texinfo.tex   [plain text]


% texinfo.tex -- TeX macros to handle Texinfo files.
%
% Load plain if necessary, i.e., if running under initex.
\expandafter\ifx\csname fmtname\endcsname\relax\input plain\fi
%
\def\texinfoversion{2006-11-08.17}
%
% Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995,
% 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 Free
% Software Foundation, Inc.
%
% This texinfo.tex file is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
% modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
% published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at
% your option) any later version.
%
% This texinfo.tex file is distributed in the hope that it will be
% useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty
% of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
% General Public License for more details.
%
% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
% along with this texinfo.tex file; see the file COPYING.  If not, write
% to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
% Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.
%
% As a special exception, when this file is read by TeX when processing
% a Texinfo source document, you may use the result without
% restriction.  (This has been our intent since Texinfo was invented.)
%
% Please try the latest version of texinfo.tex before submitting bug
% reports; you can get the latest version from:
%   http://www.gnu.org/software/texinfo/ (the Texinfo home page), or
%   ftp://tug.org/tex/texinfo.tex
%     (and all CTAN mirrors, see http://www.ctan.org).
% The texinfo.tex in any given distribution could well be out
% of date, so if that's what you're using, please check.
%
% Send bug reports to bug-texinfo@gnu.org.  Please include including a
% complete document in each bug report with which we can reproduce the
% problem.  Patches are, of course, greatly appreciated.
%
% To process a Texinfo manual with TeX, it's most reliable to use the
% texi2dvi shell script that comes with the distribution.  For a simple
% manual foo.texi, however, you can get away with this:
%   tex foo.texi
%   texindex foo.??
%   tex foo.texi
%   tex foo.texi
%   dvips foo.dvi -o  # or whatever; this makes foo.ps.
% The extra TeX runs get the cross-reference information correct.
% Sometimes one run after texindex suffices, and sometimes you need more
% than two; texi2dvi does it as many times as necessary.
%
% It is possible to adapt texinfo.tex for other languages, to some
% extent.  You can get the existing language-specific files from the
% full Texinfo distribution.
%
% The GNU Texinfo home page is http://www.gnu.org/software/texinfo.


\message{Loading texinfo [version \texinfoversion]:}

% If in a .fmt file, print the version number
% and turn on active characters that we couldn't do earlier because
% they might have appeared in the input file name.
\everyjob{\message{[Texinfo version \texinfoversion]}%
  \catcode`+=\active \catcode`\_=\active}

\message{Basics,}
\chardef\other=12

% We never want plain's \outer definition of \+ in Texinfo.
% For @tex, we can use \tabalign.
\let\+ = \relax

% Save some plain tex macros whose names we will redefine.
\let\ptexb=\b
\let\ptexbullet=\bullet
\let\ptexc=\c
\let\ptexcomma=\,
\let\ptexdot=\.
\let\ptexdots=\dots
\let\ptexend=\end
\let\ptexequiv=\equiv
\let\ptexexclam=\!
\let\ptexfootnote=\footnote
\let\ptexgtr=>
\let\ptexhat=^
\let\ptexi=\i
\let\ptexindent=\indent
\let\ptexinsert=\insert
\let\ptexlbrace=\{
\let\ptexless=<
\let\ptexnewwrite\newwrite
\let\ptexnoindent=\noindent
\let\ptexplus=+
\let\ptexrbrace=\}
\let\ptexslash=\/
\let\ptexstar=\*
\let\ptext=\t

% If this character appears in an error message or help string, it
% starts a new line in the output.
\newlinechar = `^^J

% Use TeX 3.0's \inputlineno to get the line number, for better error
% messages, but if we're using an old version of TeX, don't do anything.
%
\ifx\inputlineno\thisisundefined
  \let\linenumber = \empty % Pre-3.0.
\else
  \def\linenumber{l.\the\inputlineno:\space}
\fi

% Set up fixed words for English if not already set.
\ifx\putwordAppendix\undefined  \gdef\putwordAppendix{Appendix}\fi
\ifx\putwordChapter\undefined   \gdef\putwordChapter{Chapter}\fi
\ifx\putwordfile\undefined      \gdef\putwordfile{file}\fi
\ifx\putwordin\undefined        \gdef\putwordin{in}\fi
\ifx\putwordIndexIsEmpty\undefined     \gdef\putwordIndexIsEmpty{(Index is empty)}\fi
\ifx\putwordIndexNonexistent\undefined \gdef\putwordIndexNonexistent{(Index is nonexistent)}\fi
\ifx\putwordInfo\undefined      \gdef\putwordInfo{Info}\fi
\ifx\putwordInstanceVariableof\undefined \gdef\putwordInstanceVariableof{Instance Variable of}\fi
\ifx\putwordMethodon\undefined  \gdef\putwordMethodon{Method on}\fi
\ifx\putwordNoTitle\undefined   \gdef\putwordNoTitle{No Title}\fi
\ifx\putwordof\undefined        \gdef\putwordof{of}\fi
\ifx\putwordon\undefined        \gdef\putwordon{on}\fi
\ifx\putwordpage\undefined      \gdef\putwordpage{page}\fi
\ifx\putwordsection\undefined   \gdef\putwordsection{section}\fi
\ifx\putwordSection\undefined   \gdef\putwordSection{Section}\fi
\ifx\putwordsee\undefined       \gdef\putwordsee{see}\fi
\ifx\putwordSee\undefined       \gdef\putwordSee{See}\fi
\ifx\putwordShortTOC\undefined  \gdef\putwordShortTOC{Short Contents}\fi
\ifx\putwordTOC\undefined       \gdef\putwordTOC{Table of Contents}\fi
%
\ifx\putwordMJan\undefined \gdef\putwordMJan{January}\fi
\ifx\putwordMFeb\undefined \gdef\putwordMFeb{February}\fi
\ifx\putwordMMar\undefined \gdef\putwordMMar{March}\fi
\ifx\putwordMApr\undefined \gdef\putwordMApr{April}\fi
\ifx\putwordMMay\undefined \gdef\putwordMMay{May}\fi
\ifx\putwordMJun\undefined \gdef\putwordMJun{June}\fi
\ifx\putwordMJul\undefined \gdef\putwordMJul{July}\fi
\ifx\putwordMAug\undefined \gdef\putwordMAug{August}\fi
\ifx\putwordMSep\undefined \gdef\putwordMSep{September}\fi
\ifx\putwordMOct\undefined \gdef\putwordMOct{October}\fi
\ifx\putwordMNov\undefined \gdef\putwordMNov{November}\fi
\ifx\putwordMDec\undefined \gdef\putwordMDec{December}\fi
%
\ifx\putwordDefmac\undefined    \gdef\putwordDefmac{Macro}\fi
\ifx\putwordDefspec\undefined   \gdef\putwordDefspec{Special Form}\fi
\ifx\putwordDefvar\undefined    \gdef\putwordDefvar{Variable}\fi
\ifx\putwordDefopt\undefined    \gdef\putwordDefopt{User Option}\fi
\ifx\putwordDeffunc\undefined   \gdef\putwordDeffunc{Function}\fi

% Since the category of space is not known, we have to be careful.
\chardef\spacecat = 10
\def\spaceisspace{\catcode`\ =\spacecat}

% sometimes characters are active, so we need control sequences.
\chardef\colonChar = `\:
\chardef\commaChar = `\,
\chardef\dashChar  = `\-
\chardef\dotChar   = `\.
\chardef\exclamChar= `\!
\chardef\lquoteChar= `\`
\chardef\questChar = `\?
\chardef\rquoteChar= `\'
\chardef\semiChar  = `\;
\chardef\underChar = `\_

% Ignore a token.
%
\def\gobble#1{}

% The following is used inside several \edef's.
\def\makecsname#1{\expandafter\noexpand\csname#1\endcsname}

% Hyphenation fixes.
\hyphenation{
  Flor-i-da Ghost-script Ghost-view Mac-OS Post-Script
  ap-pen-dix bit-map bit-maps
  data-base data-bases eshell fall-ing half-way long-est man-u-script
  man-u-scripts mini-buf-fer mini-buf-fers over-view par-a-digm
  par-a-digms rath-er rec-tan-gu-lar ro-bot-ics se-vere-ly set-up spa-ces
  spell-ing spell-ings
  stand-alone strong-est time-stamp time-stamps which-ever white-space
  wide-spread wrap-around
}

% Margin to add to right of even pages, to left of odd pages.
\newdimen\bindingoffset
\newdimen\normaloffset
\newdimen\pagewidth \newdimen\pageheight

% For a final copy, take out the rectangles
% that mark overfull boxes (in case you have decided
% that the text looks ok even though it passes the margin).
%
\def\finalout{\overfullrule=0pt}

% @| inserts a changebar to the left of the current line.  It should
% surround any changed text.  This approach does *not* work if the
% change spans more than two lines of output.  To handle that, we would
% have adopt a much more difficult approach (putting marks into the main
% vertical list for the beginning and end of each change).
%
\def\|{%
  % \vadjust can only be used in horizontal mode.
  \leavevmode
  %
  % Append this vertical mode material after the current line in the output.
  \vadjust{%
    % We want to insert a rule with the height and depth of the current
    % leading; that is exactly what \strutbox is supposed to record.
    \vskip-\baselineskip
    %
    % \vadjust-items are inserted at the left edge of the type.  So
    % the \llap here moves out into the left-hand margin.
    \llap{%
      %
      % For a thicker or thinner bar, change the `1pt'.
      \vrule height\baselineskip width1pt
      %
      % This is the space between the bar and the text.
      \hskip 12pt
    }%
  }%
}

% Sometimes it is convenient to have everything in the transcript file
% and nothing on the terminal.  We don't just call \tracingall here,
% since that produces some useless output on the terminal.  We also make
% some effort to order the tracing commands to reduce output in the log
% file; cf. trace.sty in LaTeX.
%
\def\gloggingall{\begingroup \globaldefs = 1 \loggingall \endgroup}%
\def\loggingall{%
  \tracingstats2
  \tracingpages1
  \tracinglostchars2  % 2 gives us more in etex
  \tracingparagraphs1
  \tracingoutput1
  \tracingmacros2
  \tracingrestores1
  \showboxbreadth\maxdimen \showboxdepth\maxdimen
  \ifx\eTeXversion\undefined\else % etex gives us more logging
    \tracingscantokens1
    \tracingifs1
    \tracinggroups1
    \tracingnesting2
    \tracingassigns1
  \fi
  \tracingcommands3  % 3 gives us more in etex
  \errorcontextlines16
}%

% add check for \lastpenalty to plain's definitions.  If the last thing
% we did was a \nobreak, we don't want to insert more space.
%
\def\smallbreak{\ifnum\lastpenalty<10000\par\ifdim\lastskip<\smallskipamount
  \removelastskip\penalty-50\smallskip\fi\fi}
\def\medbreak{\ifnum\lastpenalty<10000\par\ifdim\lastskip<\medskipamount
  \removelastskip\penalty-100\medskip\fi\fi}
\def\bigbreak{\ifnum\lastpenalty<10000\par\ifdim\lastskip<\bigskipamount
  \removelastskip\penalty-200\bigskip\fi\fi}

% For @cropmarks command.
% Do @cropmarks to get crop marks.
%
\newif\ifcropmarks
\let\cropmarks = \cropmarkstrue
%
% Dimensions to add cropmarks at corners.
% Added by P. A. MacKay, 12 Nov. 1986
%
\newdimen\outerhsize \newdimen\outervsize % set by the paper size routines
\newdimen\cornerlong  \cornerlong=1pc
\newdimen\cornerthick \cornerthick=.3pt
\newdimen\topandbottommargin \topandbottommargin=.75in

% Main output routine.
\chardef\PAGE = 255
\output = {\onepageout{\pagecontents\PAGE}}

\newbox\headlinebox
\newbox\footlinebox

% \onepageout takes a vbox as an argument.  Note that \pagecontents
% does insertions, but you have to call it yourself.
\def\onepageout#1{%
  \ifcropmarks \hoffset=0pt \else \hoffset=\normaloffset \fi
  %
  \ifodd\pageno  \advance\hoffset by \bindingoffset
  \else \advance\hoffset by -\bindingoffset\fi
  %
  % Do this outside of the \shipout so @code etc. will be expanded in
  % the headline as they should be, not taken literally (outputting ''code).
  \setbox\headlinebox = \vbox{\let\hsize=\pagewidth \makeheadline}%
  \setbox\footlinebox = \vbox{\let\hsize=\pagewidth \makefootline}%
  %
  {%
    % Have to do this stuff outside the \shipout because we want it to
    % take effect in \write's, yet the group defined by the \vbox ends
    % before the \shipout runs.
    %
    \indexdummies         % don't expand commands in the output.
    \normalturnoffactive  % \ in index entries must not stay \, e.g., if
               % the page break happens to be in the middle of an example.
               % We don't want .vr (or whatever) entries like this:
               % \entry{{\tt \indexbackslash }acronym}{32}{\code {\acronym}}
               % "\acronym" won't work when it's read back in;
               % it needs to be 
               % {\code {{\tt \backslashcurfont }acronym}
    \shipout\vbox{%
      % Do this early so pdf references go to the beginning of the page.
      \ifpdfmakepagedest \pdfdest name{\the\pageno} xyz\fi
      %
      \ifcropmarks \vbox to \outervsize\bgroup
        \hsize = \outerhsize
        \vskip-\topandbottommargin
        \vtop to0pt{%
          \line{\ewtop\hfil\ewtop}%
          \nointerlineskip
          \line{%
            \vbox{\moveleft\cornerthick\nstop}%
            \hfill
            \vbox{\moveright\cornerthick\nstop}%
          }%
          \vss}%
        \vskip\topandbottommargin
        \line\bgroup
          \hfil % center the page within the outer (page) hsize.
          \ifodd\pageno\hskip\bindingoffset\fi
          \vbox\bgroup
      \fi
      %
      \unvbox\headlinebox
      \pagebody{#1}%
      \ifdim\ht\footlinebox > 0pt
        % Only leave this space if the footline is nonempty.
        % (We lessened \vsize for it in \oddfootingyyy.)
        % The \baselineskip=24pt in plain's \makefootline has no effect.
        \vskip 24pt
        \unvbox\footlinebox
      \fi
      %
      \ifcropmarks
          \egroup % end of \vbox\bgroup
        \hfil\egroup % end of (centering) \line\bgroup
        \vskip\topandbottommargin plus1fill minus1fill
        \boxmaxdepth = \cornerthick
        \vbox to0pt{\vss
          \line{%
            \vbox{\moveleft\cornerthick\nsbot}%
            \hfill
            \vbox{\moveright\cornerthick\nsbot}%
          }%
          \nointerlineskip
          \line{\ewbot\hfil\ewbot}%
        }%
      \egroup % \vbox from first cropmarks clause
      \fi
    }% end of \shipout\vbox
  }% end of group with \indexdummies
  \advancepageno
  \ifnum\outputpenalty>-20000 \else\dosupereject\fi
}

\newinsert\margin \dimen\margin=\maxdimen

\def\pagebody#1{\vbox to\pageheight{\boxmaxdepth=\maxdepth #1}}
{\catcode`\@ =11
\gdef\pagecontents#1{\ifvoid\topins\else\unvbox\topins\fi
% marginal hacks, juha@viisa.uucp (Juha Takala)
\ifvoid\margin\else % marginal info is present
  \rlap{\kern\hsize\vbox to\z@{\kern1pt\box\margin \vss}}\fi
\dimen@=\dp#1 \unvbox#1
\ifvoid\footins\else\vskip\skip\footins\footnoterule \unvbox\footins\fi
\ifr@ggedbottom \kern-\dimen@ \vfil \fi}
}

% Here are the rules for the cropmarks.  Note that they are
% offset so that the space between them is truly \outerhsize or \outervsize
% (P. A. MacKay, 12 November, 1986)
%
\def\ewtop{\vrule height\cornerthick depth0pt width\cornerlong}
\def\nstop{\vbox
  {\hrule height\cornerthick depth\cornerlong width\cornerthick}}
\def\ewbot{\vrule height0pt depth\cornerthick width\cornerlong}
\def\nsbot{\vbox
  {\hrule height\cornerlong depth\cornerthick width\cornerthick}}

% Parse an argument, then pass it to #1.  The argument is the rest of
% the input line (except we remove a trailing comment).  #1 should be a
% macro which expects an ordinary undelimited TeX argument.
%
\def\parsearg{\parseargusing{}}
\def\parseargusing#1#2{%
  \def\argtorun{#2}%
  \begingroup
    \obeylines
    \spaceisspace
    #1%
    \parseargline\empty% Insert the \empty token, see \finishparsearg below.
}

{\obeylines %
  \gdef\parseargline#1^^M{%
    \endgroup % End of the group started in \parsearg.
    \argremovecomment #1\comment\ArgTerm%
  }%
}

% First remove any @comment, then any @c comment.
\def\argremovecomment#1\comment#2\ArgTerm{\argremovec #1\c\ArgTerm}
\def\argremovec#1\c#2\ArgTerm{\argcheckspaces#1\^^M\ArgTerm}

% Each occurence of `\^^M' or `<space>\^^M' is replaced by a single space.
%
% \argremovec might leave us with trailing space, e.g.,
%    @end itemize  @c foo
% This space token undergoes the same procedure and is eventually removed
% by \finishparsearg.
%
\def\argcheckspaces#1\^^M{\argcheckspacesX#1\^^M \^^M}
\def\argcheckspacesX#1 \^^M{\argcheckspacesY#1\^^M}
\def\argcheckspacesY#1\^^M#2\^^M#3\ArgTerm{%
  \def\temp{#3}%
  \ifx\temp\empty
    % Do not use \next, perhaps the caller of \parsearg uses it; reuse \temp:
    \let\temp\finishparsearg
  \else
    \let\temp\argcheckspaces
  \fi
  % Put the space token in:
  \temp#1 #3\ArgTerm
}

% If a _delimited_ argument is enclosed in braces, they get stripped; so
% to get _exactly_ the rest of the line, we had to prevent such situation.
% We prepended an \empty token at the very beginning and we expand it now,
% just before passing the control to \argtorun.
% (Similarily, we have to think about #3 of \argcheckspacesY above: it is
% either the null string, or it ends with \^^M---thus there is no danger
% that a pair of braces would be stripped.
%
% But first, we have to remove the trailing space token.
%
\def\finishparsearg#1 \ArgTerm{\expandafter\argtorun\expandafter{#1}}

% \parseargdef\foo{...}
%	is roughly equivalent to
% \def\foo{\parsearg\Xfoo}
% \def\Xfoo#1{...}
%
% Actually, I use \csname\string\foo\endcsname, ie. \\foo, as it is my
% favourite TeX trick.  --kasal, 16nov03

\def\parseargdef#1{%
  \expandafter \doparseargdef \csname\string#1\endcsname #1%
}
\def\doparseargdef#1#2{%
  \def#2{\parsearg#1}%
  \def#1##1%
}

% Several utility definitions with active space:
{
  \obeyspaces
  \gdef\obeyedspace{ }

  % Make each space character in the input produce a normal interword
  % space in the output.  Don't allow a line break at this space, as this
  % is used only in environments like @example, where each line of input
  % should produce a line of output anyway.
  %
  \gdef\sepspaces{\obeyspaces\let =\tie}

  % If an index command is used in an @example environment, any spaces
  % therein should become regular spaces in the raw index file, not the
  % expansion of \tie (\leavevmode \penalty \@M \ ).
  \gdef\unsepspaces{\let =\space}
}


\def\flushcr{\ifx\par\lisppar \def\next##1{}\else \let\next=\relax \fi \next}

% Define the framework for environments in texinfo.tex.  It's used like this:
%
%   \envdef\foo{...}
%   \def\Efoo{...}
%
% It's the responsibility of \envdef to insert \begingroup before the
% actual body; @end closes the group after calling \Efoo.  \envdef also
% defines \thisenv, so the current environment is known; @end checks
% whether the environment name matches.  The \checkenv macro can also be
% used to check whether the current environment is the one expected.
%
% Non-false conditionals (@iftex, @ifset) don't fit into this, so they
% are not treated as enviroments; they don't open a group.  (The
% implementation of @end takes care not to call \endgroup in this
% special case.)


% At runtime, environments start with this:
\def\startenvironment#1{\begingroup\def\thisenv{#1}}
% initialize
\let\thisenv\empty

% ... but they get defined via ``\envdef\foo{...}'':
\long\def\envdef#1#2{\def#1{\startenvironment#1#2}}
\def\envparseargdef#1#2{\parseargdef#1{\startenvironment#1#2}}

% Check whether we're in the right environment:
\def\checkenv#1{%
  \def\temp{#1}%
  \ifx\thisenv\temp
  \else
    \badenverr
  \fi
}

% Evironment mismatch, #1 expected:
\def\badenverr{%
  \errhelp = \EMsimple
  \errmessage{This command can appear only \inenvironment\temp,
    not \inenvironment\thisenv}%
}
\def\inenvironment#1{%
  \ifx#1\empty
    out of any environment%
  \else
    in environment \expandafter\string#1%
  \fi
}

% @end foo executes the definition of \Efoo.
% But first, it executes a specialized version of \checkenv
%
\parseargdef\end{%
  \if 1\csname iscond.#1\endcsname
  \else
    % The general wording of \badenverr may not be ideal, but... --kasal, 06nov03
    \expandafter\checkenv\csname#1\endcsname
    \csname E#1\endcsname
    \endgroup
  \fi
}

\newhelp\EMsimple{Press RETURN to continue.}


%% Simple single-character @ commands

% @@ prints an @
% Kludge this until the fonts are right (grr).
\def\@{{\tt\char64}}

% This is turned off because it was never documented
% and you can use @w{...} around a quote to suppress ligatures.
%% Define @` and @' to be the same as ` and '
%% but suppressing ligatures.
%\def\`{{`}}
%\def\'{{'}}

% Used to generate quoted braces.
\def\mylbrace {{\tt\char123}}
\def\myrbrace {{\tt\char125}}
\let\{=\mylbrace
\let\}=\myrbrace
\begingroup
  % Definitions to produce \{ and \} commands for indices,
  % and @{ and @} for the aux/toc files.
  \catcode`\{ = \other \catcode`\} = \other
  \catcode`\[ = 1 \catcode`\] = 2
  \catcode`\! = 0 \catcode`\\ = \other
  !gdef!lbracecmd[\{]%
  !gdef!rbracecmd[\}]%
  !gdef!lbraceatcmd[@{]%
  !gdef!rbraceatcmd[@}]%
!endgroup

% @comma{} to avoid , parsing problems.
\let\comma = ,

% Accents: @, @dotaccent @ringaccent @ubaraccent @udotaccent
% Others are defined by plain TeX: @` @' @" @^ @~ @= @u @v @H.
\let\, = \c
\let\dotaccent = \.
\def\ringaccent#1{{\accent23 #1}}
\let\tieaccent = \t
\let\ubaraccent = \b
\let\udotaccent = \d

% Other special characters: @questiondown @exclamdown @ordf @ordm
% Plain TeX defines: @AA @AE @O @OE @L (plus lowercase versions) @ss.
\def\questiondown{?`}
\def\exclamdown{!`}
\def\ordf{\leavevmode\raise1ex\hbox{\selectfonts\lllsize \underbar{a}}}
\def\ordm{\leavevmode\raise1ex\hbox{\selectfonts\lllsize \underbar{o}}}

% Dotless i and dotless j, used for accents.
\def\imacro{i}
\def\jmacro{j}
\def\dotless#1{%
  \def\temp{#1}%
  \ifx\temp\imacro \ptexi
  \else\ifx\temp\jmacro \j
  \else \errmessage{@dotless can be used only with i or j}%
  \fi\fi
}

% The \TeX{} logo, as in plain, but resetting the spacing so that a
% period following counts as ending a sentence.  (Idea found in latex.)
%
\edef\TeX{\TeX \spacefactor=1000 }

% @LaTeX{} logo.  Not quite the same results as the definition in
% latex.ltx, since we use a different font for the raised A; it's most
% convenient for us to use an explicitly smaller font, rather than using
% the \scriptstyle font (since we don't reset \scriptstyle and
% \scriptscriptstyle).
%
\def\LaTeX{%
  L\kern-.36em
  {\setbox0=\hbox{T}%
   \vbox to \ht0{\hbox{\selectfonts\lllsize A}\vss}}%
  \kern-.15em
  \TeX
}

% Be sure we're in horizontal mode when doing a tie, since we make space
% equivalent to this in @example-like environments. Otherwise, a space
% at the beginning of a line will start with \penalty -- and
% since \penalty is valid in vertical mode, we'd end up putting the
% penalty on the vertical list instead of in the new paragraph.
{\catcode`@ = 11
 % Avoid using \@M directly, because that causes trouble
 % if the definition is written into an index file.
 \global\let\tiepenalty = \@M
 \gdef\tie{\leavevmode\penalty\tiepenalty\ }
}

% @: forces normal size whitespace following.
\def\:{\spacefactor=1000 }

% @* forces a line break.
\def\*{\hfil\break\hbox{}\ignorespaces}

% @/ allows a line break.
\let\/=\allowbreak

% @. is an end-of-sentence period.
\def\.{.\spacefactor=\endofsentencespacefactor\space}

% @! is an end-of-sentence bang.
\def\!{!\spacefactor=\endofsentencespacefactor\space}

% @? is an end-of-sentence query.
\def\?{?\spacefactor=\endofsentencespacefactor\space}

% @frenchspacing on|off  says whether to put extra space after punctuation.
% 
\def\onword{on}
\def\offword{off}
%
\parseargdef\frenchspacing{%
  \def\temp{#1}%
  \ifx\temp\onword \plainfrenchspacing
  \else\ifx\temp\offword \plainnonfrenchspacing
  \else
    \errhelp = \EMsimple
    \errmessage{Unknown @frenchspacing option `\temp', must be on/off}%
  \fi\fi
}

% @w prevents a word break.  Without the \leavevmode, @w at the
% beginning of a paragraph, when TeX is still in vertical mode, would
% produce a whole line of output instead of starting the paragraph.
\def\w#1{\leavevmode\hbox{#1}}

% @group ... @end group forces ... to be all on one page, by enclosing
% it in a TeX vbox.  We use \vtop instead of \vbox to construct the box
% to keep its height that of a normal line.  According to the rules for
% \topskip (p.114 of the TeXbook), the glue inserted is
% max (\topskip - \ht (first item), 0).  If that height is large,
% therefore, no glue is inserted, and the space between the headline and
% the text is small, which looks bad.
%
% Another complication is that the group might be very large.  This can
% cause the glue on the previous page to be unduly stretched, because it
% does not have much material.  In this case, it's better to add an
% explicit \vfill so that the extra space is at the bottom.  The
% threshold for doing this is if the group is more than \vfilllimit
% percent of a page (\vfilllimit can be changed inside of @tex).
%
\newbox\groupbox
\def\vfilllimit{0.7}
%
\envdef\group{%
  \ifnum\catcode`\^^M=\active \else
    \errhelp = \groupinvalidhelp
    \errmessage{@group invalid in context where filling is enabled}%
  \fi
  \startsavinginserts
  %
  \setbox\groupbox = \vtop\bgroup
    % Do @comment since we are called inside an environment such as
    % @example, where each end-of-line in the input causes an
    % end-of-line in the output.  We don't want the end-of-line after
    % the `@group' to put extra space in the output.  Since @group
    % should appear on a line by itself (according to the Texinfo
    % manual), we don't worry about eating any user text.
    \comment
}
%
% The \vtop produces a box with normal height and large depth; thus, TeX puts
% \baselineskip glue before it, and (when the next line of text is done)
% \lineskip glue after it.  Thus, space below is not quite equal to space
% above.  But it's pretty close.
\def\Egroup{%
    % To get correct interline space between the last line of the group
    % and the first line afterwards, we have to propagate \prevdepth.
    \endgraf % Not \par, as it may have been set to \lisppar.
    \global\dimen1 = \prevdepth
  \egroup           % End the \vtop.
  % \dimen0 is the vertical size of the group's box.
  \dimen0 = \ht\groupbox  \advance\dimen0 by \dp\groupbox
  % \dimen2 is how much space is left on the page (more or less).
  \dimen2 = \pageheight   \advance\dimen2 by -\pagetotal
  % if the group doesn't fit on the current page, and it's a big big
  % group, force a page break.
  \ifdim \dimen0 > \dimen2
    \ifdim \pagetotal < \vfilllimit\pageheight
      \page
    \fi
  \fi
  \box\groupbox
  \prevdepth = \dimen1
  \checkinserts
}
%
% TeX puts in an \escapechar (i.e., `@') at the beginning of the help
% message, so this ends up printing `@group can only ...'.
%
\newhelp\groupinvalidhelp{%
group can only be used in environments such as @example,^^J%
where each line of input produces a line of output.}

% @need space-in-mils
% forces a page break if there is not space-in-mils remaining.

\newdimen\mil  \mil=0.001in

% Old definition--didn't work.
%\parseargdef\need{\par %
%% This method tries to make TeX break the page naturally
%% if the depth of the box does not fit.
%{\baselineskip=0pt%
%\vtop to #1\mil{\vfil}\kern -#1\mil\nobreak
%\prevdepth=-1000pt
%}}

\parseargdef\need{%
  % Ensure vertical mode, so we don't make a big box in the middle of a
  % paragraph.
  \par
  %
  % If the @need value is less than one line space, it's useless.
  \dimen0 = #1\mil
  \dimen2 = \ht\strutbox
  \advance\dimen2 by \dp\strutbox
  \ifdim\dimen0 > \dimen2
    %
    % Do a \strut just to make the height of this box be normal, so the
    % normal leading is inserted relative to the preceding line.
    % And a page break here is fine.
    \vtop to #1\mil{\strut\vfil}%
    %
    % TeX does not even consider page breaks if a penalty added to the
    % main vertical list is 10000 or more.  But in order to see if the
    % empty box we just added fits on the page, we must make it consider
    % page breaks.  On the other hand, we don't want to actually break the
    % page after the empty box.  So we use a penalty of 9999.
    %
    % There is an extremely small chance that TeX will actually break the
    % page at this \penalty, if there are no other feasible breakpoints in
    % sight.  (If the user is using lots of big @group commands, which
    % almost-but-not-quite fill up a page, TeX will have a hard time doing
    % good page breaking, for example.)  However, I could not construct an
    % example where a page broke at this \penalty; if it happens in a real
    % document, then we can reconsider our strategy.
    \penalty9999
    %
    % Back up by the size of the box, whether we did a page break or not.
    \kern -#1\mil
    %
    % Do not allow a page break right after this kern.
    \nobreak
  \fi
}

% @br   forces paragraph break (and is undocumented).

