CHANGES   [plain text]

CHANGES since sudo 1.2

01) sudo now works under hpux, aix, sunos, bsd43, ultrix, linux, osf and irix.

02) Files w/o the executable bit will be ignored if they are in your PATH.

03) If execv() fails, perror is called (which prints out an error based on
	errno) and sudo exits with -1.

04) Included in this shar should also be a version of getpass() derived from
	the bsd net-2 source which works on bsd, ultrix, hpux, aix, and irix
	at least.  The latter three unixes have what i consider to be a broken
	getpass() in that if /dev/tty can't be opened it doesn't just use stdin
	like bsd getpass().  This means you cannot do: rsh host "sudo command"
	and have it work if your ticket has expired.

05) The Makefile has changed significantly.  It now has defines for all
	supported architectures.

06) Changed MAXCOMMANDLENGTH from 48 bytes to MAXPATHLEN and included
	sys/param.h where appropriate.

07) Rewrote the code that expands links & paths.  It now works correctly.
	(rewrote find_path.c)

08) Added a define NEED_STRDUP so we don't conflict with the system's strdup(3)

09) Now does *not* pass LD_* environmental vars on to programs that get
	exec'd.  Also removes SHLIB_PATH for hpux and _RLD_* for dec osf.

10) Now searches current dir last if '.' or '' are in PATH.  Misses braindeath
    like './' but if that's in your path you deserve all the trojans you get.

11) Added in linux patches from drew + flex support.

12) Added insults back in from original sudo(8) (define USE_INSULTS).

13) visudo now uses EDITOR envar (from

14) you can now specify a dir containing commands that a sudoer can do.

15) Ported to Solaris 2.x (based on a port of sudo 1.1 done by UnixOps).

16) Took out setuid(0); setruid(uid); pairs that bracketed calls to
    update_timestamp() since they are unnecessary and setruid() is
    broken on systems without a setreuid(2) or setresuid(2) system call.
    (Ie: AIX and Solaris 2.x).

17) The bulk of sudo now runs with the caller's real uid.  Grep for
    be_root() to find the exceptions.

CHANGES from sudo 1.3

18) Added SECURE_PATH as suggested by

19) Reworked clean_envp() to modify environ (not envp) so we can use
    execvp() safely.

20) Now use execvp() instead of execve() so sudo /bin/kill works under
    broken solaris.  This also fixed sudo /etc/fastboot under stock
    4.3 BSD.  Basically, this means that any executable shell script that
    lacks a '#!/bin/sh' magic number will now work with sudo.  Personally
    I think that the broken scripts should be fixed rather than changing
    sudo, but vendors will be broken.  Sigh.

21) Added USE_EXECV define so you can make sudo use execv() if you
    want.  Using execvp() shouldn't be a problem since it is always
    handed a non-relative path that begins with '/' but some people
    may not trust execvp().

22) Log file lines will no longer get truncated.  Syslog entries that
    would overrun the syslog(3) line limit are continued on another entry.

23) When logging to a log file, long entries are indented to improve

24) Whenever the umask is changed, it is changed back to what it was

25) Log file is written as mode 600 instead of 644

26) Umask that sudo runs with may now be specified.

27) There is now a "configure" script.

28) Sudo will use ultra fast crypt (ufc) if it finds it for systems w/o
    a real crypt(3) (non-US ConvexOS/Secure for instance).

29) _BSD_COMPAT is now defined for Irix.

30) The global variable uid is now initialized to -2 because I'm paranoid.

31) Native Solaris 2 port from

32) Now use sysconf(2) instead of getdtablesize(2) if it is available
    (see change #31).  Because of the the getdtablesize() emulation for
    hpux is no longer necessary.

33) Now only do a getcwd(3) or getwd(3) once and do it as the real user.
    Sudo should no longer complain that it can't get the cwd unless
    there is a real problem.

34) Changed some malloc'd globals of fixed length to be allocated from
    the stack instead as there was no win in allocating them from the

35) Fixed AIX STATIC_FLAGS as per the AIX faq.

36) Added -V flag to sudo and visudo (for version)

37) Now treat EACCESS like EPERM when doing stat(2) in find_path.c

38) Added prototypes for sudo functions (via __P macro)

39) configure now uses uname(1) if it exists

40) gethostbyname(3) is now only called if you define FQDN.  There's really
    no reason to not trust gethostname(2) and this way if name service is
    hosed sudo isn't...

