean.               (line  13)
* nobase_:                               Alternative.         (line  24)
* nodist_ <1>:                           Dist.                (line  53)
* nodist_:                               Alternative.         (line  30)
* noinst_:                               Uniform.             (line  69)
* noinst_HEADERS:                        Headers.             (line   6)
* noinst_LIBRARIES:                      A Library.           (line   6)
* noinst_LISP:                           Emacs Lisp.          (line   6)
* noinst_LTLIBRARIES:                    Libtool Convenience Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* noinst_PROGRAMS:                       Program Sources.     (line   6)
* noinst_SCRIPTS:                        Scripts.             (line  18)
* OBJC:                                  Objective C Support. (line  16)
* OBJCCOMPILE:                           Objective C Support. (line  25)
* OBJCFLAGS:                             Objective C Support. (line  19)
* OBJCLINK <1>:                          How the Linker is Chosen.
                                                              (line  18)
* OBJCLINK:                              Objective C Support. (line  29)
* oldinclude_HEADERS:                    Headers.             (line   6)
* PACKAGE:                               Dist.                (line   9)
* pkgdata_DATA:                          Data.                (line   9)
* pkgdata_SCRIPTS:                       Scripts.             (line  18)
* pkgdatadir:                            Uniform.             (line  19)
* pkginclude_HEADERS:                    Headers.             (line   6)
* pkgincludedir:                         Uniform.             (line  19)
* pkglib_LIBRARIES:                      A Library.           (line   6)
* pkglib_LTLIBRARIES:                    Libtool Libraries.   (line   6)
* pkglib_PROGRAMS:                       Program Sources.     (line   6)
* pkglibdir:                             Uniform.             (line  19)
* pkgpyexecdir:                          Python.              (line  99)
* pkgpythondir:                          Python.              (line  85)
* PROGRAMS:                              Uniform.             (line  17)
* pyexecdir:                             Python.              (line  90)
* PYTHON <1>:                            Python.              (line  50)
* PYTHON:                                Uniform.             (line  79)
* PYTHON_EXEC_PREFIX:                    Python.              (line  71)
* PYTHON_PLATFORM:                       Python.              (line  76)
* PYTHON_PREFIX:                         Python.              (line  66)
* PYTHON_VERSION:                        Python.              (line  62)
* pythondir:                             Python.              (line  81)
* RFLAGS:                                Fortran 77 Support.  (line  25)
* RUNTEST:                               Tests.               (line  70)
* RUNTESTDEFAULTFLAGS:                   Tests.               (line  65)
* RUNTESTFLAGS:                          Tests.               (line  75)
* sbin_PROGRAMS:                         Program Sources.     (line   6)
* sbin_SCRIPTS:                          Scripts.             (line  18)
* SCRIPTS <1>:                           Scripts.             (line   9)
* SCRIPTS:                               Uniform.             (line  79)
* sharedstate_DATA:                      Data.                (line   9)
* SOURCES <1>:                           Default _SOURCES.    (line   6)
* SOURCES:                               Program Sources.     (line  33)
* SUBDIRS <1>:                           Dist.                (line  41)
* SUBDIRS:                               Subdirectories.      (line   8)
* SUFFIXES:                              Suffixes.            (line   6)
* sysconf_DATA:                          Data.                (line   9)
* TAGS_DEPENDENCIES:                     Tags.                (line  35)
* target_triplet:                        Optional.            (line  14)
* TESTS:                                 Tests.               (line  24)
* TESTS_ENVIRONMENT:                     Tests.               (line  24)
* TEXI2DVI:                              Texinfo.             (line 118)
* TEXI2PDF:                              Texinfo.             (line 123)
* TEXINFO_TEX:                           Texinfo.             (line 131)
* TEXINFOS <1>:                          Texinfo.             (line  59)
* TEXINFOS:                              Uniform.             (line  79)
* top_distdir <1>:                       Third-Party Makefiles.
                                                              (line  25)
* top_distdir:                           Dist.                (line  89)
* U:                                     Obsolete macros.     (line  13)
* UPC <1>:                               Unified Parallel C Support.
                                                              (line  15)
* UPC:                                   Public macros.       (line  96)
* UPCCOMPILE:                            Unified Parallel C Support.
                                                              (line  24)
* UPCFLAGS:                              Unified Parallel C Support.
                                                              (line  18)
* UPCLINK <1>:                           How the Linker is Chosen.
                                                              (line  20)
* UPCLINK:                               Unified Parallel C Support.