\let\br = \par

% @page forces the start of a new page.
%
\def\page{\par\vfill\supereject}

% @exdent text....
% outputs text on separate line in roman font, starting at standard page margin

% This records the amount of indent in the innermost environment.
% That's how much \exdent should take out.
\newskip\exdentamount

% This defn is used inside fill environments such as @defun.
\parseargdef\exdent{\hfil\break\hbox{\kern -\exdentamount{\rm#1}}\hfil\break}

% This defn is used inside nofill environments such as @example.
\parseargdef\nofillexdent{{\advance \leftskip by -\exdentamount
  \leftline{\hskip\leftskip{\rm#1}}}}

% @inmargin{WHICH}{TEXT} puts TEXT in the WHICH margin next to the current
% paragraph.  For more general purposes, use the \margin insertion
% class.  WHICH is `l' or `r'.
%
\newskip\inmarginspacing \inmarginspacing=1cm
\def\strutdepth{\dp\strutbox}
%
\def\doinmargin#1#2{\strut\vadjust{%
  \nobreak
  \kern-\strutdepth
  \vtop to \strutdepth{%
    \baselineskip=\strutdepth
    \vss
    % if you have multiple lines of stuff to put here, you'll need to
    % make the vbox yourself of the appropriate size.
    \ifx#1l%
      \llap{\ignorespaces #2\hskip\inmarginspacing}%
    \else
      \rlap{\hskip\hsize \hskip\inmarginspacing \ignorespaces #2}%
    \fi
    \null
  }%
}}
\def\inleftmargin{\doinmargin l}
\def\inrightmargin{\doinmargin r}
%
% @inmargin{TEXT [, RIGHT-TEXT]}
% (if RIGHT-TEXT is given, use TEXT for left page, RIGHT-TEXT for right;
% else use TEXT for both).
%
\def\inmargin#1{\parseinmargin #1,,\finish}
\def\parseinmargin#1,#2,#3\finish{% not perfect, but better than nothing.
  \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}%
  \ifdim\wd0 > 0pt
    \def\lefttext{#1}%  have both texts
    \def\righttext{#2}%
  \else
    \def\lefttext{#1}%  have only one text
    \def\righttext{#1}%
  \fi
  %
  \ifodd\pageno
    \def\temp{\inrightmargin\righttext}% odd page -> outside is right margin
  \else
    \def\temp{\inleftmargin\lefttext}%
  \fi
  \temp
}

% @include file    insert text of that file as input.
%
\def\include{\parseargusing\filenamecatcodes\includezzz}
\def\includezzz#1{%
  \pushthisfilestack
  \def\thisfile{#1}%
  {%
    \makevalueexpandable
    \def\temp{\input #1 }%
    \expandafter
  }\temp
  \popthisfilestack
}
\def\filenamecatcodes{%
  \catcode`\\=\other
  \catcode`~=\other
  \catcode`^=\other
  \catcode`_=\other
  \catcode`|=\other
  \catcode`<=\other
  \catcode`>=\other
  \catcode`+=\other
  \catcode`-=\other
}

\def\pushthisfilestack{%
  \expandafter\pushthisfilestackX\popthisfilestack\StackTerm
}
\def\pushthisfilestackX{%
  \expandafter\pushthisfilestackY\thisfile\StackTerm
}
\def\pushthisfilestackY #1\StackTerm #2\StackTerm {%
  \gdef\popthisfilestack{\gdef\thisfile{#1}\gdef\popthisfilestack{#2}}%
}

\def\popthisfilestack{\errthisfilestackempty}
\def\errthisfilestackempty{\errmessage{Internal error:
  the stack of filenames is empty.}}

\def\thisfile{}

% @center line
% outputs that line, centered.
%
\parseargdef\center{%
  \ifhmode
    \let\next\centerH
  \else
    \let\next\centerV
  \fi
  \next{\hfil \ignorespaces#1\unskip \hfil}%
}
\def\centerH#1{%
  {%
    \hfil\break
    \advance\hsize by -\leftskip
    \advance\hsize by -\rightskip
    \line{#1}%
    \break
  }%
}
\def\centerV#1{\line{\kern\leftskip #1\kern\rightskip}}

% @sp n   outputs n lines of vertical space

\parseargdef\sp{\vskip #1\baselineskip}

% @comment ...line which is ignored...
% @c is the same as @comment
% @ignore ... @end ignore  is another way to write a comment

\def\comment{\begingroup \catcode`\^^M=\other%
\catcode`\@=\other \catcode`\{=\other \catcode`\}=\other%
\commentxxx}
{\catcode`\^^M=\other \gdef\commentxxx#1^^M{\endgroup}}

\let\c=\comment

% @paragraphindent NCHARS
% We'll use ems for NCHARS, close enough.
% NCHARS can also be the word `asis' or `none'.
% We cannot feasibly implement @paragraphindent asis, though.
%
\def\asisword{asis} % no translation, these are keywords
\def\noneword{none}
%
\parseargdef\paragraphindent{%
  \def\temp{#1}%
  \ifx\temp\asisword
  \else
    \ifx\temp\noneword
      \defaultparindent = 0pt
    \else
      \defaultparindent = #1em
    \fi
  \fi
  \parindent = \defaultparindent
}

% @exampleindent NCHARS
% We'll use ems for NCHARS like @paragraphindent.
% It seems @exampleindent asis isn't necessary, but
% I preserve it to make it similar to @paragraphindent.
\parseargdef\exampleindent{%
  \def\temp{#1}%
  \ifx\temp\asisword
  \else
    \ifx\temp\noneword
      \lispnarrowing = 0pt
    \else
      \lispnarrowing = #1em
    \fi
  \fi
}

% @firstparagraphindent WORD
% If WORD is `none', then suppress indentation of the first paragraph
% after a section heading.  If WORD is `insert', then do indent at such
% paragraphs.
%
% The paragraph indentation is suppressed or not by calling
% \suppressfirstparagraphindent, which the sectioning commands do.
% We switch the definition of this back and forth according to WORD.
% By default, we suppress indentation.
%
\def\suppressfirstparagraphindent{\dosuppressfirstparagraphindent}
\def\insertword{insert}
%
\parseargdef\firstparagraphindent{%
  \def\temp{#1}%
  \ifx\temp\noneword
    \let\suppressfirstparagraphindent = \dosuppressfirstparagraphindent
  \else\ifx\temp\insertword
    \let\suppressfirstparagraphindent = \relax
  \else
    \errhelp = \EMsimple
    \errmessage{Unknown @firstparagraphindent option `\temp'}%
  \fi\fi
}

% Here is how we actually suppress indentation.  Redefine \everypar to
% \kern backwards by \parindent, and then reset itself to empty.
%
% We also make \indent itself not actually do anything until the next
% paragraph.
%
\gdef\dosuppressfirstparagraphindent{%
  \gdef\indent{%
    \restorefirstparagraphindent
    \indent
  }%
  \gdef\noindent{%
    \restorefirstparagraphindent
    \noindent
  }%
  \global\everypar = {%
    \kern -\parindent
    \restorefirstparagraphindent
  }%
}

\gdef\restorefirstparagraphindent{%
  \global \let \indent = \ptexindent
  \global \let \noindent = \ptexnoindent
  \global \everypar = {}%
}


% @asis just yields its argument.  Used with @table, for example.
%
\def\asis#1{#1}

% @math outputs its argument in math mode.
%
% One complication: _ usually means subscripts, but it could also mean
% an actual _ character, as in @math{@var{some_variable} + 1}.  So make
% _ active, and distinguish by seeing if the current family is \slfam,
% which is what @var uses.
{
  \catcode`\_ = \active
  \gdef\mathunderscore{%
    \catcode`\_=\active
    \def_{\ifnum\fam=\slfam \_\else\sb\fi}%
  }
}
% Another complication: we want \\ (and @\) to output a \ character.
% FYI, plain.tex uses \\ as a temporary control sequence (why?), but
% this is not advertised and we don't care.  Texinfo does not
% otherwise define @\.
%
% The \mathchar is class=0=ordinary, family=7=ttfam, position=5C=\.
\def\mathbackslash{\ifnum\fam=\ttfam \mathchar"075C \else\backslash \fi}
%
\def\math{%
  \tex
  \mathunderscore
  \let\\ = \mathbackslash
  \mathactive
  $\finishmath
}
\def\finishmath#1{#1$\endgroup}  % Close the group opened by \tex.

% Some active characters (such as <) are spaced differently in math.
% We have to reset their definitions in case the @math was an argument
% to a command which sets the catcodes (such as @item or @section).
%
{
  \catcode`^ = \active
  \catcode`< = \active
  \catcode`> = \active
  \catcode`+ = \active
  \gdef\mathactive{%
    \let^ = \ptexhat
    \let< = \ptexless
    \let> = \ptexgtr
    \let+ = \ptexplus
  }
}

% @bullet and @minus need the same treatment as @math, just above.
\def\bullet{$\ptexbullet$}
\def\minus{$-$}

% @dots{} outputs an ellipsis using the current font.
% We do .5em per period so that it has the same spacing in the cm
% typewriter fonts as three actual period characters; on the other hand,
% in other typewriter fonts three periods are wider than 1.5em.  So do
% whichever is larger.
%
\def\dots{%
  \leavevmode
  \setbox0=\hbox{...}% get width of three periods
  \ifdim\wd0 > 1.5em
    \dimen0 = \wd0
  \else
    \dimen0 = 1.5em
  \fi
  \hbox to \dimen0{%
    \hskip 0pt plus.25fil
    .\hskip 0pt plus1fil
    .\hskip 0pt plus1fil
    .\hskip 0pt plus.5fil
  }%
}

% @enddots{} is an end-of-sentence ellipsis.
%
\def\enddots{%
  \dots
  \spacefactor=\endofsentencespacefactor
}

% @comma{} is so commas can be inserted into text without messing up
% Texinfo's parsing.
%
\let\comma = ,

% @refill is a no-op.
\let\refill=\relax

% If working on a large document in chapters, it is convenient to
% be able to disable indexing, cross-referencing, and contents, for test runs.
% This is done with @novalidate (before @setfilename).
%
\newif\iflinks \linkstrue % by default we want the aux files.
\let\novalidate = \linksfalse

% @setfilename is done at the beginning of every texinfo file.
% So open here the files we need to have open while reading the input.
% This makes it possible to make a .fmt file for texinfo.
\def\setfilename{%
   \fixbackslash  % Turn off hack to swallow `\input texinfo'.
   \iflinks
     \tryauxfile
     % Open the new aux file.  TeX will close it automatically at exit.
     \immediate\openout\auxfile=\jobname.aux
   \fi % \openindices needs to do some work in any case.
   \openindices
   \let\setfilename=\comment % Ignore extra @setfilename cmds.
   %
   % If texinfo.cnf is present on the system, read it.
   % Useful for site-wide @afourpaper, etc.
   \openin 1 texinfo.cnf
   \ifeof 1 \else \input texinfo.cnf \fi
   \closein 1
   %
   \comment % Ignore the actual filename.
}

% Called from \setfilename.
%
\def\openindices{%
  \newindex{cp}%
  \newcodeindex{fn}%
  \newcodeindex{vr}%
  \newcodeindex{tp}%
  \newcodeindex{ky}%
  \newcodeindex{pg}%
}

% @bye.
\outer\def\bye{\pagealignmacro\tracingstats=1\ptexend}


\message{pdf,}
% adobe `portable' document format
\newcount\tempnum
\newcount\lnkcount
\newtoks\filename
\newcount\filenamelength
\newcount\pgn
\newtoks\toksA
\newtoks\toksB
\newtoks\toksC
\newtoks\toksD
\newbox\boxA
\newcount\countA
\newif\ifpdf
\newif\ifpdfmakepagedest

% when pdftex is run in dvi mode, \pdfoutput is defined (so \pdfoutput=1
% can be set).  So we test for \relax and 0 as well as \undefined,
% borrowed from ifpdf.sty.
\ifx\pdfoutput\undefined
\else
  \ifx\pdfoutput\relax
  \else
    \ifcase\pdfoutput
    \else
      \pdftrue
    \fi
  \fi
\fi

% PDF uses PostScript string constants for the names of xref targets,
% for display in the outlines, and in other places.  Thus, we have to
% double any backslashes.  Otherwise, a name like "\node" will be
% interpreted as a newline (\n), followed by o, d, e.  Not good.
% http://www.ntg.nl/pipermail/ntg-pdftex/2004-July/000654.html
% (and related messages, the final outcome is that it is up to the TeX
% user to double the backslashes and otherwise make the string valid, so
% that's what we do).

% double active backslashes.
% 
{\catcode`\@=0 \catcode`\\=\active
 @gdef@activebackslashdouble{%
   @catcode`@\=@active
   @let\=@doublebackslash}
}

% To handle parens, we must adopt a different approach, since parens are
% not active characters.  hyperref.dtx (which has the same problem as
% us) handles it with this amazing macro to replace tokens.  I've
% tinkered with it a little for texinfo, but it's definitely from there.
% 
% #1 is the tokens to replace.
% #2 is the replacement.
% #3 is the control sequence with the string.
% 
\def\HyPsdSubst#1#2#3{%
  \def\HyPsdReplace##1#1##2\END{%
    ##1%
    \ifx\\##2\\%
    \else
      #2%
      \HyReturnAfterFi{%
        \HyPsdReplace##2\END
      }%
    \fi
  }%
  \xdef#3{\expandafter\HyPsdReplace#3#1\END}%
}
\long\def\HyReturnAfterFi#1\fi{\fi#1}

% #1 is a control sequence in which to do the replacements.
\def\backslashparens#1{%
  \xdef#1{#1}% redefine it as its expansion; the definition is simply
             % \lastnode when called from \setref -> \pdfmkdest.
  \HyPsdSubst{(}{\realbackslash(}{#1}%
  \HyPsdSubst{)}{\realbackslash)}{#1}%
}

\newhelp\nopdfimagehelp{Texinfo supports .png, .jpg, .jpeg, and .pdf images
with PDF output, and none of those formats could be found.  (.eps cannot
be supported due to the design of the PDF format; use regular TeX (DVI
output) for that.)}

\ifpdf
  \input pdfcolor
  \pdfcatalog{/PageMode /UseOutlines}%
  % #1 is image name, #2 width (might be empty/whitespace), #3 height (ditto).
  \def\dopdfimage#1#2#3{%
    \def\imagewidth{#2}\setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}%
    \def\imageheight{#3}\setbox2 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #3}%
    %
    % pdftex (and the PDF format) support .png, .jpg, .pdf (among
    % others).  Let's try in that order.
    \let\pdfimgext=\empty
    \begingroup
      \openin 1 #1.png \ifeof 1
        \openin 1 #1.jpg \ifeof 1
          \openin 1 #1.jpeg \ifeof 1
            \openin 1 #1.JPG \ifeof 1
              \openin 1 #1.pdf \ifeof 1
                \errhelp = \nopdfimagehelp
                \errmessage{Could not find image file #1 for pdf}%
              \else
                \gdef\pdfimgext{pdf}%
              \fi
            \else
              \gdef\pdfimgext{JPG}%
            \fi
          \else
            \gdef\pdfimgext{jpeg}%
          \fi
        \else
          \gdef\pdfimgext{jpg}%
        \fi
      \else
        \gdef\pdfimgext{png}%
      \fi
      \closein 1
    \endgroup
    %
    % without \immediate, pdftex seg faults when the same image is
    % included twice.  (Version 3.14159-pre-1.0-unofficial-20010704.)
    \ifnum\pdftexversion < 14
      \immediate\pdfimage
    \else
      \immediate\pdfximage
    \fi
      \ifdim \wd0 >0pt width \imagewidth \fi
      \ifdim \wd2 >0pt height \imageheight \fi
      \ifnum\pdftexversion<13
         #1.\pdfimgext
       \else
         {#1.\pdfimgext}%
       \fi
    \ifnum\pdftexversion < 14 \else
      \pdfrefximage \pdflastximage
    \fi}
  \def\pdfmkdest#1{{%
    % We have to set dummies so commands such as @code, and characters
    % such as \, aren't expanded when present in a section title.
    \atdummies
    \activebackslashdouble
    \def\pdfdestname{#1}%
    \backslashparens\pdfdestname
    \pdfdest name{\pdfdestname} xyz%
  }}%
  %
  % used to mark target names; must be expandable.
  \def\pdfmkpgn#1{#1}%
  %
  \let\linkcolor = \Blue  % was Cyan, but that seems light?
  \def\endlink{\Black\pdfendlink}
  % Adding outlines to PDF; macros for calculating structure of outlines
  % come from Petr Olsak
  \def\expnumber#1{\expandafter\ifx\csname#1\endcsname\relax 0%
    \else \csname#1\endcsname \fi}
  \def\advancenumber#1{\tempnum=\expnumber{#1}\relax
    \advance\tempnum by 1
    \expandafter\xdef\csname#1\endcsname{\the\tempnum}}
  %
  % #1 is the section text, which is what will be displayed in the
  % outline by the pdf viewer.  #2 is the pdf expression for the number
  % of subentries (or empty, for subsubsections).  #3 is the node text,
  % which might be empty if this toc entry had no corresponding node.
  % #4 is the page number
  %
  \def\dopdfoutline#1#2#3#4{%
    % Generate a link to the node text if that exists; else, use the
    % page number.  We could generate a destination for the section
    % text in the case where a section has no node, but it doesn't
    % seem worth the trouble, since most documents are normally structured.
    \def\pdfoutlinedest{#3}%
    \ifx\pdfoutlinedest\empty
      \def\pdfoutlinedest{#4}%
    \else
      % Doubled backslashes in the name.
      {\activebackslashdouble \xdef\pdfoutlinedest{#3}%
       \backslashparens\pdfoutlinedest}%
    \fi
    %
    % Also double the backslashes in the display string.
    {\activebackslashdouble \xdef\pdfoutlinetext{#1}%
     \backslashparens\pdfoutlinetext}%
    %
    \pdfoutline goto name{\pdfmkpgn{\pdfoutlinedest}}#2{\pdfoutlinetext}%
  }
  %
  \def\pdfmakeoutlines{%
    \begingroup
      % Thanh's hack / proper braces in bookmarks
      \edef\mylbrace{\iftrue \string{\else}\fi}\let\{=\mylbrace
      \edef\myrbrace{\iffalse{\else\string}\fi}\let\}=\myrbrace
      %
      % Read toc silently, to get counts of subentries for \pdfoutline.
      \def\numchapentry##1##2##3##4{%
	\def\thischapnum{##2}%
	\def\thissecnum{0}%
	\def\thissubsecnum{0}%
      }%
      \def\numsecentry##1##2##3##4{%
	\advancenumber{chap\thischapnum}%
	\def\thissecnum{##2}%
	\def\thissubsecnum{0}%
      }%
      \def\numsubsecentry##1##2##3##4{%
	\advancenumber{sec\thissecnum}%
	\def\thissubsecnum{##2}%
      }%
      \def\numsubsubsecentry##1##2##3##4{%
	\advancenumber{subsec\thissubsecnum}%
      }%
      \def\thischapnum{0}%
      \def\thissecnum{0}%
      \def\thissubsecnum{0}%
      %
      % use \def rather than \let here because we redefine \chapentry et
      % al. a second time, below.
      \def\appentry{\numchapentry}%
      \def\appsecentry{\numsecentry}%
      \def\appsubsecentry{\numsubsecentry}%
      \def\appsubsubsecentry{\numsubsubsecentry}%
      \def\unnchapentry{\numchapentry}%
      \def\unnsecentry{\numsecentry}%
      \def\unnsubsecentry{\numsubsecentry}%
      \def\unnsubsubsecentry{\numsubsubsecentry}%
      \readdatafile{toc}%
      %
      % Read toc second time, this time actually producing the outlines.
      % The `-' means take the \expnumber as the absolute number of
      % subentries, which we calculated on our first read of the .toc above.
      %
      % We use the node names as the destinations.
      \def\numchapentry##1##2##3##4{%
        \dopdfoutline{##1}{count-\expnumber{chap##2}}{##3}{##4}}%
      \def\numsecentry##1##2##3##4{%
        \dopdfoutline{##1}{count-\expnumber{sec##2}}{##3}{##4}}%
      \def\numsubsecentry##1##2##3##4{%
        \dopdfoutline{##1}{count-\expnumber{subsec##2}}{##3}{##4}}%
      \def\numsubsubsecentry##1##2##3##4{% count is always zero
        \dopdfoutline{##1}{}{##3}{##4}}%
      %
      % PDF outlines are displayed using system fonts, instead of
      % document fonts.  Therefore we cannot use special characters,
      % since the encoding is unknown.  For example, the eogonek from
      % Latin 2 (0xea) gets translated to a | character.  Info from
      % Staszek Wawrykiewicz, 19 Jan 2004 04:09:24 +0100.
      %
      % xx to do this right, we have to translate 8-bit characters to
      % their "best" equivalent, based on the @documentencoding.  Right
      % now, I guess we'll just let the pdf reader have its way.
      \indexnofonts
      \setupdatafile
      \catcode`\\=\active \otherbackslash
      \input \jobname.toc
    \endgroup
  }
  %
  \def\skipspaces#1{\def\PP{#1}\def\D{|}%
    \ifx\PP\D\let\nextsp\relax
    \else\let\nextsp\skipspaces
      \ifx\p\space\else\addtokens{\filename}{\PP}%
        \advance\filenamelength by 1
      \fi
    \fi
    \nextsp}
  \def\getfilename#1{\filenamelength=0\expandafter\skipspaces#1|\relax}
  \ifnum\pdftexversion < 14
    \let \startlink \pdfannotlink
  \else
    \let \startlink \pdfstartlink
  \fi
  % make a live url in pdf output.
  \def\pdfurl#1{%
    \begingroup
      % it seems we really need yet another set of dummies; have not
      % tried to figure out what each command should do in the context
      % of @url.  for now, just make @/ a no-op, that's the only one
      % people have actually reported a problem with.
      % 
      \normalturnoffactive
      \def\@{@}%
      \let\/=\empty
      \makevalueexpandable
      \leavevmode\Red
      \startlink attr{/Border [0 0 0]}%
        user{/Subtype /Link /A << /S /URI /URI (#1) >>}%
    \endgroup}
  \def\pdfgettoks#1.{\setbox\boxA=\hbox{\toksA={#1.}\toksB={}\maketoks}}
  \def\addtokens#1#2{\edef\addtoks{\noexpand#1={\the#1#2}}\addtoks}
  \def\adn#1{\addtokens{\toksC}{#1}\global\countA=1\let\next=\maketoks}
  \def\poptoks#1#2|ENDTOKS|{\let\first=#1\toksD={#1}\toksA={#2}}
  \def\maketoks{%
    \expandafter\poptoks\the\toksA|ENDTOKS|\relax
    \ifx\first0\adn0
    \else\ifx\first1\adn1 \else\ifx\first2\adn2 \else\ifx\first3\adn3
    \else\ifx\first4\adn4 \else\ifx\first5\adn5 \else\ifx\first6\adn6
    \else\ifx\first7\adn7 \else\ifx\first8\adn8 \else\ifx\first9\adn9
    \else
      \ifnum0=\countA\else\makelink\fi
      \ifx\first.\let\next=\done\else
        \let\next=\maketoks
        \addtokens{\toksB}{\the\toksD}
        \ifx\first,\addtokens{\toksB}{\space}\fi
      \fi
    \fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi
    \next}
  \def\makelink{\addtokens{\toksB}%
    {\noexpand\pdflink{\the\toksC}}\toksC={}\global\countA=0}
  \def\pdflink#1{%
    \startlink attr{/Border [0 0 0]} goto name{\pdfmkpgn{#1}}
    \linkcolor #1\endlink}
  \def\done{\edef\st{\global\noexpand\toksA={\the\toksB}}\st}
\else
  \let\pdfmkdest = \gobble
  \let\pdfurl = \gobble
  \let\endlink = \relax
  \let\linkcolor = \relax
  \let\pdfmakeoutlines = \relax
\fi  % \ifx\pdfoutput


\message{fonts,}

% Change the current font style to #1, remembering it in \curfontstyle.
% For now, we do not accumulate font styles: @b{@i{foo}} prints foo in
% italics, not bold italics.
%
\def\setfontstyle#1{%
  \def\curfontstyle{#1}% not as a control sequence, because we are \edef'd.
  \csname ten#1\endcsname  % change the current font
}

% Select #1 fonts with the current style.
%
\def\selectfonts#1{\csname #1fonts\endcsname \csname\curfontstyle\endcsname}

\def\rm{\fam=0 \setfontstyle{rm}}
\def\it{\fam=\itfam \setfontstyle{it}}
\def\sl{\fam=\slfam \setfontstyle{sl}}
\def\bf{\fam=\bffam \setfontstyle{bf}}\def\bfstylename{bf}
\def\tt{\fam=\ttfam \setfontstyle{tt}}

% Texinfo sort of supports the sans serif font style, which plain TeX does not.
% So we set up a \sf.
\newfam\sffam
\def\sf{\fam=\sffam \setfontstyle{sf}}
\let\li = \sf % Sometimes we call it \li, not \sf.

% We don't need math for this font style.
\def\ttsl{\setfontstyle{ttsl}}


% Default leading.
\newdimen\textleading  \textleading = 13.2pt

% Set the baselineskip to #1, and the lineskip and strut size
% correspondingly.  There is no deep meaning behind these magic numbers
% used as factors; they just match (closely enough) what Knuth defined.
%
\def\lineskipfactor{.08333}
\def\strutheightpercent{.70833}
\def\strutdepthpercent {.29167}
%
\def\setleading#1{%
  \normalbaselineskip = #1\relax
  \normallineskip = \lineskipfactor\normalbaselineskip
  \normalbaselines
  \setbox\strutbox =\hbox{%
    \vrule width0pt height\strutheightpercent\baselineskip
                    depth \strutdepthpercent \baselineskip
  }%
}


% Set the font macro #1 to the font named #2, adding on the
% specified font prefix (normally `cm').
% #3 is the font's design size, #4 is a scale factor
\def\setfont#1#2#3#4{\font#1=\fontprefix#2#3 scaled #4}


% Use cm as the default font prefix.
% To specify the font prefix, you must define \fontprefix
% before you read in texinfo.tex.
\ifx\fontprefix\undefined
\def\fontprefix{cm}
\fi
% Support font families that don't use the same naming scheme as CM.
\def\rmshape{r}
\def\rmbshape{bx}               %where the normal face is bold
\def\bfshape{b}
\def\bxshape{bx}
\def\ttshape{tt}
\def\ttbshape{tt}
\def\ttslshape{sltt}
\def\itshape{ti}
\def\itbshape{bxti}
\def\slshape{sl}
\def\slbshape{bxsl}
\def\sfshape{ss}
\def\sfbshape{ss}
\def\scshape{csc}
\def\scbshape{csc}

% Definitions for a main text size of 11pt.  This is the default in
% Texinfo.
% 
\def\definetextfontsizexi{
% Text fonts (11.2pt, magstep1).
\def\textnominalsize{11pt}
\edef\mainmagstep{\magstephalf}
\setfont\textrm\rmshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\texttt\ttshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\textbf\bfshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\textit\itshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\textsl\slshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\textsf\sfshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\textsc\scshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\textttsl\ttslshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\font\texti=cmmi10 scaled \mainmagstep
\font\textsy=cmsy10 scaled \mainmagstep

% A few fonts for @defun names and args.
\setfont\defbf\bfshape{10}{\magstep1}
\setfont\deftt\ttshape{10}{\magstep1}
\setfont\defttsl\ttslshape{10}{\magstep1}
\def\df{\let\tentt=\deftt \let\tenbf = \defbf \let\tenttsl=\defttsl \bf}

% Fonts for indices, footnotes, small examples (9pt).
\def\smallnominalsize{9pt}
\setfont\smallrm\rmshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\smalltt\ttshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\smallbf\bfshape{10}{900}
\setfont\smallit\itshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\smallsl\slshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\smallsf\sfshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\smallsc\scshape{10}{900}
\setfont\smallttsl\ttslshape{10}{900}
\font\smalli=cmmi9
\font\smallsy=cmsy9

% Fonts for small examples (8pt).
\def\smallernominalsize{8pt}
\setfont\smallerrm\rmshape{8}{1000}
\setfont\smallertt\ttshape{8}{1000}
\setfont\smallerbf\bfshape{10}{800}
\setfont\smallerit\itshape{8}{1000}
\setfont\smallersl\slshape{8}{1000}
\setfont\smallersf\sfshape{8}{1000}
\setfont\smallersc\scshape{10}{800}
\setfont\smallerttsl\ttslshape{10}{800}
\font\smalleri=cmmi8
\font\smallersy=cmsy8

% Fonts for title page (20.4pt):
\def\titlenominalsize{20pt}
\setfont\titlerm\rmbshape{12}{\magstep3}
\setfont\titleit\itbshape{10}{\magstep4}
\setfont\titlesl\slbshape{10}{\magstep4}
\setfont\titlett\ttbshape{12}{\magstep3}
\setfont\titlettsl\ttslshape{10}{\magstep4}
\setfont\titlesf\sfbshape{17}{\magstep1}
\let\titlebf=\titlerm
\setfont\titlesc\scbshape{10}{\magstep4}
\font\titlei=cmmi12 scaled \magstep3
\font\titlesy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep4
\def\authorrm{\secrm}
\def\authortt{\sectt}

% Chapter (and unnumbered) fonts (17.28pt).
\def\chapnominalsize{17pt}
\setfont\chaprm\rmbshape{12}{\magstep2}
\setfont\chapit\itbshape{10}{\magstep3}
\setfont\chapsl\slbshape{10}{\magstep3}
\setfont\chaptt\ttbshape{12}{\magstep2}
\setfont\chapttsl\ttslshape{10}{\magstep3}
\setfont\chapsf\sfbshape{17}{1000}
\let\chapbf=\chaprm
\setfont\chapsc\scbshape{10}{\magstep3}
\font\chapi=cmmi12 scaled \magstep2
\font\chapsy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep3

% Section fonts (14.4pt).
\def\secnominalsize{14pt}
\setfont\secrm\rmbshape{12}{\magstep1}
\setfont\secit\itbshape{10}{\magstep2}
\setfont\secsl\slbshape{10}{\magstep2}
\setfont\sectt\ttbshape{12}{\magstep1}
\setfont\secttsl\ttslshape{10}{\magstep2}
\setfont\secsf\sfbshape{12}{\magstep1}
\let\secbf\secrm
\setfont\secsc\scbshape{10}{\magstep2}
\font\seci=cmmi12 scaled \magstep1
\font\secsy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep2

% Subsection fonts (13.15pt).
\def\ssecnominalsize{13pt}
\setfont\ssecrm\rmbshape{12}{\magstephalf}
\setfont\ssecit\itbshape{10}{1315}
\setfont\ssecsl\slbshape{10}{1315}
\setfont\ssectt\ttbshape{12}{\magstephalf}
\setfont\ssecttsl\ttslshape{10}{1315}
\setfont\ssecsf\sfbshape{12}{\magstephalf}
\let\ssecbf\ssecrm
\setfont\ssecsc\scbshape{10}{1315}
\font\sseci=cmmi12 scaled \magstephalf
\font\ssecsy=cmsy10 scaled 1315

% Reduced fonts for @acro in text (10pt).
\def\reducednominalsize{10pt}
\setfont\reducedrm\rmshape{10}{1000}
\setfont\reducedtt\ttshape{10}{1000}
\setfont\reducedbf\bfshape{10}{1000}
\setfont\reducedit\itshape{10}{1000}
\setfont\reducedsl\slshape{10}{1000}
\setfont\reducedsf\sfshape{10}{1000}
\setfont\reducedsc\scshape{10}{1000}
\setfont\reducedttsl\ttslshape{10}{1000}
\font\reducedi=cmmi10
\font\reducedsy=cmsy10

% reset the current fonts
\textfonts
\rm
} % end of 11pt text font size definitions


% Definitions to make the main text be 10pt Computer Modern, with
% section, chapter, etc., sizes following suit.  This is for the GNU
% Press printing of the Emacs 22 manual.  Maybe other manuals in the
% future.  Used with @smallbook, which sets the leading to 12pt.
% 
\def\definetextfontsizex{%
% Text fonts (10pt).
\def\textnominalsize{10pt}
\edef\mainmagstep{1000}
\setfont\textrm\rmshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\texttt\ttshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\textbf\bfshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\textit\itshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\textsl\slshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\textsf\sfshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\textsc\scshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\setfont\textttsl\ttslshape{10}{\mainmagstep}
\font\texti=cmmi10 scaled \mainmagstep
\font\textsy=cmsy10 scaled \mainmagstep

% A few fonts for @defun names and args.
\setfont\defbf\bfshape{10}{\magstephalf}
\setfont\deftt\ttshape{10}{\magstephalf}
\setfont\defttsl\ttslshape{10}{\magstephalf}
\def\df{\let\tentt=\deftt \let\tenbf = \defbf \let\tenttsl=\defttsl \bf}

% Fonts for indices, footnotes, small examples (9pt).
\def\smallnominalsize{9pt}
\setfont\smallrm\rmshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\smalltt\ttshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\smallbf\bfshape{10}{900}
\setfont\smallit\itshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\smallsl\slshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\smallsf\sfshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\smallsc\scshape{10}{900}
\setfont\smallttsl\ttslshape{10}{900}
\font\smalli=cmmi9
\font\smallsy=cmsy9

% Fonts for small examples (8pt).
\def\smallernominalsize{8pt}
\setfont\smallerrm\rmshape{8}{1000}
\setfont\smallertt\ttshape{8}{1000}
\setfont\smallerbf\bfshape{10}{800}
\setfont\smallerit\itshape{8}{1000}
\setfont\smallersl\slshape{8}{1000}
\setfont\smallersf\sfshape{8}{1000}
\setfont\smallersc\scshape{10}{800}
\setfont\smallerttsl\ttslshape{10}{800}
\font\smalleri=cmmi8
\font\smallersy=cmsy8

% Fonts for title page (20.4pt):
\def\titlenominalsize{20pt}
\setfont\titlerm\rmbshape{12}{\magstep3}
\setfont\titleit\itbshape{10}{\magstep4}
\setfont\titlesl\slbshape{10}{\magstep4}
\setfont\titlett\ttbshape{12}{\magstep3}
\setfont\titlettsl\ttslshape{10}{\magstep4}
\setfont\titlesf\sfbshape{17}{\magstep1}
\let\titlebf=\titlerm
\setfont\titlesc\scbshape{10}{\magstep4}
\font\titlei=cmmi12 scaled \magstep3
\font\titlesy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep4
\def\authorrm{\secrm}
\def\authortt{\sectt}

% Chapter fonts (14.4pt).
\def\chapnominalsize{14pt}
\setfont\chaprm\rmbshape{12}{\magstep1}
\setfont\chapit\itbshape{10}{\magstep2}
\setfont\chapsl\slbshape{10}{\magstep2}
\setfont\chaptt\ttbshape{12}{\magstep1}
\setfont\chapttsl\ttslshape{10}{\magstep2}
\setfont\chapsf\sfbshape{12}{\magstep1}
\let\chapbf\chaprm
\setfont\chapsc\scbshape{10}{\magstep2}
\font\chapi=cmmi12 scaled \magstep1
\font\chapsy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep2

% Section fonts (12pt).
\def\secnominalsize{12pt}
\setfont\secrm\rmbshape{12}{1000}
\setfont\secit\itbshape{10}{\magstep1}
\setfont\secsl\slbshape{10}{\magstep1}
\setfont\sectt\ttbshape{12}{1000}
\setfont\secttsl\ttslshape{10}{\magstep1}
\setfont\secsf\sfbshape{12}{1000}
\let\secbf\secrm
\setfont\secsc\scbshape{10}{\magstep1}
\font\seci=cmmi12 
\font\secsy=cmsy10 scaled \magstep1

% Subsection fonts (10pt).
\def\ssecnominalsize{10pt}
\setfont\ssecrm\rmbshape{10}{1000}
\setfont\ssecit\itbshape{10}{1000}
\setfont\ssecsl\slbshape{10}{1000}
\setfont\ssectt\ttbshape{10}{1000}
\setfont\ssecttsl\ttslshape{10}{1000}
\setfont\ssecsf\sfbshape{10}{1000}
\let\ssecbf\ssecrm
\setfont\ssecsc\scbshape{10}{1000}
\font\sseci=cmmi10
\font\ssecsy=cmsy10

