XPath.pm   [plain text]

# $Id: XPath.pm,v 1.56 2003/01/26 19:33:17 matt Exp $

package XML::XPath;

use strict;
use vars qw($VERSION $AUTOLOAD $revision);

$VERSION = '1.13';

$XML::XPath::Namespaces = 1;
$XML::XPath::Debug = 0;

use XML::XPath::XMLParser;
use XML::XPath::Parser;
use IO::File;

# For testing
#use Data::Dumper;
#$Data::Dumper::Indent = 1;

# Parameters for new()
my @options = qw(

sub new {
    my $proto = shift;
    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;

    # Try to figure out what the user passed
    if ($#_ == 0) { # passed a scalar
        my $string = $_[0];
        if ($string =~ m{<.*?>}s) { # it's an XML string
            $args{'xml'} = $string;
        } elsif (ref($string)) {    # read XML from file handle
            $args{'ioref'} = $string;
        } elsif ($string eq '-') {  # read XML from stdin
            $args{'ioref'} = IO::File->new($string);
        } else {                    # read XML from a file
            $args{'filename'} = $string;
    } else {        # passed a hash or hash reference
        # just pass the parameters on to the XPath constructor
        %args = ((ref($_[0]) eq "HASH") ? %{$_[0]} : @_);

    if ($args{filename} && (!-e $args{filename} || !-r $args{filename})) {
        die "Cannot open file '$args{filename}'";
    my %hash = map(( "_$_" => $args{$_} ), @options);
    $hash{path_parser} = XML::XPath::Parser->new();
    return bless \%hash, $class;

sub find {
    my $self = shift;
    my $path = shift;
    my $context = shift;
    die "No path to find" unless $path;
    if (!defined $context) {
        $context = $self->get_context;
    if (!defined $context) {
        # Still no context? Need to parse...
        my $parser = XML::XPath::XMLParser->new(
                filename => $self->get_filename,
                xml => $self->get_xml,
                ioref => $self->get_ioref,
                parser => $self->get_parser,
        $context = $parser->parse;
#        warn "CONTEXT:\n", Data::Dumper->Dumpxs([$context], ['context']);
    my $parsed_path = $self->{path_parser}->parse($path);
#    warn "\n\nPATH: ", $parsed_path->as_string, "\n\n";
#    warn "evaluating path\n";
    return $parsed_path->evaluate($context);

# sub memsize {
#     print STDERR @_, "\t";
#     open(FH, '/proc/self/status');
#     while(<FH>) {
#         print STDERR $_ if /^VmSize/;
#     }
#     close FH;
# }
sub findnodes {
    my $self = shift;
    my ($path, $context) = @_;
    my $results = $self->find($path, $context);
    if ($results->isa('XML::XPath::NodeSet')) {
        return wantarray ? $results->get_nodelist : $results;
#        return $results->get_nodelist;
#    warn("findnodes returned a ", ref($results), " object\n") if $XML::XPath::Debug;
    return wantarray ? () : XML::XPath::NodeSet->new();

sub matches {
    my $self = shift;
    my ($node, $path, $context) = @_;

    my @nodes = $self->findnodes($path, $context);

    if (grep { "$node" eq "$_" } @nodes) {
        return 1;

sub findnodes_as_string {
    my $self = shift;
    my ($path, $context) = @_;
    my $results = $self->find($path, $context);
    if ($results->isa('XML::XPath::NodeSet')) {
        return join('', map { $_->toString } $results->get_nodelist);
    elsif ($results->isa('XML::XPath::Node')) {
        return $results->toString;
    else {
        return XML::XPath::Node::XMLescape($results->value);

sub findvalue {
    my $self = shift;
    my ($path, $context) = @_;
    my $results = $self->find($path, $context);
    if ($results->isa('XML::XPath::NodeSet')) {
        return $results->to_literal;
    return $results;