                                                              (line  28)
* VERSION:                               Dist.                (line   9)
* WARNINGS <1>:                          aclocal options.     (line  85)
* WARNINGS:                              Invoking Automake.   (line 164)
* WITH_DMALLOC:                          Public macros.       (line 102)
* WITH_REGEX:                            Public macros.       (line 107)
* XFAIL_TESTS:                           Tests.               (line  36)
* YACC:                                  Optional.            (line 114)
* YFLAGS:                                Yacc and Lex.        (line  33)


File: automake.info,  Node: General Index,  Prev: Variable Index,  Up: Indices

B.3 General Index
=================

[index]
* Menu:

* ## (special Automake comment):         General Operation.   (line  54)
* #serial syntax:                        Serials.             (line   6)
* $(LIBOBJS) and empty libraries:        LIBOBJS.             (line  69)
* +=:                                    General Operation.   (line  23)
* --acdir:                               aclocal options.     (line   9)
* --add-missing:                         Invoking Automake.   (line  41)
* --build=BUILD:                         Cross-Compilation.   (line  14)
* --copy:                                Invoking Automake.   (line  63)
* --cygnus:                              Invoking Automake.   (line  67)
* --diff:                                aclocal options.     (line  13)
* --disable-dependency-tracking:         Dependency Tracking. (line  29)
* --dry-run:                             aclocal options.     (line  18)
* --enable-debug, example:               Conditionals.        (line  26)
* --enable-dependency-tracking:          Dependency Tracking. (line  39)
* --enable-maintainer-mode:              Optional.            (line 158)
* --force:                               aclocal options.     (line  39)
* --force-missing:                       Invoking Automake.   (line  72)
* --foreign:                             Invoking Automake.   (line  78)
* --gnits:                               Invoking Automake.   (line  82)
* --gnits, complete description:         Gnits.               (line  21)
* --gnu:                                 Invoking Automake.   (line  86)
* --gnu, complete description:           Gnits.               (line   6)
* --gnu, required files:                 Gnits.               (line   6)
* --help <1>:                            aclocal options.     (line  22)
* --help:                                Invoking Automake.   (line  90)
* --help check:                          Options.             (line 115)
* --help=recursive:                      Nested Packages.     (line  30)
* --host=HOST:                           Cross-Compilation.   (line  17)
* --include-deps:                        Invoking Automake.   (line  98)
* --install:                             aclocal options.     (line  29)
* --libdir:                              Invoking Automake.   (line  58)
* --no-force:                            Invoking Automake.   (line 103)
* --output:                              aclocal options.     (line  49)
* --output-dir:                          Invoking Automake.   (line 110)
* --prefix:                              Standard Directory Variables.
                                                              (line  33)
* --print-ac-dir:                        aclocal options.     (line  52)
* --program-prefix=PREFIX:               Renaming.            (line  16)
* --program-suffix=SUFFIX:               Renaming.            (line  19)
* --program-transform-name=PROGRAM:      Renaming.            (line  22)
* --target=TARGET:                       Cross-Compilation.   (line  56)
* --verbose <1>:                         aclocal options.     (line  58)
* --verbose:                             Invoking Automake.   (line 117)
* --version <1>:                         aclocal options.     (line  61)
* --version:                             Invoking Automake.   (line 121)
* --version check:                       Options.             (line 115)
* --warnings <1>:                        aclocal options.     (line  66)
* --warnings:                            Invoking Automake.   (line 126)
* --with-dmalloc:                        Public macros.       (line 102)
* --with-regex:                          Public macros.       (line 107)
* -a:                                    Invoking Automake.   (line  41)
* -c:                                    Invoking Automake.   (line  62)
* -f:                                    Invoking Automake.   (line  71)
* -hook targets:                         Extending.           (line  61)
* -I:                                    aclocal options.     (line  25)
* -i:                                    Invoking Automake.   (line  94)
* -l and LDADD:                          Linking.             (line  66)
* -local targets:                        Extending.           (line  36)
* -module, libtool:                      Libtool Modules.     (line   6)
* -o:                                    Invoking Automake.   (line 110)
* -v:                                    Invoking Automake.   (line 117)
* -W <1>:                                aclocal options.     (line  66)
* -W:                                    Invoking Automake.   (line 126)
* -Wall:                                 amhello Explained.   (line  38)
* -Werror:                               amhello Explained.   (line  38)
* .la suffix, defined:                   Libtool Concept.     (line   6)
* _DATA primary, defined:                Data.                (line   6)
* _DEPENDENCIES, defined:                Linking.             (line  41)
* _HEADERS primary, defined:             Headers.             (line   6)
* _JAVA primary, defined:                Java.                (line   6)
* _LDFLAGS, defined:                     Linking.             (line  37)
* _LDFLAGS, libtool:                     Libtool Flags.       (line   6)
* _LIBADD, libtool:                      Libtool Flags.       (line   6)
* _LIBRARIES primary, defined:           A Library.           (line   6)
* _LIBTOOLFLAGS, libtool:                Libtool Flags.       (line   6)
* _LISP primary, defined:                Emacs Lisp.          (line   6)
* _LTLIBRARIES primary, defined:         Libtool Libraries.   (line   6)
* _MANS primary, defined:                Man pages.           (line   6)
* _PROGRAMS primary variable:            Uniform.             (line  11)
* _PYTHON primary, defined:              Python.              (line   6)
* _SCRIPTS primary, defined:             Scripts.             (line   6)
* _SOURCES and header files:             Program Sources.     (line  39)
* _SOURCES primary, defined:             Program Sources.     (line  32)
* _SOURCES, default:                     Default _SOURCES.    (line   6)
* _SOURCES, empty:                       Default _SOURCES.    (line  43)
* _TEXINFOS primary, defined:            Texinfo.             (line   6)
