ps.1   [plain text]


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.\"     @(#)ps.1	8.3 (Berkeley) 4/18/94
.\" $FreeBSD: src/bin/ps/ps.1,v 1.86 2005/04/29 11:10:27 maxim Exp $
.\"
.Dd March 20, 2005
.Dt PS 1
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm ps
.Nd process status
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Op Fl AaCcEefhjlMmrSTvwXx
.Op Fl O Ar fmt | Fl o Ar fmt
.Op Fl G Ar gid Ns Op , Ns Ar gid Ns Ar ...
.Op Fl g Ar grp Ns Op , Ns Ar grp Ns Ar ...
.Op Fl u Ar uid Ns Op , Ns Ar uid Ns Ar ...
.Op Fl p Ar pid Ns Op , Ns Ar pid Ns Ar ...
.Op Fl t Ar tty Ns Op , Ns Ar tty Ns Ar ...
.Op Fl U Ar user Ns Op , Ns Ar user Ns Ar ...
.Nm
.Op Fl L
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
utility
displays a header line, followed by lines containing information about
all of your
processes that have controlling terminals.
.Pp
A different set of processes can be selected for display by using any
combination of the
.Fl a , G , g , p , T , t , U ,
and
.Fl u
options.
If more than one of these options are given, then
.Nm
will select all processes which are matched by at least one of the
given options.
.Pp
For the processes which have been selected for display,
.Nm
will usually display one line per process.
The
.Fl M
option may result in multiple output lines (one line per thread) for
some processes.
By default all of these output lines are sorted first by controlling
terminal, then by process ID.
The
.Fl m , r ,
and
.Fl v
options will change the sort order.
If more than one sorting option was given, then the selected processes
will be sorted by the last sorting option which was specified.
.Pp
For the processes which have been selected for display, the information
to display is selected based on a set of keywords (see the
.Fl L , O ,
and
.Fl o
options).
The default output format includes, for each process, the process' ID,
controlling terminal, CPU time (including both user and system time),
state, and associated command.
.Pp
The options are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl A
Display information about other users' processes,
including those without controlling terminals.
.It Fl a
Display information about other users' processes as well as your own.
This will skip any processes which do not have a controlling terminal,
unless the
.Fl x
option is also specified.
.It Fl C
Change the way the CPU percentage is calculated by using a
.Dq raw
CPU calculation that ignores
.Dq resident
time (this normally has
no effect).
.It Fl c
Change the
.Dq command
column output to just contain the executable name,
rather than the full command line.
.It Fl d
Like
.Fl A ,
but excludes session leaders.
.It Fl E
Display the environment as well.
.It Fl e
Identical to
.Fl A .
.It Fl f
Display the uid, pid, parent pid, recent CPU usage, process start time, 
controling tty, elapsed CPU usage, and the associated command.
If the
.Fl u
option is also used, display the user name rather then the numeric uid.
When
.Fl o
or
.Fl O
is used to add to the display following
.Fl f ,
the command field is not truncated as severely as it is in other formats.
.It Fl G
Display information about processes
which are running with the specified real group IDs.
.It Fl g
Display information about processes with the specified
process group leaders.
.It Fl h
Repeat the information header as often as necessary
to guarantee one header per page of information.
.It Fl j
Print information associated with the following keywords:
.Cm user , pid , ppid , pgid , sess , jobc , state , tt , time ,
and
.Cm command .
.It Fl L
List the set of keywords available for the
.Fl O
and
.Fl o
options.
.It Fl l
Display information associated with the following keywords:
.Cm uid , pid , ppid , flags , cpu , pri , nice , vsz=SZ , rss ,
.Cm wchan , state=S , paddr=ADDR , tty , time ,
and
.Cm command=CMD .
.It Fl M
Print the threads corresponding to each task.
.It Fl m
Sort by memory usage, instead of the combination of controlling
terminal and process ID.
.It Fl O
Add the information associated with the space or comma separated list
of keywords specified, after the process ID,
in the default information
display.
Keywords may be appended with an equals
.Pq Ql =
sign and a string.
This causes the printed header to use the specified string instead of
the standard header.
.It Fl o
Display information associated with the space or comma separated
list of keywords specified.
Multiple keywords may also be given in the form of more than one
.Fl o
option.
Keywords may be appended with an equals
.Pq Ql =
sign and a string.