sub exists
    my $self = shift;
    my ($path, $context) = @_;
    $path = '/' if (!defined $path);
    my @nodeset = $self->findnodes($path, $context);
    return 1 if (scalar( @nodeset ));
    return 0;

sub getNodeAsXML {
  my $self = shift;
  my $node_path = shift;
  $node_path = '/' if (!defined $node_path);
  if (ref($node_path)) {
    return $node_path->as_string();
  } else {
    return $self->findnodes_as_string($node_path);

sub getNodeText {
  my $self = shift;
  my $node_path = shift;
  if (ref($node_path)) {
    return $node_path->string_value();
  } else {
    return $self->findvalue($node_path);

sub setNodeText {
  my $self = shift;
  my($node_path, $new_text) = @_;
  my $nodeset = $self->findnodes($node_path);
  return undef if (!defined $nodeset); # could not find node
  my @nodes = $nodeset->get_nodelist;
  if ($#nodes < 0) {
    if ($node_path =~ m|/@([^/]+)$|) {
      # attribute not found, so try to create it
      my $parent_path = $`;
      my $attr = $1;
      $nodeset = $self->findnodes($parent_path);
      return undef if (!defined $nodeset); # could not find node
      foreach my $node ($nodeset->get_nodelist) {
        my $newnode = XML::XPath::Node::Attribute->new($attr, $new_text);
        return undef if (!defined $newnode); # could not create new node
    } else {
      return undef; # could not find node
  foreach my $node (@nodes) {
    if ($node->getNodeType == XML::XPath::Node::ATTRIBUTE_NODE) {
    } else {
      foreach my $delnode ($node->getChildNodes()) {
      my $newnode = XML::XPath::Node::Text->new($new_text);
      return undef if (!defined $newnode); # could not create new node
  return 1;

sub createNode {
  my $self = shift;
  my($node_path) = @_;
  my $path_steps = $self->{path_parser}->parse($node_path);
  my @path_steps = ();
  foreach my $step (@{$path_steps->get_lhs()}) {
    my $string = $step->as_string();
    push(@path_steps, $string) if (defined $string && $string ne "");
  my $prev_node = undef;
  my $nodeset = undef;
  my $nodes = undef;
  my $p = undef;
  my $test_path = "";
  # Start with the deepest node, working up the path (right to left),
  # trying to find a node that exists.
  for ($p = $#path_steps; $p >= 0; $p--) {
    my $path = $path_steps[$p];
    $test_path = "(/" . join("/", @path_steps[0..$p]) . ")";
    $nodeset = $self->findnodes($test_path);
    return undef if (!defined $nodeset); # error looking for node
    $nodes = $nodeset->size;
    return undef if ($nodes > 1); # too many paths - path not specific enough
    if ($nodes == 1) { # found a node -- need to create nodes below it
      $prev_node = $nodeset->get_node(1);
  if (!defined $prev_node) {
    my @root_nodes = $self->findnodes('/')->get_nodelist();
    $prev_node = $root_nodes[0];
  # We found a node that exists, or we'll start at the root.
  # Create all lower nodes working left to right along the path.
  for ($p++ ; $p <= $#path_steps; $p++) {
    my $path = $path_steps[$p];
    my $newnode = undef;
    my($axis,$name) = ($path =~ /^(.*?)::(.*)$/);
    if ($axis =~ /^child$/i) {
      $newnode = XML::XPath::Node::Element->new($name);
      return undef if (!defined $newnode); # could not create new node
    } elsif ($axis =~ /^attribute$/i) {
      $newnode = XML::XPath::Node::Attribute->new($name, "");
      return undef if (!defined $newnode); # could not create new node
    $prev_node = $newnode;
  return $prev_node;

sub get_filename {
    my $self = shift;

sub set_filename {
    my $self = shift;
    $self->{_filename} = shift;

sub get_parser {
    my $self = shift;

sub set_parser {
    my $self = shift;
    $self->{_parser} = shift;

sub get_xml {
    my $self = shift;

sub set_xml {
    my $self = shift;
    $self->{_xml} = shift;