% Reduced fonts for @acro in text (9pt).
\def\reducednominalsize{9pt}
\setfont\reducedrm\rmshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\reducedtt\ttshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\reducedbf\bfshape{10}{900}
\setfont\reducedit\itshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\reducedsl\slshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\reducedsf\sfshape{9}{1000}
\setfont\reducedsc\scshape{10}{900}
\setfont\reducedttsl\ttslshape{10}{900}
\font\reducedi=cmmi9
\font\reducedsy=cmsy9

% reduce space between paragraphs
\divide\parskip by 2

% reset the current fonts
\textfonts
\rm
} % end of 10pt text font size definitions


% We provide the user-level command
%   @fonttextsize 10
% (or 11) to redefine the text font size.  pt is assumed.
% 
\def\xword{10}
\def\xiword{11}
%
\parseargdef\fonttextsize{%
  \def\textsizearg{#1}%
  \wlog{doing @fonttextsize \textsizearg}%
  %
  % Set \globaldefs so that documents can use this inside @tex, since
  % makeinfo 4.8 does not support it, but we need it nonetheless.
  % 
 \begingroup \globaldefs=1
  \ifx\textsizearg\xword \definetextfontsizex
  \else \ifx\textsizearg\xiword \definetextfontsizexi
  \else
    \errhelp=\EMsimple
    \errmessage{@fonttextsize only supports `10' or `11', not `\textsizearg'}
  \fi\fi
 \endgroup
}


% In order for the font changes to affect most math symbols and letters,
% we have to define the \textfont of the standard families.  Since
% texinfo doesn't allow for producing subscripts and superscripts except
% in the main text, we don't bother to reset \scriptfont and
% \scriptscriptfont (which would also require loading a lot more fonts).
%
\def\resetmathfonts{%
  \textfont0=\tenrm \textfont1=\teni \textfont2=\tensy
  \textfont\itfam=\tenit \textfont\slfam=\tensl \textfont\bffam=\tenbf
  \textfont\ttfam=\tentt \textfont\sffam=\tensf
}

% The font-changing commands redefine the meanings of \tenSTYLE, instead
% of just \STYLE.  We do this because \STYLE needs to also set the
% current \fam for math mode.  Our \STYLE (e.g., \rm) commands hardwire
% \tenSTYLE to set the current font.
%
% Each font-changing command also sets the names \lsize (one size lower)
% and \lllsize (three sizes lower).  These relative commands are used in
% the LaTeX logo and acronyms.
%
% This all needs generalizing, badly.
%
\def\textfonts{%
  \let\tenrm=\textrm \let\tenit=\textit \let\tensl=\textsl
  \let\tenbf=\textbf \let\tentt=\texttt \let\smallcaps=\textsc
  \let\tensf=\textsf \let\teni=\texti \let\tensy=\textsy
  \let\tenttsl=\textttsl
  \def\curfontsize{text}%
  \def\lsize{reduced}\def\lllsize{smaller}%
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{\textleading}}
\def\titlefonts{%
  \let\tenrm=\titlerm \let\tenit=\titleit \let\tensl=\titlesl
  \let\tenbf=\titlebf \let\tentt=\titlett \let\smallcaps=\titlesc
  \let\tensf=\titlesf \let\teni=\titlei \let\tensy=\titlesy
  \let\tenttsl=\titlettsl
  \def\curfontsize{title}%
  \def\lsize{chap}\def\lllsize{subsec}%
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{25pt}}
\def\titlefont#1{{\titlefonts\rm #1}}
\def\chapfonts{%
  \let\tenrm=\chaprm \let\tenit=\chapit \let\tensl=\chapsl
  \let\tenbf=\chapbf \let\tentt=\chaptt \let\smallcaps=\chapsc
  \let\tensf=\chapsf \let\teni=\chapi \let\tensy=\chapsy
  \let\tenttsl=\chapttsl
  \def\curfontsize{chap}%
  \def\lsize{sec}\def\lllsize{text}%
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{19pt}}
\def\secfonts{%
  \let\tenrm=\secrm \let\tenit=\secit \let\tensl=\secsl
  \let\tenbf=\secbf \let\tentt=\sectt \let\smallcaps=\secsc
  \let\tensf=\secsf \let\teni=\seci \let\tensy=\secsy
  \let\tenttsl=\secttsl
  \def\curfontsize{sec}%
  \def\lsize{subsec}\def\lllsize{reduced}%
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{16pt}}
\def\subsecfonts{%
  \let\tenrm=\ssecrm \let\tenit=\ssecit \let\tensl=\ssecsl
  \let\tenbf=\ssecbf \let\tentt=\ssectt \let\smallcaps=\ssecsc
  \let\tensf=\ssecsf \let\teni=\sseci \let\tensy=\ssecsy
  \let\tenttsl=\ssecttsl
  \def\curfontsize{ssec}%
  \def\lsize{text}\def\lllsize{small}%
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{15pt}}
\let\subsubsecfonts = \subsecfonts
\def\reducedfonts{%
  \let\tenrm=\reducedrm \let\tenit=\reducedit \let\tensl=\reducedsl
  \let\tenbf=\reducedbf \let\tentt=\reducedtt \let\reducedcaps=\reducedsc
  \let\tensf=\reducedsf \let\teni=\reducedi \let\tensy=\reducedsy
  \let\tenttsl=\reducedttsl
  \def\curfontsize{reduced}%
  \def\lsize{small}\def\lllsize{smaller}%
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{10.5pt}}
\def\smallfonts{%
  \let\tenrm=\smallrm \let\tenit=\smallit \let\tensl=\smallsl
  \let\tenbf=\smallbf \let\tentt=\smalltt \let\smallcaps=\smallsc
  \let\tensf=\smallsf \let\teni=\smalli \let\tensy=\smallsy
  \let\tenttsl=\smallttsl
  \def\curfontsize{small}%
  \def\lsize{smaller}\def\lllsize{smaller}%
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{10.5pt}}
\def\smallerfonts{%
  \let\tenrm=\smallerrm \let\tenit=\smallerit \let\tensl=\smallersl
  \let\tenbf=\smallerbf \let\tentt=\smallertt \let\smallcaps=\smallersc
  \let\tensf=\smallersf \let\teni=\smalleri \let\tensy=\smallersy
  \let\tenttsl=\smallerttsl
  \def\curfontsize{smaller}%
  \def\lsize{smaller}\def\lllsize{smaller}%
  \resetmathfonts \setleading{9.5pt}}

% Set the fonts to use with the @small... environments.
\let\smallexamplefonts = \smallfonts

% About \smallexamplefonts.  If we use \smallfonts (9pt), @smallexample
% can fit this many characters:
%   8.5x11=86   smallbook=72  a4=90  a5=69
% If we use \scriptfonts (8pt), then we can fit this many characters:
%   8.5x11=90+  smallbook=80  a4=90+  a5=77
% For me, subjectively, the few extra characters that fit aren't worth
% the additional smallness of 8pt.  So I'm making the default 9pt.
%
% By the way, for comparison, here's what fits with @example (10pt):
%   8.5x11=71  smallbook=60  a4=75  a5=58
%
% I wish the USA used A4 paper.
% --karl, 24jan03.


% Set up the default fonts, so we can use them for creating boxes.
%
\definetextfontsizexi

% Define these so they can be easily changed for other fonts.
\def\angleleft{$\langle$}
\def\angleright{$\rangle$}

% Count depth in font-changes, for error checks
\newcount\fontdepth \fontdepth=0

% Fonts for short table of contents.
\setfont\shortcontrm\rmshape{12}{1000}
\setfont\shortcontbf\bfshape{10}{\magstep1}  % no cmb12
\setfont\shortcontsl\slshape{12}{1000}
\setfont\shortconttt\ttshape{12}{1000}

%% Add scribe-like font environments, plus @l for inline lisp (usually sans
%% serif) and @ii for TeX italic

% \smartitalic{ARG} outputs arg in italics, followed by an italic correction
% unless the following character is such as not to need one.
\def\smartitalicx{\ifx\next,\else\ifx\next-\else\ifx\next.\else
                    \ptexslash\fi\fi\fi}
\def\smartslanted#1{{\ifusingtt\ttsl\sl #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}
\def\smartitalic#1{{\ifusingtt\ttsl\it #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}

% like \smartslanted except unconditionally uses \ttsl.
% @var is set to this for defun arguments.
\def\ttslanted#1{{\ttsl #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}

% like \smartslanted except unconditionally use \sl.  We never want
% ttsl for book titles, do we?
\def\cite#1{{\sl #1}\futurelet\next\smartitalicx}

\let\i=\smartitalic
\let\slanted=\smartslanted
\let\var=\smartslanted
\let\dfn=\smartslanted
\let\emph=\smartitalic

% @b, explicit bold.
\def\b#1{{\bf #1}}
\let\strong=\b

% @sansserif, explicit sans.
\def\sansserif#1{{\sf #1}}

% We can't just use \exhyphenpenalty, because that only has effect at
% the end of a paragraph.  Restore normal hyphenation at the end of the
% group within which \nohyphenation is presumably called.
%
\def\nohyphenation{\hyphenchar\font = -1  \aftergroup\restorehyphenation}
\def\restorehyphenation{\hyphenchar\font = `- }

% Set sfcode to normal for the chars that usually have another value.
% Can't use plain's \frenchspacing because it uses the `\x notation, and
% sometimes \x has an active definition that messes things up.
%
\catcode`@=11
  \def\plainfrenchspacing{%
    \sfcode\dotChar  =\@m \sfcode\questChar=\@m \sfcode\exclamChar=\@m
    \sfcode\colonChar=\@m \sfcode\semiChar =\@m \sfcode\commaChar =\@m
    \def\endofsentencespacefactor{1000}% for @. and friends
  }
  \def\plainnonfrenchspacing{%
    \sfcode`\.3000\sfcode`\?3000\sfcode`\!3000
    \sfcode`\:2000\sfcode`\;1500\sfcode`\,1250
    \def\endofsentencespacefactor{3000}% for @. and friends
  }
\catcode`@=\other
\def\endofsentencespacefactor{3000}% default

\def\t#1{%
  {\tt \rawbackslash \plainfrenchspacing #1}%
  \null
}
\def\samp#1{`\tclose{#1}'\null}
\setfont\keyrm\rmshape{8}{1000}
\font\keysy=cmsy9
\def\key#1{{\keyrm\textfont2=\keysy \leavevmode\hbox{%
  \raise0.4pt\hbox{\angleleft}\kern-.08em\vtop{%
    \vbox{\hrule\kern-0.4pt
     \hbox{\raise0.4pt\hbox{\vphantom{\angleleft}}#1}}%
    \kern-0.4pt\hrule}%
  \kern-.06em\raise0.4pt\hbox{\angleright}}}}
\def\key #1{{\nohyphenation \uppercase{#1}}\null}
% The old definition, with no lozenge:
%\def\key #1{{\ttsl \nohyphenation \uppercase{#1}}\null}
\def\ctrl #1{{\tt \rawbackslash \hat}#1}

% @file, @option are the same as @samp.
\let\file=\samp
\let\option=\samp

% @code is a modification of @t,
% which makes spaces the same size as normal in the surrounding text.
\def\tclose#1{%
  {%
    % Change normal interword space to be same as for the current font.
    \spaceskip = \fontdimen2\font
    %
    % Switch to typewriter.
    \tt
    %
    % But `\ ' produces the large typewriter interword space.
    \def\ {{\spaceskip = 0pt{} }}%
    %
    % Turn off hyphenation.
    \nohyphenation
    %
    \rawbackslash
    \plainfrenchspacing
    #1%
  }%
  \null
}

% We *must* turn on hyphenation at `-' and `_' in @code.
% Otherwise, it is too hard to avoid overfull hboxes
% in the Emacs manual, the Library manual, etc.

% Unfortunately, TeX uses one parameter (\hyphenchar) to control
% both hyphenation at - and hyphenation within words.
% We must therefore turn them both off (\tclose does that)
% and arrange explicitly to hyphenate at a dash.
%  -- rms.
{
  \catcode`\-=\active \catcode`\_=\active
  \catcode`\'=\active \catcode`\`=\active
  %
  \global\def\code{\begingroup
    \catcode\rquoteChar=\active \catcode\lquoteChar=\active
    \let'\codequoteright \let`\codequoteleft
    %
    \catcode\dashChar=\active  \catcode\underChar=\active
    \ifallowcodebreaks
     \let-\codedash
     \let_\codeunder
    \else
     \let-\realdash
     \let_\realunder
    \fi
    \codex
  }
}

\def\realdash{-}
\def\codedash{-\discretionary{}{}{}}
\def\codeunder{%
  % this is all so @math{@code{var_name}+1} can work.  In math mode, _
  % is "active" (mathcode"8000) and \normalunderscore (or \char95, etc.)
  % will therefore expand the active definition of _, which is us
  % (inside @code that is), therefore an endless loop.
  \ifusingtt{\ifmmode
               \mathchar"075F % class 0=ordinary, family 7=ttfam, pos 0x5F=_.
             \else\normalunderscore \fi
             \discretionary{}{}{}}%
            {\_}%
}
\def\codex #1{\tclose{#1}\endgroup}

% An additional complication: the above will allow breaks after, e.g.,
% each of the four underscores in __typeof__.  This is undesirable in
% some manuals, especially if they don't have long identifiers in
% general.  @allowcodebreaks provides a way to control this.
% 
\newif\ifallowcodebreaks  \allowcodebreakstrue

\def\keywordtrue{true}
\def\keywordfalse{false}

\parseargdef\allowcodebreaks{%
  \def\txiarg{#1}%
  \ifx\txiarg\keywordtrue
    \allowcodebreakstrue
  \else\ifx\txiarg\keywordfalse
    \allowcodebreaksfalse
  \else
    \errhelp = \EMsimple
    \errmessage{Unknown @allowcodebreaks option `\txiarg'}%
  \fi\fi
}

% @kbd is like @code, except that if the argument is just one @key command,
% then @kbd has no effect.

% @kbdinputstyle -- arg is `distinct' (@kbd uses slanted tty font always),
%   `example' (@kbd uses ttsl only inside of @example and friends),
%   or `code' (@kbd uses normal tty font always).
\parseargdef\kbdinputstyle{%
  \def\txiarg{#1}%
  \ifx\txiarg\worddistinct
    \gdef\kbdexamplefont{\ttsl}\gdef\kbdfont{\ttsl}%
  \else\ifx\txiarg\wordexample
    \gdef\kbdexamplefont{\ttsl}\gdef\kbdfont{\tt}%
  \else\ifx\txiarg\wordcode
    \gdef\kbdexamplefont{\tt}\gdef\kbdfont{\tt}%
  \else
    \errhelp = \EMsimple
    \errmessage{Unknown @kbdinputstyle option `\txiarg'}%
  \fi\fi\fi
}
\def\worddistinct{distinct}
\def\wordexample{example}
\def\wordcode{code}

% Default is `distinct.'
\kbdinputstyle distinct

\def\xkey{\key}
\def\kbdfoo#1#2#3\par{\def\one{#1}\def\three{#3}\def\threex{??}%
\ifx\one\xkey\ifx\threex\three \key{#2}%
\else{\tclose{\kbdfont\look}}\fi
\else{\tclose{\kbdfont\look}}\fi}

% For @indicateurl, @env, @command quotes seem unnecessary, so use \code.
\let\indicateurl=\code
\let\env=\code
\let\command=\code

% @uref (abbreviation for `urlref') takes an optional (comma-separated)
% second argument specifying the text to display and an optional third
% arg as text to display instead of (rather than in addition to) the url
% itself.  First (mandatory) arg is the url.  Perhaps eventually put in
% a hypertex \special here.
%
\def\uref#1{\douref #1,,,\finish}
\def\douref#1,#2,#3,#4\finish{\begingroup
  \unsepspaces
  \pdfurl{#1}%
  \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #3}%
  \ifdim\wd0 > 0pt
    \unhbox0 % third arg given, show only that
  \else
    \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}%
    \ifdim\wd0 > 0pt
      \ifpdf
        \unhbox0             % PDF: 2nd arg given, show only it
      \else
        \unhbox0\ (\code{#1})% DVI: 2nd arg given, show both it and url
      \fi
    \else
      \code{#1}% only url given, so show it
    \fi
  \fi
  \endlink
\endgroup}

% @url synonym for @uref, since that's how everyone uses it.
%
\let\url=\uref

% rms does not like angle brackets --karl, 17may97.
% So now @email is just like @uref, unless we are pdf.
%
%\def\email#1{\angleleft{\tt #1}\angleright}
\ifpdf
  \def\email#1{\doemail#1,,\finish}
  \def\doemail#1,#2,#3\finish{\begingroup
    \unsepspaces
    \pdfurl{mailto:#1}%
    \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}%
    \ifdim\wd0>0pt\unhbox0\else\code{#1}\fi
    \endlink
  \endgroup}
\else
  \let\email=\uref
\fi

% Check if we are currently using a typewriter font.  Since all the
% Computer Modern typewriter fonts have zero interword stretch (and
% shrink), and it is reasonable to expect all typewriter fonts to have
% this property, we can check that font parameter.
%
\def\ifmonospace{\ifdim\fontdimen3\font=0pt }

% Typeset a dimension, e.g., `in' or `pt'.  The only reason for the
% argument is to make the input look right: @dmn{pt} instead of @dmn{}pt.
%
\def\dmn#1{\thinspace #1}

\def\kbd#1{\def\look{#1}\expandafter\kbdfoo\look??\par}

% @l was never documented to mean ``switch to the Lisp font'',
% and it is not used as such in any manual I can find.  We need it for
% Polish suppressed-l.  --karl, 22sep96.
%\def\l#1{{\li #1}\null}

% Explicit font changes: @r, @sc, undocumented @ii.
\def\r#1{{\rm #1}}              % roman font
\def\sc#1{{\smallcaps#1}}       % smallcaps font
\def\ii#1{{\it #1}}             % italic font

% @acronym for "FBI", "NATO", and the like.
% We print this one point size smaller, since it's intended for
% all-uppercase.
% 
\def\acronym#1{\doacronym #1,,\finish}
\def\doacronym#1,#2,#3\finish{%
  {\selectfonts\lsize #1}%
  \def\temp{#2}%
  \ifx\temp\empty \else
    \space ({\unsepspaces \ignorespaces \temp \unskip})%
  \fi
}

% @abbr for "Comput. J." and the like.
% No font change, but don't do end-of-sentence spacing.
% 
\def\abbr#1{\doabbr #1,,\finish}
\def\doabbr#1,#2,#3\finish{%
  {\plainfrenchspacing #1}%
  \def\temp{#2}%
  \ifx\temp\empty \else
    \space ({\unsepspaces \ignorespaces \temp \unskip})%
  \fi
}

% @pounds{} is a sterling sign, which Knuth put in the CM italic font.
%
\def\pounds{{\it\$}}

% @euro{} comes from a separate font, depending on the current style.
% We use the free feym* fonts from the eurosym package by Henrik
% Theiling, which support regular, slanted, bold and bold slanted (and
% "outlined" (blackboard board, sort of) versions, which we don't need).
% It is available from http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/fonts/eurosym.
% 
% Although only regular is the truly official Euro symbol, we ignore
% that.  The Euro is designed to be slightly taller than the regular
% font height.
% 
% feymr - regular
% feymo - slanted
% feybr - bold
% feybo - bold slanted
% 
% There is no good (free) typewriter version, to my knowledge.
% A feymr10 euro is ~7.3pt wide, while a normal cmtt10 char is ~5.25pt wide.
% Hmm.
% 
% Also doesn't work in math.  Do we need to do math with euro symbols?
% Hope not.
% 
% 
\def\euro{{\eurofont e}}
\def\eurofont{%
  % We set the font at each command, rather than predefining it in
  % \textfonts and the other font-switching commands, so that
  % installations which never need the symbol don't have to have the
  % font installed.
  % 
  % There is only one designed size (nominal 10pt), so we always scale
  % that to the current nominal size.
  % 
  % By the way, simply using "at 1em" works for cmr10 and the like, but
  % does not work for cmbx10 and other extended/shrunken fonts.
  % 
  \def\eurosize{\csname\curfontsize nominalsize\endcsname}%
  %
  \ifx\curfontstyle\bfstylename 
    % bold:
    \font\thiseurofont = \ifusingit{feybo10}{feybr10} at \eurosize
  \else 
    % regular:
    \font\thiseurofont = \ifusingit{feymo10}{feymr10} at \eurosize
  \fi
  \thiseurofont
}

% @registeredsymbol - R in a circle.  The font for the R should really
% be smaller yet, but lllsize is the best we can do for now.
% Adapted from the plain.tex definition of \copyright.
%
\def\registeredsymbol{%
  $^{{\ooalign{\hfil\raise.07ex\hbox{\selectfonts\lllsize R}%
               \hfil\crcr\Orb}}%
    }$%
}

% @textdegree - the normal degrees sign.
%
\def\textdegree{$^\circ$}

% Laurent Siebenmann reports \Orb undefined with:
%  Textures 1.7.7 (preloaded format=plain 93.10.14)  (68K)  16 APR 2004 02:38
% so we'll define it if necessary.
% 
\ifx\Orb\undefined
\def\Orb{\mathhexbox20D}
\fi


\message{page headings,}

\newskip\titlepagetopglue \titlepagetopglue = 1.5in
\newskip\titlepagebottomglue \titlepagebottomglue = 2pc

% First the title page.  Must do @settitle before @titlepage.
\newif\ifseenauthor
\newif\iffinishedtitlepage

% Do an implicit @contents or @shortcontents after @end titlepage if the
% user says @setcontentsaftertitlepage or @setshortcontentsaftertitlepage.
%
\newif\ifsetcontentsaftertitlepage
 \let\setcontentsaftertitlepage = \setcontentsaftertitlepagetrue
\newif\ifsetshortcontentsaftertitlepage
 \let\setshortcontentsaftertitlepage = \setshortcontentsaftertitlepagetrue

\parseargdef\shorttitlepage{\begingroup\hbox{}\vskip 1.5in \chaprm \centerline{#1}%
        \endgroup\page\hbox{}\page}

\envdef\titlepage{%
  % Open one extra group, as we want to close it in the middle of \Etitlepage.
  \begingroup
    \parindent=0pt \textfonts
    % Leave some space at the very top of the page.
    \vglue\titlepagetopglue
    % No rule at page bottom unless we print one at the top with @title.
    \finishedtitlepagetrue
    %
    % Most title ``pages'' are actually two pages long, with space
    % at the top of the second.  We don't want the ragged left on the second.
    \let\oldpage = \page
    \def\page{%
      \iffinishedtitlepage\else
	 \finishtitlepage
      \fi
      \let\page = \oldpage
      \page
      \null
    }%
}

\def\Etitlepage{%
    \iffinishedtitlepage\else
	\finishtitlepage
    \fi
    % It is important to do the page break before ending the group,
    % because the headline and footline are only empty inside the group.
    % If we use the new definition of \page, we always get a blank page
    % after the title page, which we certainly don't want.
    \oldpage
  \endgroup
  %
  % Need this before the \...aftertitlepage checks so that if they are
  % in effect the toc pages will come out with page numbers.
  \HEADINGSon
  %
  % If they want short, they certainly want long too.
  \ifsetshortcontentsaftertitlepage
    \shortcontents
    \contents
    \global\let\shortcontents = \relax
    \global\let\contents = \relax
  \fi
  %
  \ifsetcontentsaftertitlepage
    \contents
    \global\let\contents = \relax
    \global\let\shortcontents = \relax
  \fi
}

\def\finishtitlepage{%
  \vskip4pt \hrule height 2pt width \hsize
  \vskip\titlepagebottomglue
  \finishedtitlepagetrue
}

%%% Macros to be used within @titlepage:

\let\subtitlerm=\tenrm
\def\subtitlefont{\subtitlerm \normalbaselineskip = 13pt \normalbaselines}

\def\authorfont{\authorrm \normalbaselineskip = 16pt \normalbaselines
		\let\tt=\authortt}

\parseargdef\title{%
  \checkenv\titlepage
  \leftline{\titlefonts\rm #1}
  % print a rule at the page bottom also.
  \finishedtitlepagefalse
  \vskip4pt \hrule height 4pt width \hsize \vskip4pt
}

\parseargdef\subtitle{%
  \checkenv\titlepage
  {\subtitlefont \rightline{#1}}%
}

% @author should come last, but may come many times.
% It can also be used inside @quotation.
%
\parseargdef\author{%
  \def\temp{\quotation}%
  \ifx\thisenv\temp
    \def\quotationauthor{#1}% printed in \Equotation.
  \else
    \checkenv\titlepage
    \ifseenauthor\else \vskip 0pt plus 1filll \seenauthortrue \fi
    {\authorfont \leftline{#1}}%
  \fi
}


%%% Set up page headings and footings.

\let\thispage=\folio

\newtoks\evenheadline    % headline on even pages
\newtoks\oddheadline     % headline on odd pages
\newtoks\evenfootline    % footline on even pages
\newtoks\oddfootline     % footline on odd pages

% Now make TeX use those variables
\headline={{\textfonts\rm \ifodd\pageno \the\oddheadline
                            \else \the\evenheadline \fi}}
\footline={{\textfonts\rm \ifodd\pageno \the\oddfootline
                            \else \the\evenfootline \fi}\HEADINGShook}
\let\HEADINGShook=\relax

% Commands to set those variables.
% For example, this is what  @headings on  does
% @evenheading @thistitle|@thispage|@thischapter
% @oddheading @thischapter|@thispage|@thistitle
% @evenfooting @thisfile||
% @oddfooting ||@thisfile


\def\evenheading{\parsearg\evenheadingxxx}
\def\evenheadingxxx #1{\evenheadingyyy #1\|\|\|\|\finish}
\def\evenheadingyyy #1\|#2\|#3\|#4\finish{%
\global\evenheadline={\rlap{\centerline{#2}}\line{#1\hfil#3}}}

\def\oddheading{\parsearg\oddheadingxxx}
\def\oddheadingxxx #1{\oddheadingyyy #1\|\|\|\|\finish}
\def\oddheadingyyy #1\|#2\|#3\|#4\finish{%
\global\oddheadline={\rlap{\centerline{#2}}\line{#1\hfil#3}}}

\parseargdef\everyheading{\oddheadingxxx{#1}\evenheadingxxx{#1}}%

\def\evenfooting{\parsearg\evenfootingxxx}
\def\evenfootingxxx #1{\evenfootingyyy #1\|\|\|\|\finish}
\def\evenfootingyyy #1\|#2\|#3\|#4\finish{%
\global\evenfootline={\rlap{\centerline{#2}}\line{#1\hfil#3}}}

\def\oddfooting{\parsearg\oddfootingxxx}
\def\oddfootingxxx #1{\oddfootingyyy #1\|\|\|\|\finish}
\def\oddfootingyyy #1\|#2\|#3\|#4\finish{%
  \global\oddfootline = {\rlap{\centerline{#2}}\line{#1\hfil#3}}%
  %
  % Leave some space for the footline.  Hopefully ok to assume
  % @evenfooting will not be used by itself.
  \global\advance\pageheight by -12pt
  \global\advance\vsize by -12pt
}

\parseargdef\everyfooting{\oddfootingxxx{#1}\evenfootingxxx{#1}}


% @headings double      turns headings on for double-sided printing.
% @headings single      turns headings on for single-sided printing.
% @headings off         turns them off.
% @headings on          same as @headings double, retained for compatibility.
% @headings after       turns on double-sided headings after this page.
% @headings doubleafter turns on double-sided headings after this page.
% @headings singleafter turns on single-sided headings after this page.
% By default, they are off at the start of a document,
% and turned `on' after @end titlepage.

\def\headings #1 {\csname HEADINGS#1\endcsname}

\def\HEADINGSoff{%
\global\evenheadline={\hfil} \global\evenfootline={\hfil}
\global\oddheadline={\hfil} \global\oddfootline={\hfil}}
\HEADINGSoff
% When we turn headings on, set the page number to 1.
% For double-sided printing, put current file name in lower left corner,
% chapter name on inside top of right hand pages, document
% title on inside top of left hand pages, and page numbers on outside top
% edge of all pages.
\def\HEADINGSdouble{%
\global\pageno=1
\global\evenfootline={\hfil}
\global\oddfootline={\hfil}
\global\evenheadline={\line{\folio\hfil\thistitle}}
\global\oddheadline={\line{\thischapter\hfil\folio}}
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chapoddpage
}
\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager

% For single-sided printing, chapter title goes across top left of page,
% page number on top right.
\def\HEADINGSsingle{%
\global\pageno=1
\global\evenfootline={\hfil}
\global\oddfootline={\hfil}
\global\evenheadline={\line{\thischapter\hfil\folio}}
\global\oddheadline={\line{\thischapter\hfil\folio}}
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager
}
\def\HEADINGSon{\HEADINGSdouble}

\def\HEADINGSafter{\let\HEADINGShook=\HEADINGSdoublex}
\let\HEADINGSdoubleafter=\HEADINGSafter
\def\HEADINGSdoublex{%
\global\evenfootline={\hfil}
\global\oddfootline={\hfil}
\global\evenheadline={\line{\folio\hfil\thistitle}}
\global\oddheadline={\line{\thischapter\hfil\folio}}
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chapoddpage
}

\def\HEADINGSsingleafter{\let\HEADINGShook=\HEADINGSsinglex}
\def\HEADINGSsinglex{%
\global\evenfootline={\hfil}
\global\oddfootline={\hfil}
\global\evenheadline={\line{\thischapter\hfil\folio}}
\global\oddheadline={\line{\thischapter\hfil\folio}}
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager
}

% Subroutines used in generating headings
% This produces Day Month Year style of output.
% Only define if not already defined, in case a txi-??.tex file has set
% up a different format (e.g., txi-cs.tex does this).
\ifx\today\undefined
\def\today{%
  \number\day\space
  \ifcase\month
  \or\putwordMJan\or\putwordMFeb\or\putwordMMar\or\putwordMApr
  \or\putwordMMay\or\putwordMJun\or\putwordMJul\or\putwordMAug
  \or\putwordMSep\or\putwordMOct\or\putwordMNov\or\putwordMDec
  \fi
  \space\number\year}
\fi

% @settitle line...  specifies the title of the document, for headings.
% It generates no output of its own.
\def\thistitle{\putwordNoTitle}
\def\settitle{\parsearg{\gdef\thistitle}}


\message{tables,}
% Tables -- @table, @ftable, @vtable, @item(x).

% default indentation of table text
\newdimen\tableindent \tableindent=.8in
% default indentation of @itemize and @enumerate text
\newdimen\itemindent  \itemindent=.3in
% margin between end of table item and start of table text.
\newdimen\itemmargin  \itemmargin=.1in

% used internally for \itemindent minus \itemmargin
\newdimen\itemmax

% Note @table, @ftable, and @vtable define @item, @itemx, etc., with
% these defs.
% They also define \itemindex
% to index the item name in whatever manner is desired (perhaps none).

