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<meta name="author" content="Dave Raggett &lt;dsr@w3.org&gt;" />
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<h1 class="c1"><img src="tidy.gif" width="32" height="32"
align="top" alt="icon" /> Clean up your Web pages<br />
 with HTML TIDY</h1>

<p class="c2">This version 4th August 2000</p>

<p class="c3"><small>Copyright &#169; 1998-2000 <a
href="http://www.w3.org/">W3C</a>, see <a
href="tidy.c">tidy.c</a> for copyright notice.</small></p>

<blockquote>With many thanks to <a
href="http://www.hp.com/">Hewlett Packard</a> for financial
support during the development of this software!</blockquote>

<hr width="80%" class="c4" />
<p class="c3"><a href="#help">How to use Tidy</a> | <a
href="#download">Downloading Tidy</a> | <a
href="release-notes.html">Release Notes</a><br />
 <a href="#quotes">Integration with other Software</a> | <a

<hr width="80%" class="c4" />
<p>To get the latest version of Tidy please visit the original
version of this page at: <a
Courtesy of Netmind, you can register for email reminders when
new versions of tidy become available.</p>

<form method="get"
<div class="c5"><input type="submit"
value="Press Here to Register" /></div>

<p>The public email list devoted to HTML Tidy is: &lt;<a
href="mailto:html-tidy@w3.org">html-tidy@w3.org</a>&gt;. To
subscribe send an email to html-tidy-request@w3.org with the word
subscribe in the subject line (include the word unsubscribe if
you want to unsubscribe). The <a
for this list is accessible online. Please use this list to
report errors or enhancement requests. See the <a
href="release-notes.html" class="c6">release notes</a> for
information on recent changes. Your feedback is welcome!</p>

<p>If you find HTML Tidy useful and you would like to say thanks,
then please send me a (paper) postcard or other souvenir from the
area in which you live along with a few words on what you are
using Tidy for. It will be fun to map out where Tidy users are to
be found! My <a href="#address">postal address</a> is given at
the end of this file.</p>

<h3>Tutorials for HTML and CSS</h3>

<p>If you are just starting off and would like to know more about
how to author Web pages, you may find my <a
href="http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/Guide/">guide to HTML and CSS</a>
helpful. Please send me feedback on this, and I will do my best
to further improve it.</p>

<h4>Support for Word2000</h4>

<p>Tidy can now perform wonders on HTML saved from Microsoft Word
2000! Word bulks out HTML files with stuff for round-tripping
presentation between HTML and Word. If you are more concerned
about using HTML on the Web, check out Tidy's "<a
href="#word2000">Word-2000"</a> config option! Of course Tidy
does a good job on Word'97 files as well!</p>

<h3>Introduction to TIDY</h3>

<p>When editing HTML it's easy to make mistakes. Wouldn't it be
nice if there was a simple way to fix these mistakes
automatically and tidy up sloppy editing into nicely layed out
markup? Well now there is! Dave Raggett's HTML TIDY is a free
utility for doing just that. It also works great on the
atrociously hard to read markup generated by specialized HTML
editors and conversion tools, and can help you identify where you
need to pay further attention on making your pages more
accessible to people with disabilities.</p>

<p>Tidy is able to fix up a wide range of problems and to bring
to your attention things that you need to work on yourself. Each
item found is listed with the line number and column so that you
can see where the problem lies in your markup. Tidy won't
generate a cleaned up version when there are problems that it
can't be sure of how to handle. These are logged as "errors"
rather than "warnings".</p>

<p class="c7">Tidy features in a <a
article on XHTML</a> by webreview.com.</p>

<!-- is the final "index.html" needed or appropriate? -->
<h3>Examples of TIDY at work</h3>

<p>Tidy corrects the markup in a way that matches where possible
the observed rendering in popular browsers from Netscape and
Microsoft. Here are just a few examples of how TIDY perfects your
HTML for you:</p>

<li><b>Missing or mismatched end tags are detected and


<p>is mapped to</p>


<li><b>End tags in the wrong order are corrected:</b> 

   &lt;p&gt;here is a para &lt;b&gt;bold &lt;i&gt;bold italic&lt;/b&gt; bold?&lt;/i&gt; normal?

<p>is mapped to</p>

   &lt;p&gt;here is a para &lt;b&gt;bold &lt;i&gt;bold italic&lt;/i&gt; bold?&lt;/b&gt; normal?

<li><b>Fixes problems with heading emphasis</b> 

   &lt;h1&gt;&lt;i&gt;italic heading&lt;/h1&gt;
   &lt;p&gt;new paragraph

<p>In Netscape and Internet Explorer this causes everything
following the heading to be in the heading font size, not the
desired effect at all!</p>

<p>Tidy maps the example to</p>

   &lt;h1&gt;&lt;i&gt;italic heading&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/h1&gt;
   &lt;p&gt;new paragraph

<li><b>Recovers from mixed up tags</b> 

   &lt;p&gt;new paragraph &lt;b&gt;bold text
   &lt;p&gt;some more bold text

<p>Tidy maps this to</p>

   &lt;p&gt;new paragraph &lt;b&gt;bold text&lt;/b&gt;
   &lt;p&gt;&lt;b&gt;some more bold text&lt;/b&gt;

<li><b>Getting the &lt;hr&gt; in the right place:</b> 


<p>Tidy maps this to</p>


<li><b>Adding the missing "/" in end tags for anchors:</b> 

   &lt;a href="#refs"&gt;References&lt;a&gt;

<p>Tidy maps this to</p>

   &lt;a href="#refs"&gt;References&lt;/a&gt;

<li><b>Perfecting lists by putting in tags missed out:</b> 

   &lt;li&gt;1st list item
   &lt;li&gt;2nd list item

<p>is mapped to</p>

   &lt;li&gt;1st list item&lt;/li&gt;
   &lt;li&gt;2nd list item&lt;/li&gt;

