uucp.info-2   [plain text]

This is uucp.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.1 from uucp.texi.

* UUCP: (uucp).                 Transfer mail and news across phone lines.

   This file documents Taylor UUCP, version 1.07.

   Copyright (C) 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 2002 Ian Lance Taylor

   Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
preserved on all copies.

   Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of
this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also
that the section entitled "Copying" are included exactly as in the
original, and provided that the entire resulting derived work is
distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this

   Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this
manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified
versions, except that the section entitled "Copying" may be included in
a translation approved by the author instead of in the original English.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Invoking cu,  Next: Invoking uucico,  Prev: Invoking uupick,  Up: Invoking the UUCP Programs

Invoking cu

* Menu:

* cu Description::              Description of cu
* cu Commands::                 Commands Supported by cu
* cu Variables::                Variables Supported by cu
* cu Options::                  Options Supported by cu

File: uucp.info,  Node: cu Description,  Next: cu Commands,  Prev: Invoking cu,  Up: Invoking cu

cu Description

     cu [options] [system | phone | "dir"]

   The `cu' program is used to call up another system and act as a dial
in terminal.  It can also do simple file transfers with no error

   The `cu' program takes a single non-option argument.

   If the argument is the string `dir' cu will make a direct connection
to the port.  This may only be used by users with write access to the
port, as it permits reprogramming the modem.

   Otherwise, if the argument begins with a digit, it is taken to be a
phone number to call.

   Otherwise, it is taken to be the name of a system to call.

   The `-z' or `--system' options may be used to name a system
beginning with a digit, and the `-c' or `--phone' options may be used
to name a phone number that does not begin with a digit.

   The `cu' program locates a port to use in the UUCP configuration
files.  If a simple system name is given, it will select a port
appropriate for that system.  The `-p', `--port', `-l', `--line', `-s',
and `--speed' options may be used to control the port selection.

   When a connection is made to the remote system, `cu' forks into two
processes.  One reads from the port and writes to the terminal, while
the other reads from the terminal and writes to the port.

File: uucp.info,  Node: cu Commands,  Next: cu Variables,  Prev: cu Description,  Up: Invoking cu

cu Commands

   The `cu' program provides several commands that may be used during
the conversation.  The commands all begin with an escape character,
which by default is `~' (tilde).  The escape character is only
recognized at the beginning of a line.  To send an escape character to
the remote system at the start of a line, it must be entered twice.  All
commands are either a single character or a word beginning with `%'
(percent sign).

   The `cu' program recognizes the following commands.

     Terminate the conversation.

`~! command'
     Run command in a shell.  If command is empty, starts up a shell.

`~$ command'
     Run command, sending the standard output to the remote system.

`~| command'
     Run command, taking the standard input from the remote system.

`~+ command'
     Run command, taking the standard input from the remote system and
     sending the standard output to the remote system.

`~#, ~%break'
     Send a break signal, if possible.

`~c directory, ~%cd directory'
     Change the local directory.

`~> file'
     Send a file to the remote system.  This just dumps the file over
     the communication line.  It is assumed that the remote system is
     expecting it.

     Receive a file from the remote system.  This prompts for the local
     file name and for the remote command to execute to begin the file
     transfer.  It continues accepting data until the contents of the
     `eofread' variable are seen.

`~p from to'
`~%put from to'
     Send a file to a remote Unix system.  This runs the appropriate
     commands on the remote system.

`~t from to'
`~%take from to'
     Retrieve a file from a remote Unix system.  This runs the
     appropriate commands on the remote system.

`~s variable value'
     Set a `cu' variable to the given value.  If value is not given, the
     variable is set to `true'.

`~! variable'
     Set a `cu' variable to `false'.

     Suspend the cu session.  This is only supported on some systems.
     On systems for which `^Z' may be used to suspend a job, `~^Z' will
     also suspend the session.

     Turn off XON/XOFF handling.

     Turn on XON/XOFF handling.

     List all the variables and their values.

     List all commands.

File: uucp.info,  Node: cu Variables,  Next: cu Options,  Prev: cu Commands,  Up: Invoking cu

cu Variables

   The `cu' program also supports several variables.  They may be
listed with the `~v' command, and set with the `~s' or `~!'  commands.

     The escape character.  The default is `~' (tilde).

     If this variable is true, `cu' will delay for a second, after
     recognizing the escape character, before printing the name of the
     local system.  The default is true.

     The list of characters which are considered to finish a line.  The
     escape character is only recognized after one of these is seen.
     The default is `carriage return', `^U', `^C', `^O', `^D', `^S',
     `^Q', `^R'.

     Whether to transfer binary data when sending a file.  If this is
     false, then newlines in the file being sent are converted to
     carriage returns.  The default is false.

     A string used before sending a binary character in a file
     transfer, if the `binary' variable is true.  The default is `^V'.

     Whether to check file transfers by examining what the remote system
     echoes back.  This probably doesn't work very well.  The default is

     The character to look for after sending each line in a file.  The
     default is carriage return.

     The timeout to use, in seconds, when looking for a character,
     either when doing echo checking or when looking for the `echonl'
     character.  The default is 30.

     The character to use delete a line if the echo check fails.  The
     default is `^U'.