\newif\ifitemxneedsnegativevskip

\def\itemxpar{\par\ifitemxneedsnegativevskip\nobreak\vskip-\parskip\nobreak\fi}

\def\internalBitem{\smallbreak \parsearg\itemzzz}
\def\internalBitemx{\itemxpar \parsearg\itemzzz}

\def\itemzzz #1{\begingroup %
  \advance\hsize by -\rightskip
  \advance\hsize by -\tableindent
  \setbox0=\hbox{\itemindicate{#1}}%
  \itemindex{#1}%
  \nobreak % This prevents a break before @itemx.
  %
  % If the item text does not fit in the space we have, put it on a line
  % by itself, and do not allow a page break either before or after that
  % line.  We do not start a paragraph here because then if the next
  % command is, e.g., @kindex, the whatsit would get put into the
  % horizontal list on a line by itself, resulting in extra blank space.
  \ifdim \wd0>\itemmax
    %
    % Make this a paragraph so we get the \parskip glue and wrapping,
    % but leave it ragged-right.
    \begingroup
      \advance\leftskip by-\tableindent
      \advance\hsize by\tableindent
      \advance\rightskip by0pt plus1fil
      \leavevmode\unhbox0\par
    \endgroup
    %
    % We're going to be starting a paragraph, but we don't want the
    % \parskip glue -- logically it's part of the @item we just started.
    \nobreak \vskip-\parskip
    %
    % Stop a page break at the \parskip glue coming up.  However, if
    % what follows is an environment such as @example, there will be no
    % \parskip glue; then the negative vskip we just inserted would
    % cause the example and the item to crash together.  So we use this
    % bizarre value of 10001 as a signal to \aboveenvbreak to insert
    % \parskip glue after all.  Section titles are handled this way also.
    % 
    \penalty 10001
    \endgroup
    \itemxneedsnegativevskipfalse
  \else
    % The item text fits into the space.  Start a paragraph, so that the
    % following text (if any) will end up on the same line.
    \noindent
    % Do this with kerns and \unhbox so that if there is a footnote in
    % the item text, it can migrate to the main vertical list and
    % eventually be printed.
    \nobreak\kern-\tableindent
    \dimen0 = \itemmax  \advance\dimen0 by \itemmargin \advance\dimen0 by -\wd0
    \unhbox0
    \nobreak\kern\dimen0
    \endgroup
    \itemxneedsnegativevskiptrue
  \fi
}

\def\item{\errmessage{@item while not in a list environment}}
\def\itemx{\errmessage{@itemx while not in a list environment}}

% @table, @ftable, @vtable.
\envdef\table{%
  \let\itemindex\gobble
  \tablecheck{table}%
}
\envdef\ftable{%
  \def\itemindex ##1{\doind {fn}{\code{##1}}}%
  \tablecheck{ftable}%
}
\envdef\vtable{%
  \def\itemindex ##1{\doind {vr}{\code{##1}}}%
  \tablecheck{vtable}%
}
\def\tablecheck#1{%
  \ifnum \the\catcode`\^^M=\active
    \endgroup
    \errmessage{This command won't work in this context; perhaps the problem is
      that we are \inenvironment\thisenv}%
    \def\next{\doignore{#1}}%
  \else
    \let\next\tablex
  \fi
  \next
}
\def\tablex#1{%
  \def\itemindicate{#1}%
  \parsearg\tabley
}
\def\tabley#1{%
  {%
    \makevalueexpandable
    \edef\temp{\noexpand\tablez #1\space\space\space}%
    \expandafter
  }\temp \endtablez
}
\def\tablez #1 #2 #3 #4\endtablez{%
  \aboveenvbreak
  \ifnum 0#1>0 \advance \leftskip by #1\mil \fi
  \ifnum 0#2>0 \tableindent=#2\mil \fi
  \ifnum 0#3>0 \advance \rightskip by #3\mil \fi
  \itemmax=\tableindent
  \advance \itemmax by -\itemmargin
  \advance \leftskip by \tableindent
  \exdentamount=\tableindent
  \parindent = 0pt
  \parskip = \smallskipamount
  \ifdim \parskip=0pt \parskip=2pt \fi
  \let\item = \internalBitem
  \let\itemx = \internalBitemx
}
\def\Etable{\endgraf\afterenvbreak}
\let\Eftable\Etable
\let\Evtable\Etable
\let\Eitemize\Etable
\let\Eenumerate\Etable

% This is the counter used by @enumerate, which is really @itemize

\newcount \itemno

\envdef\itemize{\parsearg\doitemize}

\def\doitemize#1{%
  \aboveenvbreak
  \itemmax=\itemindent
  \advance\itemmax by -\itemmargin
  \advance\leftskip by \itemindent
  \exdentamount=\itemindent
  \parindent=0pt
  \parskip=\smallskipamount
  \ifdim\parskip=0pt \parskip=2pt \fi
  \def\itemcontents{#1}%
  % @itemize with no arg is equivalent to @itemize @bullet.
  \ifx\itemcontents\empty\def\itemcontents{\bullet}\fi
  \let\item=\itemizeitem
}

% Definition of @item while inside @itemize and @enumerate.
%
\def\itemizeitem{%
  \advance\itemno by 1  % for enumerations
  {\let\par=\endgraf \smallbreak}% reasonable place to break
  {%
   % If the document has an @itemize directly after a section title, a
   % \nobreak will be last on the list, and \sectionheading will have
   % done a \vskip-\parskip.  In that case, we don't want to zero
   % parskip, or the item text will crash with the heading.  On the
   % other hand, when there is normal text preceding the item (as there
   % usually is), we do want to zero parskip, or there would be too much
   % space.  In that case, we won't have a \nobreak before.  At least
   % that's the theory.
   \ifnum\lastpenalty<10000 \parskip=0in \fi
   \noindent
   \hbox to 0pt{\hss \itemcontents \kern\itemmargin}%
   \vadjust{\penalty 1200}}% not good to break after first line of item.
  \flushcr
}

% \splitoff TOKENS\endmark defines \first to be the first token in
% TOKENS, and \rest to be the remainder.
%
\def\splitoff#1#2\endmark{\def\first{#1}\def\rest{#2}}%

% Allow an optional argument of an uppercase letter, lowercase letter,
% or number, to specify the first label in the enumerated list.  No
% argument is the same as `1'.
%
\envparseargdef\enumerate{\enumeratey #1  \endenumeratey}
\def\enumeratey #1 #2\endenumeratey{%
  % If we were given no argument, pretend we were given `1'.
  \def\thearg{#1}%
  \ifx\thearg\empty \def\thearg{1}\fi
  %
  % Detect if the argument is a single token.  If so, it might be a
  % letter.  Otherwise, the only valid thing it can be is a number.
  % (We will always have one token, because of the test we just made.
  % This is a good thing, since \splitoff doesn't work given nothing at
  % all -- the first parameter is undelimited.)
  \expandafter\splitoff\thearg\endmark
  \ifx\rest\empty
    % Only one token in the argument.  It could still be anything.
    % A ``lowercase letter'' is one whose \lccode is nonzero.
    % An ``uppercase letter'' is one whose \lccode is both nonzero, and
    %   not equal to itself.
    % Otherwise, we assume it's a number.
    %
    % We need the \relax at the end of the \ifnum lines to stop TeX from
    % continuing to look for a <number>.
    %
    \ifnum\lccode\expandafter`\thearg=0\relax
      \numericenumerate % a number (we hope)
    \else
      % It's a letter.
      \ifnum\lccode\expandafter`\thearg=\expandafter`\thearg\relax
        \lowercaseenumerate % lowercase letter
      \else
        \uppercaseenumerate % uppercase letter
      \fi
    \fi
  \else
    % Multiple tokens in the argument.  We hope it's a number.
    \numericenumerate
  \fi
}

% An @enumerate whose labels are integers.  The starting integer is
% given in \thearg.
%
\def\numericenumerate{%
  \itemno = \thearg
  \startenumeration{\the\itemno}%
}

% The starting (lowercase) letter is in \thearg.
\def\lowercaseenumerate{%
  \itemno = \expandafter`\thearg
  \startenumeration{%
    % Be sure we're not beyond the end of the alphabet.
    \ifnum\itemno=0
      \errmessage{No more lowercase letters in @enumerate; get a bigger
                  alphabet}%
    \fi
    \char\lccode\itemno
  }%
}

% The starting (uppercase) letter is in \thearg.
\def\uppercaseenumerate{%
  \itemno = \expandafter`\thearg
  \startenumeration{%
    % Be sure we're not beyond the end of the alphabet.
    \ifnum\itemno=0
      \errmessage{No more uppercase letters in @enumerate; get a bigger
                  alphabet}
    \fi
    \char\uccode\itemno
  }%
}

% Call \doitemize, adding a period to the first argument and supplying the
% common last two arguments.  Also subtract one from the initial value in
% \itemno, since @item increments \itemno.
%
\def\startenumeration#1{%
  \advance\itemno by -1
  \doitemize{#1.}\flushcr
}

% @alphaenumerate and @capsenumerate are abbreviations for giving an arg
% to @enumerate.
%
\def\alphaenumerate{\enumerate{a}}
\def\capsenumerate{\enumerate{A}}
\def\Ealphaenumerate{\Eenumerate}
\def\Ecapsenumerate{\Eenumerate}


% @multitable macros
% Amy Hendrickson, 8/18/94, 3/6/96
%
% @multitable ... @end multitable will make as many columns as desired.
% Contents of each column will wrap at width given in preamble.  Width
% can be specified either with sample text given in a template line,
% or in percent of \hsize, the current width of text on page.

% Table can continue over pages but will only break between lines.

% To make preamble:
%
% Either define widths of columns in terms of percent of \hsize:
%   @multitable @columnfractions .25 .3 .45
%   @item ...
%
%   Numbers following @columnfractions are the percent of the total
%   current hsize to be used for each column. You may use as many
%   columns as desired.


% Or use a template:
%   @multitable {Column 1 template} {Column 2 template} {Column 3 template}
%   @item ...
%   using the widest term desired in each column.

% Each new table line starts with @item, each subsequent new column
% starts with @tab. Empty columns may be produced by supplying @tab's
% with nothing between them for as many times as empty columns are needed,
% ie, @tab@tab@tab will produce two empty columns.

% @item, @tab do not need to be on their own lines, but it will not hurt
% if they are.

% Sample multitable:

%   @multitable {Column 1 template} {Column 2 template} {Column 3 template}
%   @item first col stuff @tab second col stuff @tab third col
%   @item
%   first col stuff
%   @tab
%   second col stuff
%   @tab
%   third col
%   @item first col stuff @tab second col stuff
%   @tab Many paragraphs of text may be used in any column.
%
%         They will wrap at the width determined by the template.
%   @item@tab@tab This will be in third column.
%   @end multitable

% Default dimensions may be reset by user.
% @multitableparskip is vertical space between paragraphs in table.
% @multitableparindent is paragraph indent in table.
% @multitablecolmargin is horizontal space to be left between columns.
% @multitablelinespace is space to leave between table items, baseline
%                                                            to baseline.
%   0pt means it depends on current normal line spacing.
%
\newskip\multitableparskip
\newskip\multitableparindent
\newdimen\multitablecolspace
\newskip\multitablelinespace
\multitableparskip=0pt
\multitableparindent=6pt
\multitablecolspace=12pt
\multitablelinespace=0pt

% Macros used to set up halign preamble:
%
\let\endsetuptable\relax
\def\xendsetuptable{\endsetuptable}
\let\columnfractions\relax
\def\xcolumnfractions{\columnfractions}
\newif\ifsetpercent

% #1 is the @columnfraction, usually a decimal number like .5, but might
% be just 1.  We just use it, whatever it is.
%
\def\pickupwholefraction#1 {%
  \global\advance\colcount by 1
  \expandafter\xdef\csname col\the\colcount\endcsname{#1\hsize}%
  \setuptable
}

\newcount\colcount
\def\setuptable#1{%
  \def\firstarg{#1}%
  \ifx\firstarg\xendsetuptable
    \let\go = \relax
  \else
    \ifx\firstarg\xcolumnfractions
      \global\setpercenttrue
    \else
      \ifsetpercent
         \let\go\pickupwholefraction
      \else
         \global\advance\colcount by 1
         \setbox0=\hbox{#1\unskip\space}% Add a normal word space as a
                   % separator; typically that is always in the input, anyway.
         \expandafter\xdef\csname col\the\colcount\endcsname{\the\wd0}%
      \fi
    \fi
    \ifx\go\pickupwholefraction
      % Put the argument back for the \pickupwholefraction call, so
      % we'll always have a period there to be parsed.
      \def\go{\pickupwholefraction#1}%
    \else
      \let\go = \setuptable
    \fi%
  \fi
  \go
}

% multitable-only commands.
%
% @headitem starts a heading row, which we typeset in bold.
% Assignments have to be global since we are inside the implicit group
% of an alignment entry.  Note that \everycr resets \everytab.
\def\headitem{\checkenv\multitable \crcr \global\everytab={\bf}\the\everytab}%
%
% A \tab used to include \hskip1sp.  But then the space in a template
% line is not enough.  That is bad.  So let's go back to just `&' until
% we encounter the problem it was intended to solve again.
%					--karl, nathan@acm.org, 20apr99.
\def\tab{\checkenv\multitable &\the\everytab}%

% @multitable ... @end multitable definitions:
%
\newtoks\everytab  % insert after every tab.
%
\envdef\multitable{%
  \vskip\parskip
  \startsavinginserts
  %
  % @item within a multitable starts a normal row.
  % We use \def instead of \let so that if one of the multitable entries
  % contains an @itemize, we don't choke on the \item (seen as \crcr aka
  % \endtemplate) expanding \doitemize.
  \def\item{\crcr}%
  %
  \tolerance=9500
  \hbadness=9500
  \setmultitablespacing
  \parskip=\multitableparskip
  \parindent=\multitableparindent
  \overfullrule=0pt
  \global\colcount=0
  %
  \everycr = {%
    \noalign{%
      \global\everytab={}%
      \global\colcount=0 % Reset the column counter.
      % Check for saved footnotes, etc.
      \checkinserts
      % Keeps underfull box messages off when table breaks over pages.
      %\filbreak
	% Maybe so, but it also creates really weird page breaks when the
	% table breaks over pages. Wouldn't \vfil be better?  Wait until the
	% problem manifests itself, so it can be fixed for real --karl.
    }%
  }%
  %
  \parsearg\domultitable
}
\def\domultitable#1{%
  % To parse everything between @multitable and @item:
  \setuptable#1 \endsetuptable
  %
  % This preamble sets up a generic column definition, which will
  % be used as many times as user calls for columns.
  % \vtop will set a single line and will also let text wrap and
  % continue for many paragraphs if desired.
  \halign\bgroup &%
    \global\advance\colcount by 1
    \multistrut
    \vtop{%
      % Use the current \colcount to find the correct column width:
      \hsize=\expandafter\csname col\the\colcount\endcsname
      %
      % In order to keep entries from bumping into each other
      % we will add a \leftskip of \multitablecolspace to all columns after
      % the first one.
      %
      % If a template has been used, we will add \multitablecolspace
      % to the width of each template entry.
      %
      % If the user has set preamble in terms of percent of \hsize we will
      % use that dimension as the width of the column, and the \leftskip
      % will keep entries from bumping into each other.  Table will start at
      % left margin and final column will justify at right margin.
      %
      % Make sure we don't inherit \rightskip from the outer environment.
      \rightskip=0pt
      \ifnum\colcount=1
	% The first column will be indented with the surrounding text.
	\advance\hsize by\leftskip
      \else
	\ifsetpercent \else
	  % If user has not set preamble in terms of percent of \hsize
	  % we will advance \hsize by \multitablecolspace.
	  \advance\hsize by \multitablecolspace
	\fi
       % In either case we will make \leftskip=\multitablecolspace:
      \leftskip=\multitablecolspace
      \fi
      % Ignoring space at the beginning and end avoids an occasional spurious
      % blank line, when TeX decides to break the line at the space before the
      % box from the multistrut, so the strut ends up on a line by itself.
      % For example:
      % @multitable @columnfractions .11 .89
      % @item @code{#}
      % @tab Legal holiday which is valid in major parts of the whole country.
      % Is automatically provided with highlighting sequences respectively
      % marking characters.
      \noindent\ignorespaces##\unskip\multistrut
    }\cr
}
\def\Emultitable{%
  \crcr
  \egroup % end the \halign
  \global\setpercentfalse
}

\def\setmultitablespacing{%
  \def\multistrut{\strut}% just use the standard line spacing
  %
  % Compute \multitablelinespace (if not defined by user) for use in
  % \multitableparskip calculation.  We used define \multistrut based on
  % this, but (ironically) that caused the spacing to be off.
  % See bug-texinfo report from Werner Lemberg, 31 Oct 2004 12:52:20 +0100.
\ifdim\multitablelinespace=0pt
\setbox0=\vbox{X}\global\multitablelinespace=\the\baselineskip
\global\advance\multitablelinespace by-\ht0
\fi
%% Test to see if parskip is larger than space between lines of
%% table. If not, do nothing.
%%        If so, set to same dimension as multitablelinespace.
\ifdim\multitableparskip>\multitablelinespace
\global\multitableparskip=\multitablelinespace
\global\advance\multitableparskip-7pt %% to keep parskip somewhat smaller
                                      %% than skip between lines in the table.
\fi%
\ifdim\multitableparskip=0pt
\global\multitableparskip=\multitablelinespace
\global\advance\multitableparskip-7pt %% to keep parskip somewhat smaller
                                      %% than skip between lines in the table.
\fi}


\message{conditionals,}

% @iftex, @ifnotdocbook, @ifnothtml, @ifnotinfo, @ifnotplaintext,
% @ifnotxml always succeed.  They currently do nothing; we don't
% attempt to check whether the conditionals are properly nested.  But we
% have to remember that they are conditionals, so that @end doesn't
% attempt to close an environment group.
%
\def\makecond#1{%
  \expandafter\let\csname #1\endcsname = \relax
  \expandafter\let\csname iscond.#1\endcsname = 1
}
\makecond{iftex}
\makecond{ifnotdocbook}
\makecond{ifnothtml}
\makecond{ifnotinfo}
\makecond{ifnotplaintext}
\makecond{ifnotxml}

% Ignore @ignore, @ifhtml, @ifinfo, and the like.
%
\def\direntry{\doignore{direntry}}
\def\documentdescription{\doignore{documentdescription}}
\def\docbook{\doignore{docbook}}
\def\html{\doignore{html}}
\def\ifdocbook{\doignore{ifdocbook}}
\def\ifhtml{\doignore{ifhtml}}
\def\ifinfo{\doignore{ifinfo}}
\def\ifnottex{\doignore{ifnottex}}
\def\ifplaintext{\doignore{ifplaintext}}
\def\ifxml{\doignore{ifxml}}
\def\ignore{\doignore{ignore}}
\def\menu{\doignore{menu}}
\def\xml{\doignore{xml}}

% Ignore text until a line `@end #1', keeping track of nested conditionals.
%
% A count to remember the depth of nesting.
\newcount\doignorecount

\def\doignore#1{\begingroup
  % Scan in ``verbatim'' mode:
  \obeylines
  \catcode`\@ = \other
  \catcode`\{ = \other
  \catcode`\} = \other
  %
  % Make sure that spaces turn into tokens that match what \doignoretext wants.
  \spaceisspace
  %
  % Count number of #1's that we've seen.
  \doignorecount = 0
  %
  % Swallow text until we reach the matching `@end #1'.
  \dodoignore{#1}%
}

{ \catcode`_=11 % We want to use \_STOP_ which cannot appear in texinfo source.
  \obeylines %
  %
  \gdef\dodoignore#1{%
    % #1 contains the command name as a string, e.g., `ifinfo'.
    %
    % Define a command to find the next `@end #1'.
    \long\def\doignoretext##1^^M@end #1{%
      \doignoretextyyy##1^^M@#1\_STOP_}%
    %
    % And this command to find another #1 command, at the beginning of a
    % line.  (Otherwise, we would consider a line `@c @ifset', for
    % example, to count as an @ifset for nesting.)
    \long\def\doignoretextyyy##1^^M@#1##2\_STOP_{\doignoreyyy{##2}\_STOP_}%
    %
    % And now expand that command.
    \doignoretext ^^M%
  }%
}

\def\doignoreyyy#1{%
  \def\temp{#1}%
  \ifx\temp\empty			% Nothing found.
    \let\next\doignoretextzzz
  \else					% Found a nested condition, ...
    \advance\doignorecount by 1
    \let\next\doignoretextyyy		% ..., look for another.
    % If we're here, #1 ends with ^^M\ifinfo (for example).
  \fi
  \next #1% the token \_STOP_ is present just after this macro.
}

% We have to swallow the remaining "\_STOP_".
%
\def\doignoretextzzz#1{%
  \ifnum\doignorecount = 0	% We have just found the outermost @end.
    \let\next\enddoignore
  \else				% Still inside a nested condition.
    \advance\doignorecount by -1
    \let\next\doignoretext      % Look for the next @end.
  \fi
  \next
}

% Finish off ignored text.
{ \obeylines%
  % Ignore anything after the last `@end #1'; this matters in verbatim
  % environments, where otherwise the newline after an ignored conditional
  % would result in a blank line in the output.
  \gdef\enddoignore#1^^M{\endgroup\ignorespaces}%
}


% @set VAR sets the variable VAR to an empty value.
% @set VAR REST-OF-LINE sets VAR to the value REST-OF-LINE.
%
% Since we want to separate VAR from REST-OF-LINE (which might be
% empty), we can't just use \parsearg; we have to insert a space of our
% own to delimit the rest of the line, and then take it out again if we
% didn't need it.
% We rely on the fact that \parsearg sets \catcode`\ =10.
%
\parseargdef\set{\setyyy#1 \endsetyyy}
\def\setyyy#1 #2\endsetyyy{%
  {%
    \makevalueexpandable
    \def\temp{#2}%
    \edef\next{\gdef\makecsname{SET#1}}%
    \ifx\temp\empty
      \next{}%
    \else
      \setzzz#2\endsetzzz
    \fi
  }%
}
% Remove the trailing space \setxxx inserted.
\def\setzzz#1 \endsetzzz{\next{#1}}

% @clear VAR clears (i.e., unsets) the variable VAR.
%
\parseargdef\clear{%
  {%
    \makevalueexpandable
    \global\expandafter\let\csname SET#1\endcsname=\relax
  }%
}

% @value{foo} gets the text saved in variable foo.
\def\value{\begingroup\makevalueexpandable\valuexxx}
\def\valuexxx#1{\expandablevalue{#1}\endgroup}
{
  \catcode`\- = \active \catcode`\_ = \active
  %
  \gdef\makevalueexpandable{%
    \let\value = \expandablevalue
    % We don't want these characters active, ...
    \catcode`\-=\other \catcode`\_=\other
    % ..., but we might end up with active ones in the argument if
    % we're called from @code, as @code{@value{foo-bar_}}, though.
    % So \let them to their normal equivalents.
    \let-\realdash \let_\normalunderscore
  }
}

% We have this subroutine so that we can handle at least some @value's
% properly in indexes (we call \makevalueexpandable in \indexdummies).
% The command has to be fully expandable (if the variable is set), since
% the result winds up in the index file.  This means that if the
% variable's value contains other Texinfo commands, it's almost certain
% it will fail (although perhaps we could fix that with sufficient work
% to do a one-level expansion on the result, instead of complete).
%
\def\expandablevalue#1{%
  \expandafter\ifx\csname SET#1\endcsname\relax
    {[No value for ``#1'']}%
    \message{Variable `#1', used in @value, is not set.}%
  \else
    \csname SET#1\endcsname
  \fi
}

% @ifset VAR ... @end ifset reads the `...' iff VAR has been defined
% with @set.
%
% To get special treatment of `@end ifset,' call \makeond and the redefine.
%
\makecond{ifset}
\def\ifset{\parsearg{\doifset{\let\next=\ifsetfail}}}
\def\doifset#1#2{%
  {%
    \makevalueexpandable
    \let\next=\empty
    \expandafter\ifx\csname SET#2\endcsname\relax
      #1% If not set, redefine \next.
    \fi
    \expandafter
  }\next
}
\def\ifsetfail{\doignore{ifset}}

% @ifclear VAR ... @end ifclear reads the `...' iff VAR has never been
% defined with @set, or has been undefined with @clear.
%
% The `\else' inside the `\doifset' parameter is a trick to reuse the
% above code: if the variable is not set, do nothing, if it is set,
% then redefine \next to \ifclearfail.
%
\makecond{ifclear}
\def\ifclear{\parsearg{\doifset{\else \let\next=\ifclearfail}}}
\def\ifclearfail{\doignore{ifclear}}

% @dircategory CATEGORY  -- specify a category of the dir file
% which this file should belong to.  Ignore this in TeX.
\let\dircategory=\comment

% @defininfoenclose.
\let\definfoenclose=\comment


\message{indexing,}
% Index generation facilities

% Define \newwrite to be identical to plain tex's \newwrite
% except not \outer, so it can be used within macros and \if's.
\edef\newwrite{\makecsname{ptexnewwrite}}

% \newindex {foo} defines an index named foo.
% It automatically defines \fooindex such that
% \fooindex ...rest of line... puts an entry in the index foo.
% It also defines \fooindfile to be the number of the output channel for
% the file that accumulates this index.  The file's extension is foo.
% The name of an index should be no more than 2 characters long
% for the sake of vms.
%
\def\newindex#1{%
  \iflinks
    \expandafter\newwrite \csname#1indfile\endcsname
    \openout \csname#1indfile\endcsname \jobname.#1 % Open the file
  \fi
  \expandafter\xdef\csname#1index\endcsname{%     % Define @#1index
    \noexpand\doindex{#1}}
}

% @defindex foo  ==  \newindex{foo}
%
\def\defindex{\parsearg\newindex}

% Define @defcodeindex, like @defindex except put all entries in @code.
%
\def\defcodeindex{\parsearg\newcodeindex}
%
\def\newcodeindex#1{%
  \iflinks
    \expandafter\newwrite \csname#1indfile\endcsname
    \openout \csname#1indfile\endcsname \jobname.#1
  \fi
  \expandafter\xdef\csname#1index\endcsname{%
    \noexpand\docodeindex{#1}}%
}


% @synindex foo bar    makes index foo feed into index bar.
% Do this instead of @defindex foo if you don't want it as a separate index.
%
% @syncodeindex foo bar   similar, but put all entries made for index foo
% inside @code.
%
\def\synindex#1 #2 {\dosynindex\doindex{#1}{#2}}
\def\syncodeindex#1 #2 {\dosynindex\docodeindex{#1}{#2}}

% #1 is \doindex or \docodeindex, #2 the index getting redefined (foo),
% #3 the target index (bar).
\def\dosynindex#1#2#3{%
  % Only do \closeout if we haven't already done it, else we'll end up
  % closing the target index.
  \expandafter \ifx\csname donesynindex#2\endcsname \undefined
    % The \closeout helps reduce unnecessary open files; the limit on the
    % Acorn RISC OS is a mere 16 files.
    \expandafter\closeout\csname#2indfile\endcsname
    \expandafter\let\csname\donesynindex#2\endcsname = 1
  \fi
  % redefine \fooindfile:
  \expandafter\let\expandafter\temp\expandafter=\csname#3indfile\endcsname
  \expandafter\let\csname#2indfile\endcsname=\temp
  % redefine \fooindex:
  \expandafter\xdef\csname#2index\endcsname{\noexpand#1{#3}}%
}

% Define \doindex, the driver for all \fooindex macros.
% Argument #1 is generated by the calling \fooindex macro,
%  and it is "foo", the name of the index.

% \doindex just uses \parsearg; it calls \doind for the actual work.
% This is because \doind is more useful to call from other macros.

% There is also \dosubind {index}{topic}{subtopic}
% which makes an entry in a two-level index such as the operation index.

\def\doindex#1{\edef\indexname{#1}\parsearg\singleindexer}
\def\singleindexer #1{\doind{\indexname}{#1}}

% like the previous two, but they put @code around the argument.
\def\docodeindex#1{\edef\indexname{#1}\parsearg\singlecodeindexer}
\def\singlecodeindexer #1{\doind{\indexname}{\code{#1}}}

% Take care of Texinfo commands that can appear in an index entry.
% Since there are some commands we want to expand, and others we don't,
% we have to laboriously prevent expansion for those that we don't.
%
\def\indexdummies{%
  \escapechar = `\\     % use backslash in output files.
  \def\@{@}% change to @@ when we switch to @ as escape char in index files.
  \def\ {\realbackslash\space }%
  %
  % Need these in case \tex is in effect and \{ is a \delimiter again.
  % But can't use \lbracecmd and \rbracecmd because texindex assumes
  % braces and backslashes are used only as delimiters.
  \let\{ = \mylbrace
  \let\} = \myrbrace
  %
  % I don't entirely understand this, but when an index entry is
  % generated from a macro call, the \endinput which \scanmacro inserts
  % causes processing to be prematurely terminated.  This is,
  % apparently, because \indexsorttmp is fully expanded, and \endinput
  % is an expandable command.  The redefinition below makes \endinput
  % disappear altogether for that purpose -- although logging shows that
  % processing continues to some further point.  On the other hand, it
  % seems \endinput does not hurt in the printed index arg, since that
  % is still getting written without apparent harm.
  % 
  % Sample source (mac-idx3.tex, reported by Graham Percival to
  % help-texinfo, 22may06):
  % @macro funindex {WORD}
  % @findex xyz
  % @end macro
  % ...
  % @funindex commtest
  % 
  % The above is not enough to reproduce the bug, but it gives the flavor.
  % 
  % Sample whatsit resulting:
  % .@write3{\entry{xyz}{@folio }{@code {xyz@endinput }}}
  % 
  % So:
  \let\endinput = \empty
  %
  % Do the redefinitions.
  \commondummies
}

% For the aux and toc files, @ is the escape character.  So we want to
% redefine everything using @ as the escape character (instead of
% \realbackslash, still used for index files).  When everything uses @,
% this will be simpler.
%
\def\atdummies{%
  \def\@{@@}%
  \def\ {@ }%
  \let\{ = \lbraceatcmd
  \let\} = \rbraceatcmd
  %
  % Do the redefinitions.
  \commondummies
  \otherbackslash
}

% Called from \indexdummies and \atdummies.
%
\def\commondummies{%
  %
  % \definedummyword defines \#1 as \string\#1\space, thus effectively
  % preventing its expansion.  This is used only for control% words,
  % not control letters, because the \space would be incorrect for
  % control characters, but is needed to separate the control word
  % from whatever follows.
  %
  % For control letters, we have \definedummyletter, which omits the
  % space.
  %
  % These can be used both for control words that take an argument and
  % those that do not.  If it is followed by {arg} in the input, then
  % that will dutifully get written to the index (or wherever).
  %
  \def\definedummyword  ##1{\def##1{\string##1\space}}%
  \def\definedummyletter##1{\def##1{\string##1}}%
  \let\definedummyaccent\definedummyletter
  %
  \commondummiesnofonts
  %
  \definedummyletter\_%
  %
  % Non-English letters.
  \definedummyword\AA
  \definedummyword\AE
  \definedummyword\L
  \definedummyword\OE
  \definedummyword\O
  \definedummyword\aa
  \definedummyword\ae
  \definedummyword\l
  \definedummyword\oe
  \definedummyword\o
  \definedummyword\ss
  \definedummyword\exclamdown
  \definedummyword\questiondown
  \definedummyword\ordf
  \definedummyword\ordm
  %
  % Although these internal commands shouldn't show up, sometimes they do.
  \definedummyword\bf
  \definedummyword\gtr
  \definedummyword\hat
  \definedummyword\less
  \definedummyword\sf
  \definedummyword\sl
  \definedummyword\tclose
  \definedummyword\tt
  %
  \definedummyword\LaTeX
  \definedummyword\TeX
  %
  % Assorted special characters.
  \definedummyword\bullet
  \definedummyword\comma
  \definedummyword\copyright
  \definedummyword\registeredsymbol
  \definedummyword\dots
  \definedummyword\enddots
  \definedummyword\equiv
  \definedummyword\error
  \definedummyword\euro
  \definedummyword\expansion
  \definedummyword\minus
  \definedummyword\pounds
  \definedummyword\point
  \definedummyword\print
  \definedummyword\result
  \definedummyword\textdegree
  %
  % We want to disable all macros so that they are not expanded by \write.
  \macrolist
  %
  \normalturnoffactive
  %
  % Handle some cases of @value -- where it does not contain any
  % (non-fully-expandable) commands.
  \makevalueexpandable
}

% \commondummiesnofonts: common to \commondummies and \indexnofonts.
%
\def\commondummiesnofonts{%
  % Control letters and accents.
  \definedummyletter\!%
  \definedummyaccent\"%
  \definedummyaccent\'%
  \definedummyletter\*%
  \definedummyaccent\,%
  \definedummyletter\.%
  \definedummyletter\/%
  \definedummyletter\:%
  \definedummyaccent\=%
  \definedummyletter\?%
  \definedummyaccent\^%
  \definedummyaccent\`%
  \definedummyaccent\~%
  \definedummyword\u
  \definedummyword\v
  \definedummyword\H
  \definedummyword\dotaccent
  \definedummyword\ringaccent
  \definedummyword\tieaccent
  \definedummyword\ubaraccent
  \definedummyword\udotaccent
  \definedummyword\dotless
  %
  % Texinfo font commands.
  \definedummyword\b
  \definedummyword\i
  \definedummyword\r
  \definedummyword\sc
  \definedummyword\t
  %
  % Commands that take arguments.
  \definedummyword\acronym
  \definedummyword\cite
  \definedummyword\code
  \definedummyword\command
  \definedummyword\dfn
  \definedummyword\emph
  \definedummyword\env
  \definedummyword\file
  \definedummyword\kbd
  \definedummyword\key
  \definedummyword\math
  \definedummyword\option
  \definedummyword\pxref
  \definedummyword\ref
  \definedummyword\samp
  \definedummyword\strong
  \definedummyword\tie
  \definedummyword\uref
  \definedummyword\url
  \definedummyword\var
  \definedummyword\verb
  \definedummyword\w
  \definedummyword\xref
}

% \indexnofonts is used when outputting the strings to sort the index
% by, and when constructing control sequence names.  It eliminates all
% control sequences and just writes whatever the best ASCII sort string
% would be for a given command (usually its argument).
%
\def\indexnofonts{%
  % Accent commands should become @asis.
  \def\definedummyaccent##1{\let##1\asis}%
  % We can just ignore other control letters.
  \def\definedummyletter##1{\let##1\empty}%
  % Hopefully, all control words can become @asis.
  \let\definedummyword\definedummyaccent
  %
  \commondummiesnofonts
  %
  % Don't no-op \tt, since it isn't a user-level command
  % and is used in the definitions of the active chars like <, >, |, etc.
  % Likewise with the other plain tex font commands.
  %\let\tt=\asis
  %
  \def\ { }%
  \def\@{@}%
  % how to handle braces?
  \def\_{\normalunderscore}%
  %
  % Non-English letters.
  \def\AA{AA}%
  \def\AE{AE}%
  \def\L{L}%
  \def\OE{OE}%
  \def\O{O}%
  \def\aa{aa}%
  \def\ae{ae}%
  \def\l{l}%
  \def\oe{oe}%
  \def\o{o}%
  \def\ss{ss}%
  \def\exclamdown{!}%
  \def\questiondown{?}%
  \def\ordf{a}%
  \def\ordm{o}%
  %
  \def\LaTeX{LaTeX}%
  \def\TeX{TeX}%
  %
  % Assorted special characters.
  % (The following {} will end up in the sort string, but that's ok.)
  \def\bullet{bullet}%
  \def\comma{,}%
  \def\copyright{copyright}%
  \def\registeredsymbol{R}%
  \def\dots{...}%
  \def\enddots{...}%
  \def\equiv{==}%
  \def\error{error}%
  \def\euro{euro}%
  \def\expansion{==>}%
  \def\minus{-}%
  \def\pounds{pounds}%
  \def\point{.}%
  \def\print{-|}%
  \def\result{=>}%
  \def\textdegree{degrees}%
  %
  % We need to get rid of all macros, leaving only the arguments (if present).
  % Of course this is not nearly correct, but it is the best we can do for now.
  % makeinfo does not expand macros in the argument to @deffn, which ends up
  % writing an index entry, and texindex isn't prepared for an index sort entry
  % that starts with \.
  % 
  % Since macro invocations are followed by braces, we can just redefine them
  % to take a single TeX argument.  The case of a macro invocation that
  % goes to end-of-line is not handled.
  % 
  \macrolist
}

\let\indexbackslash=0  %overridden during \printindex.
\let\SETmarginindex=\relax % put index entries in margin (undocumented)?