* AC_SUBST and SUBDIRS:                  Conditional Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  95)
* acinclude.m4, defined:                 Complete.            (line  23)
* aclocal and serial numbers:            Serials.             (line   6)
* aclocal program, introduction:         Complete.            (line  23)
* aclocal search path:                   Macro search path.   (line   6)
* aclocal's scheduled death:             Future of aclocal.   (line   6)
* aclocal, extending:                    Extending aclocal.   (line   6)
* aclocal, Invoking:                     Invoking aclocal.    (line   6)
* aclocal, Options:                      aclocal options.     (line   6)
* aclocal.m4, preexisting:               Complete.            (line  23)
* Adding new SUFFIXES:                   Suffixes.            (line   6)
* all <1>:                               Extending.           (line  40)
* all:                                   Standard Targets.    (line  16)
* all-local:                             Extending.           (line  40)
* ALLOCA, and Libtool:                   LTLIBOBJS.           (line   6)
* ALLOCA, example:                       LIBOBJS.             (line   6)
* ALLOCA, special handling:              LIBOBJS.             (line   6)
* AM_CCASFLAGS and CCASFLAGS:            Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* AM_CFLAGS and CFLAGS:                  Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* AM_CONDITIONAL and SUBDIRS:            Conditional Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  65)
* AM_CPPFLAGS and CPPFLAGS:              Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* AM_CXXFLAGS and CXXFLAGS:              Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* AM_FCFLAGS and FCFLAGS:                Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* AM_FFLAGS and FFLAGS:                  Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* AM_GCJFLAGS and GCJFLAGS:              Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE, example use:         Complete.            (line  11)
* AM_LDFLAGS and LDFLAGS:                Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* AM_LFLAGS and LFLAGS:                  Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* AM_LIBTOOLFLAGS and LIBTOOLFLAGS:      Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* AM_MAINTAINER_MODE, purpose:           maintainer-mode.     (line  36)
* AM_OBJCFLAGS and OBJCFLAGS:            Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* AM_RFLAGS and RFLAGS:                  Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* AM_UPCFLAGS and UPCFLAGS:              Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* AM_YFLAGS and YFLAGS:                  Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* amhello-1.0.tar.gz, creation:          Hello World.         (line   6)
* amhello-1.0.tar.gz, location:          Use Cases.           (line   6)
* amhello-1.0.tar.gz, use cases:         Use Cases.           (line   6)
* ansi2knr <1>:                          Options.             (line  22)
* ansi2knr:                              ANSI.                (line  21)
* ansi2knr and LIBOBJS:                  ANSI.                (line  56)
* ansi2knr and LTLIBOBJS:                ANSI.                (line  56)
* Append operator:                       General Operation.   (line  23)
* autogen.sh and autoreconf:             Libtool Issues.      (line   9)
* autom4te:                              Invoking aclocal.    (line  45)
* Automake constraints:                  Introduction.        (line  22)
* automake options:                      Invoking Automake.   (line  37)
* Automake requirements <1>:             Requirements.        (line   6)
* Automake requirements:                 Introduction.        (line  27)
* automake, invoking:                    Invoking Automake.   (line   6)
* Automake, recursive operation:         General Operation.   (line  44)
* Automatic dependency tracking:         Dependencies.        (line  11)
* Automatic linker selection:            How the Linker is Chosen.
                                                              (line   6)
* autoreconf and libtoolize:             Libtool Issues.      (line   9)
* autoreconf, example:                   Creating amhello.    (line  59)
* autoscan:                              amhello Explained.   (line  90)
* Autotools, introduction:               GNU Build System.    (line  43)
* Autotools, purpose:                    Why Autotools.       (line   6)
* autoupdate:                            Obsolete macros.     (line   6)
* Auxiliary programs:                    Auxiliary Programs.  (line   6)
* Avoiding path stripping:               Alternative.         (line  24)
* Binary package:                        DESTDIR.             (line  22)
* bootstrap.sh and autoreconf:           Libtool Issues.      (line   9)
* Bugs, reporting:                       Introduction.        (line  31)
* build tree and source tree:            VPATH Builds.        (line   6)
* BUILT_SOURCES, defined:                Sources.             (line  27)
* C++ support:                           C++ Support.         (line   6)
* canonicalizing Automake variables:     Canonicalization.    (line   6)
* CCASFLAGS and AM_CCASFLAGS:            Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* CFLAGS and AM_CFLAGS:                  Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* cfortran:                              Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line   6)
* check <1>:                             Extending.           (line  40)
* check <2>:                             Tests.               (line   6)
* check:                                 Standard Targets.    (line  37)
* check-local:                           Extending.           (line  40)
* check-news:                            Options.             (line  29)
* check_ primary prefix, definition:     Uniform.             (line  74)
* check_PROGRAMS example:                Default _SOURCES.    (line  29)
* clean <1>:                             Extending.           (line  40)
* clean:                                 Standard Targets.    (line  31)
* clean-local <1>:                       Extending.           (line  40)
* clean-local:                           Clean.               (line  15)
* Comment, special to Automake:          General Operation.   (line  54)
* Compile Flag Variables:                Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* Complete example:                      Complete.            (line   6)
* Conditional example, --enable-debug:   Conditionals.        (line  26)
* conditional libtool libraries:         Conditional Libtool Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* Conditional programs:                  Conditional Programs.
                                                              (line   6)
* Conditional subdirectories:            Conditional Subdirectories.
                                                              (line   6)
* Conditional SUBDIRS:                   Conditional Subdirectories.