<li><b>Missing quotes around attribute values are added</b> 

<p>Tidy inserts quote marks around all attribute values for you.
It can also detect when you have forgotten the closing quote
mark, although this is something you will have to fix

<li><b>Unknown/Proprietary attributes are reported</b> 

<p>Tidy has a comprehensive knowledge of the attributes defined
in the HTML 4.0 recommendation from W3C. This often allows you to
spot where you have mistyped an attribute or value.</p>

<li><b>Proprietary elements are recognized and reported as

<p>Tidy will even work out which version of HTML you are using
and insert the appropriate DOCTYPE element, as per the W3C

<li><b>Tags lacking a terminating '&gt;' are spotted</b> 

<p>This is something you then have to fix yourself as Tidy is
unsure of where the &gt; should be inserted.</p>

<h3>Layout style</h3>

<p>You can choose which style you want Tidy to use when it
generates the cleaned up markup: for instance whether you like
elements to indent their contents or not. Several people have
asked if Tidy could preserve the original layout. I am sorry to
say that this would be very hard to support due to the way Tidy
is implemented. Tidy starts by building a clean parse tree from
the source file. The parse tree doesn't contain any information
about the original layout. Tidy then pretty prints the parse tree
using the current layout options. Trying to preserve the original
layout would interact badly with the repair operations needed to
build a clean parse tree and considerably complicate the

<p>Some browsers can screw up the right alignment of text
depending on how you layout headings. As an example,

&lt;h1 align="right"&gt;

&lt;h1 align="right"&gt;Heading&lt;/h1&gt;

<p>Both of these should be rendered the same. Sadly a common
browser bug fails to trim trailing whitespace and misaligns the
first heading. HTML Tidy will protect you from this bug, except
when you set the indent option to "yes".</p>

<p>Setting the indent option to yes can also cause problems with
table layout for some browsers:</p>

&lt;td&gt;&lt;img src="foo.gif"&gt;&lt;/td&gt;
&lt;td&gt;&lt;img src="foo.gif"&gt;&lt;/td&gt;

<p>will look slightly different from:</p>

  &lt;img src="foo.gif"&gt;
  &lt;img src="foo.gif"&gt;

<p>You can avoid such quirks by using indent:&#160;no or
indent:&#160;auto in the config file.</p>

<h3>Internationalization issues</h3>

<p>Tidy offers you a choice of character encodings: US ASCII, ISO
Latin-1, UTF-8 and the ISO 2022 family of 7 bit encodings. The
full set of HTML 4.0 entities are defined. Cleaned up output uses
HTML entity names for characters when appropriate. Otherwise
characters outside the normal range are output as numeric
character entities. Tidy defaults to assuming you want the output
to be in US ASCII. Tidy doesn't yet recognize the use of the HTML
meta element for specifying the character encoding.</p>


<p>Tidy offers advice on accessibility problems for people using
non-graphical browsers. The most common thing you will see is the
suggestion you add a summary attribute to table elements. The
idea is to provide a summary of the table's role and structure
suitable for use with aural browsers.</p>

<h3>Cleaning up presentational markup</h3>

<p>Many tools generate HTML with an excess of FONT, NOBR and
CENTER tags. Tidy's <em>-clean</em> option will replace them by
style properties and rules using CSS. This makes the markup
easier to read and maintain as well as reducing the file size!
Tidy is expected to get smarter at this in the future.</p>

<p>Some pages rely on the presentation effects of isolated
&lt;p&gt; or &lt;/p&gt; tags.Tidy deletes empty paragraph and
heading elements etc. The use of empty paragraph elements is not
recommended for adding vertical whitespace. Instead use style
sheets, or the &lt;br&gt; element. Tidy won't discard paragraphs
only containing a nonbreaking space &amp;nbsp;</p>

<h3>Teaching Tidy about new tags!</h3>

<p>You can teach Tidy about new tags by declaring them in the
configuration file, the syntax is:</p>

  new-inline-tags: <em>tag1, tag2, tag3</em>
  new-empty-tags: <em>tag1, tag2, tag3</em>
  new-blocklevel-tags: <em>tag1, tag2, tag3</em>
  new-pre-tags: <em>tag1, tag2, tag3</em>

<p>The same tag can be defined as empty and as inline or as empty
and as block.</p>

<p>These declarations can be combined to define an a new empty
inline or empty block element, but you are not advised to declare
tags as being both inline and block!</p>

<p>Note that the new tags can only appear where Tidy expects
inline or block-level tags respectively. This means you can't
(yet) place new tags within the document head or other contexts
with restricted content models. So far the most popular use of
this feature is to allow Tidy to be applied to Cold Fusion

<p class="c7">I am working on ways to make it easy to customize
the permitted document syntax using <a
grammars</a>, and hope to apply this to a much smarter version of
Tidy for release later this year or early next year.</p>

<h3>Limited support for ASP, JSTE and PHP</h3>

<p>Tidy is somewhat aware of the preprocessing language called
ASP which uses a pseudo element syntax &lt;%&#160;...&#160;%&gt;
to include preprocessor directives. ASP is normally interpreted
by the web server before delivery to the browser. JSTE shares the
same syntax, but sometimes also uses &lt;#&#160;...&#160;#&gt;.
Tidy can also cope with another such language called PHP, which
uses the syntax &lt;?php&#160;...&#160;?&gt;</p>

<p>Tidy will cope with ASP, JSTE and PHP pseudo elements within
element content and as replacements for attributes, for

  &lt;option &lt;% if rsSchool.Fields("ID").Value
    = session("sessSchoolID")
    then Response.Write("selected") %&gt;

<p>Note that Tidy doesn't understand the scripting language used
within pseudo elements and attributes, and can easily get
confused. Tidy may report missing attributes when these are
hidden within preprocessor code. Tidy can also get things wrong
if the code includes quote marks, e.g. if the example above is
changed to:</p>