% Most index entries go through here, but \dosubind is the general case.
% #1 is the index name, #2 is the entry text.
\def\doind#1#2{\dosubind{#1}{#2}{}}

% Workhorse for all \fooindexes.
% #1 is name of index, #2 is stuff to put there, #3 is subentry --
% empty if called from \doind, as we usually are (the main exception
% is with most defuns, which call us directly).
%
\def\dosubind#1#2#3{%
  \iflinks
  {%
    % Store the main index entry text (including the third arg).
    \toks0 = {#2}%
    % If third arg is present, precede it with a space.
    \def\thirdarg{#3}%
    \ifx\thirdarg\empty \else
      \toks0 = \expandafter{\the\toks0 \space #3}%
    \fi
    %
    \edef\writeto{\csname#1indfile\endcsname}%
    %
    \ifvmode
      \dosubindsanitize
    \else
      \dosubindwrite
    \fi
  }%
  \fi
}

% Write the entry in \toks0 to the index file:
%
\def\dosubindwrite{%
  % Put the index entry in the margin if desired.
  \ifx\SETmarginindex\relax\else
    \insert\margin{\hbox{\vrule height8pt depth3pt width0pt \the\toks0}}%
  \fi
  %
  % Remember, we are within a group.
  \indexdummies % Must do this here, since \bf, etc expand at this stage
  \def\backslashcurfont{\indexbackslash}% \indexbackslash isn't defined now
      % so it will be output as is; and it will print as backslash.
  %
  % Process the index entry with all font commands turned off, to
  % get the string to sort by.
  {\indexnofonts
   \edef\temp{\the\toks0}% need full expansion
   \xdef\indexsorttmp{\temp}%
  }%
  %
  % Set up the complete index entry, with both the sort key and
  % the original text, including any font commands.  We write
  % three arguments to \entry to the .?? file (four in the
  % subentry case), texindex reduces to two when writing the .??s
  % sorted result.
  \edef\temp{%
    \write\writeto{%
      \string\entry{\indexsorttmp}{\noexpand\folio}{\the\toks0}}%
  }%
  \temp
}

% Take care of unwanted page breaks:
%
% If a skip is the last thing on the list now, preserve it
% by backing up by \lastskip, doing the \write, then inserting
% the skip again.  Otherwise, the whatsit generated by the
% \write will make \lastskip zero.  The result is that sequences
% like this:
% @end defun
% @tindex whatever
% @defun ...
% will have extra space inserted, because the \medbreak in the
% start of the @defun won't see the skip inserted by the @end of
% the previous defun.
%
% But don't do any of this if we're not in vertical mode.  We
% don't want to do a \vskip and prematurely end a paragraph.
%
% Avoid page breaks due to these extra skips, too.
%
% But wait, there is a catch there:
% We'll have to check whether \lastskip is zero skip.  \ifdim is not
% sufficient for this purpose, as it ignores stretch and shrink parts
% of the skip.  The only way seems to be to check the textual
% representation of the skip.
%
% The following is almost like \def\zeroskipmacro{0.0pt} except that
% the ``p'' and ``t'' characters have catcode \other, not 11 (letter).
%
\edef\zeroskipmacro{\expandafter\the\csname z@skip\endcsname}
%
% ..., ready, GO:
%
\def\dosubindsanitize{%
  % \lastskip and \lastpenalty cannot both be nonzero simultaneously.
  \skip0 = \lastskip
  \edef\lastskipmacro{\the\lastskip}%
  \count255 = \lastpenalty
  %
  % If \lastskip is nonzero, that means the last item was a
  % skip.  And since a skip is discardable, that means this
  % -\skip0 glue we're inserting is preceded by a
  % non-discardable item, therefore it is not a potential
  % breakpoint, therefore no \nobreak needed.
  \ifx\lastskipmacro\zeroskipmacro
  \else
    \vskip-\skip0
  \fi
  %
  \dosubindwrite
  %
  \ifx\lastskipmacro\zeroskipmacro
    % If \lastskip was zero, perhaps the last item was a penalty, and
    % perhaps it was >=10000, e.g., a \nobreak.  In that case, we want
    % to re-insert the same penalty (values >10000 are used for various
    % signals); since we just inserted a non-discardable item, any
    % following glue (such as a \parskip) would be a breakpoint.  For example:
    % 
    %   @deffn deffn-whatever
    %   @vindex index-whatever
    %   Description.
    % would allow a break between the index-whatever whatsit
    % and the "Description." paragraph.
    \ifnum\count255>9999 \penalty\count255 \fi
  \else
    % On the other hand, if we had a nonzero \lastskip,
    % this make-up glue would be preceded by a non-discardable item
    % (the whatsit from the \write), so we must insert a \nobreak.
    \nobreak\vskip\skip0
  \fi
}

% The index entry written in the file actually looks like
%  \entry {sortstring}{page}{topic}
% or
%  \entry {sortstring}{page}{topic}{subtopic}
% The texindex program reads in these files and writes files
% containing these kinds of lines:
%  \initial {c}
%     before the first topic whose initial is c
%  \entry {topic}{pagelist}
%     for a topic that is used without subtopics
%  \primary {topic}
%     for the beginning of a topic that is used with subtopics
%  \secondary {subtopic}{pagelist}
%     for each subtopic.

% Define the user-accessible indexing commands
% @findex, @vindex, @kindex, @cindex.

\def\findex {\fnindex}
\def\kindex {\kyindex}
\def\cindex {\cpindex}
\def\vindex {\vrindex}
\def\tindex {\tpindex}
\def\pindex {\pgindex}

\def\cindexsub {\begingroup\obeylines\cindexsub}
{\obeylines %
\gdef\cindexsub "#1" #2^^M{\endgroup %
\dosubind{cp}{#2}{#1}}}

% Define the macros used in formatting output of the sorted index material.

% @printindex causes a particular index (the ??s file) to get printed.
% It does not print any chapter heading (usually an @unnumbered).
%
\parseargdef\printindex{\begingroup
  \dobreak \chapheadingskip{10000}%
  %
  \smallfonts \rm
  \tolerance = 9500
  \everypar = {}% don't want the \kern\-parindent from indentation suppression.
  %
  % See if the index file exists and is nonempty.
  % Change catcode of @ here so that if the index file contains
  % \initial {@}
  % as its first line, TeX doesn't complain about mismatched braces
  % (because it thinks @} is a control sequence).
  \catcode`\@ = 11
  \openin 1 \jobname.#1s
  \ifeof 1
    % \enddoublecolumns gets confused if there is no text in the index,
    % and it loses the chapter title and the aux file entries for the
    % index.  The easiest way to prevent this problem is to make sure
    % there is some text.
    \putwordIndexNonexistent
  \else
    %
    % If the index file exists but is empty, then \openin leaves \ifeof
    % false.  We have to make TeX try to read something from the file, so
    % it can discover if there is anything in it.
    \read 1 to \temp
    \ifeof 1
      \putwordIndexIsEmpty
    \else
      % Index files are almost Texinfo source, but we use \ as the escape
      % character.  It would be better to use @, but that's too big a change
      % to make right now.
      \def\indexbackslash{\backslashcurfont}%
      \catcode`\\ = 0
      \escapechar = `\\
      \begindoublecolumns
      \input \jobname.#1s
      \enddoublecolumns
    \fi
  \fi
  \closein 1
\endgroup}

% These macros are used by the sorted index file itself.
% Change them to control the appearance of the index.

\def\initial#1{{%
  % Some minor font changes for the special characters.
  \let\tentt=\sectt \let\tt=\sectt \let\sf=\sectt
  %
  % Remove any glue we may have, we'll be inserting our own.
  \removelastskip
  %
  % We like breaks before the index initials, so insert a bonus.
  \nobreak
  \vskip 0pt plus 3\baselineskip
  \penalty 0
  \vskip 0pt plus -3\baselineskip
  %
  % Typeset the initial.  Making this add up to a whole number of
  % baselineskips increases the chance of the dots lining up from column
  % to column.  It still won't often be perfect, because of the stretch
  % we need before each entry, but it's better.
  %
  % No shrink because it confuses \balancecolumns.
  \vskip 1.67\baselineskip plus .5\baselineskip
  \leftline{\secbf #1}%
  % Do our best not to break after the initial.
  \nobreak
  \vskip .33\baselineskip plus .1\baselineskip
}}

% \entry typesets a paragraph consisting of the text (#1), dot leaders, and
% then page number (#2) flushed to the right margin.  It is used for index
% and table of contents entries.  The paragraph is indented by \leftskip.
%
% A straightforward implementation would start like this:
%	\def\entry#1#2{...
% But this frozes the catcodes in the argument, and can cause problems to
% @code, which sets - active.  This problem was fixed by a kludge---
% ``-'' was active throughout whole index, but this isn't really right.
%
% The right solution is to prevent \entry from swallowing the whole text.
%                                 --kasal, 21nov03
\def\entry{%
  \begingroup
    %
    % Start a new paragraph if necessary, so our assignments below can't
    % affect previous text.
    \par
    %
    % Do not fill out the last line with white space.
    \parfillskip = 0in
    %
    % No extra space above this paragraph.
    \parskip = 0in
    %
    % Do not prefer a separate line ending with a hyphen to fewer lines.
    \finalhyphendemerits = 0
    %
    % \hangindent is only relevant when the entry text and page number
    % don't both fit on one line.  In that case, bob suggests starting the
    % dots pretty far over on the line.  Unfortunately, a large
    % indentation looks wrong when the entry text itself is broken across
    % lines.  So we use a small indentation and put up with long leaders.
    %
    % \hangafter is reset to 1 (which is the value we want) at the start
    % of each paragraph, so we need not do anything with that.
    \hangindent = 2em
    %
    % When the entry text needs to be broken, just fill out the first line
    % with blank space.
    \rightskip = 0pt plus1fil
    %
    % A bit of stretch before each entry for the benefit of balancing
    % columns.
    \vskip 0pt plus1pt
    %
    % Swallow the left brace of the text (first parameter):
    \afterassignment\doentry
    \let\temp =
}
\def\doentry{%
    \bgroup % Instead of the swallowed brace.
      \noindent
      \aftergroup\finishentry
      % And now comes the text of the entry.
}
\def\finishentry#1{%
    % #1 is the page number.
    %
    % The following is kludged to not output a line of dots in the index if
    % there are no page numbers.  The next person who breaks this will be
    % cursed by a Unix daemon.
    \def\tempa{{\rm }}%
    \def\tempb{#1}%
    \edef\tempc{\tempa}%
    \edef\tempd{\tempb}%
    \ifx\tempc\tempd
      \ %
    \else
      %
      % If we must, put the page number on a line of its own, and fill out
      % this line with blank space.  (The \hfil is overwhelmed with the
      % fill leaders glue in \indexdotfill if the page number does fit.)
      \hfil\penalty50
      \null\nobreak\indexdotfill % Have leaders before the page number.
      %
      % The `\ ' here is removed by the implicit \unskip that TeX does as
      % part of (the primitive) \par.  Without it, a spurious underfull
      % \hbox ensues.
      \ifpdf
	\pdfgettoks#1.%
	\ \the\toksA
      \else
	\ #1%
      \fi
    \fi
    \par
  \endgroup
}

% Like plain.tex's \dotfill, except uses up at least 1 em.
\def\indexdotfill{\cleaders
  \hbox{$\mathsurround=0pt \mkern1.5mu.\mkern1.5mu$}\hskip 1em plus 1fill}

\def\primary #1{\line{#1\hfil}}

\newskip\secondaryindent \secondaryindent=0.5cm
\def\secondary#1#2{{%
  \parfillskip=0in
  \parskip=0in
  \hangindent=1in
  \hangafter=1
  \noindent\hskip\secondaryindent\hbox{#1}\indexdotfill
  \ifpdf
    \pdfgettoks#2.\ \the\toksA % The page number ends the paragraph.
  \else
    #2
  \fi
  \par
}}

% Define two-column mode, which we use to typeset indexes.
% Adapted from the TeXbook, page 416, which is to say,
% the manmac.tex format used to print the TeXbook itself.
\catcode`\@=11

\newbox\partialpage
\newdimen\doublecolumnhsize

\def\begindoublecolumns{\begingroup % ended by \enddoublecolumns
  % Grab any single-column material above us.
  \output = {%
    %
    % Here is a possibility not foreseen in manmac: if we accumulate a
    % whole lot of material, we might end up calling this \output
    % routine twice in a row (see the doublecol-lose test, which is
    % essentially a couple of indexes with @setchapternewpage off).  In
    % that case we just ship out what is in \partialpage with the normal
    % output routine.  Generally, \partialpage will be empty when this
    % runs and this will be a no-op.  See the indexspread.tex test case.
    \ifvoid\partialpage \else
      \onepageout{\pagecontents\partialpage}%
    \fi
    %
    \global\setbox\partialpage = \vbox{%
      % Unvbox the main output page.
      \unvbox\PAGE
      \kern-\topskip \kern\baselineskip
    }%
  }%
  \eject % run that output routine to set \partialpage
  %
  % Use the double-column output routine for subsequent pages.
  \output = {\doublecolumnout}%
  %
  % Change the page size parameters.  We could do this once outside this
  % routine, in each of @smallbook, @afourpaper, and the default 8.5x11
  % format, but then we repeat the same computation.  Repeating a couple
  % of assignments once per index is clearly meaningless for the
  % execution time, so we may as well do it in one place.
  %
  % First we halve the line length, less a little for the gutter between
  % the columns.  We compute the gutter based on the line length, so it
  % changes automatically with the paper format.  The magic constant
  % below is chosen so that the gutter has the same value (well, +-<1pt)
  % as it did when we hard-coded it.
  %
  % We put the result in a separate register, \doublecolumhsize, so we
  % can restore it in \pagesofar, after \hsize itself has (potentially)
  % been clobbered.
  %
  \doublecolumnhsize = \hsize
    \advance\doublecolumnhsize by -.04154\hsize
    \divide\doublecolumnhsize by 2
  \hsize = \doublecolumnhsize
  %
  % Double the \vsize as well.  (We don't need a separate register here,
  % since nobody clobbers \vsize.)
  \vsize = 2\vsize
}

% The double-column output routine for all double-column pages except
% the last.
%
\def\doublecolumnout{%
  \splittopskip=\topskip \splitmaxdepth=\maxdepth
  % Get the available space for the double columns -- the normal
  % (undoubled) page height minus any material left over from the
  % previous page.
  \dimen@ = \vsize
  \divide\dimen@ by 2
  \advance\dimen@ by -\ht\partialpage
  %
  % box0 will be the left-hand column, box2 the right.
  \setbox0=\vsplit255 to\dimen@ \setbox2=\vsplit255 to\dimen@
  \onepageout\pagesofar
  \unvbox255
  \penalty\outputpenalty
}
%
% Re-output the contents of the output page -- any previous material,
% followed by the two boxes we just split, in box0 and box2.
\def\pagesofar{%
  \unvbox\partialpage
  %
  \hsize = \doublecolumnhsize
  \wd0=\hsize \wd2=\hsize
  \hbox to\pagewidth{\box0\hfil\box2}%
}
%
% All done with double columns.
\def\enddoublecolumns{%
  \output = {%
    % Split the last of the double-column material.  Leave it on the
    % current page, no automatic page break.
    \balancecolumns
    %
    % If we end up splitting too much material for the current page,
    % though, there will be another page break right after this \output
    % invocation ends.  Having called \balancecolumns once, we do not
    % want to call it again.  Therefore, reset \output to its normal
    % definition right away.  (We hope \balancecolumns will never be
    % called on to balance too much material, but if it is, this makes
    % the output somewhat more palatable.)
    \global\output = {\onepageout{\pagecontents\PAGE}}%
  }%
  \eject
  \endgroup % started in \begindoublecolumns
  %
  % \pagegoal was set to the doubled \vsize above, since we restarted
  % the current page.  We're now back to normal single-column
  % typesetting, so reset \pagegoal to the normal \vsize (after the
  % \endgroup where \vsize got restored).
  \pagegoal = \vsize
}
%
% Called at the end of the double column material.
\def\balancecolumns{%
  \setbox0 = \vbox{\unvbox255}% like \box255 but more efficient, see p.120.
  \dimen@ = \ht0
  \advance\dimen@ by \topskip
  \advance\dimen@ by-\baselineskip
  \divide\dimen@ by 2 % target to split to
  %debug\message{final 2-column material height=\the\ht0, target=\the\dimen@.}%
  \splittopskip = \topskip
  % Loop until we get a decent breakpoint.
  {%
    \vbadness = 10000
    \loop
      \global\setbox3 = \copy0
      \global\setbox1 = \vsplit3 to \dimen@
    \ifdim\ht3>\dimen@
      \global\advance\dimen@ by 1pt
    \repeat
  }%
  %debug\message{split to \the\dimen@, column heights: \the\ht1, \the\ht3.}%
  \setbox0=\vbox to\dimen@{\unvbox1}%
  \setbox2=\vbox to\dimen@{\unvbox3}%
  %
  \pagesofar
}
\catcode`\@ = \other


\message{sectioning,}
% Chapters, sections, etc.

% \unnumberedno is an oxymoron, of course.  But we count the unnumbered
% sections so that we can refer to them unambiguously in the pdf
% outlines by their "section number".  We avoid collisions with chapter
% numbers by starting them at 10000.  (If a document ever has 10000
% chapters, we're in trouble anyway, I'm sure.)
\newcount\unnumberedno \unnumberedno = 10000
\newcount\chapno
\newcount\secno        \secno=0
\newcount\subsecno     \subsecno=0
\newcount\subsubsecno  \subsubsecno=0

% This counter is funny since it counts through charcodes of letters A, B, ...
\newcount\appendixno  \appendixno = `\@
%
% \def\appendixletter{\char\the\appendixno}
% We do the following ugly conditional instead of the above simple
% construct for the sake of pdftex, which needs the actual
% letter in the expansion, not just typeset.
%
\def\appendixletter{%
  \ifnum\appendixno=`A A%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`B B%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`C C%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`D D%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`E E%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`F F%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`G G%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`H H%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`I I%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`J J%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`K K%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`L L%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`M M%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`N N%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`O O%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`P P%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`Q Q%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`R R%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`S S%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`T T%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`U U%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`V V%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`W W%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`X X%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`Y Y%
  \else\ifnum\appendixno=`Z Z%
  % The \the is necessary, despite appearances, because \appendixletter is
  % expanded while writing the .toc file.  \char\appendixno is not
  % expandable, thus it is written literally, thus all appendixes come out
  % with the same letter (or @) in the toc without it.
  \else\char\the\appendixno
  \fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi
  \fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi\fi}

% Each @chapter defines this as the name of the chapter.
% page headings and footings can use it.  @section does likewise.
% However, they are not reliable, because we don't use marks.
\def\thischapter{}
\def\thissection{}

\newcount\absseclevel % used to calculate proper heading level
\newcount\secbase\secbase=0 % @raisesections/@lowersections modify this count

% @raisesections: treat @section as chapter, @subsection as section, etc.
\def\raisesections{\global\advance\secbase by -1}
\let\up=\raisesections % original BFox name

% @lowersections: treat @chapter as section, @section as subsection, etc.
\def\lowersections{\global\advance\secbase by 1}
\let\down=\lowersections % original BFox name

% we only have subsub.
\chardef\maxseclevel = 3
%
% A numbered section within an unnumbered changes to unnumbered too.
% To achive this, remember the "biggest" unnum. sec. we are currently in:
\chardef\unmlevel = \maxseclevel
%
% Trace whether the current chapter is an appendix or not:
% \chapheadtype is "N" or "A", unnumbered chapters are ignored.
\def\chapheadtype{N}

% Choose a heading macro
% #1 is heading type
% #2 is heading level
% #3 is text for heading
\def\genhead#1#2#3{%
  % Compute the abs. sec. level:
  \absseclevel=#2
  \advance\absseclevel by \secbase
  % Make sure \absseclevel doesn't fall outside the range:
  \ifnum \absseclevel < 0
    \absseclevel = 0
  \else
    \ifnum \absseclevel > 3
      \absseclevel = 3
    \fi
  \fi
  % The heading type:
  \def\headtype{#1}%
  \if \headtype U%
    \ifnum \absseclevel < \unmlevel
      \chardef\unmlevel = \absseclevel
    \fi
  \else
    % Check for appendix sections:
    \ifnum \absseclevel = 0
      \edef\chapheadtype{\headtype}%
    \else
      \if \headtype A\if \chapheadtype N%
	\errmessage{@appendix... within a non-appendix chapter}%
      \fi\fi
    \fi
    % Check for numbered within unnumbered:
    \ifnum \absseclevel > \unmlevel
      \def\headtype{U}%
    \else
      \chardef\unmlevel = 3
    \fi
  \fi
  % Now print the heading:
  \if \headtype U%
    \ifcase\absseclevel
	\unnumberedzzz{#3}%
    \or \unnumberedseczzz{#3}%
    \or \unnumberedsubseczzz{#3}%
    \or \unnumberedsubsubseczzz{#3}%
    \fi
  \else
    \if \headtype A%
      \ifcase\absseclevel
	  \appendixzzz{#3}%
      \or \appendixsectionzzz{#3}%
      \or \appendixsubseczzz{#3}%
      \or \appendixsubsubseczzz{#3}%
      \fi
    \else
      \ifcase\absseclevel
	  \chapterzzz{#3}%
      \or \seczzz{#3}%
      \or \numberedsubseczzz{#3}%
      \or \numberedsubsubseczzz{#3}%
      \fi
    \fi
  \fi
  \suppressfirstparagraphindent
}

% an interface:
\def\numhead{\genhead N}
\def\apphead{\genhead A}
\def\unnmhead{\genhead U}

% @chapter, @appendix, @unnumbered.  Increment top-level counter, reset
% all lower-level sectioning counters to zero.
%
% Also set \chaplevelprefix, which we prepend to @float sequence numbers
% (e.g., figures), q.v.  By default (before any chapter), that is empty.
\let\chaplevelprefix = \empty
%
\outer\parseargdef\chapter{\numhead0{#1}} % normally numhead0 calls chapterzzz
\def\chapterzzz#1{%
  % section resetting is \global in case the chapter is in a group, such
  % as an @include file.
  \global\secno=0 \global\subsecno=0 \global\subsubsecno=0
    \global\advance\chapno by 1
  %
  % Used for \float.
  \gdef\chaplevelprefix{\the\chapno.}%
  \resetallfloatnos
  %
  \message{\putwordChapter\space \the\chapno}%
  %
  % Write the actual heading.
  \chapmacro{#1}{Ynumbered}{\the\chapno}%
  %
  % So @section and the like are numbered underneath this chapter.
  \global\let\section = \numberedsec
  \global\let\subsection = \numberedsubsec
  \global\let\subsubsection = \numberedsubsubsec
}

\outer\parseargdef\appendix{\apphead0{#1}} % normally apphead0 calls appendixzzz
\def\appendixzzz#1{%
  \global\secno=0 \global\subsecno=0 \global\subsubsecno=0
    \global\advance\appendixno by 1
  \gdef\chaplevelprefix{\appendixletter.}%
  \resetallfloatnos
  %
  \def\appendixnum{\putwordAppendix\space \appendixletter}%
  \message{\appendixnum}%
  %
  \chapmacro{#1}{Yappendix}{\appendixletter}%
  %
  \global\let\section = \appendixsec
  \global\let\subsection = \appendixsubsec
  \global\let\subsubsection = \appendixsubsubsec
}

\outer\parseargdef\unnumbered{\unnmhead0{#1}} % normally unnmhead0 calls unnumberedzzz
\def\unnumberedzzz#1{%
  \global\secno=0 \global\subsecno=0 \global\subsubsecno=0
    \global\advance\unnumberedno by 1
  %
  % Since an unnumbered has no number, no prefix for figures.
  \global\let\chaplevelprefix = \empty
  \resetallfloatnos
  %
  % This used to be simply \message{#1}, but TeX fully expands the
  % argument to \message.  Therefore, if #1 contained @-commands, TeX
  % expanded them.  For example, in `@unnumbered The @cite{Book}', TeX
  % expanded @cite (which turns out to cause errors because \cite is meant
  % to be executed, not expanded).
  %
  % Anyway, we don't want the fully-expanded definition of @cite to appear
  % as a result of the \message, we just want `@cite' itself.  We use
  % \the<toks register> to achieve this: TeX expands \the<toks> only once,
  % simply yielding the contents of <toks register>.  (We also do this for
  % the toc entries.)
  \toks0 = {#1}%
  \message{(\the\toks0)}%
  %
  \chapmacro{#1}{Ynothing}{\the\unnumberedno}%
  %
  \global\let\section = \unnumberedsec
  \global\let\subsection = \unnumberedsubsec
  \global\let\subsubsection = \unnumberedsubsubsec
}

% @centerchap is like @unnumbered, but the heading is centered.
\outer\parseargdef\centerchap{%
  % Well, we could do the following in a group, but that would break
  % an assumption that \chapmacro is called at the outermost level.
  % Thus we are safer this way:		--kasal, 24feb04
  \let\centerparametersmaybe = \centerparameters
  \unnmhead0{#1}%
  \let\centerparametersmaybe = \relax
}

% @top is like @unnumbered.
\let\top\unnumbered

% Sections.
\outer\parseargdef\numberedsec{\numhead1{#1}} % normally calls seczzz
\def\seczzz#1{%
  \global\subsecno=0 \global\subsubsecno=0  \global\advance\secno by 1
  \sectionheading{#1}{sec}{Ynumbered}{\the\chapno.\the\secno}%
}

\outer\parseargdef\appendixsection{\apphead1{#1}} % normally calls appendixsectionzzz
\def\appendixsectionzzz#1{%
  \global\subsecno=0 \global\subsubsecno=0  \global\advance\secno by 1
  \sectionheading{#1}{sec}{Yappendix}{\appendixletter.\the\secno}%
}
\let\appendixsec\appendixsection

\outer\parseargdef\unnumberedsec{\unnmhead1{#1}} % normally calls unnumberedseczzz
\def\unnumberedseczzz#1{%
  \global\subsecno=0 \global\subsubsecno=0  \global\advance\secno by 1
  \sectionheading{#1}{sec}{Ynothing}{\the\unnumberedno.\the\secno}%
}

% Subsections.
\outer\parseargdef\numberedsubsec{\numhead2{#1}} % normally calls numberedsubseczzz
\def\numberedsubseczzz#1{%
  \global\subsubsecno=0  \global\advance\subsecno by 1
  \sectionheading{#1}{subsec}{Ynumbered}{\the\chapno.\the\secno.\the\subsecno}%
}

\outer\parseargdef\appendixsubsec{\apphead2{#1}} % normally calls appendixsubseczzz
\def\appendixsubseczzz#1{%
  \global\subsubsecno=0  \global\advance\subsecno by 1
  \sectionheading{#1}{subsec}{Yappendix}%
                 {\appendixletter.\the\secno.\the\subsecno}%
}

\outer\parseargdef\unnumberedsubsec{\unnmhead2{#1}} %normally calls unnumberedsubseczzz
\def\unnumberedsubseczzz#1{%
  \global\subsubsecno=0  \global\advance\subsecno by 1
  \sectionheading{#1}{subsec}{Ynothing}%
                 {\the\unnumberedno.\the\secno.\the\subsecno}%
}

% Subsubsections.
\outer\parseargdef\numberedsubsubsec{\numhead3{#1}} % normally numberedsubsubseczzz
\def\numberedsubsubseczzz#1{%
  \global\advance\subsubsecno by 1
  \sectionheading{#1}{subsubsec}{Ynumbered}%
                 {\the\chapno.\the\secno.\the\subsecno.\the\subsubsecno}%
}

\outer\parseargdef\appendixsubsubsec{\apphead3{#1}} % normally appendixsubsubseczzz
\def\appendixsubsubseczzz#1{%
  \global\advance\subsubsecno by 1
  \sectionheading{#1}{subsubsec}{Yappendix}%
                 {\appendixletter.\the\secno.\the\subsecno.\the\subsubsecno}%
}

\outer\parseargdef\unnumberedsubsubsec{\unnmhead3{#1}} %normally unnumberedsubsubseczzz
\def\unnumberedsubsubseczzz#1{%
  \global\advance\subsubsecno by 1
  \sectionheading{#1}{subsubsec}{Ynothing}%
                 {\the\unnumberedno.\the\secno.\the\subsecno.\the\subsubsecno}%
}

% These macros control what the section commands do, according
% to what kind of chapter we are in (ordinary, appendix, or unnumbered).
% Define them by default for a numbered chapter.
\let\section = \numberedsec
\let\subsection = \numberedsubsec
\let\subsubsection = \numberedsubsubsec

% Define @majorheading, @heading and @subheading

% NOTE on use of \vbox for chapter headings, section headings, and such:
%       1) We use \vbox rather than the earlier \line to permit
%          overlong headings to fold.
%       2) \hyphenpenalty is set to 10000 because hyphenation in a
%          heading is obnoxious; this forbids it.
%       3) Likewise, headings look best if no \parindent is used, and
%          if justification is not attempted.  Hence \raggedright.


\def\majorheading{%
  {\advance\chapheadingskip by 10pt \chapbreak }%
  \parsearg\chapheadingzzz
}

\def\chapheading{\chapbreak \parsearg\chapheadingzzz}
\def\chapheadingzzz#1{%
  {\chapfonts \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000\tolerance=5000
                    \parindent=0pt\raggedright
                    \rm #1\hfill}}%
  \bigskip \par\penalty 200\relax
  \suppressfirstparagraphindent
}

% @heading, @subheading, @subsubheading.
\parseargdef\heading{\sectionheading{#1}{sec}{Yomitfromtoc}{}
  \suppressfirstparagraphindent}
\parseargdef\subheading{\sectionheading{#1}{subsec}{Yomitfromtoc}{}
  \suppressfirstparagraphindent}
\parseargdef\subsubheading{\sectionheading{#1}{subsubsec}{Yomitfromtoc}{}
  \suppressfirstparagraphindent}

% These macros generate a chapter, section, etc. heading only
% (including whitespace, linebreaking, etc. around it),
% given all the information in convenient, parsed form.