This causes the printed header to use the specified string instead of
the standard header.
If all keywords have empty header texts, no header line is written.
.It Fl p
Display information about processes which match the specified process IDs.
.It Fl r
Sort by current CPU usage, instead of the combination of controlling
terminal and process ID.
.It Fl S
Change the way the process time is calculated by summing all exited
children to their parent process.
.It Fl T
Display information about processes attached to the device associated
with the standard input.
.It Fl t
Display information about processes attached to the specified terminal
devices.
.It Fl U
Display the processes belonging to the specified real user IDs.
.It Fl u
Display the processes belonging to the specified usernames.
.It Fl v
Display information associated with the following keywords:
.Cm pid , state , time , sl , re , pagein , vsz , rss , lim , tsiz ,
.Cm %cpu , %mem ,
and
.Cm command .
The
.Fl v
option implies the
.Fl m
option.
.It Fl w
Use 132 columns to display information, instead of the default which
is your window size.
If the
.Fl w
option is specified more than once,
.Nm
will use as many columns as necessary without regard for your window size.
When output is not to a terminal, an unlimited number of columns are
always used.
.It Fl X
When displaying processes matched by other options, skip any processes
which do not have a controlling terminal.
.It Fl x
When displaying processes matched by other options, include processes
which do not have a controlling terminal.
This is the opposite of the
.Fl X
option.
If both
.Fl X
and
.Fl x
are specified in the same command, then
.Nm
will use the one which was specified last.
.El
.Pp
A complete list of the available keywords is given below.
Some of these keywords are further specified as follows:
.Bl -tag -width lockname
.It Cm %cpu
The CPU utilization of the process;
this is a decaying average over up to a minute of previous (real) time.
Because the time base over which this is computed varies
(some processes may be very young),
it is possible for the sum of all
.Cm %cpu
fields to exceed 100%.
.It Cm %mem
The percentage of real memory used by this process.
.It Cm flags
The flags associated with the process as in
the include file
.In sys/proc.h :
.Bl -column P_STOPPED_SINGLE 0x4000000
.It Dv "P_ADVLOCK" Ta No "0x00001	Process may hold a POSIX advisory lock"
.It Dv "P_CONTROLT" Ta No "0x00002	Has a controlling terminal"
.It Dv "P_LP64" Ta No "0x00004		Process is LP64"
.It Dv "P_NOCLDSTOP" Ta No "0x00008	No SIGCHLD when children stop"
.It Dv "P_PPWAIT" Ta No "0x00010	Parent is waiting for child to exec/exit"
.It Dv "P_PROFIL" Ta No "0x00020	Has started profiling"
.It Dv "P_SELECT" Ta No "0x00040	Selecting; wakeup/waiting danger"
.It Dv "P_CONTINUED" Ta No "0x00080	Process was stopped and continued"
.It Dv "P_SUGID" Ta No "0x00100		Had set id privileges since last exec"
.It Dv "P_SYSTEM" Ta No "0x00200	System proc: no sigs, stats or swapping"
.It Dv "P_TIMEOUT" Ta No "0x00400	Timing out during sleep"
.It Dv "P_TRACED" Ta No "0x00800	Debugged process being traced"
.It Dv "P_WAITED" Ta No "0x01000	Debugging process has waited for child"
.It Dv "P_WEXIT" Ta No "0x02000		Working on exiting"
.It Dv "P_EXEC" Ta No "0x04000		Process called exec"
.It Dv "P_OWEUPC" Ta No "0x08000	Owe process an addupc() call at next ast"
.It Dv "P_WAITING" Ta No "0x40000	Process has a wait() in progress"
.It Dv "P_KDEBUG" Ta No "0x80000        Kdebug tracing on for this process"
.El
.It Cm lim
The soft limit on memory used, specified via a call to
.Xr setrlimit 2 .
.It Cm lstart
The exact time the command started, using the
.Ql %c
format described in
.Xr strftime 3 .
.It Cm nice
The process scheduling increment (see
.Xr setpriority 2 ) .
.It Cm rss
the real memory (resident set) size of the process (in 1024 byte units).
.It Cm start
The time the command started.
If the command started less than 24 hours ago, the start time is
displayed using the
.Dq Li %l:ps.1p
format described in
.Xr strftime 3 .
If the command started less than 7 days ago, the start time is
displayed using the
.Dq Li %a6.15p
format.