<p>Tidy will now see the quote mark preceding ID as ending the
attribute value, and proceed to complain about what follows. Note
you can choose whether to allow line wrapping on spaces within
pseudo elements or not using the <tt>wrap-asp</tt> option. If you
used ASP, JSTE or PHP to create a start tag, but placed the end
tag explicitly in the markup, Tidy won't be able to match them
up, and will delete the end tag for you. So in this case you are
advise to make the start tag explicit and to use ASP, JSTE or PHP
for just the attributes, e.g.</p>

   &lt;a href="&lt;%=random.site()%&gt;"&gt;do you feel lucky?&lt;/a&gt;

<p>Tidy allows you to control whether line wrapping is enabled
for ASP, JSTE and PHP instructions, see the wrap-asp, wrap-jste
and wrap-php config options, respectively.</p>

<p>I regret that Tidy does <b>not</b> support Tango preprocessing
instructions which look like:</p>

&lt;@if variable_1='a'&gt;
    do something
    do nothing

&lt;@include &lt;@cgi&gt;&lt;@appfilepath&gt;includes/message.html&gt;

<p>Tidy supports another preprocessing syntax called "Tango", but
only for attribute values. Adding support for pseudo elements
written in Tango looks as if it would be quite tough, so I would
like to gauge the level of interest before committing to this

<h3>Limited support for XML</h3>

<p>XML processors compliant with W3C's XML 1.0 recommendation are
very picky about which files they will accept. Tidy can help you
to fix errors that cause your XML files to be rejected. Tidy
doesn't yet recognize all XML features though, e.g. it doesn't
understand CDATA sections or DTD subsets.</p>

<h3>Creating Slides</h3>

<p>The <em>-slides</em> option allows you to burst a single HTML
file into a number of linked slides. Each H2 element in the input
file is treated as delimiting the start of the next slide. The
slides are named slide1.html, slide2.html, slide3.html etc. This
is a relatively new feature and ideas are welcomed as to how to
improve it. In particular, I plan to add support to the
configuration file for setting the style sheet for slides and for
customizing the slides via a template.</p>

<p>I would be interested in hearing from anyone who can offer
help with using JavaScript for adding dynamic effects to slides,
for instance similar to those available in Microsoft

<h3>Indenting text for a better layout</h3>

<p>Indenting the content of elements makes the markup easier to
read. Tidy can do this for all elements or just for those where
it's needed. The auto-indent mode has been used below to avoid
indenting the content of title, p and li elements:</p>

    &lt;title&gt;Test document&lt;/title&gt;

    &lt;p&gt;para which has enough text to cause a line break,
    and so test the wrapping mechanism for long lines.&lt;/p&gt;
This is

      &lt;li&gt;1st list item&lt;/li&gt;

      &lt;li&gt;2nd list item&lt;/li&gt;
    &lt;!-- end comment --&gt;

<p>Indenting the content does increase the size of the file, so
you may prefer Tidy's default style:</p>

 &lt;title&gt;Test document&lt;/title&gt;
 &lt;p&gt;para which has enough text to cause a line break,
 and so test the wrapping mechanism for long lines.&lt;/p&gt;
 &lt;pre&gt;This is
 &lt;li&gt;1st list item &lt;/li&gt;
 &lt;li&gt;2nd list item&lt;/li&gt;
 &lt;!-- end comment --&gt;

<h3><a id="help" name="help">How to run tidy</a></h3>

   <span class="c8">tidy</span> <em>[[options] filename]*</em>

<p>HTML tidy is not (yet) a Windows program. If you run tidy
without any arguments, it will just sit there waiting to read
markup on the stdin stream. Tidy's input and output default to
stdin and stdout respectively. Errors are written to stderr but
can be redirected to a file with the -f <em>filename</em>

<p>I generally use the -m option to get tidy to update the
original file, and if the file is particularly bad I also use the
-f option to write the errors to a file to make it easier to
review them. Tidy supports a small set of character encoding
options. The default is ASCII, which makes it easy to edit markup
in regular text editors.</p>

<p>For instance:</p>

   tidy -f errs.txt -m index.html

<p>which runs tidy on the file "index.html" updating it in place
and writing the error messages to the file "errs.txt". Its a good
idea to save your work before tidying it, as with all complex
software, tidy may have bugs. If you find any please let me

<p>Thanks to Jacek Niedziela, The Win32 executable for tidy is
now able to example wild cards in filenames. This utilizes the
setargv library supplied with VC++.</p>

<p>Tidy writes errors to stderr, and won't be paused by the more
command. A work around is to redirect stderr to stdout as
follows. This works on Unix and Windows NT, but not on other
platforms. My thanks to Markus Wolf for this tip!</p>

   tidy file.html 2&gt;&amp;1 | more

<h4>Tidy's Options</h4>

<p>To get a list of available options use:</p>

   tidy -help

<p>You may want to run it through more to view the help a page at
a time.</p>

   tidy -help | more

<p>Input and Output default to stdin/stdout respectively. Single
letter options apart from -f may be combined as in: tidy -f
errs.txt -imu foo.html</p>

<p>Matej Vela &lt;<a
href="mailto:vela@debian.org">vela@debian.org</a>&gt; has written
a <a href="man_page.txt">Unix man page for Tidy</a>, but for the
latest details on config options and for the release notes please
visit this page: <a

<h3><a id="config" name="config">Using a Configuration

<p>Tidy now supports a configuration file, and this is now much
the most convenient way to configure Tidy. Assuming you have
created a config file named "config.txt" (the name doesn't
matter), you can instruct Tidy to use it via the command line
option <tt>-config config.txt</tt>, e.g.</p>

   tidy -config config.txt file1.html file2.html

<p>Alternatively, you can name the default config file via the
environment variable named "HTML_TIDY". Note this should be the
absolute path since you are likely to want to run Tidy in
different directories. You can also set a config file at compile
time by defining CONFIG_FILE as the path string, see