     The number of times to resend a line if the echo check continues to
     fail.  The default is 10.

     The string to write after sending a file with the `~>' command.
     The default is `^D'.

     The string to look for when receiving a file with the ` ~<'
     command.  The default is `$', which is intended to be a typical
     shell prompt.

     Whether to print accumulated information during a file transfer.
     The default is true.

File: uucp.info,  Node: cu Options,  Prev: cu Variables,  Up: Invoking cu

cu Options

   The following options may be given to `cu'.

     Use even parity.

     Use odd parity.

     Use no parity.  No parity is also used if both `-e' and `-o' are

     Echo characters locally (half-duplex mode).

     Turn off XON/XOFF handling (it is on by default).

`-E char'
`--escape char'
     Set the escape character.  Initially `~' (tilde).  To eliminate the
     escape character, use `-E '''.

`-z system'
`--system system'
     The system to call.

`-c phone-number'
`--phone phone-number'
     The phone number to call.

`-p port'
`-a port'
`--port port'
     Name the port to use.

`-l line'
`--line line'
     Name the line to use by giving a device name.  This may be used to
     dial out on ports that are not listed in the UUCP configuration
     files.  Write access to the device is required.

`-s speed'
`--speed speed'
     The speed (baud rate) to use.  Here, `-#' means an actual number;
     e.g., `-9600'.

     Prompt for the phone number to use.

     Enter debugging mode.  Equivalent to `--debug all'.

`-x type'
`--debug type'
`-I file'
`--config file'
     *Note Standard Options::.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Invoking uucico,  Next: Invoking uuxqt,  Prev: Invoking cu,  Up: Invoking the UUCP Programs

Invoking uucico

* Menu:

* uucico Description::          Description of uucico
* uucico Options::              Options Supported by uucico

File: uucp.info,  Node: uucico Description,  Next: uucico Options,  Prev: Invoking uucico,  Up: Invoking uucico

uucico Description

     uucico [options]

   The `uucico' daemon processes file transfer requests queued by
`uucp' and `uux'.  It is started when `uucp' or `uux' is run (unless
they are given the `-r' or `--nouucico' options).  It is also typically
started periodically using entries in the `crontab' table(s).

   When `uucico' is invoked with `-r1', `--master', `-s', `--system',
or `-S', the daemon will place a call to a remote system, running in
master mode.  Otherwise the daemon will start in slave mode, accepting
a call from a remote system.  Typically a special login name will be
set up for UUCP which automatically invokes `uucico' when a remote
system calls in and logs in under that name.

   When `uucico' terminates, it invokes the `uuxqt' daemon, unless the
`-q' or `--nouuxqt' options were given; `uuxqt' executes any work
orders created by `uux' on a remote system, and any work orders created
locally which have received remote files for which they were waiting.

   If a call fails, `uucico' will normally refuse to retry the call
until a certain (configurable) amount of time has passed.  This may be
overriden by the `-f', `--force', or `-S' options.

   The `-l', `--prompt', `-e', or `--loop' options may be used to force
`uucico' to produce its own prompts of `login: ' and `Password:'.  When
another `uucico' daemon calls in, it will see these prompts and log in
as usual.  The login name and password will normally be checked against
a separate list kept specially for `uucico', rather than the
`/etc/passwd' file (*note Configuration File Names::).  It is possible,
on some systems, to configure `uucico' to use `/etc/passwd'.  The `-l'
or `--prompt' options will prompt once and then exit; in this mode the
UUCP administrator, or the superuser, may use the `-u' or `--login'
option to force a login name, in which case `uucico' will not prompt
for one.  The `-e' or `--loop' options will prompt again after the
first session is over; in this mode `uucico' will permanently control a

   If `uucico' receives a `SIGQUIT', `SIGTERM' or `SIGPIPE' signal, it
will cleanly abort any current conversation with a remote system and
exit.  If it receives a `SIGHUP' signal it will abort any current
conversation, but will continue to place calls to (if invoked with
`-r1' or `--master') and accept calls from (if invoked with `-e' or
`--loop') other systems.  If it receives a `SIGINT' signal it will
finish the current conversation, but will not place or accept any more

File: uucp.info,  Node: uucico Options,  Prev: uucico Description,  Up: Invoking uucico

uucico Options

   The following options may be given to `uucico'.

     Start in master mode: call out to a remote system.  Implied by
     `-s', `--system', or `-S'.  If no system is specified,
     sequentially call every system for which work is waiting to be

     Start in slave mode.  This is the default.

`-s system'
`--system system'
     Call the specified system.

`-S system'
     Call the specified system, ignoring any required wait.  This is
     equivalent to `-s system -f'.

     Ignore any required wait for any systems to be called.

     Prompt for login name and password using `login: ' and
     `Password:'.  This allows `uucico' to be easily run from `inetd'.
     The login name and password are checked against the UUCP password
     file, which need not be `/etc/passwd'.  The `--login' option may
     be used to force a login name, in which cause `uucico' will only
     prompt for a password.

`-p port'
`--port port'
     Specify a port to call out on or to listen to.

     Enter an endless loop of login/password prompts and slave mode
     daemon execution.  The program will not stop by itself; you must
     use `kill' to shut it down.

