.\" Copyright (c) 1990, 1991, 1993 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by .\" Chris Torek and the American National Standards Committee X3, .\" on Information Processing Systems. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software .\" must display the following acknowledgement: .\" This product includes software developed by the University of .\" California, Berkeley and its contributors. .\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)strtoul.3 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/4/93 .\" $FreeBSD: src/lib/libc/stdlib/strtoul.3,v 1.20 2002/10/10 04:31:57 tjr Exp $ .\" .Dd November 28, 2001 .Dt STRTOUL 3 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm strtoul , strtoull , strtoumax , strtouq .Nd "convert a string to an" .Vt "unsigned long" , "unsigned long long" , uintmax_t , or .Vt u_quad_t integer .Sh LIBRARY .Lb libc .Sh SYNOPSIS .In stdlib.h .In limits.h .Ft "unsigned long" .Fn strtoul "const char * restrict nptr" "char ** restrict endptr" "int base" .Ft "unsigned long long" .Fn strtoull "const char * restrict nptr" "char ** restrict endptr" "int base" .In inttypes.h .Ft uintmax_t .Fn strtoumax "const char * restrict nptr" "char ** restrict endptr" "int base" .In sys/types.h .In stdlib.h .In limits.h .Ft u_quad_t .Fn strtouq "const char *nptr" "char **endptr" "int base" .Sh DESCRIPTION The .Fn strtoul function converts the string in .Fa nptr to an .Vt "unsigned long" value. The .Fn strtoull function converts the string in .Fa nptr to an .Vt "unsigned long long" value. The .Fn strtoumax function converts the string in .Fa nptr to an .Vt uintmax_t value. The .Fn strtouq function converts the string in .Fa nptr to a .Vt u_quad_t value. The conversion is done according to the given .Fa base , which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0. .Pp The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by .Xr isspace 3 ) followed by a single optional .Ql + or .Ql - sign. If .Fa base is zero or 16, the string may then include a .Dq Li 0x prefix, and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero .Fa base is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next character is .Ql 0 , in which case it is taken as 8 (octal). .Pp The remainder of the string is converted to an .Vt "unsigned long" value in the obvious manner, stopping at the end of the string or at the first character that does not produce a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter .Ql A in either upper or lower case represents 10, .Ql B represents 11, and so forth, with .Ql Z representing 35.) .Pp If .Fa endptr is not .Dv NULL , .Fn strtoul stores the address of the first invalid character in .Fa *endptr . If there were no digits at all, however, .Fn strtoul stores the original value of .Fa nptr in .Fa *endptr . (Thus, if .Fa *nptr is not .Ql \e0 but .Fa **endptr is .Ql \e0 on return, the entire string was valid.) .Sh RETURN VALUES The .Fn strtoul , .Fn strtoull , .Fn strtoumax and .Fn strtouq functions return either the result of the conversion or, if there was a leading minus sign, the negation of the result of the conversion, unless the original (non-negated) value would overflow; in the latter case, .Fn strtoul returns .Dv ULONG_MAX , .Fn strtoull returns .Dv ULLONG_MAX , .Fn strtoumax returns .Dv UINTMAX_MAX , and .Fn strtouq returns .Dv ULLONG_MAX . In all cases, .Va errno is set to .Er ERANGE . If no conversion could be performed, 0 is returned and the global variable .Va errno is set to .Er EINVAL . .Sh ERRORS .Bl -tag -width Er .It Bq Er EINVAL The value of .Fa base is not supported or no conversion could be performed. .It Bq Er ERANGE The given string was out of range; the value converted has been clamped. .El .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr strtol 3 , .Xr wcstoul 3 .Sh STANDARDS The .Fn strtoul function conforms to .St -isoC . The .Fn strtoull and .Fn strtoumax functions conform to .St -isoC-99 . The .Bx .Fn strtouq function is deprecated.