%%% Args are the skip and penalty (usually negative)
\def\dobreak#1#2{\par\ifdim\lastskip<#1\removelastskip\penalty#2\vskip#1\fi}

%%% Define plain chapter starts, and page on/off switching for it
% Parameter controlling skip before chapter headings (if needed)

\newskip\chapheadingskip

\def\chapbreak{\dobreak \chapheadingskip {-4000}}
\def\chappager{\par\vfill\supereject}
\def\chapoddpage{\chappager \ifodd\pageno \else \hbox to 0pt{} \chappager\fi}

\def\setchapternewpage #1 {\csname CHAPPAG#1\endcsname}

\def\CHAPPAGoff{%
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager
\global\let\pchapsepmacro=\chapbreak
\global\let\pagealignmacro=\chappager}

\def\CHAPPAGon{%
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chappager
\global\let\pchapsepmacro=\chappager
\global\let\pagealignmacro=\chappager
\global\def\HEADINGSon{\HEADINGSsingle}}

\def\CHAPPAGodd{%
\global\let\contentsalignmacro = \chapoddpage
\global\let\pchapsepmacro=\chapoddpage
\global\let\pagealignmacro=\chapoddpage
\global\def\HEADINGSon{\HEADINGSdouble}}

\CHAPPAGon

% Chapter opening.
%
% #1 is the text, #2 is the section type (Ynumbered, Ynothing,
% Yappendix, Yomitfromtoc), #3 the chapter number.
%
% To test against our argument.
\def\Ynothingkeyword{Ynothing}
\def\Yomitfromtockeyword{Yomitfromtoc}
\def\Yappendixkeyword{Yappendix}
%
\def\chapmacro#1#2#3{%
  \pchapsepmacro
  {%
    \chapfonts \rm
    %
    % Have to define \thissection before calling \donoderef, because the
    % xref code eventually uses it.  On the other hand, it has to be called
    % after \pchapsepmacro, or the headline will change too soon.
    \gdef\thissection{#1}%
    \gdef\thischaptername{#1}%
    %
    % Only insert the separating space if we have a chapter/appendix
    % number, and don't print the unnumbered ``number''.
    \def\temptype{#2}%
    \ifx\temptype\Ynothingkeyword
      \setbox0 = \hbox{}%
      \def\toctype{unnchap}%
      \gdef\thischapternum{}%
      \gdef\thischapter{#1}%
    \else\ifx\temptype\Yomitfromtockeyword
      \setbox0 = \hbox{}% contents like unnumbered, but no toc entry
      \def\toctype{omit}%
      \gdef\thischapternum{}%
      \gdef\thischapter{}%
    \else\ifx\temptype\Yappendixkeyword
      \setbox0 = \hbox{\putwordAppendix{} #3\enspace}%
      \def\toctype{app}%
      \xdef\thischapternum{\appendixletter}%
      % We don't substitute the actual chapter name into \thischapter
      % because we don't want its macros evaluated now.  And we don't
      % use \thissection because that changes with each section.
      %
      \xdef\thischapter{\putwordAppendix{} \appendixletter:
                        \noexpand\thischaptername}%
    \else
      \setbox0 = \hbox{#3\enspace}%
      \def\toctype{numchap}%
      \xdef\thischapternum{\the\chapno}%
      \xdef\thischapter{\putwordChapter{} \the\chapno:
                        \noexpand\thischaptername}%
    \fi\fi\fi
    %
    % Write the toc entry for this chapter.  Must come before the
    % \donoderef, because we include the current node name in the toc
    % entry, and \donoderef resets it to empty.
    \writetocentry{\toctype}{#1}{#3}%
    %
    % For pdftex, we have to write out the node definition (aka, make
    % the pdfdest) after any page break, but before the actual text has
    % been typeset.  If the destination for the pdf outline is after the
    % text, then jumping from the outline may wind up with the text not
    % being visible, for instance under high magnification.
    \donoderef{#2}%
    %
    % Typeset the actual heading.
    \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000 \tolerance=5000 \parindent=0pt \raggedright
          \hangindent=\wd0 \centerparametersmaybe
          \unhbox0 #1\par}%
  }%
  \nobreak\bigskip % no page break after a chapter title
  \nobreak
}

% @centerchap -- centered and unnumbered.
\let\centerparametersmaybe = \relax
\def\centerparameters{%
  \advance\rightskip by 3\rightskip
  \leftskip = \rightskip
  \parfillskip = 0pt
}


% I don't think this chapter style is supported any more, so I'm not
% updating it with the new noderef stuff.  We'll see.  --karl, 11aug03.
%
\def\setchapterstyle #1 {\csname CHAPF#1\endcsname}
%
\def\unnchfopen #1{%
\chapoddpage {\chapfonts \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000\tolerance=5000
                       \parindent=0pt\raggedright
                       \rm #1\hfill}}\bigskip \par\nobreak
}
\def\chfopen #1#2{\chapoddpage {\chapfonts
\vbox to 3in{\vfil \hbox to\hsize{\hfil #2} \hbox to\hsize{\hfil #1} \vfil}}%
\par\penalty 5000 %
}
\def\centerchfopen #1{%
\chapoddpage {\chapfonts \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000\tolerance=5000
                       \parindent=0pt
                       \hfill {\rm #1}\hfill}}\bigskip \par\nobreak
}
\def\CHAPFopen{%
  \global\let\chapmacro=\chfopen
  \global\let\centerchapmacro=\centerchfopen}


% Section titles.  These macros combine the section number parts and
% call the generic \sectionheading to do the printing.
%
\newskip\secheadingskip
\def\secheadingbreak{\dobreak \secheadingskip{-1000}}

% Subsection titles.
\newskip\subsecheadingskip
\def\subsecheadingbreak{\dobreak \subsecheadingskip{-500}}

% Subsubsection titles.
\def\subsubsecheadingskip{\subsecheadingskip}
\def\subsubsecheadingbreak{\subsecheadingbreak}


% Print any size, any type, section title.
%
% #1 is the text, #2 is the section level (sec/subsec/subsubsec), #3 is
% the section type for xrefs (Ynumbered, Ynothing, Yappendix), #4 is the
% section number.
%
\def\sectionheading#1#2#3#4{%
  {%
    % Switch to the right set of fonts.
    \csname #2fonts\endcsname \rm
    %
    % Insert space above the heading.
    \csname #2headingbreak\endcsname
    %
    % Only insert the space after the number if we have a section number.
    \def\sectionlevel{#2}%
    \def\temptype{#3}%
    %
    \ifx\temptype\Ynothingkeyword
      \setbox0 = \hbox{}%
      \def\toctype{unn}%
      \gdef\thissection{#1}%
    \else\ifx\temptype\Yomitfromtockeyword
      % for @headings -- no section number, don't include in toc,
      % and don't redefine \thissection.
      \setbox0 = \hbox{}%
      \def\toctype{omit}%
      \let\sectionlevel=\empty
    \else\ifx\temptype\Yappendixkeyword
      \setbox0 = \hbox{#4\enspace}%
      \def\toctype{app}%
      \gdef\thissection{#1}%
    \else
      \setbox0 = \hbox{#4\enspace}%
      \def\toctype{num}%
      \gdef\thissection{#1}%
    \fi\fi\fi
    %
    % Write the toc entry (before \donoderef).  See comments in \chapmacro.
    \writetocentry{\toctype\sectionlevel}{#1}{#4}%
    %
    % Write the node reference (= pdf destination for pdftex).
    % Again, see comments in \chapmacro.
    \donoderef{#3}%
    %
    % Interline glue will be inserted when the vbox is completed.
    % That glue will be a valid breakpoint for the page, since it'll be
    % preceded by a whatsit (usually from the \donoderef, or from the
    % \writetocentry if there was no node).  We don't want to allow that
    % break, since then the whatsits could end up on page n while the
    % section is on page n+1, thus toc/etc. are wrong.  Debian bug 276000.
    \nobreak
    %
    % Output the actual section heading.
    \vbox{\hyphenpenalty=10000 \tolerance=5000 \parindent=0pt \raggedright
          \hangindent=\wd0  % zero if no section number
          \unhbox0 #1}%
  }%
  % Add extra space after the heading -- half of whatever came above it.
  % Don't allow stretch, though.
  \kern .5 \csname #2headingskip\endcsname
  %
  % Do not let the kern be a potential breakpoint, as it would be if it
  % was followed by glue.
  \nobreak
  %
  % We'll almost certainly start a paragraph next, so don't let that
  % glue accumulate.  (Not a breakpoint because it's preceded by a
  % discardable item.)
  \vskip-\parskip
  % 
  % This is purely so the last item on the list is a known \penalty >
  % 10000.  This is so \startdefun can avoid allowing breakpoints after
  % section headings.  Otherwise, it would insert a valid breakpoint between:
  % 
  %   @section sec-whatever
  %   @deffn def-whatever
  \penalty 10001
}


\message{toc,}
% Table of contents.
\newwrite\tocfile

% Write an entry to the toc file, opening it if necessary.
% Called from @chapter, etc.
%
% Example usage: \writetocentry{sec}{Section Name}{\the\chapno.\the\secno}
% We append the current node name (if any) and page number as additional
% arguments for the \{chap,sec,...}entry macros which will eventually
% read this.  The node name is used in the pdf outlines as the
% destination to jump to.
%
% We open the .toc file for writing here instead of at @setfilename (or
% any other fixed time) so that @contents can be anywhere in the document.
% But if #1 is `omit', then we don't do anything.  This is used for the
% table of contents chapter openings themselves.
%
\newif\iftocfileopened
\def\omitkeyword{omit}%
%
\def\writetocentry#1#2#3{%
  \edef\writetoctype{#1}%
  \ifx\writetoctype\omitkeyword \else
    \iftocfileopened\else
      \immediate\openout\tocfile = \jobname.toc
      \global\tocfileopenedtrue
    \fi
    %
    \iflinks
      {\atdummies
       \edef\temp{%
         \write\tocfile{@#1entry{#2}{#3}{\lastnode}{\noexpand\folio}}}%
       \temp
      }%
    \fi
  \fi
  %
  % Tell \shipout to create a pdf destination on each page, if we're
  % writing pdf.  These are used in the table of contents.  We can't
  % just write one on every page because the title pages are numbered
  % 1 and 2 (the page numbers aren't printed), and so are the first
  % two pages of the document.  Thus, we'd have two destinations named
  % `1', and two named `2'.
  \ifpdf \global\pdfmakepagedesttrue \fi
}


% These characters do not print properly in the Computer Modern roman
% fonts, so we must take special care.  This is more or less redundant
% with the Texinfo input format setup at the end of this file.
% 
\def\activecatcodes{%
  \catcode`\"=\active
  \catcode`\$=\active
  \catcode`\<=\active
  \catcode`\>=\active
  \catcode`\\=\active
  \catcode`\^=\active
  \catcode`\_=\active
  \catcode`\|=\active
  \catcode`\~=\active
}


% Read the toc file, which is essentially Texinfo input.
\def\readtocfile{%
  \setupdatafile
  \activecatcodes
  \input \jobname.toc
}

\newskip\contentsrightmargin \contentsrightmargin=1in
\newcount\savepageno
\newcount\lastnegativepageno \lastnegativepageno = -1

% Prepare to read what we've written to \tocfile.
%
\def\startcontents#1{%
  % If @setchapternewpage on, and @headings double, the contents should
  % start on an odd page, unlike chapters.  Thus, we maintain
  % \contentsalignmacro in parallel with \pagealignmacro.
  % From: Torbjorn Granlund <tege@matematik.su.se>
  \contentsalignmacro
  \immediate\closeout\tocfile
  %
  % Don't need to put `Contents' or `Short Contents' in the headline.
  % It is abundantly clear what they are.
  \def\thischapter{}%
  \chapmacro{#1}{Yomitfromtoc}{}%
  %
  \savepageno = \pageno
  \begingroup                  % Set up to handle contents files properly.
    \raggedbottom              % Worry more about breakpoints than the bottom.
    \advance\hsize by -\contentsrightmargin % Don't use the full line length.
    %
    % Roman numerals for page numbers.
    \ifnum \pageno>0 \global\pageno = \lastnegativepageno \fi
}


% Normal (long) toc.
\def\contents{%
  \startcontents{\putwordTOC}%
    \openin 1 \jobname.toc
    \ifeof 1 \else
      \readtocfile
    \fi
    \vfill \eject
    \contentsalignmacro % in case @setchapternewpage odd is in effect
    \ifeof 1 \else
      \pdfmakeoutlines
    \fi
    \closein 1
  \endgroup
  \lastnegativepageno = \pageno
  \global\pageno = \savepageno
}

% And just the chapters.
\def\summarycontents{%
  \startcontents{\putwordShortTOC}%
    %
    \let\numchapentry = \shortchapentry
    \let\appentry = \shortchapentry
    \let\unnchapentry = \shortunnchapentry
    % We want a true roman here for the page numbers.
    \secfonts
    \let\rm=\shortcontrm \let\bf=\shortcontbf
    \let\sl=\shortcontsl \let\tt=\shortconttt
    \rm
    \hyphenpenalty = 10000
    \advance\baselineskip by 1pt % Open it up a little.
    \def\numsecentry##1##2##3##4{}
    \let\appsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\unnsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\numsubsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\appsubsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\unnsubsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\numsubsubsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\appsubsubsecentry = \numsecentry
    \let\unnsubsubsecentry = \numsecentry
    \openin 1 \jobname.toc
    \ifeof 1 \else
      \readtocfile
    \fi
    \closein 1
    \vfill \eject
    \contentsalignmacro % in case @setchapternewpage odd is in effect
  \endgroup
  \lastnegativepageno = \pageno
  \global\pageno = \savepageno
}
\let\shortcontents = \summarycontents

% Typeset the label for a chapter or appendix for the short contents.
% The arg is, e.g., `A' for an appendix, or `3' for a chapter.
%
\def\shortchaplabel#1{%
  % This space should be enough, since a single number is .5em, and the
  % widest letter (M) is 1em, at least in the Computer Modern fonts.
  % But use \hss just in case.
  % (This space doesn't include the extra space that gets added after
  % the label; that gets put in by \shortchapentry above.)
  %
  % We'd like to right-justify chapter numbers, but that looks strange
  % with appendix letters.  And right-justifying numbers and
  % left-justifying letters looks strange when there is less than 10
  % chapters.  Have to read the whole toc once to know how many chapters
  % there are before deciding ...
  \hbox to 1em{#1\hss}%
}

% These macros generate individual entries in the table of contents.
% The first argument is the chapter or section name.
% The last argument is the page number.
% The arguments in between are the chapter number, section number, ...

% Chapters, in the main contents.
\def\numchapentry#1#2#3#4{\dochapentry{#2\labelspace#1}{#4}}
%
% Chapters, in the short toc.
% See comments in \dochapentry re vbox and related settings.
\def\shortchapentry#1#2#3#4{%
  \tocentry{\shortchaplabel{#2}\labelspace #1}{\doshortpageno\bgroup#4\egroup}%
}

% Appendices, in the main contents.
% Need the word Appendix, and a fixed-size box.
%
\def\appendixbox#1{%
  % We use M since it's probably the widest letter.
  \setbox0 = \hbox{\putwordAppendix{} M}%
  \hbox to \wd0{\putwordAppendix{} #1\hss}}
%
\def\appentry#1#2#3#4{\dochapentry{\appendixbox{#2}\labelspace#1}{#4}}

% Unnumbered chapters.
\def\unnchapentry#1#2#3#4{\dochapentry{#1}{#4}}
\def\shortunnchapentry#1#2#3#4{\tocentry{#1}{\doshortpageno\bgroup#4\egroup}}

% Sections.
\def\numsecentry#1#2#3#4{\dosecentry{#2\labelspace#1}{#4}}
\let\appsecentry=\numsecentry
\def\unnsecentry#1#2#3#4{\dosecentry{#1}{#4}}

% Subsections.
\def\numsubsecentry#1#2#3#4{\dosubsecentry{#2\labelspace#1}{#4}}
\let\appsubsecentry=\numsubsecentry
\def\unnsubsecentry#1#2#3#4{\dosubsecentry{#1}{#4}}

% And subsubsections.
\def\numsubsubsecentry#1#2#3#4{\dosubsubsecentry{#2\labelspace#1}{#4}}
\let\appsubsubsecentry=\numsubsubsecentry
\def\unnsubsubsecentry#1#2#3#4{\dosubsubsecentry{#1}{#4}}

% This parameter controls the indentation of the various levels.
% Same as \defaultparindent.
\newdimen\tocindent \tocindent = 15pt

% Now for the actual typesetting. In all these, #1 is the text and #2 is the
% page number.
%
% If the toc has to be broken over pages, we want it to be at chapters
% if at all possible; hence the \penalty.
\def\dochapentry#1#2{%
   \penalty-300 \vskip1\baselineskip plus.33\baselineskip minus.25\baselineskip
   \begingroup
     \chapentryfonts
     \tocentry{#1}{\dopageno\bgroup#2\egroup}%
   \endgroup
   \nobreak\vskip .25\baselineskip plus.1\baselineskip
}

\def\dosecentry#1#2{\begingroup
  \secentryfonts \leftskip=\tocindent
  \tocentry{#1}{\dopageno\bgroup#2\egroup}%
\endgroup}

\def\dosubsecentry#1#2{\begingroup
  \subsecentryfonts \leftskip=2\tocindent
  \tocentry{#1}{\dopageno\bgroup#2\egroup}%
\endgroup}

\def\dosubsubsecentry#1#2{\begingroup
  \subsubsecentryfonts \leftskip=3\tocindent
  \tocentry{#1}{\dopageno\bgroup#2\egroup}%
\endgroup}

% We use the same \entry macro as for the index entries.
\let\tocentry = \entry

% Space between chapter (or whatever) number and the title.
\def\labelspace{\hskip1em \relax}

\def\dopageno#1{{\rm #1}}
\def\doshortpageno#1{{\rm #1}}

\def\chapentryfonts{\secfonts \rm}
\def\secentryfonts{\textfonts}
\def\subsecentryfonts{\textfonts}
\def\subsubsecentryfonts{\textfonts}


\message{environments,}
% @foo ... @end foo.

% @point{}, @result{}, @expansion{}, @print{}, @equiv{}.
%
% Since these characters are used in examples, it should be an even number of
% \tt widths. Each \tt character is 1en, so two makes it 1em.
%
\def\point{$\star$}
\def\result{\leavevmode\raise.15ex\hbox to 1em{\hfil$\Rightarrow$\hfil}}
\def\expansion{\leavevmode\raise.1ex\hbox to 1em{\hfil$\mapsto$\hfil}}
\def\print{\leavevmode\lower.1ex\hbox to 1em{\hfil$\dashv$\hfil}}
\def\equiv{\leavevmode\lower.1ex\hbox to 1em{\hfil$\ptexequiv$\hfil}}

% The @error{} command.
% Adapted from the TeXbook's \boxit.
%
\newbox\errorbox
%
{\tentt \global\dimen0 = 3em}% Width of the box.
\dimen2 = .55pt % Thickness of rules
% The text. (`r' is open on the right, `e' somewhat less so on the left.)
\setbox0 = \hbox{\kern-.75pt \reducedsf error\kern-1.5pt}
%
\setbox\errorbox=\hbox to \dimen0{\hfil
   \hsize = \dimen0 \advance\hsize by -5.8pt % Space to left+right.
   \advance\hsize by -2\dimen2 % Rules.
   \vbox{%
      \hrule height\dimen2
      \hbox{\vrule width\dimen2 \kern3pt          % Space to left of text.
         \vtop{\kern2.4pt \box0 \kern2.4pt}% Space above/below.
         \kern3pt\vrule width\dimen2}% Space to right.
      \hrule height\dimen2}
    \hfil}
%
\def\error{\leavevmode\lower.7ex\copy\errorbox}

% @tex ... @end tex    escapes into raw Tex temporarily.
% One exception: @ is still an escape character, so that @end tex works.
% But \@ or @@ will get a plain tex @ character.

\envdef\tex{%
  \catcode `\\=0 \catcode `\{=1 \catcode `\}=2
  \catcode `\$=3 \catcode `\&=4 \catcode `\#=6
  \catcode `\^=7 \catcode `\_=8 \catcode `\~=\active \let~=\tie
  \catcode `\%=14
  \catcode `\+=\other
  \catcode `\"=\other
  \catcode `\|=\other
  \catcode `\<=\other
  \catcode `\>=\other
  \escapechar=`\\
  %
  \let\b=\ptexb
  \let\bullet=\ptexbullet
  \let\c=\ptexc
  \let\,=\ptexcomma
  \let\.=\ptexdot
  \let\dots=\ptexdots
  \let\equiv=\ptexequiv
  \let\!=\ptexexclam
  \let\i=\ptexi
  \let\indent=\ptexindent
  \let\noindent=\ptexnoindent
  \let\{=\ptexlbrace
  \let\+=\tabalign
  \let\}=\ptexrbrace
  \let\/=\ptexslash
  \let\*=\ptexstar
  \let\t=\ptext
  \let\frenchspacing=\plainfrenchspacing
  %
  \def\endldots{\mathinner{\ldots\ldots\ldots\ldots}}%
  \def\enddots{\relax\ifmmode\endldots\else$\mathsurround=0pt \endldots\,$\fi}%
  \def\@{@}%
}
% There is no need to define \Etex.

% Define @lisp ... @end lisp.
% @lisp environment forms a group so it can rebind things,
% including the definition of @end lisp (which normally is erroneous).

% Amount to narrow the margins by for @lisp.
\newskip\lispnarrowing \lispnarrowing=0.4in

% This is the definition that ^^M gets inside @lisp, @example, and other
% such environments.  \null is better than a space, since it doesn't
% have any width.
\def\lisppar{\null\endgraf}

% This space is always present above and below environments.
\newskip\envskipamount \envskipamount = 0pt

% Make spacing and below environment symmetrical.  We use \parskip here
% to help in doing that, since in @example-like environments \parskip
% is reset to zero; thus the \afterenvbreak inserts no space -- but the
% start of the next paragraph will insert \parskip.
%
\def\aboveenvbreak{{%
  % =10000 instead of <10000 because of a special case in \itemzzz and
  % \sectionheading, q.v.
  \ifnum \lastpenalty=10000 \else
    \advance\envskipamount by \parskip
    \endgraf
    \ifdim\lastskip<\envskipamount
      \removelastskip
      % it's not a good place to break if the last penalty was \nobreak
      % or better ...
      \ifnum\lastpenalty<10000 \penalty-50 \fi
      \vskip\envskipamount
    \fi
  \fi
}}

\let\afterenvbreak = \aboveenvbreak

% \nonarrowing is a flag.  If "set", @lisp etc don't narrow margins; it will
% also clear it, so that its embedded environments do the narrowing again.
\let\nonarrowing=\relax

% @cartouche ... @end cartouche: draw rectangle w/rounded corners around
% environment contents.
\font\circle=lcircle10
\newdimen\circthick
\newdimen\cartouter\newdimen\cartinner
\newskip\normbskip\newskip\normpskip\newskip\normlskip
\circthick=\fontdimen8\circle
%
\def\ctl{{\circle\char'013\hskip -6pt}}% 6pt from pl file: 1/2charwidth
\def\ctr{{\hskip 6pt\circle\char'010}}
\def\cbl{{\circle\char'012\hskip -6pt}}
\def\cbr{{\hskip 6pt\circle\char'011}}
\def\carttop{\hbox to \cartouter{\hskip\lskip
        \ctl\leaders\hrule height\circthick\hfil\ctr
        \hskip\rskip}}
\def\cartbot{\hbox to \cartouter{\hskip\lskip
        \cbl\leaders\hrule height\circthick\hfil\cbr
        \hskip\rskip}}
%
\newskip\lskip\newskip\rskip

\envdef\cartouche{%
  \ifhmode\par\fi  % can't be in the midst of a paragraph.
  \startsavinginserts
  \lskip=\leftskip \rskip=\rightskip
  \leftskip=0pt\rightskip=0pt % we want these *outside*.
  \cartinner=\hsize \advance\cartinner by-\lskip
  \advance\cartinner by-\rskip
  \cartouter=\hsize
  \advance\cartouter by 18.4pt	% allow for 3pt kerns on either
				% side, and for 6pt waste from
				% each corner char, and rule thickness
  \normbskip=\baselineskip \normpskip=\parskip \normlskip=\lineskip
  % Flag to tell @lisp, etc., not to narrow margin.
  \let\nonarrowing = t%
  \vbox\bgroup
      \baselineskip=0pt\parskip=0pt\lineskip=0pt
      \carttop
      \hbox\bgroup
	  \hskip\lskip
	  \vrule\kern3pt
	  \vbox\bgroup
	      \kern3pt
	      \hsize=\cartinner
	      \baselineskip=\normbskip
	      \lineskip=\normlskip
	      \parskip=\normpskip
	      \vskip -\parskip
	      \comment % For explanation, see the end of \def\group.
}
\def\Ecartouche{%
              \ifhmode\par\fi
	      \kern3pt
	  \egroup
	  \kern3pt\vrule
	  \hskip\rskip
      \egroup
      \cartbot
  \egroup
  \checkinserts
}


% This macro is called at the beginning of all the @example variants,
% inside a group.
\def\nonfillstart{%
  \aboveenvbreak
  \hfuzz = 12pt % Don't be fussy
  \sepspaces % Make spaces be word-separators rather than space tokens.
  \let\par = \lisppar % don't ignore blank lines
  \obeylines % each line of input is a line of output
  \parskip = 0pt
  \parindent = 0pt
  \emergencystretch = 0pt % don't try to avoid overfull boxes
  \ifx\nonarrowing\relax
    \advance \leftskip by \lispnarrowing
    \exdentamount=\lispnarrowing
  \else
    \let\nonarrowing = \relax
  \fi
  \let\exdent=\nofillexdent
}

% If you want all examples etc. small: @set dispenvsize small.
% If you want even small examples the full size: @set dispenvsize nosmall.
% This affects the following displayed environments:
%    @example, @display, @format, @lisp
%
\def\smallword{small}
\def\nosmallword{nosmall}
\let\SETdispenvsize\relax
\def\setnormaldispenv{%
  \ifx\SETdispenvsize\smallword
    \smallexamplefonts \rm
  \fi
}
\def\setsmalldispenv{%
  \ifx\SETdispenvsize\nosmallword
  \else
    \smallexamplefonts \rm
  \fi
}

% We often define two environments, @foo and @smallfoo.
% Let's do it by one command:
\def\makedispenv #1#2{
  \expandafter\envdef\csname#1\endcsname {\setnormaldispenv #2}
  \expandafter\envdef\csname small#1\endcsname {\setsmalldispenv #2}
  \expandafter\let\csname E#1\endcsname \afterenvbreak
  \expandafter\let\csname Esmall#1\endcsname \afterenvbreak
}

% Define two synonyms:
\def\maketwodispenvs #1#2#3{
  \makedispenv{#1}{#3}
  \makedispenv{#2}{#3}
}

% @lisp: indented, narrowed, typewriter font; @example: same as @lisp.
%
% @smallexample and @smalllisp: use smaller fonts.
% Originally contributed by Pavel@xerox.
%
\maketwodispenvs {lisp}{example}{%
  \nonfillstart
  \tt\quoteexpand
  \let\kbdfont = \kbdexamplefont % Allow @kbd to do something special.
  \gobble       % eat return
}
% @display/@smalldisplay: same as @lisp except keep current font.
%
\makedispenv {display}{%
  \nonfillstart
  \gobble
}

% @format/@smallformat: same as @display except don't narrow margins.
%
\makedispenv{format}{%
  \let\nonarrowing = t%
  \nonfillstart
  \gobble
}

% @flushleft: same as @format, but doesn't obey \SETdispenvsize.
\envdef\flushleft{%
  \let\nonarrowing = t%
  \nonfillstart
  \gobble
}
\let\Eflushleft = \afterenvbreak

% @flushright.
%
\envdef\flushright{%
  \let\nonarrowing = t%
  \nonfillstart
  \advance\leftskip by 0pt plus 1fill
  \gobble
}
\let\Eflushright = \afterenvbreak


% @quotation does normal linebreaking (hence we can't use \nonfillstart)
% and narrows the margins.  We keep \parskip nonzero in general, since
% we're doing normal filling.  So, when using \aboveenvbreak and
% \afterenvbreak, temporarily make \parskip 0.
%
\envdef\quotation{%
  {\parskip=0pt \aboveenvbreak}% because \aboveenvbreak inserts \parskip
  \parindent=0pt
  %
  % @cartouche defines \nonarrowing to inhibit narrowing at next level down.
  \ifx\nonarrowing\relax
    \advance\leftskip by \lispnarrowing
    \advance\rightskip by \lispnarrowing
    \exdentamount = \lispnarrowing
  \else
    \let\nonarrowing = \relax
  \fi
  \parsearg\quotationlabel
}

% We have retained a nonzero parskip for the environment, since we're
% doing normal filling.
%
\def\Equotation{%
  \par
  \ifx\quotationauthor\undefined\else
    % indent a bit.
    \leftline{\kern 2\leftskip \sl ---\quotationauthor}%
  \fi
  {\parskip=0pt \afterenvbreak}%
}

% If we're given an argument, typeset it in bold with a colon after.
\def\quotationlabel#1{%
  \def\temp{#1}%
  \ifx\temp\empty \else
    {\bf #1: }%
  \fi
}


% LaTeX-like @verbatim...@end verbatim and @verb{<char>...<char>}
% If we want to allow any <char> as delimiter,
% we need the curly braces so that makeinfo sees the @verb command, eg:
% `@verbx...x' would look like the '@verbx' command.  --janneke@gnu.org
%
% [Knuth]: Donald Ervin Knuth, 1996.  The TeXbook.
%
% [Knuth] p.344; only we need to do the other characters Texinfo sets
% active too.  Otherwise, they get lost as the first character on a
% verbatim line.
\def\dospecials{%
  \do\ \do\\\do\{\do\}\do\$\do\&%
  \do\#\do\^\do\^^K\do\_\do\^^A\do\%\do\~%
  \do\<\do\>\do\|\do\@\do+\do\"%
}
%
% [Knuth] p. 380
\def\uncatcodespecials{%
  \def\do##1{\catcode`##1=\other}\dospecials}
%
% [Knuth] pp. 380,381,391
% Disable Spanish ligatures ?` and !` of \tt font
\begingroup
  \catcode`\`=\active\gdef`{\relax\lq}
\endgroup
%
% Setup for the @verb command.
%
% Eight spaces for a tab
\begingroup
  \catcode`\^^I=\active
  \gdef\tabeightspaces{\catcode`\^^I=\active\def^^I{\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ }}
\endgroup
%
\def\setupverb{%
  \tt  % easiest (and conventionally used) font for verbatim
  \def\par{\leavevmode\endgraf}%
  \catcode`\`=\active
  \tabeightspaces
  % Respect line breaks,
  % print special symbols as themselves, and
  % make each space count
  % must do in this order:
  \obeylines \uncatcodespecials \sepspaces
}

% Setup for the @verbatim environment
%
% Real tab expansion
\newdimen\tabw \setbox0=\hbox{\tt\space} \tabw=8\wd0 % tab amount
%
\def\starttabbox{\setbox0=\hbox\bgroup}

% Allow an option to not replace quotes with a regular directed right
% quote/apostrophe (char 0x27), but instead use the undirected quote
% from cmtt (char 0x0d).  The undirected quote is ugly, so don't make it
% the default, but it works for pasting with more pdf viewers (at least
% evince), the lilypond developers report.  xpdf does work with the
% regular 0x27.  
% 
\def\codequoteright{%
  \expandafter\ifx\csname SETcodequoteundirected\endcsname\relax
    '%
  \else
    \char'15
  \fi
}
%
% and a similar option for the left quote char vs. a grave accent.
% Modern fonts display ASCII 0x60 as a grave accent, so some people like
% the code environments to do likewise.
% 
\def\codequoteleft{%
  \expandafter\ifx\csname SETcodequotebacktick\endcsname\relax
    `%
  \else
    \char'22
  \fi
}
%
\begingroup
  \catcode`\^^I=\active
  \gdef\tabexpand{%
    \catcode`\^^I=\active
    \def^^I{\leavevmode\egroup
      \dimen0=\wd0 % the width so far, or since the previous tab
      \divide\dimen0 by\tabw
      \multiply\dimen0 by\tabw % compute previous multiple of \tabw
      \advance\dimen0 by\tabw  % advance to next multiple of \tabw
      \wd0=\dimen0 \box0 \starttabbox
    }%
  }
  \catcode`\'=\active
  \gdef\rquoteexpand{\catcode\rquoteChar=\active \def'{\codequoteright}}%
  %
  \catcode`\`=\active
  \gdef\lquoteexpand{\catcode\lquoteChar=\active \def`{\codequoteleft}}%
  %
  \gdef\quoteexpand{\rquoteexpand \lquoteexpand}%
\endgroup

% start the verbatim environment.
\def\setupverbatim{%
  \let\nonarrowing = t%
  \nonfillstart
  % Easiest (and conventionally used) font for verbatim
  \tt
  \def\par{\leavevmode\egroup\box0\endgraf}%
  \catcode`\`=\active
  \tabexpand
  \quoteexpand
  % Respect line breaks,
  % print special symbols as themselves, and
  % make each space count
  % must do in this order:
  \obeylines \uncatcodespecials \sepspaces
  \everypar{\starttabbox}%
}

% Do the @verb magic: verbatim text is quoted by unique
% delimiter characters.  Before first delimiter expect a
% right brace, after last delimiter expect closing brace:
%
%    \def\doverb'{'<char>#1<char>'}'{#1}
%
% [Knuth] p. 382; only eat outer {}
\begingroup
  \catcode`[=1\catcode`]=2\catcode`\{=\other\catcode`\}=\other
  \gdef\doverb{#1[\def\next##1#1}[##1\endgroup]\next]
\endgroup
%
\def\verb{\begingroup\setupverb\doverb}
%
%
% Do the @verbatim magic: define the macro \doverbatim so that
% the (first) argument ends when '@end verbatim' is reached, ie:
%
%     \def\doverbatim#1@end verbatim{#1}
%
% For Texinfo it's a lot easier than for LaTeX,
% because texinfo's \verbatim doesn't stop at '\end{verbatim}':
% we need not redefine '\', '{' and '}'.
%
% Inspired by LaTeX's verbatim command set [latex.ltx]
%
\begingroup
  \catcode`\ =\active
  \obeylines %
  % ignore everything up to the first ^^M, that's the newline at the end
  % of the @verbatim input line itself.  Otherwise we get an extra blank
  % line in the output.
  \xdef\doverbatim#1^^M#2@end verbatim{#2\noexpand\end\gobble verbatim}%
  % We really want {...\end verbatim} in the body of the macro, but
  % without the active space; thus we have to use \xdef and \gobble.
\endgroup
%
\envdef\verbatim{%
    \setupverbatim\doverbatim
}
\let\Everbatim = \afterenvbreak


% @verbatiminclude FILE - insert text of file in verbatim environment.
%
\def\verbatiminclude{\parseargusing\filenamecatcodes\doverbatiminclude}
%
\def\doverbatiminclude#1{%
  {%
    \makevalueexpandable
    \setupverbatim
    \input #1
    \afterenvbreak
  }%
}

% @copying ... @end copying.
% Save the text away for @insertcopying later.
%
% We save the uninterpreted tokens, rather than creating a box.
% Saving the text in a box would be much easier, but then all the
% typesetting commands (@smallbook, font changes, etc.) have to be done
% beforehand -- and a) we want @copying to be done first in the source
% file; b) letting users define the frontmatter in as flexible order as
% possible is very desirable.
%
\def\copying{\checkenv{}\begingroup\scanargctxt\docopying}
\def\docopying#1@end copying{\endgroup\def\copyingtext{#1}}
%
\def\insertcopying{%
  \begingroup
    \parindent = 0pt  % paragraph indentation looks wrong on title page
    \scanexp\copyingtext
  \endgroup
}

\message{defuns,}
% @defun etc.