                                                              (line   6)
* Conditionals:                          Conditionals.        (line   6)
* config.guess:                          Invoking Automake.   (line  39)
* config.site example:                   config.site.         (line   6)
* configuration variables, overriding:   Standard Configuration Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* Configuration, basics:                 Basic Installation.  (line   6)
* configure.ac, scanning:                configure.           (line   6)
* conflicting definitions:               Extending.           (line  14)
* Constraints of Automake:               Introduction.        (line  22)
* convenience libraries, libtool:        Libtool Convenience Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* copying semantics:                     Extending.           (line  10)
* cpio example:                          Uniform.             (line  36)
* CPPFLAGS and AM_CPPFLAGS:              Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* cross-compilation:                     Cross-Compilation.   (line   6)
* cross-compilation example:             Cross-Compilation.   (line  26)
* CVS and generated files:               CVS.                 (line  49)
* CVS and third-party files:             CVS.                 (line 140)
* CVS and timestamps:                    CVS.                 (line  28)
* cvs-dist:                              General Operation.   (line  12)
* cvs-dist, non-standard example:        General Operation.   (line  12)
* CXXFLAGS and AM_CXXFLAGS:              Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* cygnus:                                Options.             (line  17)
* cygnus strictness:                     Cygnus.              (line   6)
* DATA primary, defined:                 Data.                (line   6)
* de-ANSI-fication, defined:             ANSI.                (line   6)
* debug build, example:                  VPATH Builds.        (line  47)
* default _SOURCES:                      Default _SOURCES.    (line   6)
* default source, Libtool modules example: Default _SOURCES.  (line  37)
* definitions, conflicts:                Extending.           (line  14)
* dejagnu <1>:                           Options.             (line  33)
* dejagnu:                               Tests.               (line  70)
* depcomp:                               Dependencies.        (line  22)
* dependencies and distributed files:    distcleancheck.      (line   6)
* Dependency tracking <1>:               Dependencies.        (line  11)
* Dependency tracking:                   Dependency Tracking. (line   6)
* Dependency tracking, disabling:        Dependencies.        (line  37)
* directory variables:                   Standard Directory Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* dirlist:                               Macro search path.   (line  62)
* Disabling dependency tracking:         Dependencies.        (line  37)
* dist <1>:                              Dist.                (line   9)
* dist:                                  Standard Targets.    (line  43)
* dist-bzip2 <1>:                        Options.             (line  36)
* dist-bzip2:                            Dist.                (line 192)
* dist-gzip:                             Dist.                (line 195)
* dist-hook <1>:                         Extending.           (line  64)
* dist-hook:                             Dist.                (line  71)
* dist-shar <1>:                         Options.             (line  39)
* dist-shar:                             Dist.                (line 198)
* dist-tarZ <1>:                         Options.             (line  45)
* dist-tarZ:                             Dist.                (line 204)
* dist-zip <1>:                          Options.             (line  42)
* dist-zip:                              Dist.                (line 201)
* dist_ and nobase_:                     Alternative.         (line  30)
* DIST_SUBDIRS, explained:               Conditional Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  34)
* distcheck <1>:                         Dist.                (line 111)
* distcheck:                             Creating amhello.    (line  99)
* distcheck better than dist:            Preparing Distributions.
                                                              (line  10)
* distcheck example:                     Creating amhello.    (line  99)
* distcheck-hook:                        Dist.                (line 122)
* distclean <1>:                         distcleancheck.      (line   6)
* distclean <2>:                         Extending.           (line  40)
* distclean:                             Standard Targets.    (line  34)
* distclean, diagnostic:                 distcleancheck.      (line   6)
* distclean-local <1>:                   Extending.           (line  40)
* distclean-local:                       Clean.               (line  15)
* distcleancheck <1>:                    distcleancheck.      (line   6)
* distcleancheck:                        Dist.                (line 133)
* distdir:                               Third-Party Makefiles.
                                                              (line  25)
* Distributions, preparation:            Preparing Distributions.
                                                              (line   6)
* dmalloc, support for:                  Public macros.       (line 102)
* dvi <1>:                               Extending.           (line  40)
* dvi:                                   Texinfo.             (line  19)
* DVI output using Texinfo:              Texinfo.             (line   6)
* dvi-local:                             Extending.           (line  40)
* E-mail, bug reports:                   Introduction.        (line  31)
* EDITION Texinfo flag:                  Texinfo.             (line  29)
* else:                                  Conditionals.        (line  41)
* empty _SOURCES:                        Default _SOURCES.    (line  43)
* Empty libraries:                       A Library.           (line  46)
* Empty libraries and $(LIBOBJS):        LIBOBJS.             (line  69)
* endif:                                 Conditionals.        (line  41)
* Example conditional --enable-debug:    Conditionals.        (line  26)
* Example Hello World:                   Hello World.         (line   6)
* Example of recursive operation:        General Operation.   (line  44)
* Example of shared libraries:           Libtool Libraries.   (line   6)
* Example, EXTRA_PROGRAMS:               Uniform.             (line  36)
* Example, false and true:               true.                (line   6)
* Example, mixed language:               Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line  36)
* Executable extension:                  EXEEXT.              (line   6)
* Exit status 77, special interpretation: Tests.              (line  19)
* Expected test failure:                 Tests.               (line  34)
* Extending aclocal:                     Extending aclocal.   (line   6)
* Extending list of installation directories: Uniform.        (line  55)
* Extension, executable:                 EXEEXT.              (line   6)
* Extra files distributed with Automake: Invoking Automake.   (line  39)
* EXTRA_, prepending:                    Uniform.             (line  29)
* EXTRA_prog_SOURCES, defined:           Conditional Sources. (line  18)
* EXTRA_PROGRAMS, defined <1>:           Conditional Programs.
                                                              (line  15)
* EXTRA_PROGRAMS, defined:               Uniform.             (line  36)
* false Example:                         true.                (line   6)
* FCFLAGS and AM_FCFLAGS:                Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* FDL, GNU Free Documentation License:   GNU Free Documentation License.
                                                              (line   6)
* Features of the GNU Build System:      Use Cases.           (line   6)
* FFLAGS and AM_FFLAGS:                  Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* file names, limitations on:            limitations on file names.
                                                              (line   6)
* filename-length-max=99:                Options.             (line  48)
* Files distributed with Automake:       Invoking Automake.   (line  39)
* First line of Makefile.am:             General Operation.   (line  60)
* Flag Variables, Ordering:              Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* Flag variables, ordering:              Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line   6)
* FLIBS, defined:                        Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line  21)
* foreign <1>:                           Options.             (line  17)
* foreign:                               amhello Explained.   (line  38)
* foreign strictness:                    Strictness.          (line  10)
* Fortran 77 support:                    Fortran 77 Support.  (line   6)
* Fortran 77, mixing with C and C++:     Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line   6)
* Fortran 77, Preprocessing:             Preprocessing Fortran 77.