     After calling out (to a particular system when `-s', `--system',
     or `-S' is specifed, or to all systems which have work when just
     `-r1' or `--master' is specifed), begin an endless loop as with

     Do not start the `uuxqt' daemon when finished.

     If no calls are permitted at this time, then don't make the call,
     but also do not put an error message in the log file and do not
     update the system status (as reported by `uustat').  This can be
     convenient for automated polling scripts, which may want to simply
     attempt to call every system rather than worry about which
     particular systems may be called at the moment.  This option also
     suppresses the log message indicating that there is no work to be

     Only call the system named by `-s', `--system', or `-S' if there
     is work for that system.

     Do not detach from the controlling terminal.  Normally `uucico'
     detaches from the terminal before each call out to another system
     and before invoking `uuxqt'.  This option prevents this.

`-u name'
`--login name'
     Set the login name to use instead of that of the invoking user.
     This option may only be used by the UUCP administrator or the
     superuser.  If used with `--prompt', this will cause `uucico' to
     prompt only for the password, not the login name.

     If a call fails after the remote system is reached, try the next
     alternate rather than simply exiting.

`-i type'
`--stdin type'
     Set the type of port to use when using standard input.  The only
     supported port type is TLI, and this is only available on machines
     which support the TLI networking interface.  Specifying `-i TLI'
     causes `uucico' to use TLI calls to perform I/O.

`-X type'
     Same as the standard option `-x type'.  Provided for historical

`-x type'
`--debug type'
`-I file'
`--config file'
     *Note Standard Options::.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Invoking uuxqt,  Next: Invoking uuchk,  Prev: Invoking uucico,  Up: Invoking the UUCP Programs

Invoking uuxqt

     uuxqt [-c command] [-s system] [--command command] [--system system]

   The `uuxqt' daemon executes commands requested by `uux' from either
the local system or from remote systems.  It is started automatically
by the `uucico' daemon (unless `uucico' is given the `-q' or
`--nouuxqt' options).

   There is normally no need to run `uuxqt', since it will be invoked
by `uucico'.  However, `uuxqt' can be invoked directly to provide
greater control over the processing of the work queue.

   Multiple invocations of `uuxqt' may be run at once, as controlled by
the `max-uuxqts' configuration command; see *Note Miscellaneous

   The following options may be given to `uuxqt'.

`-c command'
`--command command'
     Only execute requests for the specified command.  For example,
     `uuxqt --command rmail'.

`-s system'
`--system system'
     Only execute requests originating from the specified system.

`-x type'
`--debug type'
`-I file'
     *Note Standard Options::.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Invoking uuchk,  Next: Invoking uuconv,  Prev: Invoking uuxqt,  Up: Invoking the UUCP Programs

Invoking uuchk

     uuchk [-s system] [--system system]

   The `uuchk' program displays information read from the UUCP
configuration files.  It should be used to ensure that UUCP has been
configured correctly.

   The `-s' or `--system' options may be used to display the
configuration for just the specified system, rather than for all
systems.  The `uuchk' program also supports the standard UUCP program
options; see *Note Standard Options::.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Invoking uuconv,  Next: Invoking uusched,  Prev: Invoking uuchk,  Up: Invoking the UUCP Programs

Invoking uuconv

     uuconv -i type -o type [-p program] [--program program]
     uuconv --input type --output type [-p program] [--program program]

   The `uuconv' program converts UUCP configuration files from one
format to another.  The type of configuration file to read is specified
using the `-i' or `--input' options.  The type of configuration file to
write is specified using the `-o' or `--output' options.

   The supported configuration file types are `taylor', `v2', and
`hdb'.  For a description of the `taylor' configuration files, see
*Note Configuration Files::.  The other types of configuration files
are used by traditional UUCP packages, and are not described in this

   An input configuration of type `v2' or `hdb' is read from a compiled
in directory (specified by `oldconfigdir' in `Makefile').  An input
configuration of type `taylor' is read from a compiled in directory by
default, but may be overridden with the standard `-I' or `--config'
options (*note Standard Options::).

   The output configuration is written to files in the directory in
which `uuconv' is run.

   Some information in the input files may not be representable in the
desired output format, in which case `uuconv' will silently discard it.
The output of `uuconv' should be carefully checked before it is used.
The `uuchk' program may be used for this purpose; see *Note Invoking

   The `-p' or `--program' option may be used to convert specific `cu'
configuration information, rather than the default of only converting
the `uucp' configuration information; see *Note config File::.

   The `uuchk' program also supports the standard UUCP program options;
see *Note Standard Options::.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Invoking uusched,  Prev: Invoking uuconv,  Up: Invoking the UUCP Programs

Invoking uusched

   The `uusched' program is actually just a shell script which invokes
the `uucico' daemon.  It is provided for backward compatibility.  It
causes `uucico' to call all systems for which there is work.  Any
option which may be given to `uucico' may also be given to `uusched'.
*Note Invoking uucico::.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Installing Taylor UUCP,  Next: Using Taylor UUCP,  Prev: Invoking the UUCP Programs,  Up: Top

Installing Taylor UUCP

   These are the installation instructions for the Taylor UUCP package.

