.\" $OpenBSD: hosts.equiv.5,v 1.1 1997/11/30 05:35:25 deraadt Exp $ .\" .\" Copyright (c) 1997 Todd Vierling .\" Copyright (c) 1997 The NetBSD Foundation, Inc. .\" All rights reserved. .\" .\" This code is derived from software contributed to The NetBSD Foundation .\" by Todd Vierling <email@example.com>. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software .\" must display the following acknowledgement: .\" This product includes software developed by the NetBSD .\" Foundation, Inc. and its contributors. .\" 4. Neither the name of The NetBSD Foundation nor the names of its .\" contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived .\" from this software without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE NETBSD FOUNDATION, INC. AND CONTRIBUTORS .\" ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED .\" TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR .\" PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FOUNDATION OR CONTRIBUTORS .\" BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR .\" CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF .\" SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS .\" INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN .\" CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) .\" ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE .\" POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .Dd November 26, 1997 .Dt HOSTS.EQUIV 5 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm hosts.equiv , .Nm .rhosts .Nd trusted remote hosts and host-user pairs .Sh DESCRIPTION The .Nm hosts.equiv and .Nm .rhosts files list hosts and users which are ``trusted'' by the local host when a connection is made via .Xr rlogind 8 , .Xr rshd 8 , or any other server that uses .Xr ruserok 3 . This mechanism bypasses password checks, and is required for access via .Xr rsh 1 . .Pp Each line of these files has the format: .Pp .Bd -unfilled -offset indent -compact hostname [username] .Ed .Pp The .Em hostname may be specified as a host name (typically a fully qualified host name in a DNS environment) or address, .Em +@netgroup (from which only the host names are checked), or a ``+'' wildcard (allow all hosts). .Pp The .Em username , if specified, may be given as a user name on the remote host, .Em +@netgroup (from which only the user names are checked), or a ``+'' wildcard (allow all remote users). .Pp If a .Em username is specified, only that user from the specified host may login to the local machine. If a .Em username is not specified, any user may login with the same user name. .Sh EXAMPLES .Li somehost .Bd -filled -offset indent -compact A common usage: users on .Em somehost may login to the local host as the same user name. .Ed .Li somehost username .Bd -filled -offset indent -compact The user .Em username on .Em somehost may login to the local host. If specified in .Em /etc/hosts.equiv , the user may login with only the same user name. .Ed .Li +@anetgroup username .Bd -filled -offset indent -compact The user .Em username may login to the local host from any machine listed in the netgroup .Em anetgroup . .Ed .Bd -literal -compact + + + .Ed .Bd -filled -offset indent -compact Two severe security hazards. In the first case, allows a user on any machine to login to the local host as the same user name. In the second case, allows any user on any machine to login to the local host (as any user, if in .Em /etc/hosts.equiv ) . .Ed .Sh WARNINGS The username checks provided by this mechanism are .Em not secure, as the remote user name is received by the server unchecked for validity. Therefore this mechanism should only be used in an environment where all hosts are completely trusted. .Pp A numeric host address instead of a host name can help security considerations somewhat; the address is then used directly by .Xr iruserok 3 . .Pp When a username (or netgroup, or +) is specified in .Em /etc/hosts.equiv , that user (or group of users, or all users, respectively) may login to the local host as .Em any local user . Usernames in .Em /etc/hosts.equiv should therefore be used with extreme caution, or not at all. .Pp A .Em .rhosts file must be owned by the user whose home directory it resides in, and must be writable only by that user. .Pp Logins as root only check root's .Em .rhosts file; the .Em /etc/hosts.equiv file is not checked for security. Access permitted through root's .Em .rhosts file is typically only for .Xr rsh 1 , as root must still login on the console for an interactive login such as .Xr rlogin 1 . .Sh FILES .Bl -tag -width /etc/hosts.equiv -compact .It Pa /etc/hosts.equiv Global trusted host-user pairs list .It Pa ~/.rhosts Per-user trusted host-user pairs list .El .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr rcp 1 , .Xr rlogin 1 , .Xr rsh 1 , .Xr rcmd 3 , .Xr ruserok 3 , .Xr netgroup 5 .Re .Sh HISTORY The .Nm .rhosts file format appeared in .Bx 4.2 . .Sh BUGS The .Xr ruserok 3 implementation currently skips negative entries (preceded with a ``-'' sign) and does not treat them as ``short-circuit'' negative entries.