                                                              (line   6)
* Fortran 9x support:                    Fortran 9x Support.  (line   6)
* GCJFLAGS and AM_GCJFLAGS:              Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* generated files and CVS:               CVS.                 (line  49)
* generated files, distributed:          CVS.                 (line   9)
* Gettext support:                       gettext.             (line   6)
* gnits:                                 Options.             (line  17)
* gnits strictness:                      Strictness.          (line  10)
* gnu:                                   Options.             (line  17)
* GNU Build System, basics:              Basic Installation.  (line   6)
* GNU Build System, features:            Use Cases.           (line   6)
* GNU Build System, introduction:        GNU Build System.    (line   6)
* GNU Build System, use cases:           Use Cases.           (line   6)
* GNU Coding Standards:                  GNU Build System.    (line  29)
* GNU Gettext support:                   gettext.             (line   6)
* GNU make extensions:                   General Operation.   (line  19)
* GNU Makefile standards:                Introduction.        (line  12)
* gnu strictness:                        Strictness.          (line  10)
* GNUmakefile including Makefile:        Third-Party Makefiles.
                                                              (line 112)
* Header files in _SOURCES:              Program Sources.     (line  39)
* HEADERS primary, defined:              Headers.             (line   6)
* HEADERS, installation directories:     Headers.             (line   6)
* Hello World example:                   Hello World.         (line   6)
* hook targets:                          Extending.           (line  61)
* HP-UX 10, lex problems:                Public macros.       (line  86)
* html <1>:                              Extending.           (line  40)
* html:                                  Texinfo.             (line  19)
* HTML output using Texinfo:             Texinfo.             (line   6)
* html-local:                            Extending.           (line  40)
* id:                                    Tags.                (line  44)
* if:                                    Conditionals.        (line  41)
* include <1>:                           Include.             (line   6)
* include:                               Dist.                (line  17)
* include, distribution:                 Dist.                (line  17)
* Including Makefile fragment:           Include.             (line   6)
* info <1>:                              Extending.           (line  40)
* info:                                  Options.             (line  89)
* info-local:                            Extending.           (line  40)
* install <1>:                           Extending.           (line  40)
* install <2>:                           Install.             (line  45)
* install:                               Standard Targets.    (line  19)
* Install hook:                          Install.             (line  74)
* Install, two parts of:                 Install.             (line  45)
* install-data <1>:                      Extending.           (line  40)
* install-data <2>:                      Install.             (line  45)
* install-data:                          Two-Part Install.    (line  16)
* install-data-hook:                     Extending.           (line  64)
* install-data-local <1>:                Extending.           (line  40)
* install-data-local:                    Install.             (line  68)
* install-dvi <1>:                       Extending.           (line  40)
* install-dvi:                           Texinfo.             (line  19)
* install-dvi-local:                     Extending.           (line  40)
* install-exec <1>:                      Extending.           (line  40)
* install-exec <2>:                      Install.             (line  45)
* install-exec:                          Two-Part Install.    (line  16)
* install-exec-hook:                     Extending.           (line  64)
* install-exec-local <1>:                Extending.           (line  40)
* install-exec-local:                    Install.             (line  68)
* install-html <1>:                      Extending.           (line  40)
* install-html:                          Texinfo.             (line  19)
* install-html-local:                    Extending.           (line  40)
* install-info <1>:                      Extending.           (line  40)
* install-info <2>:                      Options.             (line  89)
* install-info:                          Texinfo.             (line  76)
* install-info target:                   Texinfo.             (line  76)
* install-info-local:                    Extending.           (line  40)
* install-man <1>:                       Options.             (line  95)
* install-man:                           Man pages.           (line  32)
* install-man target:                    Man pages.           (line  32)
* install-pdf <1>:                       Extending.           (line  40)
* install-pdf:                           Texinfo.             (line  19)
* install-pdf-local:                     Extending.           (line  40)
* install-ps <1>:                        Extending.           (line  40)
* install-ps:                            Texinfo.             (line  19)
* install-ps-local:                      Extending.           (line  40)
* install-strip <1>:                     Install.             (line 110)
* install-strip:                         Standard Targets.    (line  23)
* Installation directories, extending list: Uniform.          (line  55)
* Installation support:                  Install.             (line   6)
* Installation, basics:                  Basic Installation.  (line   6)
* installcheck <1>:                      Extending.           (line  40)
* installcheck:                          Standard Targets.    (line  40)
* installcheck-local:                    Extending.           (line  40)
* installdirs <1>:                       Extending.           (line  40)
* installdirs:                           Install.             (line 110)
* installdirs-local:                     Extending.           (line  40)
* Installing headers:                    Headers.             (line   6)
* Installing scripts:                    Scripts.             (line   6)
* installing versioned binaries:         Extending.           (line  80)
* Interfacing with third-party packages: Third-Party Makefiles.