<p>You can now set config options on the command line by
preceding the name of the option immediately (no intervening
space) by "--", for example:</p>

  tidy --break-before-br true --show-warnings false

<p>The following options are supported:</p>

<dt>tidy-mark: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em> (the default) Tidy will add a meta
element to the document head to indicate that the document has
been tidied. To suppress this, set tidy-mark to <em>no</em>. Tidy
won't add a meta element if one is already present.</dd>

<dt>markup: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>Determines whether Tidy generates a pretty printed version of
the markup. Bool values are either <em>yes</em> or <em>no</em>.
Note that Tidy won't generate a pretty printed version if it
finds unknown tags, or missing trailing quotes on attribute
values, or missing trailing '&gt;' on tags. The default is

<dt>wrap: <em>number</em></dt>

<dd>Sets the right margin for line wrapping. Tidy tries to wrap
lines so that they do not exceed this length. The default is 66.
Set wrap to zero if you want to disable line wrapping.</dd>

<dt>wrap-attributes: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, attribute values may be wrapped
across lines for easier editing. The default is no. This option
can be set independently of wrap-scriptlets</dd>

<dt>wrap-script-literals: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, this allows lines to be wrapped
within string literals that appear in script attributes. The
default is <em>no</em>. The example shows how Tidy wraps a really
really long script string literal inserting a backslash character
before the linebreak: 

&lt;a href="somewhere.html" onmouseover="document.status = '...some \
really, really, really, really, really, really, really, really, \
really, really long string..';"&gt;test&lt;/a&gt;

<dt>wrap-asp: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>no</em>, this prevents lines from being wrapped
within ASP pseudo elements, which look like:
&lt;%&#160;...&#160;%&gt;. The default is <em>yes</em>.</dd>

<dt>wrap-jste: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>no</em>, this prevents lines from being wrapped
within JSTE pseudo elements, which look like:
&lt;#&#160;...&#160;#&gt;. The default is <em>yes</em>.</dd>

<dt>wrap-php: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>no</em>, this prevents lines from being wrapped
within PHP pseudo elements. The default is <em>yes</em>.</dd>

<dt>literal-attributes: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, this ensures that whitespace
characters within attribute values are passed through unchanged.
The default is <em>no</em>.</dd>

<dt>tab-size: <em>number</em></dt>

<dd>Sets the number of columns between successive tab stops. The
default is 4. It is used to map tabs to spaces when reading
files. Tidy never outputs files with tabs.</dd>

<dt>indent: <em>no, yes</em> or <em>auto</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, Tidy will indent block-level tags.
The default is <em>no</em>. If set to <em>auto</em> Tidy will
decide whether or not to indent the content of tags such as
title, h1-h6, li, td, th, or p depending on whether or not the
content includes a block-level element. You are advised to avoid
setting indent to yes as this can expose layout bugs in some

<dt>indent-spaces: <em>number</em></dt>

<dd>Sets the number of spaces to indent content when indentation
is enabled. The default is 2 spaces.</dd>

<dt>indent-attributes: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, each attribute will begin on a new
line. The default is <em>no</em>.</dd>

<dt>hide-endtags: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, optional end-tags will be omitted
when generating the pretty printed markup. This option is ignored
if you are outputting to XML. The default is <em>no</em>.</dd>

<dt>input-xml: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, Tidy will use the XML parser rather
than the error correcting HTML parser. The default is

<dt>output-xml: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, Tidy will use generate the pretty
printed output writing it as well-formed XML. Any entities not
defined in XML 1.0 will be written as numeric entities to allow
them to be parsed by an XML parser. The tags and attributes will
be in the case used in the input document, regardless of other
options. The default is <em>no</em>.</dd>

<dt>add-xml-pi: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dt>add-xml-decl: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, Tidy will add the XML declatation
when outputting XML or XHTML. The default is <em>no</em>. Note
that if the input document includes an &lt;?xml?&gt; declaration
then it will appear in the output independent of the value of
this option.</dd>

<dt>output-xhtml: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, Tidy will generate the pretty printed
output writing it as extensible HTML. The default is <em>no</em>.
This option causes Tidy to set the doctype and default namespace
as appropriate to XHTML. If a doctype or namespace is given they
will checked for consistency with the content of the document. In
the case of an inconsistency, the corrected values will appear in
the output. For XHTML, entities can be written as named or
numeric entities according to the value of the "numeric-entities"
property. The tags and attributes will be output in the case used
in the input document, regardless of other options.</dd>

<dt>doctype: <em>omit, auto, strict, loose</em> or

<dd>This property controls the doctype declaration generated by
Tidy. If set to <em>omit</em> the output file won't contain a
doctype declaration. If set to <em>auto</em> (the default) Tidy
will use an educated guess based upon the contents of the
document. If set to <em>strict</em>, Tidy will set the doctype to
the strict DTD. If set to <em>loose</em>, the doctype is set to
the loose (transitional) DTD. Alternatively, you can supply a
string for the formal public identifier (fpi) for example:</dd>

    doctype: "-//ACME//DTD HTML 3.14159//EN"

<dd>If you specify the fpi for an XHTML document, Tidy will set
the system identifier to the empty string. Tidy leaves the
document type for generic XML documents unchanged.</dd>

<dt>char-encoding: <em>raw, ascii, latin1, utf8</em> or

<dd>Determines how Tidy interprets character streams. For
<em>ascii</em>, Tidy will accept Latin-1 character values, but
will use entities for all characters whose value &gt; 127. For
<em>raw</em>, Tidy will output values above 127 without
translating them into entities. For <em>latin1</em> characters
above 255 will be written as entities. For <em>utf8</em>, Tidy
assumes that both input and output is encoded as UTF-8. You can
use <em>iso2022</em> for files encoded using the ISO2022 family
of encodings e.g. ISO 2022-JP. The default is