\newskip\defbodyindent \defbodyindent=.4in
\newskip\defargsindent \defargsindent=50pt
\newskip\deflastargmargin \deflastargmargin=18pt

% Start the processing of @deffn:
\def\startdefun{%
  \ifnum\lastpenalty<10000
    \medbreak
  \else
    % If there are two @def commands in a row, we'll have a \nobreak,
    % which is there to keep the function description together with its
    % header.  But if there's nothing but headers, we need to allow a
    % break somewhere.  Check specifically for penalty 10002, inserted
    % by \defargscommonending, instead of 10000, since the sectioning
    % commands also insert a nobreak penalty, and we don't want to allow
    % a break between a section heading and a defun.
    % 
    \ifnum\lastpenalty=10002 \penalty2000 \fi
    %
    % Similarly, after a section heading, do not allow a break.
    % But do insert the glue.
    \medskip  % preceded by discardable penalty, so not a breakpoint
  \fi
  %
  \parindent=0in
  \advance\leftskip by \defbodyindent
  \exdentamount=\defbodyindent
}

\def\dodefunx#1{%
  % First, check whether we are in the right environment:
  \checkenv#1%
  %
  % As above, allow line break if we have multiple x headers in a row.
  % It's not a great place, though.
  \ifnum\lastpenalty=10002 \penalty3000 \fi
  %
  % And now, it's time to reuse the body of the original defun:
  \expandafter\gobbledefun#1%
}
\def\gobbledefun#1\startdefun{}

% \printdefunline \deffnheader{text}
%
\def\printdefunline#1#2{%
  \begingroup
    % call \deffnheader:
    #1#2 \endheader
    % common ending:
    \interlinepenalty = 10000
    \advance\rightskip by 0pt plus 1fil
    \endgraf
    \nobreak\vskip -\parskip
    \penalty 10002  % signal to \startdefun and \dodefunx
    % Some of the @defun-type tags do not enable magic parentheses,
    % rendering the following check redundant.  But we don't optimize.
    \checkparencounts
  \endgroup
}

\def\Edefun{\endgraf\medbreak}

% \makedefun{deffn} creates \deffn, \deffnx and \Edeffn;
% the only thing remainnig is to define \deffnheader.
%
\def\makedefun#1{%
  \expandafter\let\csname E#1\endcsname = \Edefun
  \edef\temp{\noexpand\domakedefun
    \makecsname{#1}\makecsname{#1x}\makecsname{#1header}}%
  \temp
}

% \domakedefun \deffn \deffnx \deffnheader
%
% Define \deffn and \deffnx, without parameters.
% \deffnheader has to be defined explicitly.
%
\def\domakedefun#1#2#3{%
  \envdef#1{%
    \startdefun
    \parseargusing\activeparens{\printdefunline#3}%
  }%
  \def#2{\dodefunx#1}%
  \def#3%
}

%%% Untyped functions:

% @deffn category name args
\makedefun{deffn}{\deffngeneral{}}

% @deffn category class name args
\makedefun{defop}#1 {\defopon{#1\ \putwordon}}

% \defopon {category on}class name args
\def\defopon#1#2 {\deffngeneral{\putwordon\ \code{#2}}{#1\ \code{#2}} }

% \deffngeneral {subind}category name args
%
\def\deffngeneral#1#2 #3 #4\endheader{%
  % Remember that \dosubind{fn}{foo}{} is equivalent to \doind{fn}{foo}.
  \dosubind{fn}{\code{#3}}{#1}%
  \defname{#2}{}{#3}\magicamp\defunargs{#4\unskip}%
}

%%% Typed functions:

% @deftypefn category type name args
\makedefun{deftypefn}{\deftypefngeneral{}}

% @deftypeop category class type name args
\makedefun{deftypeop}#1 {\deftypeopon{#1\ \putwordon}}

% \deftypeopon {category on}class type name args
\def\deftypeopon#1#2 {\deftypefngeneral{\putwordon\ \code{#2}}{#1\ \code{#2}} }

% \deftypefngeneral {subind}category type name args
%
\def\deftypefngeneral#1#2 #3 #4 #5\endheader{%
  \dosubind{fn}{\code{#4}}{#1}%
  \defname{#2}{#3}{#4}\defunargs{#5\unskip}%
}

%%% Typed variables:

% @deftypevr category type var args
\makedefun{deftypevr}{\deftypecvgeneral{}}

% @deftypecv category class type var args
\makedefun{deftypecv}#1 {\deftypecvof{#1\ \putwordof}}

% \deftypecvof {category of}class type var args
\def\deftypecvof#1#2 {\deftypecvgeneral{\putwordof\ \code{#2}}{#1\ \code{#2}} }

% \deftypecvgeneral {subind}category type var args
%
\def\deftypecvgeneral#1#2 #3 #4 #5\endheader{%
  \dosubind{vr}{\code{#4}}{#1}%
  \defname{#2}{#3}{#4}\defunargs{#5\unskip}%
}

%%% Untyped variables:

% @defvr category var args
\makedefun{defvr}#1 {\deftypevrheader{#1} {} }

% @defcv category class var args
\makedefun{defcv}#1 {\defcvof{#1\ \putwordof}}

% \defcvof {category of}class var args
\def\defcvof#1#2 {\deftypecvof{#1}#2 {} }

%%% Type:
% @deftp category name args
\makedefun{deftp}#1 #2 #3\endheader{%
  \doind{tp}{\code{#2}}%
  \defname{#1}{}{#2}\defunargs{#3\unskip}%
}

% Remaining @defun-like shortcuts:
\makedefun{defun}{\deffnheader{\putwordDeffunc} }
\makedefun{defmac}{\deffnheader{\putwordDefmac} }
\makedefun{defspec}{\deffnheader{\putwordDefspec} }
\makedefun{deftypefun}{\deftypefnheader{\putwordDeffunc} }
\makedefun{defvar}{\defvrheader{\putwordDefvar} }
\makedefun{defopt}{\defvrheader{\putwordDefopt} }
\makedefun{deftypevar}{\deftypevrheader{\putwordDefvar} }
\makedefun{defmethod}{\defopon\putwordMethodon}
\makedefun{deftypemethod}{\deftypeopon\putwordMethodon}
\makedefun{defivar}{\defcvof\putwordInstanceVariableof}
\makedefun{deftypeivar}{\deftypecvof\putwordInstanceVariableof}

% \defname, which formats the name of the @def (not the args).
% #1 is the category, such as "Function".
% #2 is the return type, if any.
% #3 is the function name.
%
% We are followed by (but not passed) the arguments, if any.
%
\def\defname#1#2#3{%
  % Get the values of \leftskip and \rightskip as they were outside the @def...
  \advance\leftskip by -\defbodyindent
  %
  % How we'll format the type name.  Putting it in brackets helps
  % distinguish it from the body text that may end up on the next line
  % just below it.
  \def\temp{#1}%
  \setbox0=\hbox{\kern\deflastargmargin \ifx\temp\empty\else [\rm\temp]\fi}
  %
  % Figure out line sizes for the paragraph shape.
  % The first line needs space for \box0; but if \rightskip is nonzero,
  % we need only space for the part of \box0 which exceeds it:
  \dimen0=\hsize  \advance\dimen0 by -\wd0  \advance\dimen0 by \rightskip
  % The continuations:
  \dimen2=\hsize  \advance\dimen2 by -\defargsindent
  % (plain.tex says that \dimen1 should be used only as global.)
  \parshape 2 0in \dimen0 \defargsindent \dimen2
  %
  % Put the type name to the right margin.
  \noindent
  \hbox to 0pt{%
    \hfil\box0 \kern-\hsize
    % \hsize has to be shortened this way:
    \kern\leftskip
    % Intentionally do not respect \rightskip, since we need the space.
  }%
  %
  % Allow all lines to be underfull without complaint:
  \tolerance=10000 \hbadness=10000
  \exdentamount=\defbodyindent
  {%
    % defun fonts. We use typewriter by default (used to be bold) because:
    % . we're printing identifiers, they should be in tt in principle.
    % . in languages with many accents, such as Czech or French, it's
    %   common to leave accents off identifiers.  The result looks ok in
    %   tt, but exceedingly strange in rm.
    % . we don't want -- and --- to be treated as ligatures.
    % . this still does not fix the ?` and !` ligatures, but so far no
    %   one has made identifiers using them :).
    \df \tt
    \def\temp{#2}% return value type
    \ifx\temp\empty\else \tclose{\temp} \fi
    #3% output function name
  }%
  {\rm\enskip}% hskip 0.5 em of \tenrm
  %
  \boldbrax
  % arguments will be output next, if any.
}

% Print arguments in slanted roman (not ttsl), inconsistently with using
% tt for the name.  This is because literal text is sometimes needed in
% the argument list (groff manual), and ttsl and tt are not very
% distinguishable.  Prevent hyphenation at `-' chars.
%
\def\defunargs#1{%
  % use sl by default (not ttsl),
  % tt for the names.
  \df \sl \hyphenchar\font=0
  %
  % On the other hand, if an argument has two dashes (for instance), we
  % want a way to get ttsl.  Let's try @var for that.
  \let\var=\ttslanted
  #1%
  \sl\hyphenchar\font=45
}

% We want ()&[] to print specially on the defun line.
%
\def\activeparens{%
  \catcode`\(=\active \catcode`\)=\active
  \catcode`\[=\active \catcode`\]=\active
  \catcode`\&=\active
}

% Make control sequences which act like normal parenthesis chars.
\let\lparen = ( \let\rparen = )

% Be sure that we always have a definition for `(', etc.  For example,
% if the fn name has parens in it, \boldbrax will not be in effect yet,
% so TeX would otherwise complain about undefined control sequence.
{
  \activeparens
  \global\let(=\lparen \global\let)=\rparen
  \global\let[=\lbrack \global\let]=\rbrack
  \global\let& = \&

  \gdef\boldbrax{\let(=\opnr\let)=\clnr\let[=\lbrb\let]=\rbrb}
  \gdef\magicamp{\let&=\amprm}
}

\newcount\parencount

% If we encounter &foo, then turn on ()-hacking afterwards
\newif\ifampseen
\def\amprm#1 {\ampseentrue{\bf\&#1 }}

\def\parenfont{%
  \ifampseen
    % At the first level, print parens in roman,
    % otherwise use the default font.
    \ifnum \parencount=1 \rm \fi
  \else
    % The \sf parens (in \boldbrax) actually are a little bolder than
    % the contained text.  This is especially needed for [ and ] .
    \sf
  \fi
}
\def\infirstlevel#1{%
  \ifampseen
    \ifnum\parencount=1
      #1%
    \fi
  \fi
}
\def\bfafterword#1 {#1 \bf}

\def\opnr{%
  \global\advance\parencount by 1
  {\parenfont(}%
  \infirstlevel \bfafterword
}
\def\clnr{%
  {\parenfont)}%
  \infirstlevel \sl
  \global\advance\parencount by -1
}

\newcount\brackcount
\def\lbrb{%
  \global\advance\brackcount by 1
  {\bf[}%
}
\def\rbrb{%
  {\bf]}%
  \global\advance\brackcount by -1
}

\def\checkparencounts{%
  \ifnum\parencount=0 \else \badparencount \fi
  \ifnum\brackcount=0 \else \badbrackcount \fi
}
\def\badparencount{%
  \errmessage{Unbalanced parentheses in @def}%
  \global\parencount=0
}
\def\badbrackcount{%
  \errmessage{Unbalanced square braces in @def}%
  \global\brackcount=0
}


\message{macros,}
% @macro.

% To do this right we need a feature of e-TeX, \scantokens,
% which we arrange to emulate with a temporary file in ordinary TeX.
\ifx\eTeXversion\undefined
  \newwrite\macscribble
  \def\scantokens#1{%
    \toks0={#1}%
    \immediate\openout\macscribble=\jobname.tmp
    \immediate\write\macscribble{\the\toks0}%
    \immediate\closeout\macscribble
    \input \jobname.tmp
  }
\fi

\def\scanmacro#1{%
  \begingroup
    \newlinechar`\^^M
    \let\xeatspaces\eatspaces
    % Undo catcode changes of \startcontents and \doprintindex
    % When called from @insertcopying or (short)caption, we need active
    % backslash to get it printed correctly.  Previously, we had
    % \catcode`\\=\other instead.  We'll see whether a problem appears
    % with macro expansion.				--kasal, 19aug04
    \catcode`\@=0 \catcode`\\=\active \escapechar=`\@
    % ... and \example
    \spaceisspace
    %
    % Append \endinput to make sure that TeX does not see the ending newline.
    % I've verified that it is necessary both for e-TeX and for ordinary TeX
    %							--kasal, 29nov03
    \scantokens{#1\endinput}%
  \endgroup
}

\def\scanexp#1{%
  \edef\temp{\noexpand\scanmacro{#1}}%
  \temp
}

\newcount\paramno   % Count of parameters
\newtoks\macname    % Macro name
\newif\ifrecursive  % Is it recursive?

% List of all defined macros in the form
%    \definedummyword\macro1\definedummyword\macro2...
% Currently is also contains all @aliases; the list can be split
% if there is a need.
\def\macrolist{}

% Add the macro to \macrolist
\def\addtomacrolist#1{\expandafter \addtomacrolistxxx \csname#1\endcsname}
\def\addtomacrolistxxx#1{%
     \toks0 = \expandafter{\macrolist\definedummyword#1}%
     \xdef\macrolist{\the\toks0}%
}

% Utility routines.
% This does \let #1 = #2, with \csnames; that is,
%   \let \csname#1\endcsname = \csname#2\endcsname
% (except of course we have to play expansion games).
% 
\def\cslet#1#2{%
  \expandafter\let
  \csname#1\expandafter\endcsname
  \csname#2\endcsname
}

% Trim leading and trailing spaces off a string.
% Concepts from aro-bend problem 15 (see CTAN).
{\catcode`\@=11
\gdef\eatspaces #1{\expandafter\trim@\expandafter{#1 }}
\gdef\trim@ #1{\trim@@ @#1 @ #1 @ @@}
\gdef\trim@@ #1@ #2@ #3@@{\trim@@@\empty #2 @}
\def\unbrace#1{#1}
\unbrace{\gdef\trim@@@ #1 } #2@{#1}
}

% Trim a single trailing ^^M off a string.
{\catcode`\^^M=\other \catcode`\Q=3%
\gdef\eatcr #1{\eatcra #1Q^^MQ}%
\gdef\eatcra#1^^MQ{\eatcrb#1Q}%
\gdef\eatcrb#1Q#2Q{#1}%
}

% Macro bodies are absorbed as an argument in a context where
% all characters are catcode 10, 11 or 12, except \ which is active
% (as in normal texinfo). It is necessary to change the definition of \.

% It's necessary to have hard CRs when the macro is executed. This is
% done by  making ^^M (\endlinechar) catcode 12 when reading the macro
% body, and then making it the \newlinechar in \scanmacro.

\def\scanctxt{%
  \catcode`\"=\other
  \catcode`\+=\other
  \catcode`\<=\other
  \catcode`\>=\other
  \catcode`\@=\other
  \catcode`\^=\other
  \catcode`\_=\other
  \catcode`\|=\other
  \catcode`\~=\other
}

\def\scanargctxt{%
  \scanctxt
  \catcode`\\=\other
  \catcode`\^^M=\other
}

\def\macrobodyctxt{%
  \scanctxt
  \catcode`\{=\other
  \catcode`\}=\other
  \catcode`\^^M=\other
  \usembodybackslash
}

\def\macroargctxt{%
  \scanctxt
  \catcode`\\=\other
}

% \mbodybackslash is the definition of \ in @macro bodies.
% It maps \foo\ => \csname macarg.foo\endcsname => #N
% where N is the macro parameter number.
% We define \csname macarg.\endcsname to be \realbackslash, so
% \\ in macro replacement text gets you a backslash.

{\catcode`@=0 @catcode`@\=@active
 @gdef@usembodybackslash{@let\=@mbodybackslash}
 @gdef@mbodybackslash#1\{@csname macarg.#1@endcsname}
}
\expandafter\def\csname macarg.\endcsname{\realbackslash}

\def\macro{\recursivefalse\parsearg\macroxxx}
\def\rmacro{\recursivetrue\parsearg\macroxxx}

\def\macroxxx#1{%
  \getargs{#1}%           now \macname is the macname and \argl the arglist
  \ifx\argl\empty       % no arguments
     \paramno=0%
  \else
     \expandafter\parsemargdef \argl;%
  \fi
  \if1\csname ismacro.\the\macname\endcsname
     \message{Warning: redefining \the\macname}%
  \else
     \expandafter\ifx\csname \the\macname\endcsname \relax
     \else \errmessage{Macro name \the\macname\space already defined}\fi
     \global\cslet{macsave.\the\macname}{\the\macname}%
     \global\expandafter\let\csname ismacro.\the\macname\endcsname=1%
     \addtomacrolist{\the\macname}%
  \fi
  \begingroup \macrobodyctxt
  \ifrecursive \expandafter\parsermacbody
  \else \expandafter\parsemacbody
  \fi}

\parseargdef\unmacro{%
  \if1\csname ismacro.#1\endcsname
    \global\cslet{#1}{macsave.#1}%
    \global\expandafter\let \csname ismacro.#1\endcsname=0%
    % Remove the macro name from \macrolist:
    \begingroup
      \expandafter\let\csname#1\endcsname \relax
      \let\definedummyword\unmacrodo
      \xdef\macrolist{\macrolist}%
    \endgroup
  \else
    \errmessage{Macro #1 not defined}%
  \fi
}

% Called by \do from \dounmacro on each macro.  The idea is to omit any
% macro definitions that have been changed to \relax.
%
\def\unmacrodo#1{%
  \ifx #1\relax
    % remove this
  \else
    \noexpand\definedummyword \noexpand#1%
  \fi
}

% This makes use of the obscure feature that if the last token of a
% <parameter list> is #, then the preceding argument is delimited by
% an opening brace, and that opening brace is not consumed.
\def\getargs#1{\getargsxxx#1{}}
\def\getargsxxx#1#{\getmacname #1 \relax\getmacargs}
\def\getmacname #1 #2\relax{\macname={#1}}
\def\getmacargs#1{\def\argl{#1}}

% Parse the optional {params} list.  Set up \paramno and \paramlist
% so \defmacro knows what to do.  Define \macarg.blah for each blah
% in the params list, to be ##N where N is the position in that list.
% That gets used by \mbodybackslash (above).

% We need to get `macro parameter char #' into several definitions.
% The technique used is stolen from LaTeX:  let \hash be something
% unexpandable, insert that wherever you need a #, and then redefine
% it to # just before using the token list produced.
%
% The same technique is used to protect \eatspaces till just before
% the macro is used.

\def\parsemargdef#1;{\paramno=0\def\paramlist{}%
        \let\hash\relax\let\xeatspaces\relax\parsemargdefxxx#1,;,}
\def\parsemargdefxxx#1,{%
  \if#1;\let\next=\relax
  \else \let\next=\parsemargdefxxx
    \advance\paramno by 1%
    \expandafter\edef\csname macarg.\eatspaces{#1}\endcsname
        {\xeatspaces{\hash\the\paramno}}%
    \edef\paramlist{\paramlist\hash\the\paramno,}%
  \fi\next}

% These two commands read recursive and nonrecursive macro bodies.
% (They're different since rec and nonrec macros end differently.)

\long\def\parsemacbody#1@end macro%
{\xdef\temp{\eatcr{#1}}\endgroup\defmacro}%
\long\def\parsermacbody#1@end rmacro%
{\xdef\temp{\eatcr{#1}}\endgroup\defmacro}%

% This defines the macro itself. There are six cases: recursive and
% nonrecursive macros of zero, one, and many arguments.
% Much magic with \expandafter here.
% \xdef is used so that macro definitions will survive the file
% they're defined in; @include reads the file inside a group.
\def\defmacro{%
  \let\hash=##% convert placeholders to macro parameter chars
  \ifrecursive
    \ifcase\paramno
    % 0
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname\endcsname{%
        \noexpand\scanmacro{\temp}}%
    \or % 1
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname\endcsname{%
         \bgroup\noexpand\macroargctxt
         \noexpand\braceorline
         \expandafter\noexpand\csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname}%
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname##1{%
         \egroup\noexpand\scanmacro{\temp}}%
    \else % many
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname\endcsname{%
         \bgroup\noexpand\macroargctxt
         \noexpand\csname\the\macname xx\endcsname}%
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname xx\endcsname##1{%
          \expandafter\noexpand\csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname ##1,}%
      \expandafter\expandafter
      \expandafter\xdef
      \expandafter\expandafter
        \csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname
          \paramlist{\egroup\noexpand\scanmacro{\temp}}%
    \fi
  \else
    \ifcase\paramno
    % 0
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname\endcsname{%
        \noexpand\norecurse{\the\macname}%
        \noexpand\scanmacro{\temp}\egroup}%
    \or % 1
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname\endcsname{%
         \bgroup\noexpand\macroargctxt
         \noexpand\braceorline
         \expandafter\noexpand\csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname}%
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname##1{%
        \egroup
        \noexpand\norecurse{\the\macname}%
        \noexpand\scanmacro{\temp}\egroup}%
    \else % many
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname\endcsname{%
         \bgroup\noexpand\macroargctxt
         \expandafter\noexpand\csname\the\macname xx\endcsname}%
      \expandafter\xdef\csname\the\macname xx\endcsname##1{%
          \expandafter\noexpand\csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname ##1,}%
      \expandafter\expandafter
      \expandafter\xdef
      \expandafter\expandafter
      \csname\the\macname xxx\endcsname
      \paramlist{%
          \egroup
          \noexpand\norecurse{\the\macname}%
          \noexpand\scanmacro{\temp}\egroup}%
    \fi
  \fi}

\def\norecurse#1{\bgroup\cslet{#1}{macsave.#1}}

% \braceorline decides whether the next nonwhitespace character is a
% {.  If so it reads up to the closing }, if not, it reads the whole
% line.  Whatever was read is then fed to the next control sequence
% as an argument (by \parsebrace or \parsearg)
\def\braceorline#1{\let\macnamexxx=#1\futurelet\nchar\braceorlinexxx}
\def\braceorlinexxx{%
  \ifx\nchar\bgroup\else
    \expandafter\parsearg
  \fi \macnamexxx}


% @alias.
% We need some trickery to remove the optional spaces around the equal
% sign.  Just make them active and then expand them all to nothing.
\def\alias{\parseargusing\obeyspaces\aliasxxx}
\def\aliasxxx #1{\aliasyyy#1\relax}
\def\aliasyyy #1=#2\relax{%
  {%
    \expandafter\let\obeyedspace=\empty
    \addtomacrolist{#1}%
    \xdef\next{\global\let\makecsname{#1}=\makecsname{#2}}%
  }%
  \next
}


\message{cross references,}

\newwrite\auxfile

\newif\ifhavexrefs    % True if xref values are known.
\newif\ifwarnedxrefs  % True if we warned once that they aren't known.

% @inforef is relatively simple.
\def\inforef #1{\inforefzzz #1,,,,**}
\def\inforefzzz #1,#2,#3,#4**{\putwordSee{} \putwordInfo{} \putwordfile{} \file{\ignorespaces #3{}},
  node \samp{\ignorespaces#1{}}}

% @node's only job in TeX is to define \lastnode, which is used in
% cross-references.  The @node line might or might not have commas, and
% might or might not have spaces before the first comma, like:
% @node foo , bar , ...
% We don't want such trailing spaces in the node name.
%
\parseargdef\node{\checkenv{}\donode #1 ,\finishnodeparse}
%
% also remove a trailing comma, in case of something like this:
% @node Help-Cross,  ,  , Cross-refs
\def\donode#1 ,#2\finishnodeparse{\dodonode #1,\finishnodeparse}
\def\dodonode#1,#2\finishnodeparse{\gdef\lastnode{#1}}

\let\nwnode=\node
\let\lastnode=\empty

% Write a cross-reference definition for the current node.  #1 is the
% type (Ynumbered, Yappendix, Ynothing).
%
\def\donoderef#1{%
  \ifx\lastnode\empty\else
    \setref{\lastnode}{#1}%
    \global\let\lastnode=\empty
  \fi
}

% @anchor{NAME} -- define xref target at arbitrary point.
%
\newcount\savesfregister
%
\def\savesf{\relax \ifhmode \savesfregister=\spacefactor \fi}
\def\restoresf{\relax \ifhmode \spacefactor=\savesfregister \fi}
\def\anchor#1{\savesf \setref{#1}{Ynothing}\restoresf \ignorespaces}

% \setref{NAME}{SNT} defines a cross-reference point NAME (a node or an
% anchor), which consists of three parts:
% 1) NAME-title - the current sectioning name taken from \thissection,
%                 or the anchor name.
% 2) NAME-snt   - section number and type, passed as the SNT arg, or
%                 empty for anchors.
% 3) NAME-pg    - the page number.
%
% This is called from \donoderef, \anchor, and \dofloat.  In the case of
% floats, there is an additional part, which is not written here:
% 4) NAME-lof   - the text as it should appear in a @listoffloats.
%
\def\setref#1#2{%
  \pdfmkdest{#1}%
  \iflinks
    {%
      \atdummies  % preserve commands, but don't expand them
      \edef\writexrdef##1##2{%
	\write\auxfile{@xrdef{#1-% #1 of \setref, expanded by the \edef
	  ##1}{##2}}% these are parameters of \writexrdef
      }%
      \toks0 = \expandafter{\thissection}%
      \immediate \writexrdef{title}{\the\toks0 }%
      \immediate \writexrdef{snt}{\csname #2\endcsname}% \Ynumbered etc.
      \writexrdef{pg}{\folio}% will be written later, during \shipout
    }%
  \fi
}

% @xref, @pxref, and @ref generate cross-references.  For \xrefX, #1 is
% the node name, #2 the name of the Info cross-reference, #3 the printed
% node name, #4 the name of the Info file, #5 the name of the printed
% manual.  All but the node name can be omitted.
%
\def\pxref#1{\putwordsee{} \xrefX[#1,,,,,,,]}
\def\xref#1{\putwordSee{} \xrefX[#1,,,,,,,]}
\def\ref#1{\xrefX[#1,,,,,,,]}
\def\xrefX[#1,#2,#3,#4,#5,#6]{\begingroup
  \unsepspaces
  \def\printedmanual{\ignorespaces #5}%
  \def\printedrefname{\ignorespaces #3}%
  \setbox1=\hbox{\printedmanual\unskip}%
  \setbox0=\hbox{\printedrefname\unskip}%
  \ifdim \wd0 = 0pt
    % No printed node name was explicitly given.
    \expandafter\ifx\csname SETxref-automatic-section-title\endcsname\relax
      % Use the node name inside the square brackets.
      \def\printedrefname{\ignorespaces #1}%
    \else
      % Use the actual chapter/section title appear inside
      % the square brackets.  Use the real section title if we have it.
      \ifdim \wd1 > 0pt
        % It is in another manual, so we don't have it.
        \def\printedrefname{\ignorespaces #1}%
      \else
        \ifhavexrefs
          % We know the real title if we have the xref values.
          \def\printedrefname{\refx{#1-title}{}}%
        \else
          % Otherwise just copy the Info node name.
          \def\printedrefname{\ignorespaces #1}%
        \fi%
      \fi
    \fi
  \fi
  %
  % Make link in pdf output.
  \ifpdf
    \leavevmode
    \getfilename{#4}%
    {\turnoffactive
     % See comments at \activebackslashdouble.
     {\activebackslashdouble \xdef\pdfxrefdest{#1}%
      \backslashparens\pdfxrefdest}%
     %
     \ifnum\filenamelength>0
       \startlink attr{/Border [0 0 0]}%
         goto file{\the\filename.pdf} name{\pdfxrefdest}%
     \else
       \startlink attr{/Border [0 0 0]}%
         goto name{\pdfmkpgn{\pdfxrefdest}}%
     \fi
    }%
    \linkcolor
  \fi
  %
  % Float references are printed completely differently: "Figure 1.2"
  % instead of "[somenode], p.3".  We distinguish them by the
  % LABEL-title being set to a magic string.
  {%
    % Have to otherify everything special to allow the \csname to
    % include an _ in the xref name, etc.
    \indexnofonts
    \turnoffactive
    \expandafter\global\expandafter\let\expandafter\Xthisreftitle
      \csname XR#1-title\endcsname
  }%
  \iffloat\Xthisreftitle
    % If the user specified the print name (third arg) to the ref,
    % print it instead of our usual "Figure 1.2".
    \ifdim\wd0 = 0pt
      \refx{#1-snt}{}%
    \else
      \printedrefname
    \fi
    %
    % if the user also gave the printed manual name (fifth arg), append
    % "in MANUALNAME".
    \ifdim \wd1 > 0pt
      \space \putwordin{} \cite{\printedmanual}%
    \fi
  \else
    % node/anchor (non-float) references.
    %
    % If we use \unhbox0 and \unhbox1 to print the node names, TeX does not
    % insert empty discretionaries after hyphens, which means that it will
    % not find a line break at a hyphen in a node names.  Since some manuals
    % are best written with fairly long node names, containing hyphens, this
    % is a loss.  Therefore, we give the text of the node name again, so it
    % is as if TeX is seeing it for the first time.
    \ifdim \wd1 > 0pt
      \putwordsection{} ``\printedrefname'' \putwordin{} \cite{\printedmanual}%
    \else
      % _ (for example) has to be the character _ for the purposes of the
      % control sequence corresponding to the node, but it has to expand
      % into the usual \leavevmode...\vrule stuff for purposes of
      % printing. So we \turnoffactive for the \refx-snt, back on for the
      % printing, back off for the \refx-pg.
      {\turnoffactive
       % Only output a following space if the -snt ref is nonempty; for
       % @unnumbered and @anchor, it won't be.
       \setbox2 = \hbox{\ignorespaces \refx{#1-snt}{}}%
       \ifdim \wd2 > 0pt \refx{#1-snt}\space\fi
      }%
      % output the `[mynode]' via a macro so it can be overridden.
      \xrefprintnodename\printedrefname
      %
      % But we always want a comma and a space:
      ,\space
      %
      % output the `page 3'.
      \turnoffactive \putwordpage\tie\refx{#1-pg}{}%
    \fi
  \fi
  \endlink
\endgroup}

% This macro is called from \xrefX for the `[nodename]' part of xref
% output.  It's a separate macro only so it can be changed more easily,
% since square brackets don't work well in some documents.  Particularly
% one that Bob is working on :).
%
\def\xrefprintnodename#1{[#1]}

% Things referred to by \setref.
%
\def\Ynothing{}
\def\Yomitfromtoc{}
\def\Ynumbered{%
  \ifnum\secno=0
    \putwordChapter@tie \the\chapno
  \else \ifnum\subsecno=0
    \putwordSection@tie \the\chapno.\the\secno
  \else \ifnum\subsubsecno=0
    \putwordSection@tie \the\chapno.\the\secno.\the\subsecno
  \else
    \putwordSection@tie \the\chapno.\the\secno.\the\subsecno.\the\subsubsecno
  \fi\fi\fi
}
\def\Yappendix{%
  \ifnum\secno=0
     \putwordAppendix@tie @char\the\appendixno{}%
  \else \ifnum\subsecno=0
     \putwordSection@tie @char\the\appendixno.\the\secno
  \else \ifnum\subsubsecno=0
    \putwordSection@tie @char\the\appendixno.\the\secno.\the\subsecno
  \else
    \putwordSection@tie
      @char\the\appendixno.\the\secno.\the\subsecno.\the\subsubsecno
  \fi\fi\fi
}

% Define \refx{NAME}{SUFFIX} to reference a cross-reference string named NAME.
% If its value is nonempty, SUFFIX is output afterward.
%
\def\refx#1#2{%
  {%
    \indexnofonts
    \otherbackslash
    \expandafter\global\expandafter\let\expandafter\thisrefX
      \csname XR#1\endcsname
  }%
  \ifx\thisrefX\relax
    % If not defined, say something at least.
    \angleleft un\-de\-fined\angleright
    \iflinks
      \ifhavexrefs
        \message{\linenumber Undefined cross reference `#1'.}%
      \else
        \ifwarnedxrefs\else
          \global\warnedxrefstrue
          \message{Cross reference values unknown; you must run TeX again.}%
        \fi
      \fi
    \fi
  \else
    % It's defined, so just use it.
    \thisrefX
  \fi
  #2% Output the suffix in any case.
}

% This is the macro invoked by entries in the aux file.  Usually it's
% just a \def (we prepend XR to the control sequence name to avoid
% collisions).  But if this is a float type, we have more work to do.
%
\def\xrdef#1#2{%
  \expandafter\gdef\csname XR#1\endcsname{#2}% remember this xref value.
  %
  % Was that xref control sequence that we just defined for a float?
  \expandafter\iffloat\csname XR#1\endcsname
    % it was a float, and we have the (safe) float type in \iffloattype.
    \expandafter\let\expandafter\floatlist
      \csname floatlist\iffloattype\endcsname
    %
    % Is this the first time we've seen this float type?
    \expandafter\ifx\floatlist\relax
      \toks0 = {\do}% yes, so just \do
    \else
      % had it before, so preserve previous elements in list.
      \toks0 = \expandafter{\floatlist\do}%
    \fi
    %
    % Remember this xref in the control sequence \floatlistFLOATTYPE,
    % for later use in \listoffloats.
    \expandafter\xdef\csname floatlist\iffloattype\endcsname{\the\toks0{#1}}%
  \fi
}

% Read the last existing aux file, if any.  No error if none exists.
%
\def\tryauxfile{%
  \openin 1 \jobname.aux
  \ifeof 1 \else
    \readdatafile{aux}%
    \global\havexrefstrue
  \fi
  \closein 1
}

\def\setupdatafile{%
  \catcode`\^^@=\other
  \catcode`\^^A=\other
  \catcode`\^^B=\other
  \catcode`\^^C=\other
  \catcode`\^^D=\other
  \catcode`\^^E=\other
  \catcode`\^^F=\other
  \catcode`\^^G=\other
  \catcode`\^^H=\other
  \catcode`\^^K=\other
  \catcode`\^^L=\other
  \catcode`\^^N=\other
  \catcode`\^^P=\other
  \catcode`\^^Q=\other
  \catcode`\^^R=\other
  \catcode`\^^S=\other
  \catcode`\^^T=\other
  \catcode`\^^U=\other
  \catcode`\^^V=\other
  \catcode`\^^W=\other
  \catcode`\^^X=\other
  \catcode`\^^Z=\other
  \catcode`\^^[=\other
  \catcode`\^^\=\other
  \catcode`\^^]=\other
  \catcode`\^^^=\other
  \catcode`\^^_=\other
  % It was suggested to set the catcode of ^ to 7, which would allow ^^e4 etc.
  % in xref tags, i.e., node names.  But since ^^e4 notation isn't
  % supported in the main text, it doesn't seem desirable.  Furthermore,
  % that is not enough: for node names that actually contain a ^
  % character, we would end up writing a line like this: 'xrdef {'hat
  % b-title}{'hat b} and \xrdef does a \csname...\endcsname on the first
  % argument, and \hat is not an expandable control sequence.  It could
  % all be worked out, but why?  Either we support ^^ or we don't.
  %
  % The other change necessary for this was to define \auxhat:
  % \def\auxhat{\def^{'hat }}% extra space so ok if followed by letter
  % and then to call \auxhat in \setq.
  %
  \catcode`\^=\other
  %
  % Special characters.  Should be turned off anyway, but...
  \catcode`\~=\other
  \catcode`\[=\other
  \catcode`\]=\other
  \catcode`\"=\other
  \catcode`\_=\other
  \catcode`\|=\other
  \catcode`\<=\other
  \catcode`\>=\other
  \catcode`\$=\other
  \catcode`\#=\other
  \catcode`\&=\other
  \catcode`\%=\other
  \catcode`+=\other % avoid \+ for paranoia even though we've turned it off
  %
  % This is to support \ in node names and titles, since the \
  % characters end up in a \csname.  It's easier than
  % leaving it active and making its active definition an actual \
  % character.  What I don't understand is why it works in the *value*
  % of the xrdef.  Seems like it should be a catcode12 \, and that
  % should not typeset properly.  But it works, so I'm moving on for
  % now.  --karl, 15jan04.
  \catcode`\\=\other
  %
  % Make the characters 128-255 be printing characters.
  {%
    \count1=128
    \def\loop{%
      \catcode\count1=\other
      \advance\count1 by 1
      \ifnum \count1<256 \loop \fi
    }%
  }%
  %
  % @ is our escape character in .aux files, and we need braces.
  \catcode`\{=1
  \catcode`\}=2
  \catcode`\@=0
}

\def\readdatafile#1{%
\begingroup
  \setupdatafile
  \input\jobname.#1
\endgroup}

\message{insertions,}
% including footnotes.