* Menu:

* Compilation::                 Compiling Taylor UUCP
* Testing the Compilation::     Testing the Compilation
* Installing the Binaries::     Installing the Binaries
* Configuration::               Configuring Taylor UUCP
* Testing the Installation::    Testing the Installation

File: uucp.info,  Node: Compilation,  Next: Testing the Compilation,  Prev: Installing Taylor UUCP,  Up: Installing Taylor UUCP

Compiling Taylor UUCP

   If you have a source code distribution, you must first compile it for
your system.  Free versions of Unix, such as Linux, NetBSD, or FreeBSD,
often come with pre-compiled binary distributions of UUCP.  If you are
using a binary distribution, you may skip to the configuration section
(*note Configuration::).

   Follow these steps to compile the source code.

  1. Take a look at the top of `Makefile.in' and set the appropriate
     values for your system.  These control where the programs are
     installed and which user on the system owns them (normally they
     will be owned by a special user `uucp' rather than a real person;
     they should probably not be owned by `root').

  2. Run the shell script `configure'.  This script was generated using
     the `autoconf' program written by David MacKenzie of the Free
     Software Foundation.  It takes a while to run.  It will generate
     the file `config.h' based on `config.h.in', and, for each source
     code directory, will generate `Makefile' based on `Makefile.in'.

     You can pass certain arguments to `configure' in the environment.
     Because `configure' will compile little test programs to see what
     is available on your system, you must tell it how to run your
     compiler.  It recognizes the following environment variables:

          The C compiler.  If this is not set, then if `configure' can
          find `gcc' it will use it, otherwise it will use `cc'.

          Flags to pass to the C compiler when compiling the actual
          code.  If this is not set, `configure' will use `-g'.

          Flags to pass to the C compiler when only linking, not
          compiling.  If this is not set, `configure' will use the
          empty string.

          Libraries to pass to the C compiler.  If this is not set,
          `configure' will use the empty string.

          The program to run to install UUCP in the binary directory.
          If this is not set, then if `configure' finds the BSD
          `install' program, it will set this to `install -c';
          otherwise, it will use `cp'.

     Suppose, for example, you want to set the environment variable `CC'
     to `rcc'.  If you are using `sh', `bash', or `ksh', invoke
     `configure' as `CC=rcc configure'.  If you are using `csh', do
     `setenv CC rcc; sh configure'.

     On some systems you will want to use `LIBS=-lmalloc'.  On Xenix
     derived versions of Unix do not use `LIBS=-lx' because this will
     bring in the wrong versions of certain routines; if you want to use
     `-lx' you must specify `LIBS=-lc -lx'.

     You can also pass other arguments to `configure' on the command
     line.  Use `configure --help' for a complete list.  Of particular
          The directory under which all files are installed.  Default

          The directory in which to find new style configuration files.
          Default `PREFIX/conf/uucp'.

          The directory in which to find old style configuration files.
          Default `/usr/lib/uucp'.

     If `configure' fails for some reason, or if you have a very weird
     system, you may have to configure the package by hand.  To do
     this, copy the file `config.h.in' to `config.h' and edit it for
     your system.  Then for each source directory (the top directory,
     and the subdirectories `lib', `unix', and `uuconf') copy
     `Makefile.in' to `Makefile', find the words within `@' characters,
     and set them correctly for your system.

  3. Igor V. Semenyuk provided this (lightly edited) note about ISC
     Unix 3.0.  The `configure' script will default to passing `-posix'
     to `gcc'.  However, using `-posix' changes the environment to
     POSIX, and on ISC 3.0, at least, the default for `POSIX_NO_TRUNC'
     is 1.  This can lead to a problem when `uuxqt' executes `rmail'.
     `IDA sendmail' has dbm configuration files named
     `mailertable.{dir,pag}'.  Notice these names are 15 characters
     long.  When `uuxqt' compiled with the `-posix' executes `rmail',
     which in turn executes `sendmail', the later is run under the
     POSIX environment too.  This leads to `sendmail' bombing out with
     `'error opening 'M' database: name too long' (mailertable.dir)'.
     It's rather obscure behaviour, and it took me a day to find out
     the cause.  I don't use the `-posix' switch; instead, I run `gcc'
     with `-D_POSIX_SOURCE', and add `-lcposix' to `LIBS'.

  4. On some versions of BSDI there is a bug in the shell which causes
     the default value for `CFLAGS' to be set incorrectly.  If `echo
     ${CFLAGS--g}' echoes `g' rather than `-g', then you must set
     `CFLAGS' in the environment before running configure.  There is a
     patch available from BSDI for this bug.  (Reported by David Vrona).

  5. On AIX 3.2.5, and possibly other versions, `cc -E' does not work,
     reporting `Option NOROCONST is not valid'.  Test this before
     running configure by doing something like `touch /tmp/foo.c; cc -E
     /tmp/foo.c'.  This may give a warning about the file being empty,
     but it should not give the `Option NOROCONST' warning.  The
     workaround is to remove the `,noroconst' entry from the `options'
     clause in the `cc' stanza in `/etc/xlc.cfg'.  (Reported by Chris

  6. You should verify that `configure' worked correctly by checking
     `config.h' and the instances of `Makefile'.

  7. Edit `policy.h' for your local system.  The comments explain the
     various choices.  The default values are intended to be
     reasonable, so you may not have to make any changes.