sub get_ioref {
    my $self = shift;

sub set_ioref {
    my $self = shift;
    $self->{_ioref} = shift;

sub get_context {
    my $self = shift;

sub set_context {
    my $self = shift;
    $self->{_context} = shift;

sub cleanup {
    my $self = shift;
    if ($XML::XPath::SafeMode) {
        my $context = $self->get_context;
        return unless $context;

sub set_namespace {
    my $self = shift;
    my ($prefix, $expanded) = @_;
    $self->{path_parser}->set_namespace($prefix, $expanded);

sub clear_namespaces {
    my $self = shift;


=head1 NAME

XML::XPath - a set of modules for parsing and evaluating XPath statements


This module aims to comply exactly to the XPath specification at
http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath and yet allow extensions to be added in the
form of functions. Modules such as XSLT and XPointer may need to do
this as they support functionality beyond XPath.


    use XML::XPath;
    use XML::XPath::XMLParser;
    my $xp = XML::XPath->new(filename => 'test.xhtml');
    my $nodeset = $xp->find('/html/body/p'); # find all paragraphs
    foreach my $node ($nodeset->get_nodelist) {
        print "FOUND\n\n", 

=head1 DETAILS

There's an awful lot to all of this, so bear with it - if you stick it
out it should be worth it. Please get a good understanding of XPath
by reading the spec before asking me questions. All of the classes
and parts herein are named to be synonimous with the names in the
specification, so consult that if you don't understand why I'm doing
something in the code.

=head1 API

The API of XML::XPath itself is extremely simple to allow you to get
going almost immediately. The deeper API's are more complex, but you
shouldn't have to touch most of that.

=head2 new()

This constructor follows the often seen named parameter method call.
Parameters you can use are: filename, parser, xml, ioref and context.
The filename parameter specifies an XML file to parse. The xml
parameter specifies a string to parse, and the ioref parameter
specifies an ioref to parse. The context option allows you to 
specify a context node. The context node has to be in the format 
of a node as specified in L<XML::XPath::XMLParser>. The 4 parameters
filename, xml, ioref and context are mutually exclusive - you should
only specify one (if you specify anything other than context, the
context node is the root of your document).
The parser option allows you to pass in an already prepared 
XML::Parser object, to save you having to create more than one
in your application (if, for example, you're doing more than just XPath).

    my $xp = XML::XPath->new( context => $node );

It is very much recommended that you use only 1 XPath object throughout 
the life of your application. This is because the object (and it's sub-objects)
maintain certain bits of state information that will be useful (such
as XPath variables) to later calls to find(). It's also a good idea because
you'll use less memory this way.

=head2 I<nodeset> = find($path, [$context])

The find function takes an XPath expression (a string) and returns either an
XML::XPath::NodeSet object containing the nodes it found (or empty if
no nodes matched the path), or one of XML::XPath::Literal (a string),
XML::XPath::Number, or XML::XPath::Boolean. It should always return 
something - and you can use ->isa() to find out what it returned. If you
need to check how many nodes it found you should check $nodeset->size.
See L<XML::XPath::NodeSet>. An optional second parameter of a context
node allows you to use this method repeatedly, for example XSLT needs
to do this.

=head2 findnodes($path, [$context])

Returns a list of nodes found by $path, optionally in context $context. 
In scalar context returns an XML::XPath::NodeSet object.

=head2 findnodes_as_string($path, [$context])

Returns the nodes found reproduced as XML. The result is not guaranteed
to be valid XML though.

=head2 findvalue($path, [$context])

Returns either a C<XML::XPath::Literal>, a C<XML::XPath::Boolean> or a
C<XML::XPath::Number> object. If the path returns a NodeSet,
$nodeset->to_literal is called automatically for you (and thus a
C<XML::XPath::Literal> is returned). Note that
for each of the objects stringification is overloaded, so you can just
print the value found, or manipulate it in the ways you would a normal
perl value (e.g. using regular expressions).