<dt>numeric-entities: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>Causes entities other than the basic XML 1.0 named entities
to be written in the numeric rather than the named entity form.
The default is <em>no</em></dd>

<dt>quote-marks: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, this causes " characters to be
written out as &amp;quot; as is preferred by some editing
environments. The apostrophe character ' is written out as
&amp;#39; since many web browsers don't yet support &amp;apos;.
The default is <em>no</em>.</dd>

<dt>quote-nbsp: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, this causes non-breaking space
characters to be written out as entities, rather than as the
Unicode character value 160 (decimal). The default is

<dt>quote-ampersand: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, this causes unadorned &amp;
characters to be written out as &amp;amp;. The default is

<dt>assume-xml-procins: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, this changes the parsing of
processing instructions to require ?&gt; as the terminator rather
than &gt;. The default is <em>no</em>. This option is
automatically set if the input is in XML.</dd>

<dt>fix-backslash: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, this causes backslash characters "\"
in URLs to be replaced by forward slashes "/". The default is

<dt>break-before-br: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, Tidy will output a line break before
each &lt;br&gt; element. The default is <em>no</em>.</dd>

<dt>uppercase-tags: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>Causes tag names to be output in upper case. The default is
<em>no</em> resulting in lowercase, except for XML input where
the original case is preserved.</dd>

<dt>uppercase-attributes: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em> attribute names are output in upper
case. The default is <em>no</em> resulting in lowercase, except
for XML where the original case is preserved.</dd>

<dt><a id="word2000" name="word2000">word-2000:

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, Tidy will go to great pains to strip
out all the surplus stuff Microsoft Word 2000 inserts when you
save Word documents as "Web pages". The default is <em>no</em>.
Note that Tidy doesn't yet know what to do with VML markup from
Word, but in future I hope to be able to map VML to SVG.<br />
<br />
 Microsoft has developed its own optional filter for exporting to
HTML, and the 2.0 version is much improved. You can download the
filter free from the <a
Microsoft Office Update site</a>.</dd>

<dt>clean: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, causes Tidy to strip out surplus
presentational tags and attributes replacing them by style rules
and structural markup as appropriate. It works well on the html
saved from Microsoft Office'97. The default is <em>no</em>.</dd>

<dt>logical-emphasis: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, causes Tidy to replace any occurrence
of i by em and any occurrence of b by strong. In both cases, the
attributes are preserved unchanged. The default is <em>no</em>.
This option can now be set independently of the clean and
drop-font-tags options.</dd>

<dt>drop-empty-paras: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, empty paragraphs will be discarded.
If set to no, empty paragraphs are replaced by a pair of
<code>br</code> elements as HTML4 precludes empty paragraphs. The
default is <em>yes</em>.</dd>

<dt>drop-font-tags: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em> together with the clean option (see
above), Tidy will discard font and center tags rather than
creating the corresponding style rules. The default is

<dt>enclose-text: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, this causes Tidy to enclose any text
it finds in the body element within a p element. This is useful
when you want to take an existing html file and use it with a
style sheet. Any text at the body level will screw up the
margins, but wrap the text within a p element and all is well!
The default is <em>no</em>.</dd>

<dt>enclose-block-text: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, this causes Tidy to insert a p
element to enclose any text it finds in any element that allows
mixed content for HTML transitional but not HTML strict. The
default is <em>no</em>.</dd>

<dt>fix-bad-comments: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, this causes Tidy to replace
unexpected hyphens with "=" characters when it comes across
adjacent hyphens. The default is <em>yes</em>. This option is
provided for users of Cold Fusion which uses the comment syntax:

<dt>add-xml-space: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, this causes Tidy to add
xml:space="preserve" to elements such as pre, style and script
when generating XML. This is needed if the whitespace in such
elements is to be parsed appropriately without having access to
the DTD. The default is <em>no</em>.</dd>

<dt>alt-text: <em>string</em></dt>

<dd>This allows you to set the default alt text for img
attributes. This feature is dangerous as it suppresses further
accessibility warnings. <b>YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR MAKING YOUR

<dt>write-back: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, Tidy will write back the tidied
markup to the same file it read from. The default is <em>no</em>.
You are advised to keep copies of important files before tidying
them as on rare occasions the result may not always be what you

<dt>keep-time: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, Tidy won't alter the last modified
time for files it writes back to. The default is <em>yes</em>.
This allows you to tidy files without effecting which ones will
be uploaded to the Web server when using a tool such as
'SiteCopy'. Note that this feature may not work on some

<dt>error-file: <em>filename</em></dt>

<dd>Writes errors and warnings to the named file rather than to

<dt>show-warnings: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>no</em>, warnings are suppressed. This can be
useful when a few errors are hidden in a flurry of warnings. The
default is <em>yes</em>.</dd>

<dt>quiet: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, Tidy won't output the welcome message
or the summary of the numbers of errors and warnings. The default
is <em>no</em>.</dd>

<dt>gnu-emacs: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em>, Tidy changes the format for reporting
errors and warnings to a format that is more easily parsed by GNU
Emacs. The default is <em>no</em>.</dd>

<dt>split: <em>bool</em></dt>

<dd>If set to <em>yes</em> Tidy will use the input file to create
a sequence of slides, splitting the markup prior to each
successive &lt;h2&gt;. You can see an example of the results in a
talk I made on XHTML</a>. The slides are written to
"slide1.html", "slide2.html" etc. The default is

<dt>new-empty-tags: <em>tag1, tag2, tag3</em></dt>

<dd>Use this to declare new empty inline tags. The option takes a
space or comma separated list of tag names. Unless you declare
new tags, Tidy will refuse to generate a tidied file if the input
includes previously unknown tags. Remember to also declare empty
tags as either inline or blocklevel, see below.</dd>