     You must decide what type of configuration files to use; for more
     information on the choices, see *Note Configuration::.

     You must also decide what sort of spool directory you want to use.
     If this is a new installation, I recommend `SPOOLDIR_TAYLOR';
     otherwise, select the spool directory corresponding to your
     existing UUCP package.

  8. Type `make' to compile everything.

     The `tstuu.c' file is not particularly portable; if you can't
     figure out how to compile it you can safely ignore it, as it is
     only used for testing.  To use STREAMS pseudo-terminals, tstuu.c
     must be compiled with `-DHAVE_STREAMS_PTYS'; this is not
     determined by the configure script.

     If you have any other problems there is probably a bug in the
     `configure' script.

  9. Please report any problems you have.  That is the only way they
     will get fixed for other people.  Supply a patch if you can (*note
     Patches::), or just ask for help.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Testing the Compilation,  Next: Installing the Binaries,  Prev: Compilation,  Up: Installing Taylor UUCP

Testing the Compilation

   If your system supports pseudo-terminals, and you compiled the code
to support the new style of configuration files (`HAVE_TAYLOR_CONFIG'
was set to 1 in `policy.h'), you should be able to use the `tstuu'
program to test the `uucico' daemon.  If your system supports STREAMS
based pseudo-terminals, you must compile tstuu.c with
`-DHAVE_STREAMS_PTYS'.  (The STREAMS based code was contributed by Marc

   To run `tstuu', just type `tstuu' with no arguments.  You must run
it in the compilation directory, since it runs `./uucp', `./uux' and
`./uucico'.  The `tstuu' program will run a lengthy series of tests (it
takes over ten minutes on a slow VAX).  You will need a fair amount of
space available in `/usr/tmp'.  You will probably want to put it in the
background.  Do not use `^Z', because the program traps on `SIGCHLD'
and winds up dying.  The `tstuu' program will create a directory
`/usr/tmp/tstuu' and fill it with configuration files, and create spool
directories `/usr/tmp/tstuu/spool1' and `/usr/tmp/tstuu/spool2'.

   If your system does not support the `FIONREAD' call, the `tstuu'
program will run very slowly.  This may or may not get fixed in a later

   The `tstuu' program will finish with an execute file named
`X.SOMETHING' and a data file named `D.SOMETHING' in the directory
`/usr/tmp/tstuu/spool1' (or, more likely, in subdirectories, depending
on the choice of `SPOOLDIR' in `policy.h').  Two log files will be
created in the directory `/usr/tmp/tstuu'.  They will be named `Log1'
and `Log2', or, if you have selected `HAVE_HDB_LOGGING' in `policy.h',
`Log1/uucico/test2' and `Log2/uucico/test1'.  There should be no errors
in the log files.

   You can test `uuxqt' with `./uuxqt -I /usr/tmp/tstuu/Config1'.  This
should leave a command file `C.SOMETHING' and a data file `D.SOMETHING'
in `/usr/tmp/tstuu/spool1' or in subdirectories.  Again, there should
be no errors in the log file.

   Assuming you compiled the code with debugging enabled, the `-x'
switch can be used to set debugging modes; see the `debug' command for
details (*note Debugging Levels::).  Use `-x all' to turn on all
debugging and generate far more output than you will ever want to see.
The `uucico' daemons will put debugging output in the files `Debug1'
and `Debug2' in the directory `/usr/tmp/tstuu'.  After that, you're
pretty much on your own.

   On some systems you can also use `tstuu' to test `uucico' against
the system `uucico', by using the `-u' switch.  For this to work,
change the definitions of `ZUUCICO_CMD' and `UUCICO_EXECL' at the top
of `tstuu.c' to something appropriate for your system.  The definitions
in `tstuu.c' are what I used for Ultrix 4.0, on which
`/usr/lib/uucp/uucico' is particularly obstinate about being run as a
child; I was only able to run it by creating a login name with no
password whose shell was `/usr/lib/uucp/uucico'.  Calling login in this
way will leave fake entries in `wtmp' and `utmp'; if you compile
`tstout.c' (in the `contrib' directory) as a setuid `root' program,
`tstuu' will run it to clear those entries out.  On most systems, such
hackery should not be necessary, although on SCO I had to su to `root'
(`uucp' might also have worked) before I could run

   You can test `uucp' and `uux' (give them the `-r' switch to keep
them from starting `uucico') to make sure they create the right sorts
of files.  Unfortunately, if you don't know what the right sorts of
files are, I'm not going to tell you here.

   If you can not run `tstuu', or if it fails inexplicably, don't worry
about it too much.  On some systems `tstuu' will fail because of
problems using pseudo terminals, which will not matter in normal use.
The real test of the package is talking to another system.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Installing the Binaries,  Next: Configuration,  Prev: Testing the Compilation,  Up: Installing Taylor UUCP

Installing the Binaries

   You can install the executable files by becoming `root' and typing
`make install'.  Or you can look at what `make install' does and do it
by hand.  It tries to preserve your old programs, if any, but it only
does this the first time Taylor UUCP is installed (so that if you
install several versions of Taylor UUCP, you can still go back to your
original UUCP programs).  You can retrieve the original programs by
typing `make uninstall'.