Otherwise, the start time is displayed using the
.Dq Li %e%b%y
format.
.It Cm state
The state is given by a sequence of characters, for example,
.Dq Li RWNA .
The first character indicates the run state of the process:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width indent -compact
.It Li I
Marks a process that is idle (sleeping for longer than about 20 seconds).
.It Li R
Marks a runnable process.
.It Li S
Marks a process that is sleeping for less than about 20 seconds.
.It Li T
Marks a stopped process.
.It Li U
Marks a process in uninterruptible wait.
.It Li Z
Marks a dead process (a
.Dq zombie ) .
.El
.Pp
Additional characters after these, if any, indicate additional state
information:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width indent -compact
.It Li +
The process is in the foreground process group of its control terminal.
.It Li <
The process has raised CPU scheduling priority.
.It Li >
The process has specified a soft limit on memory requirements and is
currently exceeding that limit; such a process is (necessarily) not
swapped.
.It Li A
the process has asked for random page replacement
.Pf ( Dv VA_ANOM ,
from
.Xr vadvise 2 ,
for example,
.Xr lisp 1
in a garbage collect).
.It Li E
The process is trying to exit.
.It Li L
The process has pages locked in core (for example, for raw
.Tn I/O ) .
.It Li N
The process has reduced CPU scheduling priority (see
.Xr setpriority 2 ) .
.It Li S
The process has asked for
.Tn FIFO
page replacement
.Pf ( Dv VA_SEQL ,
from
.Xr vadvise 2 ,
for example, a large image processing program using virtual memory to
sequentially address voluminous data).
.It Li s
The process is a session leader.
.It Li V
The process is suspended during a
.Xr vfork 2 .
.It Li W
The process is swapped out.
.It Li X
The process is being traced or debugged.
.El
.It Cm tt
An abbreviation for the pathname of the controlling terminal, if any.
The abbreviation consists of the three letters following
.Pa /dev/tty ,
or, for the console,
.Dq Li con .
This is followed by a
.Ql -
if the process can no longer reach that
controlling terminal (i.e., it has been revoked).
.It Cm wchan
The event (an address in the system) on which a process waits.
When printed numerically, the initial part of the address is
trimmed off and the result is printed in hex, for example, 0x80324000 prints
as 324000.
.El
.Pp
When printing using the command keyword, a process that has exited and
has a parent that has not yet waited for the process (in other words, a zombie)
is listed as
.Dq Li <defunct> ,
and a process which is blocked while trying
to exit is listed as
.Dq Li <exiting> .
If the arguments cannot be located (usually because it has not been set, as is
the case of system processes and/or kernel threads) the command name is printed
within square brackets.
The process can change the arguments shown with
.Xr setproctitle 3 .
Otherwise,
.Nm
makes an educated guess as to the file name and arguments given when the
process was created by examining memory or the swap area.
The method is inherently somewhat unreliable and in any event a process
is entitled to destroy this information.
The ucomm (accounting) keyword can, however, be depended on.
If the arguments are unavailable or do not agree with the ucomm keyword,
the value for the ucomm keyword is appended to the arguments in parentheses.
.Sh KEYWORDS
The following is a complete list of the available keywords and their
meanings.
Several of them have aliases (keywords which are synonyms).