<dt>new-inline-tags: <em>tag1, tag2, tag3</em></dt>

<dd>Use this to declare new non-empty inline tags. The option
takes a space or comma separated list of tag names. Unless you
declare new tags, Tidy will refuse to generate a tidied file if
the input includes previously unknown tags.</dd>

<dt>new-blocklevel-tags: <em>tag1, tag2, tag3</em></dt>

<dd>Use this to declare new block-level tags. The option takes a
space or comma separated list of tag names. Unless you declare
new tags, Tidy will refuse to generate a tidied file if the input
includes previously unknown tags. Note you can't change the
content model for elements such as table, ul, ol and dl. This is
explained in more detail in the <a
href="release-notes.html">release notes</a>.</dd>

<dt>new-pre-tags: <em>tag1, tag2, tag3</em></dt>

<dd>Use this to declare new tags that are to be processed in
exactly the same way as HTML's pre element. The option takes a
space or comma separated list of tag names. Unless you declare
new tags, Tidy will refuse to generate a tidied file if the input
includes previously unknown tags. Note you can't as yet add new
CDATA elements (similar to script).</dd>

<h4>Sample Config File</h4>

<p>This is just an example to get you started.</p>

// sample config file for HTML tidy
indent: auto
indent-spaces: 2
wrap: 72
markup: yes
output-xml: no
input-xml: no
show-warnings: yes
numeric-entities: yes
quote-marks: yes
quote-nbsp: yes
quote-ampersand: no
break-before-br: no
uppercase-tags: no
uppercase-attributes: no
char-encoding: latin1
new-inline-tags: cfif, cfelse, math, mroot, 
  mrow, mi, mn, mo, msqrt, mfrac, msubsup, munderover,
  munder, mover, mmultiscripts, msup, msub, mtext,
  mprescripts, mtable, mtr, mtd, mth
new-blocklevel-tags: cfoutput, cfquery
new-empty-tags: cfelse

<h3><a id="scripts" name="scripts">Using Tidy from

<p>If you want to run Tidy from a Perl or other scripting
language you may find it of value to inspect the result returned
by Tidy when it exits: 0 if everything is fine, 1 if there were
warnings and 2 if there were errors. This is an example using

if (close(TIDY) == 0) {
  my $exitcode = $? &gt;&gt; 8;
  if ($exitcode == 1) {
    printf STDERR "tidy issued warning messages\n";
  } elsif ($exitcode == 2) {
    printf STDERR "tidy issued error messages\n";
  } else {
    die "tidy exited with code: $exitcode\n";
} else {
  printf STDERR "tidy detected no errors\n";

<h3><a id="download" name="download">Downloadable

<p class="note">If you are prepared to maintain a public URL for
HTML Tidy compiled for a specific platform, please let me know so
that I can add a link to your page. This will avoid the need for
me to update this page whenever you recompile.</p>

<div class="platforms">
<h4>Windows 95/98/NT/2000</h4>

Windows 95/98/NT/2000 executable (32-bit Windows console-mode
program). This is the executable that I maintain as part of the
HTML Tidy distribution. The command line parameters are described
above, along with the extensive configuration file options.</p>

href="http://www.chami.com/free/html-kit/">HTML-Kit</a></b> - a
free HTML editor for Windows 95/98/NT/2000 with integrated
support for Tidy.</p>

Windows front end for running Tidy, written by Andr&#233;
Blavier. Andr&#233; has also written a <b><a
href="http://perso.wanadoo.fr/ablavier/TidyCOM/">Windows COM
wrapper</a></b> for Tidy. He describes how to use this from
Visual Basic.</p>

<p><b><a href="http://www.evrsoft.com/">Evrsoft's 1st Page
2000</a></b> - a free HTML editor for Windows 95/98/NT/2000 with
integrated support for Tidy. 1st Page 2000 is a high-end
authoring tool that makes it easy to add effects based upon

<p><b><a href="http://www.notetab.com/">NoteTab</a></b> - an
award winning text and html editor for Windows with built-in
support for running HTML Tidy. NoteTab is written by Eric

<h4>Mac OS</h4>

Several versions of <a
Tidy for Mac OS</a> are available, including a standalone
Macintosh application with a graphical user interface, a BBEdit
plugin, a MPW tool, or as a FilterTop filter ( <a
Screenshot</a>). My thanks to <a
href="mailto:teague@mailandnews.com">Terry Teague</a> for this
port.<br />
<br />


<p>Arnaud Bercegeay's site for the <a
href="http://tidy.atari.org">Atari binary for Tidy</a>.</p>


<p>Keith Blakemore-Noble maintains a page for <a
on Amiga</a>.</p>


<p>Peter Enzerink is maintaining <a
Tidy</a> for BeOS. Link points to download for HTML Tidy as well
as HTML Tidy editor addons for BeOS.</p>


<p>Ciaran Deignan maintains an <a
binary for Tidy</a>. The link is to a general download page. The
executable is available for AIX 4.3.2 and later.</p>


<p>Dimitri Papadopoulos maintains a <a
href="http://perso.club-internet.fr/dpo/rpm/">Tidy RPM package
for Redhat Linux</a> You may also be able to find Tidy on other
Linux distribution sites, e.g. <a

<!-- no longer accessible :-( 
      <p><b><a href= 
      Linux users</a></b>! ochen M. Braun is maintaining Tidy binary
      for Linux (ELF 32-bit LSB executable using '<tt>libc.so.5</tt>'
      for Intel&#160;80386): '<a href= 
      '. Additionally a man page can be downloaded: <a href= 

<p>Simon Trimmer &lt;<a
href="mailto:simon@ocston.org">simon@ocston.org</a>&gt; maintains
a <a href="http://www.ocston.org/~simon/tidy/">Tidy binary for


<p>You can get precompiled versions of Tidy for HPUX, from <a
Olaf Hopp</a>, and from <a