   Note that by default the programs are compiled with debugging
information, and they are not stripped when they are installed.  You may
want to strip the installed programs to save disk space.  For more
information, see your system documentation for the `strip' program.

   Of course, simply installing the executable files is not enough.  You
must also arrange for them to be used correctly.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Configuration,  Next: Testing the Installation,  Prev: Installing the Binaries,  Up: Installing Taylor UUCP

Configuring Taylor UUCP

   You will have to decide what types of configuration files you want to
use.  This package supports a new sort of configuration file; see *Note
Configuration Files::.  It also supports V2 configuration files
(`L.sys', `L-devices', etc.) and HDB configuration files (`Systems',
`Devices', etc.).  No documentation is provided for V2 or HDB
configuration files.  All types of configuration files can be used at
once, if you are so inclined.  Currently using just V2 configuration
files is not really possible, because there is no way to specify a
dialer (there are no built in dialers, and the program does not know
how to read `acucap' or `modemcap'); however, V2 configuration files
can be used with a new style dial file (*note dial File::), or with a
HDB `Dialers' file.

   Use of HDB configuration files has two known bugs.  A blank line in
the middle of an entry in the `Permissions' file will not be ignored as
it should be.  Dialer programs, as found in some versions of HDB, are
not recognized directly.  If you must use a dialer program, rather than
an entry in `Devices', you must use the `chat-program' command in a new
style dial file; see *Note dial File::.  You will have to invoke the
dialer program via a shell script or another program, since an exit
code of 0 is required to recognize success; the `dialHDB' program in
the `contrib' directory may be used for this purpose.

   The `uuconv' (*note Invoking uuconv::) program can be used to
convert from V2 or HDB configuration files to the new style (it can also
do the reverse translation, if you are so inclined).  It will not do all
of the work, and the results should be carefully checked, but it can be
quite useful.

   If you are installing a new system, you will, of course, have to
write the configuration files; see *Note Configuration Files:: for
details on how to do this.

   After writing the configuration files, use the `uuchk' program to
verify that they are what you expect; see *Note Invoking uuchk::.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Testing the Installation,  Prev: Configuration,  Up: Installing Taylor UUCP

Testing the Installation

   After you have written the configuration files, and verified them
with the `uuchk' program (*note Invoking uuchk::), you must check that
UUCP can correctly contact another system.

   Tell `uucico' to dial out to the system by using the `-s' system
switch (e.g., `uucico -s uunet').  The log file should tell you what
happens.  The exact location of the log file depends upon the settings
in `policy.h' when you compiled the program, and on the use of the
`logfile' command in the `config' file.  Typical locations are
`/usr/spool/uucp/Log' or a subdirectory under `/usr/spool/uucp/.Log'.

   If you compiled the code with debugging enabled, you can use
debugging mode to get a great deal of information about what sort of
data is flowing back and forth; the various possibilities are described
with the `debug' command (*note Debugging Levels::).  When initially
setting up a connection `-x chat' is probably the most useful (e.g.,
`uucico -s uunet -x chat'); you may also want to use `-x
handshake,incoming,outgoing'.  You can use `-x' multiple times on one
command line, or you can give it comma separated arguments as in the
last example.  Use `-x all' to turn on all possible debugging

   The debugging information is written to a file, normally
`/usr/spool/uucp/Debug', although the default can be changed in
`policy.h', and the `config' file can override the default with the
`debugfile' command.  The debugging file may contain passwords and some
file contents as they are transmitted over the line, so the debugging
file is only readable by the `uucp' user.

   You can use the `-f' switch to force `uucico' to call out even if
the last call failed recently; using `-S' when naming a system has the
same effect.  Otherwise the status file (in the `.Status' subdirectory
of the main spool directory, normally `/usr/spool/uucp') (*note Status
Directory::) will prevent too many attempts from occurring in rapid

   On older System V based systems which do not have the `setreuid'
system call, problems may arise if ordinary users can start an execution
of `uuxqt', perhaps indirectly via `uucp' or `uux'.  UUCP jobs may wind
up executing with a real user ID of the user who invoked `uuxqt', which
can cause problems if the UUCP job checks the real user ID for security
purposes.  On such systems, it is safest to put `run-uuxqt never'
(*note Miscellaneous (config)::) in the `config' file, so that `uucico'
never starts `uuxqt', and invoke `uuxqt' directly from a `crontab' file.

   Please let me know about any problems you have and how you got around
them.  If you do report a problem, please include the version number of
the package you are using, the operating system you are running it on,
and a sample of the debugging file showing the problem (debugging
information is usually what is needed, not just the log file).  General
questions such as "why doesn't `uucico' dial out" are impossible to
answer without much more information.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Using Taylor UUCP,  Next: Configuration Files,  Prev: Installing Taylor UUCP,  Up: Top

Using Taylor UUCP

* Menu:

* Calling Other Systems::       Calling Other Systems
* Accepting Calls::             Accepting Calls
* Mail and News::               Using UUCP for Mail and News
* The Spool Directory Layout::  The Spool Directory Layout
* Spool Directory Cleaning::    Cleaning the UUCP Spool Directory

File: uucp.info,  Node: Calling Other Systems,  Next: Accepting Calls,  Prev: Using Taylor UUCP,  Up: Using Taylor UUCP

Calling Other Systems

   By default `uucp' and `uux' will automatically start up `uucico' to
call another system whenever work is queued up.  However, the call may
fail, or you may have put in time restrictions which prevent the call
at that time (perhaps because telephone rates are high) (*note When to
Call::).  Also, a remote system may have work queued up for your
system, but may not be calling you for some reason (perhaps you have
agreed that your system should always place the call).  To make sure
that work gets transferred between the systems withing a reasonable
time period, you should arrange to periodically invoke `uucico'.