41) added -v (validate) flag to sudo to update a timestamp w/o running
    a command

42) now use tgetpass() (getpass with a timeout)

43) find_path() now uses realpath(3)

44) wrote versions of realpath(3) and getcwd(3) for those without

45) wrote tgetpass()--a getpass() that times out via select(2)

46) sudo now uses posix signals if available

47) Finally added ConvexOS C2 security support from
    "Peter A. Nikitser, Systems Software Support, QUT" <>

48) You can now #undef MAILER if you don't run sendmail or the equivalent.

49) AFS support from

50) If you define BOTH_LOGS in sudo.h you can log both via syslog(3) *ans*
    to a log file.

51) Added ultrix /etc/auth (enhanced security) support.

52) Sudo now will work with a 4.2BSD syslog (SunOS < 4 && ultrix).
    Personally, I'd say you are better off logging to a file if
    your syslog is this ancient.

53) Changed realpath(3) to sudo_realpath() since we need to do the
    chdir(2) with the invoking uid.  sudo_realpath() should be
    faster than vendor-supplied realpath(3)'s anyway...

54) No longer create a static binary on AIX since it reportedly
    causes problem on newer versions on AIX 3.x.

55) If sudo_realpath cannot chdir() back to cwd sudo will print
    and error and exit.  Previously it would either fail silently
    or print an incorrect error message.

56) Moved code to send error mail to be after the log message.

57) Added SUDO_USER and SUDO_UID envars.  Suggested by John P. Rouillard

58) Added -k and -h options and rearranged some of the code to be
    more modular and less braindamaged.  This introduces the concept
    of "run modes" to sudo.

59) Fixed visudo and flex.  visudo now calls yyrestart() if you are using
    flex instead of lex.  From

60) Added a "cat page" for systems w/o nroff.

61) Fixed a bug whereby only the last directory specified in a Cmnd_Alias
    was checked.  Reported by "James R. Hendrick" <>.

62) All .{c,lex,yacc} files now include both sys/types.h and unistd.h so
    we are sure to get the typedef of uid_t.

CHANGES from sudo 1.3.1

63) Added preliminary support for DEC OSF/1 protected passwords
    (shadow passwords).

CHANGES from sudo 1.3.1pl1

64) More support for DEC OSF/1 protected passwords (shadow passwords).

CHANGES from sudo 1.3.1pl2

65) Fixed mail logging to include the username as it should have.

66) Added hostname to log message in error mail.

67) Added -l flag to sudo to list the allowed/forbidden commands.
    Suggested by (Matthew Stier)

68) Fixed bison warnings for parse.yacc and visudo.yacc.
    Pointed out by (Nick Holloway).

CHANGES from sudo 1.3.1pl3

69) Sudo will now exit with an error if the command to be run is > MAXPATHLEN.

70) Test in configure for termios support was insufficient.  It thought
    Nextstep 3.2 had termios just because it as termios.h (need to link
    with -posix for termios on NeXT's)

CHANGES from sudo 1.3.1pl4

71) First stab at Skey support.

72) Sudo now sets IFS to be SPACE, TAB, NEWLINE.

73) Sudo now sets the real and effective gid to root's group
    (based on passwd file).

74) Sudo now checks that the sudoers file is owned by a certain user
    and not readable or writable by anyone else.
    (based on a suggestion by Joerg Schumacher <>)

75) Visudo now sets the owner on the new sudoers file based on #74

76) Sudo and visudo will now compile with byacc (Berkeley yacc).

77) If the rename(2) of stmp -> sudoers fails /bin/mv is executed before
    bailing.  Based on code from Case Larsen <>.

78) User-level configuration is now done in options.h.

79) Moved all compatibility #defines to compat.h

80) Incorporated new parsing code from Chris Jepeway <>.
    This is much better than the previous parser.

81) Rewrote visudo.c and tickled parse.yacc to work with it.  Visudo
    now gives you options if a parse error occurs rather than blindly
    dumping you back in the editor.

82) Took out all references to realpath since we are now checking based
    in inode and device (with Chris' new parser).  The upshot of this
    is that path matches are done safely and the symlink problem has
    gone away.