\newcount \footnoteno

% The trailing space in the following definition for supereject is
% vital for proper filling; pages come out unaligned when you do a
% pagealignmacro call if that space before the closing brace is
% removed. (Generally, numeric constants should always be followed by a
% space to prevent strange expansion errors.)
\def\supereject{\par\penalty -20000\footnoteno =0 }

% @footnotestyle is meaningful for info output only.
\let\footnotestyle=\comment

{\catcode `\@=11
%
% Auto-number footnotes.  Otherwise like plain.
\gdef\footnote{%
  \let\indent=\ptexindent
  \let\noindent=\ptexnoindent
  \global\advance\footnoteno by \@ne
  \edef\thisfootno{$^{\the\footnoteno}$}%
  %
  % In case the footnote comes at the end of a sentence, preserve the
  % extra spacing after we do the footnote number.
  \let\@sf\empty
  \ifhmode\edef\@sf{\spacefactor\the\spacefactor}\ptexslash\fi
  %
  % Remove inadvertent blank space before typesetting the footnote number.
  \unskip
  \thisfootno\@sf
  \dofootnote
}%

% Don't bother with the trickery in plain.tex to not require the
% footnote text as a parameter.  Our footnotes don't need to be so general.
%
% Oh yes, they do; otherwise, @ifset (and anything else that uses
% \parseargline) fails inside footnotes because the tokens are fixed when
% the footnote is read.  --karl, 16nov96.
%
\gdef\dofootnote{%
  \insert\footins\bgroup
  % We want to typeset this text as a normal paragraph, even if the
  % footnote reference occurs in (for example) a display environment.
  % So reset some parameters.
  \hsize=\pagewidth
  \interlinepenalty\interfootnotelinepenalty
  \splittopskip\ht\strutbox % top baseline for broken footnotes
  \splitmaxdepth\dp\strutbox
  \floatingpenalty\@MM
  \leftskip\z@skip
  \rightskip\z@skip
  \spaceskip\z@skip
  \xspaceskip\z@skip
  \parindent\defaultparindent
  %
  \smallfonts \rm
  %
  % Because we use hanging indentation in footnotes, a @noindent appears
  % to exdent this text, so make it be a no-op.  makeinfo does not use
  % hanging indentation so @noindent can still be needed within footnote
  % text after an @example or the like (not that this is good style).
  \let\noindent = \relax
  %
  % Hang the footnote text off the number.  Use \everypar in case the
  % footnote extends for more than one paragraph.
  \everypar = {\hang}%
  \textindent{\thisfootno}%
  %
  % Don't crash into the line above the footnote text.  Since this
  % expands into a box, it must come within the paragraph, lest it
  % provide a place where TeX can split the footnote.
  \footstrut
  \futurelet\next\fo@t
}
}%end \catcode `\@=11

% In case a @footnote appears in a vbox, save the footnote text and create
% the real \insert just after the vbox finished.  Otherwise, the insertion
% would be lost.
% Similarily, if a @footnote appears inside an alignment, save the footnote
% text to a box and make the \insert when a row of the table is finished.
% And the same can be done for other insert classes.  --kasal, 16nov03.

% Replace the \insert primitive by a cheating macro.
% Deeper inside, just make sure that the saved insertions are not spilled
% out prematurely.
%
\def\startsavinginserts{%
  \ifx \insert\ptexinsert
    \let\insert\saveinsert
  \else
    \let\checkinserts\relax
  \fi
}

% This \insert replacement works for both \insert\footins{foo} and
% \insert\footins\bgroup foo\egroup, but it doesn't work for \insert27{foo}.
%
\def\saveinsert#1{%
  \edef\next{\noexpand\savetobox \makeSAVEname#1}%
  \afterassignment\next
  % swallow the left brace
  \let\temp =
}
\def\makeSAVEname#1{\makecsname{SAVE\expandafter\gobble\string#1}}
\def\savetobox#1{\global\setbox#1 = \vbox\bgroup \unvbox#1}

\def\checksaveins#1{\ifvoid#1\else \placesaveins#1\fi}

\def\placesaveins#1{%
  \ptexinsert \csname\expandafter\gobblesave\string#1\endcsname
    {\box#1}%
}

% eat @SAVE -- beware, all of them have catcode \other:
{
  \def\dospecials{\do S\do A\do V\do E} \uncatcodespecials  %  ;-)
  \gdef\gobblesave @SAVE{}
}

% initialization:
\def\newsaveins #1{%
  \edef\next{\noexpand\newsaveinsX \makeSAVEname#1}%
  \next
}
\def\newsaveinsX #1{%
  \csname newbox\endcsname #1%
  \expandafter\def\expandafter\checkinserts\expandafter{\checkinserts
    \checksaveins #1}%
}

% initialize:
\let\checkinserts\empty
\newsaveins\footins
\newsaveins\margin


% @image.  We use the macros from epsf.tex to support this.
% If epsf.tex is not installed and @image is used, we complain.
%
% Check for and read epsf.tex up front.  If we read it only at @image
% time, we might be inside a group, and then its definitions would get
% undone and the next image would fail.
\openin 1 = epsf.tex
\ifeof 1 \else
  % Do not bother showing banner with epsf.tex v2.7k (available in
  % doc/epsf.tex and on ctan).
  \def\epsfannounce{\toks0 = }%
  \input epsf.tex
\fi
\closein 1
%
% We will only complain once about lack of epsf.tex.
\newif\ifwarnednoepsf
\newhelp\noepsfhelp{epsf.tex must be installed for images to
  work.  It is also included in the Texinfo distribution, or you can get
  it from ftp://tug.org/tex/epsf.tex.}
%
\def\image#1{%
  \ifx\epsfbox\undefined
    \ifwarnednoepsf \else
      \errhelp = \noepsfhelp
      \errmessage{epsf.tex not found, images will be ignored}%
      \global\warnednoepsftrue
    \fi
  \else
    \imagexxx #1,,,,,\finish
  \fi
}
%
% Arguments to @image:
% #1 is (mandatory) image filename; we tack on .eps extension.
% #2 is (optional) width, #3 is (optional) height.
% #4 is (ignored optional) html alt text.
% #5 is (ignored optional) extension.
% #6 is just the usual extra ignored arg for parsing this stuff.
\newif\ifimagevmode
\def\imagexxx#1,#2,#3,#4,#5,#6\finish{\begingroup
  \catcode`\^^M = 5     % in case we're inside an example
  \normalturnoffactive  % allow _ et al. in names
  % If the image is by itself, center it.
  \ifvmode
    \imagevmodetrue
    \nobreak\bigskip
    % Usually we'll have text after the image which will insert
    % \parskip glue, so insert it here too to equalize the space
    % above and below.
    \nobreak\vskip\parskip
    \nobreak
    \line\bgroup
  \fi
  %
  % Output the image.
  \ifpdf
    \dopdfimage{#1}{#2}{#3}%
  \else
    % \epsfbox itself resets \epsf?size at each figure.
    \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}\ifdim\wd0 > 0pt \epsfxsize=#2\relax \fi
    \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #3}\ifdim\wd0 > 0pt \epsfysize=#3\relax \fi
    \epsfbox{#1.eps}%
  \fi
  %
  \ifimagevmode \egroup \bigbreak \fi  % space after the image
\endgroup}


% @float FLOATTYPE,LABEL,LOC ... @end float for displayed figures, tables,
% etc.  We don't actually implement floating yet, we always include the
% float "here".  But it seemed the best name for the future.
%
\envparseargdef\float{\eatcommaspace\eatcommaspace\dofloat#1, , ,\finish}

% There may be a space before second and/or third parameter; delete it.
\def\eatcommaspace#1, {#1,}

% #1 is the optional FLOATTYPE, the text label for this float, typically
% "Figure", "Table", "Example", etc.  Can't contain commas.  If omitted,
% this float will not be numbered and cannot be referred to.
%
% #2 is the optional xref label.  Also must be present for the float to
% be referable.
%
% #3 is the optional positioning argument; for now, it is ignored.  It
% will somehow specify the positions allowed to float to (here, top, bottom).
%
% We keep a separate counter for each FLOATTYPE, which we reset at each
% chapter-level command.
\let\resetallfloatnos=\empty
%
\def\dofloat#1,#2,#3,#4\finish{%
  \let\thiscaption=\empty
  \let\thisshortcaption=\empty
  %
  % don't lose footnotes inside @float.
  %
  % BEWARE: when the floats start float, we have to issue warning whenever an
  % insert appears inside a float which could possibly float. --kasal, 26may04
  %
  \startsavinginserts
  %
  % We can't be used inside a paragraph.
  \par
  %
  \vtop\bgroup
    \def\floattype{#1}%
    \def\floatlabel{#2}%
    \def\floatloc{#3}% we do nothing with this yet.
    %
    \ifx\floattype\empty
      \let\safefloattype=\empty
    \else
      {%
        % the floattype might have accents or other special characters,
        % but we need to use it in a control sequence name.
        \indexnofonts
        \turnoffactive
        \xdef\safefloattype{\floattype}%
      }%
    \fi
    %
    % If label is given but no type, we handle that as the empty type.
    \ifx\floatlabel\empty \else
      % We want each FLOATTYPE to be numbered separately (Figure 1,
      % Table 1, Figure 2, ...).  (And if no label, no number.)
      %
      \expandafter\getfloatno\csname\safefloattype floatno\endcsname
      \global\advance\floatno by 1
      %
      {%
        % This magic value for \thissection is output by \setref as the
        % XREFLABEL-title value.  \xrefX uses it to distinguish float
        % labels (which have a completely different output format) from
        % node and anchor labels.  And \xrdef uses it to construct the
        % lists of floats.
        %
        \edef\thissection{\floatmagic=\safefloattype}%
        \setref{\floatlabel}{Yfloat}%
      }%
    \fi
    %
    % start with \parskip glue, I guess.
    \vskip\parskip
    %
    % Don't suppress indentation if a float happens to start a section.
    \restorefirstparagraphindent
}

% we have these possibilities:
% @float Foo,lbl & @caption{Cap}: Foo 1.1: Cap
% @float Foo,lbl & no caption:    Foo 1.1
% @float Foo & @caption{Cap}:     Foo: Cap
% @float Foo & no caption:        Foo
% @float ,lbl & Caption{Cap}:     1.1: Cap
% @float ,lbl & no caption:       1.1
% @float & @caption{Cap}:         Cap
% @float & no caption:
%
\def\Efloat{%
    \let\floatident = \empty
    %
    % In all cases, if we have a float type, it comes first.
    \ifx\floattype\empty \else \def\floatident{\floattype}\fi
    %
    % If we have an xref label, the number comes next.
    \ifx\floatlabel\empty \else
      \ifx\floattype\empty \else % if also had float type, need tie first.
        \appendtomacro\floatident{\tie}%
      \fi
      % the number.
      \appendtomacro\floatident{\chaplevelprefix\the\floatno}%
    \fi
    %
    % Start the printed caption with what we've constructed in
    % \floatident, but keep it separate; we need \floatident again.
    \let\captionline = \floatident
    %
    \ifx\thiscaption\empty \else
      \ifx\floatident\empty \else
	\appendtomacro\captionline{: }% had ident, so need a colon between
      \fi
      %
      % caption text.
      \appendtomacro\captionline{\scanexp\thiscaption}%
    \fi
    %
    % If we have anything to print, print it, with space before.
    % Eventually this needs to become an \insert.
    \ifx\captionline\empty \else
      \vskip.5\parskip
      \captionline
      %
      % Space below caption.
      \vskip\parskip
    \fi
    %
    % If have an xref label, write the list of floats info.  Do this
    % after the caption, to avoid chance of it being a breakpoint.
    \ifx\floatlabel\empty \else
      % Write the text that goes in the lof to the aux file as
      % \floatlabel-lof.  Besides \floatident, we include the short
      % caption if specified, else the full caption if specified, else nothing.
      {%
        \atdummies
        %
        % since we read the caption text in the macro world, where ^^M
        % is turned into a normal character, we have to scan it back, so
        % we don't write the literal three characters "^^M" into the aux file.
	\scanexp{%
	  \xdef\noexpand\gtemp{%
	    \ifx\thisshortcaption\empty
	      \thiscaption
	    \else
	      \thisshortcaption
	    \fi
	  }%
	}%
        \immediate\write\auxfile{@xrdef{\floatlabel-lof}{\floatident
	  \ifx\gtemp\empty \else : \gtemp \fi}}%
      }%
    \fi
  \egroup  % end of \vtop
  %
  % place the captured inserts
  %
  % BEWARE: when the floats start floating, we have to issue warning
  % whenever an insert appears inside a float which could possibly
  % float. --kasal, 26may04
  %
  \checkinserts
}

% Append the tokens #2 to the definition of macro #1, not expanding either.
%
\def\appendtomacro#1#2{%
  \expandafter\def\expandafter#1\expandafter{#1#2}%
}

% @caption, @shortcaption
%
\def\caption{\docaption\thiscaption}
\def\shortcaption{\docaption\thisshortcaption}
\def\docaption{\checkenv\float \bgroup\scanargctxt\defcaption}
\def\defcaption#1#2{\egroup \def#1{#2}}

% The parameter is the control sequence identifying the counter we are
% going to use.  Create it if it doesn't exist and assign it to \floatno.
\def\getfloatno#1{%
  \ifx#1\relax
      % Haven't seen this figure type before.
      \csname newcount\endcsname #1%
      %
      % Remember to reset this floatno at the next chap.
      \expandafter\gdef\expandafter\resetallfloatnos
        \expandafter{\resetallfloatnos #1=0 }%
  \fi
  \let\floatno#1%
}

% \setref calls this to get the XREFLABEL-snt value.  We want an @xref
% to the FLOATLABEL to expand to "Figure 3.1".  We call \setref when we
% first read the @float command.
%
\def\Yfloat{\floattype@tie \chaplevelprefix\the\floatno}%

% Magic string used for the XREFLABEL-title value, so \xrefX can
% distinguish floats from other xref types.
\def\floatmagic{!!float!!}

% #1 is the control sequence we are passed; we expand into a conditional
% which is true if #1 represents a float ref.  That is, the magic
% \thissection value which we \setref above.
%
\def\iffloat#1{\expandafter\doiffloat#1==\finish}
%
% #1 is (maybe) the \floatmagic string.  If so, #2 will be the
% (safe) float type for this float.  We set \iffloattype to #2.
%
\def\doiffloat#1=#2=#3\finish{%
  \def\temp{#1}%
  \def\iffloattype{#2}%
  \ifx\temp\floatmagic
}

% @listoffloats FLOATTYPE - print a list of floats like a table of contents.
%
\parseargdef\listoffloats{%
  \def\floattype{#1}% floattype
  {%
    % the floattype might have accents or other special characters,
    % but we need to use it in a control sequence name.
    \indexnofonts
    \turnoffactive
    \xdef\safefloattype{\floattype}%
  }%
  %
  % \xrdef saves the floats as a \do-list in \floatlistSAFEFLOATTYPE.
  \expandafter\ifx\csname floatlist\safefloattype\endcsname \relax
    \ifhavexrefs
      % if the user said @listoffloats foo but never @float foo.
      \message{\linenumber No `\safefloattype' floats to list.}%
    \fi
  \else
    \begingroup
      \leftskip=\tocindent  % indent these entries like a toc
      \let\do=\listoffloatsdo
      \csname floatlist\safefloattype\endcsname
    \endgroup
  \fi
}

% This is called on each entry in a list of floats.  We're passed the
% xref label, in the form LABEL-title, which is how we save it in the
% aux file.  We strip off the -title and look up \XRLABEL-lof, which
% has the text we're supposed to typeset here.
%
% Figures without xref labels will not be included in the list (since
% they won't appear in the aux file).
%
\def\listoffloatsdo#1{\listoffloatsdoentry#1\finish}
\def\listoffloatsdoentry#1-title\finish{{%
  % Can't fully expand XR#1-lof because it can contain anything.  Just
  % pass the control sequence.  On the other hand, XR#1-pg is just the
  % page number, and we want to fully expand that so we can get a link
  % in pdf output.
  \toksA = \expandafter{\csname XR#1-lof\endcsname}%
  %
  % use the same \entry macro we use to generate the TOC and index.
  \edef\writeentry{\noexpand\entry{\the\toksA}{\csname XR#1-pg\endcsname}}%
  \writeentry
}}

\message{localization,}
% and i18n.

% @documentlanguage is usually given very early, just after
% @setfilename.  If done too late, it may not override everything
% properly.  Single argument is the language abbreviation.
% It would be nice if we could set up a hyphenation file here.
%
\parseargdef\documentlanguage{%
  \tex % read txi-??.tex file in plain TeX.
    % Read the file if it exists.
    \openin 1 txi-#1.tex
    \ifeof 1
      \errhelp = \nolanghelp
      \errmessage{Cannot read language file txi-#1.tex}%
    \else
      \input txi-#1.tex
    \fi
    \closein 1
  \endgroup
}
\newhelp\nolanghelp{The given language definition file cannot be found or
is empty.  Maybe you need to install it?  In the current directory
should work if nowhere else does.}


% @documentencoding should change something in TeX eventually, most
% likely, but for now just recognize it.
\let\documentencoding = \comment


% Page size parameters.
%
\newdimen\defaultparindent \defaultparindent = 15pt

\chapheadingskip = 15pt plus 4pt minus 2pt
\secheadingskip = 12pt plus 3pt minus 2pt
\subsecheadingskip = 9pt plus 2pt minus 2pt

% Prevent underfull vbox error messages.
\vbadness = 10000

% Don't be so finicky about underfull hboxes, either.
\hbadness = 2000

% Following George Bush, just get rid of widows and orphans.
\widowpenalty=10000
\clubpenalty=10000

% Use TeX 3.0's \emergencystretch to help line breaking, but if we're
% using an old version of TeX, don't do anything.  We want the amount of
% stretch added to depend on the line length, hence the dependence on
% \hsize.  We call this whenever the paper size is set.
%
\def\setemergencystretch{%
  \ifx\emergencystretch\thisisundefined
    % Allow us to assign to \emergencystretch anyway.
    \def\emergencystretch{\dimen0}%
  \else
    \emergencystretch = .15\hsize
  \fi
}

% Parameters in order: 1) textheight; 2) textwidth;
% 3) voffset; 4) hoffset; 5) binding offset; 6) topskip;
% 7) physical page height; 8) physical page width.
%
% We also call \setleading{\textleading}, so the caller should define
% \textleading.  The caller should also set \parskip.
%
\def\internalpagesizes#1#2#3#4#5#6#7#8{%
  \voffset = #3\relax
  \topskip = #6\relax
  \splittopskip = \topskip
  %
  \vsize = #1\relax
  \advance\vsize by \topskip
  \outervsize = \vsize
  \advance\outervsize by 2\topandbottommargin
  \pageheight = \vsize
  %
  \hsize = #2\relax
  \outerhsize = \hsize
  \advance\outerhsize by 0.5in
  \pagewidth = \hsize
  %
  \normaloffset = #4\relax
  \bindingoffset = #5\relax
  %
  \ifpdf
    \pdfpageheight #7\relax
    \pdfpagewidth #8\relax
  \fi
  %
  \setleading{\textleading}
  %
  \parindent = \defaultparindent
  \setemergencystretch
}

% @letterpaper (the default).
\def\letterpaper{{\globaldefs = 1
  \parskip = 3pt plus 2pt minus 1pt
  \textleading = 13.2pt
  %
  % If page is nothing but text, make it come out even.
  \internalpagesizes{46\baselineskip}{6in}%
                    {\voffset}{.25in}%
                    {\bindingoffset}{36pt}%
                    {11in}{8.5in}%
}}

% Use @smallbook to reset parameters for 7x9.25 trim size.
\def\smallbook{{\globaldefs = 1
  \parskip = 2pt plus 1pt
  \textleading = 12pt
  %
  \internalpagesizes{7.5in}{5in}%
                    {\voffset}{.25in}%
                    {\bindingoffset}{16pt}%
                    {9.25in}{7in}%
  %
  \lispnarrowing = 0.3in
  \tolerance = 700
  \hfuzz = 1pt
  \contentsrightmargin = 0pt
  \defbodyindent = .5cm
}}

% Use @smallerbook to reset parameters for 6x9 trim size.
% (Just testing, parameters still in flux.)
\def\smallerbook{{\globaldefs = 1
  \parskip = 1.5pt plus 1pt
  \textleading = 12pt
  %
  \internalpagesizes{7.4in}{4.8in}%
                    {-.2in}{-.4in}%
                    {0pt}{14pt}%
                    {9in}{6in}%
  %
  \lispnarrowing = 0.25in
  \tolerance = 700
  \hfuzz = 1pt
  \contentsrightmargin = 0pt
  \defbodyindent = .4cm
}}

% Use @afourpaper to print on European A4 paper.
\def\afourpaper{{\globaldefs = 1
  \parskip = 3pt plus 2pt minus 1pt
  \textleading = 13.2pt
  %
  % Double-side printing via postscript on Laserjet 4050
  % prints double-sided nicely when \bindingoffset=10mm and \hoffset=-6mm.
  % To change the settings for a different printer or situation, adjust
  % \normaloffset until the front-side and back-side texts align.  Then
  % do the same for \bindingoffset.  You can set these for testing in
  % your texinfo source file like this:
  % @tex
  % \global\normaloffset = -6mm
  % \global\bindingoffset = 10mm
  % @end tex
  \internalpagesizes{51\baselineskip}{160mm}
                    {\voffset}{\hoffset}%
                    {\bindingoffset}{44pt}%
                    {297mm}{210mm}%
  %
  \tolerance = 700
  \hfuzz = 1pt
  \contentsrightmargin = 0pt
  \defbodyindent = 5mm
}}

% Use @afivepaper to print on European A5 paper.
% From romildo@urano.iceb.ufop.br, 2 July 2000.
% He also recommends making @example and @lisp be small.
\def\afivepaper{{\globaldefs = 1
  \parskip = 2pt plus 1pt minus 0.1pt
  \textleading = 12.5pt
  %
  \internalpagesizes{160mm}{120mm}%
                    {\voffset}{\hoffset}%
                    {\bindingoffset}{8pt}%
                    {210mm}{148mm}%
  %
  \lispnarrowing = 0.2in
  \tolerance = 800
  \hfuzz = 1.2pt
  \contentsrightmargin = 0pt
  \defbodyindent = 2mm
  \tableindent = 12mm
}}

% A specific text layout, 24x15cm overall, intended for A4 paper.
\def\afourlatex{{\globaldefs = 1
  \afourpaper
  \internalpagesizes{237mm}{150mm}%
                    {\voffset}{4.6mm}%
                    {\bindingoffset}{7mm}%
                    {297mm}{210mm}%
  %
  % Must explicitly reset to 0 because we call \afourpaper.
  \globaldefs = 0
}}

% Use @afourwide to print on A4 paper in landscape format.
\def\afourwide{{\globaldefs = 1
  \afourpaper
  \internalpagesizes{241mm}{165mm}%
                    {\voffset}{-2.95mm}%
                    {\bindingoffset}{7mm}%
                    {297mm}{210mm}%
  \globaldefs = 0
}}

% @pagesizes TEXTHEIGHT[,TEXTWIDTH]
% Perhaps we should allow setting the margins, \topskip, \parskip,
% and/or leading, also. Or perhaps we should compute them somehow.
%
\parseargdef\pagesizes{\pagesizesyyy #1,,\finish}
\def\pagesizesyyy#1,#2,#3\finish{{%
  \setbox0 = \hbox{\ignorespaces #2}\ifdim\wd0 > 0pt \hsize=#2\relax \fi
  \globaldefs = 1
  %
  \parskip = 3pt plus 2pt minus 1pt
  \setleading{\textleading}%
  %
  \dimen0 = #1
  \advance\dimen0 by \voffset
  %
  \dimen2 = \hsize
  \advance\dimen2 by \normaloffset
  %
  \internalpagesizes{#1}{\hsize}%
                    {\voffset}{\normaloffset}%
                    {\bindingoffset}{44pt}%
                    {\dimen0}{\dimen2}%
}}

% Set default to letter.
%
\letterpaper


\message{and turning on texinfo input format.}

% Define macros to output various characters with catcode for normal text.
\catcode`\"=\other
\catcode`\~=\other
\catcode`\^=\other
\catcode`\_=\other
\catcode`\|=\other
\catcode`\<=\other
\catcode`\>=\other
\catcode`\+=\other
\catcode`\$=\other
\def\normaldoublequote{"}
\def\normaltilde{~}
\def\normalcaret{^}
\def\normalunderscore{_}
\def\normalverticalbar{|}
\def\normalless{<}
\def\normalgreater{>}
\def\normalplus{+}
\def\normaldollar{$}%$ font-lock fix

% This macro is used to make a character print one way in \tt
% (where it can probably be output as-is), and another way in other fonts,
% where something hairier probably needs to be done.
%
% #1 is what to print if we are indeed using \tt; #2 is what to print
% otherwise.  Since all the Computer Modern typewriter fonts have zero
% interword stretch (and shrink), and it is reasonable to expect all
% typewriter fonts to have this, we can check that font parameter.
%
\def\ifusingtt#1#2{\ifdim \fontdimen3\font=0pt #1\else #2\fi}

% Same as above, but check for italic font.  Actually this also catches
% non-italic slanted fonts since it is impossible to distinguish them from
% italic fonts.  But since this is only used by $ and it uses \sl anyway
% this is not a problem.
\def\ifusingit#1#2{\ifdim \fontdimen1\font>0pt #1\else #2\fi}

% Turn off all special characters except @
% (and those which the user can use as if they were ordinary).
% Most of these we simply print from the \tt font, but for some, we can
% use math or other variants that look better in normal text.

\catcode`\"=\active
\def\activedoublequote{{\tt\char34}}
\let"=\activedoublequote
\catcode`\~=\active
\def~{{\tt\char126}}
\chardef\hat=`\^
\catcode`\^=\active
\def^{{\tt \hat}}

\catcode`\_=\active
\def_{\ifusingtt\normalunderscore\_}
\let\realunder=_
% Subroutine for the previous macro.
\def\_{\leavevmode \kern.07em \vbox{\hrule width.3em height.1ex}\kern .07em }

\catcode`\|=\active
\def|{{\tt\char124}}
\chardef \less=`\<
\catcode`\<=\active
\def<{{\tt \less}}
\chardef \gtr=`\>
\catcode`\>=\active
\def>{{\tt \gtr}}
\catcode`\+=\active
\def+{{\tt \char 43}}
\catcode`\$=\active
\def${\ifusingit{{\sl\$}}\normaldollar}%$ font-lock fix

% If a .fmt file is being used, characters that might appear in a file
% name cannot be active until we have parsed the command line.
% So turn them off again, and have \everyjob (or @setfilename) turn them on.
% \otherifyactive is called near the end of this file.
\def\otherifyactive{\catcode`+=\other \catcode`\_=\other}

% Used sometimes to turn off (effectively) the active characters even after
% parsing them.
\def\turnoffactive{%
  \normalturnoffactive
  \otherbackslash
}

\catcode`\@=0

% \backslashcurfont outputs one backslash character in current font,
% as in \char`\\.
\global\chardef\backslashcurfont=`\\
\global\let\rawbackslashxx=\backslashcurfont  % let existing .??s files work

% \realbackslash is an actual character `\' with catcode other, and
% \doublebackslash is two of them (for the pdf outlines).
{\catcode`\\=\other @gdef@realbackslash{\} @gdef@doublebackslash{\\}}

% In texinfo, backslash is an active character; it prints the backslash
% in fixed width font.
\catcode`\\=\active
@def@normalbackslash{{@tt@backslashcurfont}}
% On startup, @fixbackslash assigns:
%  @let \ = @normalbackslash

% \rawbackslash defines an active \ to do \backslashcurfont.
% \otherbackslash defines an active \ to be a literal `\' character with
% catcode other.
@gdef@rawbackslash{@let\=@backslashcurfont}
@gdef@otherbackslash{@let\=@realbackslash}

% Same as @turnoffactive except outputs \ as {\tt\char`\\} instead of
% the literal character `\'.
% 
@def@normalturnoffactive{%
  @let\=@normalbackslash
  @let"=@normaldoublequote
  @let~=@normaltilde
  @let^=@normalcaret
  @let_=@normalunderscore
  @let|=@normalverticalbar
  @let<=@normalless
  @let>=@normalgreater
  @let+=@normalplus
  @let$=@normaldollar %$ font-lock fix
  @unsepspaces
}

% Make _ and + \other characters, temporarily.
% This is canceled by @fixbackslash.
@otherifyactive

% If a .fmt file is being used, we don't want the `\input texinfo' to show up.
% That is what \eatinput is for; after that, the `\' should revert to printing
% a backslash.
%
@gdef@eatinput input texinfo{@fixbackslash}
@global@let\ = @eatinput

% On the other hand, perhaps the file did not have a `\input texinfo'. Then
% the first `\' in the file would cause an error. This macro tries to fix
% that, assuming it is called before the first `\' could plausibly occur.
% Also turn back on active characters that might appear in the input
% file name, in case not using a pre-dumped format.
%
@gdef@fixbackslash{%
  @ifx\@eatinput @let\ = @normalbackslash @fi
  @catcode`+=@active
  @catcode`@_=@active
}

% Say @foo, not \foo, in error messages.
@escapechar = `@@

% These look ok in all fonts, so just make them not special.
@catcode`@& = @other
@catcode`@# = @other
@catcode`@% = @other


@c Local variables:
@c eval: (add-hook 'write-file-hooks 'time-stamp)
@c page-delimiter: "^\\\\message"
@c time-stamp-start: "def\\\\texinfoversion{"
@c time-stamp-format: "%:y-%02m-%02d.%02H"
@c time-stamp-end: "}"
@c End:

@c vim:sw=2:

@ignore
   arch-tag: e1b36e32-c96e-4135-a41a-0b2efa2ea115
@end ignore