                                                              (line   6)
* Invoking aclocal:                      Invoking aclocal.    (line   6)
* Invoking automake:                     Invoking Automake.   (line   6)
* JAVA primary, defined:                 Java.                (line   6)
* JAVA restrictions:                     Java.                (line  19)
* Java support:                          Java Support.        (line   6)
* LDADD and -l:                          Linking.             (line  66)
* LDFLAGS and AM_LDFLAGS:                Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* lex problems with HP-UX 10:            Public macros.       (line  86)
* lex, multiple lexers:                  Yacc and Lex.        (line  64)
* LFLAGS and AM_LFLAGS:                  Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* libltdl, introduction:                 Libtool Concept.     (line  30)
* LIBOBJS and ansi2knr:                  ANSI.                (line  56)
* LIBOBJS, and Libtool:                  LTLIBOBJS.           (line   6)
* LIBOBJS, example:                      LIBOBJS.             (line   6)
* LIBOBJS, special handling:             LIBOBJS.             (line   6)
* LIBRARIES primary, defined:            A Library.           (line   6)
* libtool convenience libraries:         Libtool Convenience Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* libtool libraries, conditional:        Conditional Libtool Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* libtool library, definition:           Libtool Concept.     (line   6)
* libtool modules:                       Libtool Modules.     (line   6)
* Libtool modules, default source example: Default _SOURCES.  (line  37)
* libtool, introduction:                 Libtool Concept.     (line   6)
* LIBTOOLFLAGS and AM_LIBTOOLFLAGS:      Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* libtoolize and autoreconf:             Libtool Issues.      (line   9)
* libtoolize, no longer run by automake: Libtool Issues.      (line   9)
* Linking Fortran 77 with C and C++:     Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line   6)
* LISP primary, defined:                 Emacs Lisp.          (line   6)
* LN_S example:                          Extending.           (line  80)
* local targets:                         Extending.           (line  36)
* LTALLOCA, special handling:            LTLIBOBJS.           (line   6)
* LTLIBOBJS and ansi2knr:                ANSI.                (line  56)
* LTLIBOBJS, special handling:           LTLIBOBJS.           (line   6)
* LTLIBRARIES primary, defined:          Libtool Libraries.   (line   6)
* ltmain.sh not found:                   Libtool Issues.      (line   9)
* m4_include, distribution:              Dist.                (line  17)
* Macro search path:                     Macro search path.   (line   6)
* macro serial numbers:                  Serials.             (line   6)
* Macros Automake recognizes:            Optional.            (line   6)
* maintainer-clean-local:                Clean.               (line  15)
* make check:                            Tests.               (line   6)
* make clean support:                    Clean.               (line   6)
* make dist:                             Dist.                (line   9)
* make distcheck:                        Dist.                (line 111)
* make distclean, diagnostic:            distcleancheck.      (line   6)
* make distcleancheck:                   Dist.                (line 111)
* make distuninstallcheck:               Dist.                (line 111)
* make install support:                  Install.             (line   6)
* make installcheck, testing --help and --version: Options.   (line 115)
* Make rules, overriding:                General Operation.   (line  32)
* Make targets, overriding:              General Operation.   (line  32)
* Makefile fragment, including:          Include.             (line   6)
* Makefile.am, first line:               General Operation.   (line  60)
* Makefile.am, Hello World:              amhello Explained.   (line  96)
* MANS primary, defined:                 Man pages.           (line   6)
* many outputs, rules with:              Multiple Outputs.    (line   6)
* mdate-sh:                              Texinfo.             (line  29)
* MinGW cross-compilation example:       Cross-Compilation.   (line  26)
* missing, purpose:                      maintainer-mode.     (line   9)
* Mixed language example:                Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line  36)
* Mixing Fortran 77 with C and C++:      Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line   6)
* Mixing Fortran 77 with C and/or C++:   Mixing Fortran 77 With C and C++.
                                                              (line   6)
* mkdir -p, macro check:                 Obsolete macros.     (line  31)
* modules, libtool:                      Libtool Modules.     (line   6)
* mostlyclean:                           Extending.           (line  40)
* mostlyclean-local <1>:                 Extending.           (line  40)
* mostlyclean-local:                     Clean.               (line  15)
* multiple configurations, example:      VPATH Builds.        (line  47)
* Multiple configure.ac files:           Invoking Automake.   (line   6)
* Multiple lex lexers:                   Yacc and Lex.        (line  64)
* multiple outputs, rules with:          Multiple Outputs.    (line   6)
* Multiple yacc parsers:                 Yacc and Lex.        (line  64)
* Nested packages:                       Nested Packages.     (line   6)
* Nesting packages:                      Subpackages.         (line   6)
* no-define <1>:                         Options.             (line  57)
* no-define:                             Public macros.       (line  54)
* no-dependencies <1>:                   Options.             (line  62)
* no-dependencies:                       Dependencies.        (line  34)
* no-dist:                               Options.             (line  69)
* no-dist-gzip:                          Options.             (line  73)
* no-exeext:                             Options.             (line  76)
* no-installinfo <1>:                    Options.             (line  86)
* no-installinfo:                        Texinfo.             (line  76)
* no-installinfo option:                 Texinfo.             (line  76)
* no-installman <1>:                     Options.             (line  92)
* no-installman:                         Man pages.           (line  32)
* no-installman option:                  Man pages.           (line  32)
* no-texinfo.tex <1>:                    Options.             (line 102)
* no-texinfo.tex:                        Texinfo.             (line  71)
* nobase_ and dist_ or nodist_:          Alternative.         (line  30)
* nobase_ prefix:                        Alternative.         (line  24)
* nodist_ and nobase_:                   Alternative.         (line  30)
* noinst_ primary prefix, definition:    Uniform.             (line  69)
* Non-GNU packages:                      Strictness.          (line   6)
* Non-standard targets:                  General Operation.   (line  12)
* nostdinc:                              Options.             (line  98)
* OBJCFLAGS and AM_OBJCFLAGS:            Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* Objective C support:                   Objective C Support. (line   6)
* Objects in subdirectory:               Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line  51)
* obsolete macros:                       Obsolete macros.     (line   6)
* optimized build, example:              VPATH Builds.        (line  47)
* Option, --warnings=CATEGORY:           Options.             (line 197)
* Option, -WCATEGORY:                    Options.             (line 197)
* Option, ansi2knr:                      Options.             (line  22)
* Option, check-news:                    Options.             (line  29)
* Option, cygnus:                        Options.             (line  17)
* Option, dejagnu:                       Options.             (line  33)
* Option, dist-bzip2:                    Options.             (line  36)
* Option, dist-shar:                     Options.             (line  39)
* Option, dist-tarZ:                     Options.             (line  45)
* Option, dist-zip:                      Options.             (line  42)
* Option, filename-length-max=99:        Options.             (line  48)
* Option, foreign:                       Options.             (line  17)
* Option, gnits:                         Options.             (line  17)
* Option, gnu:                           Options.             (line  17)
* Option, no-define:                     Options.             (line  57)
* Option, no-dependencies:               Options.             (line  62)
* Option, no-dist:                       Options.             (line  69)
* Option, no-dist-gzip:                  Options.             (line  73)
* Option, no-exeext:                     Options.             (line  76)
* Option, no-installinfo <1>:            Options.             (line  86)
* Option, no-installinfo:                Texinfo.             (line  76)
* Option, no-installman <1>:             Options.             (line  92)
* Option, no-installman:                 Man pages.           (line  32)
* Option, no-texinfo.tex:                Options.             (line 102)
* Option, nostdinc:                      Options.             (line  98)
* Option, readme-alpha:                  Options.             (line 106)
* Option, tar-pax:                       Options.             (line 147)
* Option, tar-ustar:                     Options.             (line 147)
* Option, tar-v7:                        Options.             (line 147)
* Option, VERSION:                       Options.             (line 192)
* Option, warnings:                      Options.             (line 197)
* Options, aclocal:                      aclocal options.     (line   6)
* Options, automake:                     Invoking Automake.   (line  37)
* Options, std-options:                  Options.             (line 115)
* Options, subdir-objects:               Options.             (line 135)
* Ordering flag variables:               Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line   6)
* Overriding make rules:                 General Operation.   (line  32)
* Overriding make targets:               General Operation.   (line  32)
* Overriding make variables:             General Operation.   (line  37)
* overriding rules:                      Extending.           (line  25)
* overriding semantics:                  Extending.           (line  25)
* PACKAGE, directory:                    Uniform.             (line  19)
* PACKAGE, prevent definition:           Public macros.       (line  54)
* Packages, nested:                      Nested Packages.     (line   6)
* Packages, preparation:                 Preparing Distributions.