<p>Nick B. maintains <a
href="http://members.xoom.com/nickbeee/tidy386/">Tidy386 for
DOS</a>. This exploits the DPMI mechanism for the memory


<p>Stephen Fuqua maintains a page for <a
href="http://www.hep.utexas.edu/~sfuqua/unix">Tidy on


<p>Kaz SHiMZ &lt;<a
href="mailto:kshimz@sfc.co.jp">kshimz@sfc.co.jp</a>&gt; maintains
an <a
binary for Tidy</a>.</p>


<p>Martin Fouts maintains <a
href="http://www.fogey.com/fouts/tidy.htm">Tidy on

<h4>RISC OS</h4>

<p><a href="mailto:archifishal@altavista.net">Alex Macfarlane
Smith</a> maintains a <a
of Tidy to the RISC OS</a>.</p>

<h4>MiNT (Atari) OS</h4>

<p><a href="mailto:eaiching@t0.or.at)">Edgar Aichinger</a>
maintains a <a
port of Tidy to the MiNT OS</a>. MiNT is a UNIX for m68k Atari
computers and is nearly FHS compliant (we don't use bootable OS
images nor have any mounting capabilities, so neither /boot nor
/mnt are used). The binary also runs on ordinary TOS, since the
MiNT libraries cover all GEMDOS/GEM functions.</p>

<h3><a id="quotes" name="quotes">Integrating Tidy as part of
other Software</a></h3>

<p>You can also incorporate Tidy as part of a larger program, for
instance in HTML editors or HTML transformation tools used for
import filters, or for when you want to customize Web content to
get the best out of different kinds of browsers. Imagine
authoring clean HTML with CSS and at a touch of a button
producing variants that look great and work reliably on a large
variety of different browsers, taking into account the quirks of
each. For instance, providing the ability to tune content for
different versions of Netscape and Internet Explorer, and for
browsers running on set-top boxes for televisions, handheld and
palmtop devices, cell phones, and voice browsers. I am happy to
quote for software development for such tools.</p>

<p>Sebastian Lange has contributed a perl wrapper for calling
Tidy from your perl scripts, see <a

<h4>Using Tidy from emacs</h4>

<p>Pete Gelbman emailed this <a
tip</a> for using Tidy with the Unix version of emacs. lets you
highlight a region of text and run Tidy on it. Tidy's "fixed"
output will replace your highlighted region right in place. The
error/warnings output will be directed into a separate
mini-buffer below in your main screen.</p>

<h3><a id="java" name="java">Java port of HTML Tidy</a></h3>

<p>Andy Quick &lt;<a
maintains a Java port of Tidy, so you can now integrate Tidy into
your Java applications. Andy is tracking the releases of Tidy in
C (this page). More information is available on <a
href="http://www3.sympatico.ca/ac.quick/">Andy's home

<h3><a id="implementation" name="implementation">Source

<p>The code is in ANSI C and uses the C standard library for i/o.
The parser works top down, building a complete parse tree in
memory. Document text is held as Unicode represented as UTF-8 in
a character buffer that expands as needed. The code has so far
been tested on Windows'95, Windows'98, Windows NT, Windows 2000,
Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, Ultrix, OSF, OS/MP, IRIX, NeXtStep,
MacOS, BeOS, OS/2, AIX, Amiga, Atari, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX and
HP-UX, amongst others.</p>

<p>Here is a link to the Open Source <a href="tidy.c">copyright
notice and license</a>.</p>

<dt><a href="../tidy4aug00.tgz">tidy4aug00.tgz</a></dt>

<dd>gzipped tar file for source code (Unix line ends)</dd>

<dt><a href="../tidy4aug00.zip">tidy4aug00.zip</a></dt>

<dd>zipped source code (Windows line ends)</dd>

<dt><a href="platform.h">platform.h</a>, <a

<dd>the include files with common definitions</dd>

<dt><a href="config.c">config.c</a></dt>

<dd>support for customizing Tidy via config files</dd>

<dt><a href="lexer.c">lexer.c</a></dt>

<dd>lexical analysis and buffer management</dd>

<dt><a href="parser.c">parser.c</a></dt>

<dd>HTML and XML parsers</dd>

<dt><a href="tags.c">tags.c</a></dt>

<dd>dictionary of tags and their properties</dd>

<dt><a href="attrs.c">attrs.c</a></dt>

<dd>dictionary of attributes and their properties</dd>

<dt><a href="istack.c">istack.c</a></dt>

<dd>stack of active inline elements</dd>

<dt><a href="entities.c">entities.c</a></dt>

<dd>dictionary of entities</dd>

<dt><a href="clean.c">clean.c</a></dt>

<dd>smarts for cleaning up presentational markup</dd>

<dt><a href="pprint.c">pprint.c</a></dt>

<dd>pretty printing for HTML and XML</dd>

<dt><a href="localize.c">localize.c</a></dt>

<dd>Change this file to localize tidy's messages</dd>

<dt><a href="tidy.c">tidy.c</a></dt>

<dd>main() and error reporting routines</dd>

<dt><a href="Makefile">Makefile</a></dt>

<dd>Makefile for gcc</dd>

<dt><a href="man_page.txt">Unix Man page</a></dt>

<dd>Maintained by Matej Vela &lt;vela@debian.org&gt;</dd>

<p>Conventions for whether lines end with CRLF, LF or CR vary
from one system to another. I have included the C source for a
utility <b>tab2space</b> which can be used to ensure that files
use the line end convention of your choice, and to expand tabs to

   tab2space -t4 -unix *.h *.c
   tab2space -tabs -unix Makefile

<p>Note use of "-tabs" to ensure that tabs are preserved in the
Makefile (it won't work without them!).</p>