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width ".Cm sigignore" -compact
.It Cm %cpu
percentage CPU usage (alias
.Cm pcpu )
.It Cm %mem
percentage memory usage (alias
.Cm pmem )
.It Cm acflag
accounting flag (alias
.Cm acflg )
.It Cm args
command and arguments
.It Cm comm
command
.It Cm command
command and arguments
.It Cm cpu
short-term CPU usage factor (for scheduling)
.It Cm etime
elapsed running time
.It Cm flags
the process flags, in hexadecimal (alias
.Cm f )
.It Cm gid
processes group id (alias
.Cm group )
.It Cm inblk
total blocks read (alias
.Cm inblock )
.It Cm jobc
job control count
.It Cm ktrace
tracing flags
.It Cm ktracep
tracing vnode
.It Cm lim
memoryuse limit
.It Cm logname
login name of user who started the session
.It Cm lstart
time started
.It Cm majflt
total page faults
.It Cm minflt
total page reclaims
.It Cm msgrcv
total messages received (reads from pipes/sockets)
.It Cm msgsnd
total messages sent (writes on pipes/sockets)
.It Cm nice
nice value (alias
.Cm ni )
.It Cm nivcsw
total involuntary context switches
.It Cm nsigs
total signals taken (alias
.Cm nsignals )
.It Cm nswap
total swaps in/out
.It Cm nvcsw
total voluntary context switches
.It Cm nwchan
wait channel (as an address)
.It Cm oublk
total blocks written (alias
.Cm oublock )
.It Cm p_ru
resource usage (valid only for zombie)
.It Cm paddr
swap address
.It Cm pagein
pageins (same as majflt)
.It Cm pgid
process group number
.It Cm pid
process ID
.It Cm ppid
parent process ID
.It Cm pri
scheduling priority
.It Cm re
core residency time (in seconds; 127 = infinity)
.It Cm rgid
real group ID
.It Cm rss
resident set size
.It Cm ruid
real user ID
.It Cm ruser
user name (from ruid)
.It Cm sess
session ID
.It Cm sig
pending signals (alias
.Cm pending )
.It Cm sigmask
blocked signals (alias
.Cm blocked )
.It Cm sl
sleep time (in seconds; 127 = infinity)
.It Cm start
time started
.It Cm state
symbolic process state (alias
.Cm stat )
.It Cm svgid
saved gid from a setgid executable
.It Cm svuid
saved UID from a setuid executable
.It Cm tdev
control terminal device number
.It Cm time
accumulated CPU time, user + system (alias
.Cm cputime )
.It Cm tpgid
control terminal process group ID
.\".It Cm trss
.\"text resident set size (in Kbytes)
.It Cm tsess
control terminal session ID
.It Cm tsiz
text size (in Kbytes)
.It Cm tt
control terminal name (two letter abbreviation)
.It Cm tty
full name of control terminal
.It Cm ucomm
name to be used for accounting
.It Cm uid
effective user ID
.It Cm upr
scheduling priority on return from system call (alias
.Cm usrpri )
.It Cm user
user name (from UID)
.It Cm utime
user CPU time (alias
.Cm putime )
.It Cm vsz
virtual size in Kbytes (alias
.Cm vsize )
.It Cm wchan
wait channel (as a symbolic name)
.It Cm wq
total number of workqueue threads
.It Cm wqb
number of blocked workqueue threads
.It Cm wqr
number of running workqueue threads
.It Cm xstat
exit or stop status (valid only for stopped or zombie process)
.El
.Sh ENVIRONMENT
The following environment variables affect the execution of
.Nm :
.Bl -tag -width ".Ev COLUMNS"
.It Ev COLUMNS
If set, specifies the user's preferred output width in column positions.
By default,
.Nm
attempts to automatically determine the terminal width.
.El
.Sh FILES
.Bl -tag -width ".Pa /boot/kernel/kernel" -compact
.It Pa /dev
special files and device names
.It Pa /var/run/dev.db
/dev name database
.It Pa /var/db/kvm_kernel.db
system namelist database
.El
.Sh LEGACY DESCRIPTION
In legacy mode,
.Nm
functions as described above, with the following differences:
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl e
Display the environment as well. Same as
.Fl E .
.It Fl g
Ignored for compatibility. Takes no argument.
.It Fl l
Display information associated with the following keywords:
.Cm uid , pid , ppid , cpu , pri , nice , vsz , rss , wchan , state ,
.Cm tt, time ,
and
.Cm command .
.It Fl u
Display information associated with the following keywords:
.Cm user , pid , %cpu , %mem , vsz , rss , tt , state , start , time ,
and
.Cm command .
The
.Fl u
option implies the
.Fl r
option.
.El
.Pp
The biggest change is in the interpretation of the
.Fl u
option,
which now displays processes belonging to the specified username(s).
Thus, "ps -aux" will fail (unless you want to know about user "x").
As a convenience, however, "ps aux" still works as it did in Tiger.
.Pp
For more information about legacy mode, see
.Xr compat 5 .
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr kill 1 ,
.Xr w 1 ,
.Xr kvm 3 ,
.Xr strftime 3 ,
.Xr sysctl 8
.Sh STANDARDS
The
.Nm
utility supports the
.St -susv3
standard.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
command appeared in
.At v4 .
.Sh BUGS
Since
.Nm
cannot run faster than the system and is run as any other scheduled
process, the information it displays can never be exact.
.Pp
The
.Nm
utility does not correctly display argument lists containing multibyte
characters.