   These periodic invocations are normally triggered by entries in the
`crontab' file.  The exact format of `crontab' files, and how new
entries are added, varies from system to system; check your local
documentation (try `man cron').

   To attempt to call all systems with outstanding work, use the command
`uucico -r1'.  To attempt to call a particular system, use the command
`uucico -s SYSTEM'.  To attempt to call a particular system, but only
if there is work for it, use the command `uucico -C -s SYSTEM'.  (*note
Invoking uucico::).

   A common case is to want to try to call a system at a certain time,
with periodic retries if the call fails.  A simple way to do this is to
create an empty UUCP command file, known as a "poll file".  If a poll
file exists for a system, then `uucico -r1' will place a call to it.
If the call succeeds, the poll file will be deleted.

   A poll file can be easily created using the `uux' command, by
requesting the execution of an empty command.  To create a poll file for
SYSTEM, just do something like this:
     uux -r SYSTEM!
   The `-r' tells `uux' to not start up `uucico' immediately.  Of
course, if you do want `uucico' to start up right away, omit the `-r';
if the call fails, the poll file will be left around to cause a later

   For example, I use the following crontab entries locally:

     45 * * * * /bin/echo /usr/lib/uucp/uucico -r1 | /bin/su uucpa
     40 4,10,15 * * * /usr/bin/uux -r uunet!

   Every hour, at 45 minutes past, this will check if there is any work
to be done, and, if there is, will call the appropriate system.  Also,
at 4:40am, 10:40am, and 3:40pm, this will create a poll file file for
`uunet', forcing the next run of `uucico' to call `uunet'.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Accepting Calls,  Next: Mail and News,  Prev: Calling Other Systems,  Up: Using Taylor UUCP

Accepting Calls

   To accept calls from another system, you must arrange matters such
that when that system calls in, it automatically invokes `uucico' on
your system.

   The most common arrangement is to create a special user name and
password for incoming UUCP calls.  This user name typically uses the
same user ID as the regular `uucp' user (Unix permits several user
names to share the same user ID).  The shell for this user name should
be set to `uucico'.

   Here is a sample `/etc/passwd' line to accept calls from a remote
system named airs:
     Uairs:PASSWORD:4:8:airs UUCP:/usr/spool/uucp:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico
   The details may vary on your system.  You must use reasonable user
and group ID's.  You must use the correct file name for `uucico'.  The
PASSWORD must appear in the UUCP configuration files on the remote
system, but will otherwise never be seen or typed by a human.

   Note that `uucico' appears as the login shell, and that it will be
run with no arguments.  This means that it will start in slave mode and
accept an incoming connection.  *Note Invoking uucico::.

   On some systems, creating an empty file named `.hushlogin' in the
home directory will skip the printing of various bits of information
when the remote `uucico' logs in, speeding up the UUCP connection

   For the greatest security, each system which calls in should use a
different user name, each with a different password, and the
`called-login' command should be used in the `sys' file to ensure that
the correct login name is used.  *Note Accepting a Call::, and see
*Note Security::.

   If you never need to dial out from your system, but only accept
incoming calls, you can arrange for `uucico' to handle logins itself,
completely controlling the port, by using the `--endless' option.
*Note Invoking uucico::.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Mail and News,  Next: The Spool Directory Layout,  Prev: Accepting Calls,  Up: Using Taylor UUCP

Using UUCP for Mail and News.

   Taylor UUCP does not include a mail package.  All Unix systems come
with some sort of mail delivery agent, typically `sendmail' or `MMDF'.
Source code is available for some alternative mail delivery agents,
such as `IDA sendmail' and `smail'.

   Taylor UUCP also does not include a news package.  The two major Unix
news packages are `C-news' and `INN'.  Both are available in source
code form.

   Configuring and using mail delivery agents is a notoriously complex
topic, and I will not be discussing it here.  Configuring news systems
is usually simpler, but I will not be discussing that either.  I will
merely describe the interactions between the mail and news systems and

   A mail or news system interacts with UUCP in two ways: sending and

* Menu:

* Sending mail or news::        Sending mail or news via UUCP
* Receiving mail or news::      Receiving mail or news via UUCP

File: uucp.info,  Node: Sending mail or news,  Next: Receiving mail or news,  Prev: Mail and News,  Up: Mail and News

Sending mail or news via UUCP

   When mail is to be sent from your machine to another machine via
UUCP, the mail delivery agent will invoke `uux'.  It will generally run
a command such as `uux - SYSTEM!rmail ADDRESS', where SYSTEM is the
remote system to which the mail is being sent.  It may pass other
options to `uux', such as `-r' or `-g' (*note Invoking uux::).