83) Fixed bison warnings from new parse.yacc.

84) Added a default case to parse.lex to error on unmatched tokens as Chris

85) Converted and acsite.m4 to autoconf 2.1.

86) Added lsearch.c and search.h for os's w/o lsearch()/lfind().

87) Sudo now checks to see that the file it is executing is a regular file
    (was just checking the execute bit so dirs slipped through).
    Pointed out by Barb Dijker <>.

88) Fixed a problem on HP-UX trusted systems with getpwuid() returning "*"
    unless the real uid is 0.  Reported by Brian Cunnie (

89) configure now checks for size_t and ssize_t in unistd.h as well
    as sys/types.h.

90) configure now checks for egrep before actually using it.

91) configure now checks for a working void implementation (ie: void * as
    a generic pointer) and sets VOID to void or char accordingly.

92) Added support for SunOS 4.x C2 security (shadow passwords) from
    Kendall Libby (

93) Changed all occurrences of bzero() to memset() and bcopy() to

94) Fixed a bug in sudo.c.  If a user has no passwd entry sudo would
    dump core (writing to a garbage pointer).  Pointed out by
    Stephen Schaefer <>.

95) Worked around a bug in AIX's lex in parse.c.  AIX lex doesn't seem
    to handle {x,y} range notation correctly.  Bleah.

96) Sudo would not report a failed attempt if the user entered return
    at the 2nd password: prompt so someone trying to guess a password
    could just invoked sudo multiple times and try one passwd at a time.
    Reported by Jonathan Adams <>.

97) Added User_Alias facility.

98) Rewrote most of the ip address / network support.  Now works on all
    systems sudo has currently been tested on.

99) Sudo now sets SUDO_COMMAND and SUDO_GID envariables in addition to

100) Added changes to for UnixWare.
     (from John Warburton <>)

101) Merged in changes for Interactive Unix and RISCos.
     (from Andy Smith <>)

102) Added testsudoers (from Chris Jepeway <>).

103) Added fix for parse.yacc to avoid the kludge I was doing.
     (from Chris Jepeway <>)

104) Now remove the IFS envar if set instead of setting it to a "safe"
     value to avoid problems with make and others.

105) Added FAST_MATCH option to check basenames of sudo command and
     paths listed in sudoers file.  If the basename doesn't match
     then it is not a match.  If the basename matches, then do
     a stat to make sure it is a valid match.

106) Now only stat(2) cmnd once in path_matches() (in parse.c).  Sudo
     was stating cmnd for *every* attempted match.  Now the stat struct
     is cached (ie: the var is a static).

107) Signal handlers in visudo are now only installed after the stmp
     file is opened.  Previously, it was possible to erase an open
     stmp file by sending visudo a signal within a small window.

108) Added Goon Show insults from  Russell Street <>.

109) Broke out the insults into separate include files (insults.h
     is the master and includes the appropriate one).

110) Now use getwd() instead of getcwd() and provide emulation for
     OS's w/o it.  This was done since some OS's with getwd()
     implement getcwd() via a pipe to pwd(1).  By emulating getwd()
     by calling getcwd() on OS's w/o getwd() we lose nothing since
     the compiler should optimize away the extra function call.

111) Added crypt() for DEC OSF/1 3.x enhanced security.
     From "Richard L Jackson Jr" <>.

112) Added an option to run the command in the background (-b) as
     suggested by Jonathan Adams <>

113) First stab at kerberos support.  I'm not really sure it is
     possible to do this in a sane manor.  Sigh.

114) Better kerberos support.  Had to use setreuid(2) but falls
     back on a kludge if that does not exist or is broken.

115) Added -p (password prompt) support.
     Suggested by "David W. Cooley" <dwcooley@COLBY.EDU>

116) Added partial implementation of -l (list) flag.
     This is probably as good as it will get until sudo:tng.

117) Added anti-spoofing code to tighten up a race condition
     where a user could run sudo some_link and then change
     where the link pointed after the old link had been
     validated but before the exec().

118) Now update timestamp file via utime() (and emulate via utimes()
     if necessary) to eliminate a small race.  Works with
     both POSIX utime() as well as old utime() in BSD <= 4.3.

119) Kerberos ticket file now lives in same dirs as sudo timestamp
     files (to avoid trouncing on normal ticket file) and is removed
     after validation.