<p>For those of you on Unix, here is a script you can use to
strip carriage returns:</p>

echo Stripping Carriage Returns from files...
for i
        # If a writable file
        if [ -f $i ]
                if [ -w $i ]
                        echo $i
                        # strip CRs from input and output to temp file
                        tr -d '\015' &lt; $i &gt; toix.tmp
                        mv toix.tmp $i
                        echo $i: write-protected
                echo $i: not a file

<p>Save this script to a file, e.g. "<em>scripcr</em>" and use
"<em>chmod +x stripcr</em>" to make it executable. You can then
run it as "<em>stripcr *.c *.h Overview.html Makefile</em>"</p>

<h2><a id="acks" name="acks">Acknowledgements</a></h2>

<p>I would like to thank the many people who have written to me
with suggestions for improvements or reporting bugs. Your help
has been invaluable.</p>

<blockquote class="people">Jonathan Adair, Drew Adams, Osma
Ahvenlampi, Carsten Allefeld, Richard Allsebrook, Jacob Sparre
Andersen, Joe D'Andrea, Jerry Andrews, Bruce Aron, Takuya Asada,
Edward Avis, Carlos Piqueres Ayela, Nick B, Chang Hyun Baek, Nick
B, Denis Barbier, Chuck Baslock, Christer Bernerus, David J.
Biesack, John Bigby, Yu Jian Bin, Alexander Biron, Keith
Blakemore-Noble, Eric Blossom, Berend de Boer, Ochen M. Braun,
Dave Bryan, David Brooke, Andy Brown, Keith B. Brown, Andreas
Buchholz, Maurice Buxton, Jelks Cabaniss, John Cappelletti,
Trevor Carden, Terry Cassidy, Mathew Cepl, Kendall Clark, Rob
Clark, Jeremy Clulow, Dan Connolly, Larry Cousin, Ken Cox, Luis
M. Cruz, John Cumming, Ian Davey, Keith Davies, Ciaran Deignan,
David Duffy, Emma Duke-Williams, Tamminen Eero, Bodo Eing, Peter
Enzerink, Baruch Even, David Fallon, Claus Andr&#233;
F&#228;rber, Stephanie Foott, Darren Forcier, Martin Fouts,
Frederik Fouvry, Rene Fritz, Stephen Fuqua, Martin Gallwey, Pete
Gelbman, Francisco Guardiola, David Getchell, Michael Giroux,
Davor Golek, Guus Goos, L&#233;a Gris, Rainer Gutsche, Kai
Hackemesser, Juha H&#228;iki&#246;, David Halliday,
Johann-Christian Hanke, Vlad Harchev, Shane Harrelson, Andre
Hinrichs, Bjoern Hoehrmann, G. Ken Holman, Bill Homer, Olaf Hopp,
Craig Horman, Jack Horsfield, Nigel Horspool, Pao-Hsi Huang,
Stuart Hungerford, Marc Jauvin, Rick Jelliffe, Peter Jeremy,
Craig Johnson, Charles LaFountain, Steven Lobo, Zdenek Kabelac,
Michael Kay, Jeffery Kendall, Axel Kielhorn, Konstantinos
Kleisouris, Johannes Koch, Daniel Kohn, Rudy Kohut, Allan
Kuchinsky, Volker Kuhlmann, Michael LaStella, Johnny Lee, Steve
Lee, Tony Leneis, Nick Leverton, Todd Lewis, Dietmar Lippold,
Gert-Jan C. Lokhorst, Murray Longmore, John Love-Jensen,
Satwinder Mangat, Carole Mah, Anton Marsden, Bede McCall, Shane
McCarron, Thomas McGuigan, Ian McKellar, Al Medeiros, Chris
Nappin, Ann Navarro, Jacek Niedziela, Morten Blinksbjerg Nielsen,
Kenichi Numata, Allan Odgaard, Matt Oshry, Gerald Oskoboiny, Paul
Ossenbruggen, Ernst Paalvast, Christian Pantel, Dimitri
Papadopoulos, Rick Parsons, Steven Pemberton, Daniel Persson, Lee
Anne Phillips, Xavier Plantefeve, Karl Prinz, Andy Quick, Jany
Quintard, Julian Reschke, Stephen Reynolds, Thomas Ribbrock, Ross
L. Richardson, Philip Riebold, Erik Rossen, Dan Rudman, Peter
Ruevski, Christian Ruetgers, Klaus Johannes Rusch, John Russell,
Eric Schindler, J. Schlauch, Christian Sch&#252;ler, Klaus
Alexander Seistrup, Jim Seymour, Kazuyoshi Shimizu, Geoff
Sinclair, Jo Smith, Paul Smith, Steve Spilker, Rafi Stern,
Jacques Steyn, Michael J. Suzio, Zac Thompson, Eric Thorbjornsen,
Oren Tirosh, John Tobler, Omri Traub, Lo&#239;c Tr&#233;gan,
Jason Tribbeck, Simon Trimmer, Steffen Ullrich, Stuart Updegrave,
Charles A. Upsdell, Jussi Vestman, Larry W. Virden, Daniel
Vogelheim, Nigel Wadsworth, Jez Wain, Randy Waki, Paul Ward, Neil
Weber, Bertilo Wennergren, Yudong Yang, Jeff Young, Edward Zalta,
Johannes Zellner, Christian Zuckschwerdt</blockquote>

<h3><a id="address" name="address">Dave's Address</a></h3>

    73b Ground Corner
    BA14 6RT
    United Kingdom

<p><small><a href="http://www.w3.org/People/Raggett">Dave
Raggett</a> &lt;<a href="mailto:dsr@w3.org">dsr@w3.org</a>&gt; is
an engineer from <a href="http://www.hp.com/">Hewlett
Packard</a>'s <a href="http://www.hpl.hp.co.uk">UK
Laboratories</a>, and works on assignment to the World Wide Web
Consortium, where he is the W3C lead for HTML, XForms and Voice
Browsers and Math.</small></p>