=head2 exists($path, [$context])

Returns true if the given path exists.

=head2 matches($node, $path, [$context])

Returns true if the node matches the path (optionally in context $context).

=head2 getNodeText($path)

Returns the text string for a particular XML node.  Returns a string,
or undef if the node doesn't exist.

=head2 setNodeText($path, $text)

Sets the text string for a particular XML node.  The node can be an
element or an attribute.  If the node to be set is an attribute, and
the attribute node does not exist, it will be created automatically.

=head2 createNode($path)

Creates the node matching the path given.  If part of the path given, or
all of the path do not exist, the necessary nodes will be created

=head2 set_namespace($prefix, $uri)

Sets the namespace prefix mapping to the uri.

Normally in XML::XPath the prefixes in XPath node tests take their
context from the current node. This means that foo:bar will always
match an element <foo:bar> regardless of the namespace that the prefix
foo is mapped to (which might even change within the document, resulting
in unexpected results). In order to make prefixes in XPath node tests
actually map to a real URI, you need to enable that via a call
to the set_namespace method of your XML::XPath object.

=head2 clear_namespaces()

Clears all previously set namespace mappings.

=head2 $XML::XPath::Namespaces

Set this to 0 if you I<don't> want namespace processing to occur. This
will make everything a little (tiny) bit faster, but you'll suffer for it,

=head1 Node Object Model

See L<XML::XPath::Node>, L<XML::XPath::Node::Element>, 
L<XML::XPath::Node::Text>, L<XML::XPath::Node::Comment>,
L<XML::XPath::Node::Attribute>, L<XML::XPath::Node::Namespace>,
and L<XML::XPath::Node::PI>.

=head1 On Garbage Collection

XPath nodes work in a special way that allows circular references, and 
yet still lets Perl's reference counting garbage collector to clean up
the nodes after use. This should be totally transparent to the user,
with one caveat: B<If you free your tree before letting go of a sub-tree,
consider that playing with fire and you may get burned>. What does this
mean to the average user? Not much. Provided you don't free (or let go
out of scope) either the tree you passed to XML::XPath->new, or if you
didn't pass a tree, and passed a filename or IO-ref, then provided you
don't let the XML::XPath object go out of scope before you let results
of find() and its friends go out of scope, then you'll be fine. Even if
you B<do> let the tree go out of scope before results, you'll probably
still be fine. The only case where you may get stung is when the last
part of your path/query is either an ancestor or parent axis. In that
case the worst that will happen is you'll end up with a circular reference
that won't get cleared until interpreter destruction time. You can get
around that by explicitly calling $node->DESTROY on each of your result
nodes, if you really need to do that.

Mail me direct if that's not clear. Note that it's not doom and gloom. It's
by no means perfect, but the worst that will happen is a long running process
could leak memory. Most long running processes will therefore be able to
explicitly be careful not to free the tree (or XML::XPath object) before
freeing results. AxKit, an application that uses XML::XPath, does this and
I didn't have to make any changes to the code - it's already sensible

If you I<really> don't want all this to happen, then set the variable
$XML::XPath::SafeMode, and call $xp->cleanup() on the XML::XPath object
when you're finished, or $tree->dispose() if you have a tree instead.

=head1 Example

Please see the test files in t/ for examples on how to use XPath.

=head1 Support/Author

This module is copyright 2000 AxKit.com Ltd. This is free
software, and as such comes with NO WARRANTY. No dates are used in this
module. You may distribute this module under the terms of either the
Gnu GPL,  or the Artistic License (the same terms as Perl itself).

For support, please subscribe to the Perl-XML mailing list at the URL 

Matt Sergeant, matt@sergeant.org

=head1 SEE ALSO

L<XML::XPath::Literal>, L<XML::XPath::Boolean>, L<XML::XPath::Number>,
L<XML::XPath::XMLParser>, L<XML::XPath::NodeSet>, L<XML::XPath::PerlSAX>,