   The news system also invokes `uux' in order to transfer articles to
another system.  The only difference is that news will use `uux' to
invoke `rnews' on the remote system, rather than `rmail'.

   You should arrange for your mail and news systems to invoke the
Taylor UUCP version of `uux'.  If you only have Taylor UUCP, or if you
simply replace any existing version of `uux' with the Taylor UUCP
version, this will probably happen automatically.  However, if you have
two UUCP packages installed on your system, you will probably have to
modify the mail and news configuration files in some way.

   Actually, if both the system UUCP and Taylor UUCP are using the same
spool directory format, the system `uux' will probably work fine with
the Taylor `uucico' (the reverse is not the case: the Taylor `uux'
requires the Taylor `uucico').  However, data transfer will be somewhat
more efficient if the Taylor `uux' is used.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Receiving mail or news,  Prev: Sending mail or news,  Up: Mail and News

Receiving mail or news via UUCP

   To receive mail, all that is necessary is for UUCP to invoke
`rmail'.  Any mail delivery agent will provide an appropriate version
of `rmail'; you must simply make sure that it is in the command path
used by UUCP (it almost certainly already is).  The default command
path is set in `policy.h', and it may be overridden for a particular
system by the `command-path' command (*note Miscellaneous (sys)::).

   Similarly, for news UUCP must be able to invoke `rnews'.  Any news
system will provide a version of `rnews', and you must ensure that is
in a directory on the path that UUCP will search.

File: uucp.info,  Node: The Spool Directory Layout,  Next: Spool Directory Cleaning,  Prev: Mail and News,  Up: Using Taylor UUCP

The Spool Directory Layout

   In general, the layout of the spool directory may be safely ignored.
However, it is documented here for the curious.  This description only
covers the `SPOOLDIR_TAYLOR' layout.  The ways in which the other spool
directory layouts differ are described in the source file

   Directories and files are only created when they are needed, so a
typical system will not have all of the entries described here.

* Menu:

* System Spool Directories::    System Spool Directories
* Status Directory::            Status Spool Directory
* Execution Subdirectories::    Execution Spool Subdirectories
* Other Spool Subdirectories::  Other Spool Subdirectories
* Spool Lock Files::            Spool Directory Lock Files

File: uucp.info,  Node: System Spool Directories,  Next: Status Directory,  Prev: The Spool Directory Layout,  Up: The Spool Directory Layout

System Spool Directories

     There is a subdirectory of the main spool directory for each remote

     This directory stores files describing file transfer commands to
     be sent to the SYSTEM.  Each file name starts with `C.G', where G
     is the job grade.  Each file contains one or more commands.  For
     details of the commands, see *Note UUCP Protocol Commands::.

     This directory stores data files.  Files with names like
     `D.GSSSS', where G is the grade and SSSS is a sequence number, are
     waiting to be transferred to the SYSTEM, as directed by the files
     in the `SYSTEM/C.' directory.  Files with other names, typically
     `D.SYSTEMGSSSS', have been received from SYSTEM and are waiting to
     be processed by an execution file in the `SYSTEM/X.' directory.

     This directory stores data files which will become execution files
     on the remote system.  In current practice, this directory rarely
     exists, because most simple executions, including typical uses of
     `rmail' and `rnews', send an `E' command rather than an execution
     file (*note The E Command::).

     This directory stores execution files which have been received from
     SYSTEM.  This directory normally exists, even though the
     corresponding `D.X' directory does not, because `uucico' will
     create an execution file on the fly when it receives an `E'

     This file holds the sequence number of the last job sent to
     SYSTEM.  The sequence number is used to ensure that file names are
     unique in the remote system spool directory.  The file is four
     bytes long.  Sequence numbers are composed of digits and the upper
     case letters.

File: uucp.info,  Node: Status Directory,  Next: Execution Subdirectories,  Prev: System Spool Directories,  Up: The Spool Directory Layout

Status Directory

     This directory holds status files for each remote system.  The
     name of the status file is the name of the system which it
     describes.  Each status file describes the last conversation with
     the system.  Running `uustat --status' basically just formats and
     prints the contents of the status files (*note uustat Examples::).

     Each status file has a single text line with six fields.

          A code indicating the status of the last conversation.  The
          following values are defined, though not all are actually
               Conversation completed normally.

               `uucico' was unable to open the port.

               The last call to the system failed while dailing.

               The last call to the system failed while logging in.

               The last call to the system failed during the initial
               UUCP protocol handshake (*note The Initial Handshake::).

               The last call to the system failed after the initial

               `uucico' is currently talking to the system.

               The last call to the system failed because it was the
               wrong time to call (this is not used if calling the
               system is never permitted).

          The number of retries since the last successful call.

    time of last call
          The time of the last call, in seconds since the epoch (as
          returned by the `time' system call).

          If the last call failed, this is the number of seconds since
          the last call before `uucico' may attempt another call.  This
          is set based on the retry time; see *Note When to Call::.
          The `-f' or `-S' options to `uucico' direct it to ignore this
          wait time; see *Note Invoking uucico::.

          A text description of the status, corresponding to the code
          in the first field.  This may contain spaces.

    system name
          The name of the remote system.