                                                              (line   6)
* Parallel build trees:                  VPATH Builds.        (line   6)
* Path stripping, avoiding:              Alternative.         (line  24)
* pax format:                            Options.             (line 147)
* pdf <1>:                               Extending.           (line  40)
* pdf:                                   Texinfo.             (line  19)
* PDF output using Texinfo:              Texinfo.             (line   6)
* pdf-local:                             Extending.           (line  40)
* Per-object flags, emulated:            Per-Object Flags.    (line   6)
* per-target compilation flags, defined: Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line 171)
* pkgdatadir, defined:                   Uniform.             (line  19)
* pkgincludedir, defined:                Uniform.             (line  19)
* pkglibdir, defined:                    Uniform.             (line  19)
* POSIX termios headers:                 Obsolete macros.     (line  53)
* Preparing distributions:               Preparing Distributions.
                                                              (line   6)
* Preprocessing Fortran 77:              Preprocessing Fortran 77.
                                                              (line   6)
* Primary variable, DATA:                Data.                (line   6)
* Primary variable, defined:             Uniform.             (line  11)
* Primary variable, HEADERS:             Headers.             (line   6)
* Primary variable, JAVA:                Java.                (line   6)
* Primary variable, LIBRARIES:           A Library.           (line   6)
* Primary variable, LISP:                Emacs Lisp.          (line   6)
* Primary variable, LTLIBRARIES:         Libtool Libraries.   (line   6)
* Primary variable, MANS:                Man pages.           (line   6)
* Primary variable, PROGRAMS:            Uniform.             (line  11)
* Primary variable, PYTHON:              Python.              (line   6)
* Primary variable, SCRIPTS:             Scripts.             (line   6)
* Primary variable, SOURCES:             Program Sources.     (line  32)
* Primary variable, TEXINFOS:            Texinfo.             (line   6)
* prog_LDADD, defined:                   Linking.             (line  12)
* PROGRAMS primary variable:             Uniform.             (line  11)
* Programs, auxiliary:                   Auxiliary Programs.  (line   6)
* PROGRAMS, bindir:                      Program Sources.     (line   6)
* Programs, conditional:                 Conditional Programs.
                                                              (line   6)
* Programs, renaming during installation: Renaming.           (line   6)
* Proxy Makefile for third-party packages: Third-Party Makefiles.
                                                              (line 129)
* ps <1>:                                Extending.           (line  40)
* ps:                                    Texinfo.             (line  19)
* PS output using Texinfo:               Texinfo.             (line   6)
* ps-local:                              Extending.           (line  40)
* PYTHON primary, defined:               Python.              (line   6)
* Ratfor programs:                       Preprocessing Fortran 77.
                                                              (line   6)
* read-only source tree:                 VPATH Builds.        (line  90)
* README-alpha:                          Gnits.               (line  34)
* readme-alpha:                          Options.             (line 106)
* rebuild rules <1>:                     CVS.                 (line   9)
* rebuild rules:                         Rebuilding.          (line   6)
* Recognized macros by Automake:         Optional.            (line   6)
* Recursive operation of Automake:       General Operation.   (line  44)
* recursive targets and third-party Makefiles: Third-Party Makefiles.
                                                              (line  15)
* regex package:                         Public macros.       (line 107)
* Renaming programs:                     Renaming.            (line   6)
* Reporting bugs:                        Introduction.        (line  31)
* Requirements of Automake:              Requirements.        (line   6)
* Requirements, Automake:                Introduction.        (line  27)
* Restrictions for JAVA:                 Java.                (line  19)
* RFLAGS and AM_RFLAGS:                  Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* rules with multiple outputs:           Multiple Outputs.    (line   6)
* rules, conflicting:                    Extending.           (line  14)
* rules, overriding:                     Extending.           (line  25)
* rx package:                            Public macros.       (line 107)
* Scanning configure.ac:                 configure.           (line   6)
* SCRIPTS primary, defined:              Scripts.             (line   6)
* SCRIPTS, installation directories:     Scripts.             (line  18)
* Selecting the linker automatically:    How the Linker is Chosen.
                                                              (line   6)
* serial number and --install:           aclocal options.     (line  32)
* serial numbers in macros:              Serials.             (line   6)
* Shared libraries, support for:         A Shared Library.    (line   6)
* site.exp:                              Tests.               (line  77)
* source tree and build tree:            VPATH Builds.        (line   6)
* source tree, read-only:                VPATH Builds.        (line  90)
* SOURCES primary, defined:              Program Sources.     (line  32)
* Special Automake comment:              General Operation.   (line  54)
* Staged installation:                   DESTDIR.             (line  14)
* std-options:                           Options.             (line 115)
* Strictness, command line:              Invoking Automake.   (line  37)
* Strictness, defined:                   Strictness.          (line  10)
* Strictness, foreign:                   Strictness.          (line  10)
* Strictness, gnits:                     Strictness.          (line  10)
* Strictness, gnu:                       Strictness.          (line  10)
* su, before make install:               Basic Installation.  (line  50)
* subdir-objects:                        Options.             (line 135)
* Subdirectories, building conditionally: Conditional Subdirectories.
                                                              (line   6)
* Subdirectories, configured conditionally: Conditional Subdirectories.
                                                              (line 119)
* Subdirectories, not distributed:       Conditional Subdirectories.
                                                              (line 170)
* Subdirectory, objects in:              Program and Library Variables.
                                                              (line  51)
* SUBDIRS and AC_SUBST:                  Conditional Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  95)
* SUBDIRS and AM_CONDITIONAL:            Conditional Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  65)
* SUBDIRS, conditional:                  Conditional Subdirectories.
                                                              (line   6)
* SUBDIRS, explained:                    Subdirectories.      (line   6)
* Subpackages <1>:                       Subpackages.         (line   6)
* Subpackages:                           Nested Packages.     (line   6)
* suffix .la, defined:                   Libtool Concept.     (line   6)
* suffix .lo, defined:                   Libtool Concept.     (line  15)
* SUFFIXES, adding:                      Suffixes.            (line   6)
* Support for C++:                       C++ Support.         (line   6)
* Support for Fortran 77:                Fortran 77 Support.  (line   6)
* Support for Fortran 9x:                Fortran 9x Support.  (line   6)
* Support for GNU Gettext:               gettext.             (line   6)
* Support for Java:                      Java Support.        (line   6)
* Support for Objective C:               Objective C Support. (line   6)
* Support for Unified Parallel C:        Unified Parallel C Support.
                                                              (line   6)
* tags:                                  Tags.                (line   9)
* TAGS support:                          Tags.                (line   6)
* tar formats:                           Options.             (line 147)
* tar-pax:                               Options.             (line 147)
* tar-ustar:                             Options.             (line 147)
* tar-v7:                                Options.             (line 147)
* Target, install-info:                  Texinfo.             (line  76)
* Target, install-man:                   Man pages.           (line  32)
* termios POSIX headers:                 Obsolete macros.     (line  53)
* Test suites:                           Tests.               (line   6)
* Tests, expected failure:               Tests.               (line  34)
* Texinfo flag, EDITION:                 Texinfo.             (line  29)
* Texinfo flag, UPDATED:                 Texinfo.             (line  29)
* Texinfo flag, UPDATED-MONTH:           Texinfo.             (line  29)
* Texinfo flag, VERSION:                 Texinfo.             (line  29)
* texinfo.tex:                           Texinfo.             (line  64)
* TEXINFOS primary, defined:             Texinfo.             (line   6)
* third-party files and CVS:             CVS.                 (line 140)
* Third-party packages, interfacing with: Third-Party Makefiles.
                                                              (line   6)
* timestamps and CVS:                    CVS.                 (line  28)
* Transforming program names:            Renaming.            (line   6)
* trees, source vs. build:               VPATH Builds.        (line   6)
* true Example:                          true.                (line   6)
* underquoted AC_DEFUN:                  Extending aclocal.   (line  33)
* Unified Parallel C support:            Unified Parallel C Support.
                                                              (line   6)
* Uniform naming scheme:                 Uniform.             (line   6)
* uninstall <1>:                         Extending.           (line  40)
* uninstall <2>:                         Install.             (line 110)
* uninstall:                             Standard Targets.    (line  27)
* uninstall-hook:                        Extending.           (line  64)
* uninstall-local:                       Extending.           (line  40)
* Unpacking:                             Basic Installation.  (line  27)
* UPCFLAGS and AM_UPCFLAGS:              Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* UPDATED Texinfo flag:                  Texinfo.             (line  29)
* UPDATED-MONTH Texinfo flag:            Texinfo.             (line  29)
* Use Cases for the GNU Build System:    Use Cases.           (line   6)
* user variables:                        User Variables.      (line   6)
* ustar format:                          Options.             (line 147)
* v7 tar format:                         Options.             (line 147)
* variables, conflicting:                Extending.           (line  14)
* Variables, overriding:                 General Operation.   (line  37)
* variables, reserved for the user:      User Variables.      (line   6)
* VERSION Texinfo flag:                  Texinfo.             (line  29)
* VERSION, prevent definition:           Public macros.       (line  54)
* version.m4, example:                   Rebuilding.          (line  19)
* version.sh, example:                   Rebuilding.          (line  19)
* versioned binaries, installing:        Extending.           (line  80)
* VPATH builds:                          VPATH Builds.        (line   6)
* wildcards:                             wildcards.           (line   6)
* Windows:                               EXEEXT.              (line   6)
* yacc, multiple parsers:                Yacc and Lex.        (line  64)
* YFLAGS and AM_YFLAGS:                  Flag Variables Ordering.
                                                              (line  20)
* ylwrap:                                Yacc and Lex.        (line  64)
* zardoz example:                        Complete.            (line  35)