120) Now log tty user is on as well as pwd in sudo logs.

CHANGES from sudo 1.3.2 BETA

121) Fixed a bug in the anti-spoofing check.

122) Fixed up ISC support so that it works and looks like non-streams
     stuff in interfaces.c.

123) Now deal correctly with ip implementations that has an sa_len
     field in struct sockaddr.

124) Check ownership and permissions on timestamp dir and ignore if
     not owned by root and mode 0700.  Problem pointed out by Larry Auton
     <lda@research.AT&> and Navjot Singh <singh@research.AT&>.

125) Ignore timestamp files with preposterous dates to keep people from
     faking out sudo on OS's that allow you to give away files to root.
     Problem pointed out by Larry Auton <lda@research.AT&> and
     Navjot Singh <singh@research.AT&>.

126) A timeout of 0 will now cause a password to be entered every
     time.  Based on a suggestion by Larry Auton <lda@research.AT&>
     and Navjot Singh <singh@research.AT&>.

CHANGES from sudo 1.3.3 BETA

127) Cleaned up interfaces.c so that it is more readable.

128) Added support for syslog()'s that don't guarantee delivery
     of a message.  HP-UX is the only known offender.

129) No longer use memmove() since memcpy() does what we need and
     configure doesn't always catch memmove() even when it is
     there (may be a library problem).

130) Updated man page to reflect two more security issues.

131) Cleaned up shadow password support in check.c.  It should now
     be readable.

132) Added SCO support.

133) Added check to configure to find the max length of a uid_t
     in characters.

134) Removed uid2str() since we now know how big a uid_t/gid_t
     can be.  This elminates a few malloc()'s.

135) Added support for multiple insult types.  Based on code and
     a suggestion from Dieter Dworkin Muller <>.

136) Replaced clean_env() and rmenv() with a rewritten clean_env()
     that should be a little faster.  This also makes it easier to
     add to the list of "dangerous" envariables.

137) Added netgroup support.  Netgroups must start with a leading
     "+" to that sudo knows it is a netgroup.

138) Split out sudoers file format into its own man page.
     As suggested by Andy Smith <>.

139) Updated testsudoers.c to grok netgroups.

CHANGES from sudo 1.3.4 BETA

140) Added SecurID support from Giles Todd <>.

141) Added -s flag to start a root shell and -- to signify end of args.

142) Sped up logging routines by replacing strncpy()'s with strcat()'s.
     This is safe because we dyanically allocate logline to be big enough.

143) Now support command line arguments in the sudoers file.

144) Sped up the loading on command line arguments.  This fixes the
     "commands with large argc's take forever to run" bug.

145) Expanded MAXCOMMANDLEN to 8K since we now have to deal with
     command line arguments.  Added bounds checking in fill() and
     append() so we don't drop core.
     XXX - 8k makes sudo *SLOW*

146) Added support in the lexer for "termination characters" to be
     escaped.  Ie: you can now use [\,:=] in command line args
     as long as you escape with a \.

147) Testsudoers can now deal with commands that have arguments.

148) If a file is not executable or not a regular file sudo will
     now give the appropriate error message instead of just
     "command not found" which is misleading.

149) Fixed a bug where if FQDN is set, load_interfaces() was never

150) tty is now a global so it can be used in the ticket file
     at a later date.

151) Strings in the parser are now allocated dynamically.  This results
     in a large speedup as compared to a 1K array on the stack. I
     have freed the strings in the parser where appropriate but that
     may not catch all instances.  Even so, the average sudo now
     takes up less memory than the 1K array version.

152) Fixed a bug in tgetpass() and configure that broke termio/termios
     support for some OS's.

153) Added cheapo implementation of tty-based timestamps.  The correct
     way is to have username be a directory with the tty tickets
     inside.  However, the current code does not take to that very
     well, and it does not allow the two systems to coexist. Therefore,
     instead of timestampdir/user/tty it is timestampdir/user.tty.

154) Added support for building in other than the source directory.
     Based on changes from "Simon J. Gerraty" <>

155) options.h and pathnames.h are now included via angle brackets
     (<>) so as to use the -I include path.  This way, those using
     a shadow build tree may have local copies of these headers
     w/o clobbering the distribution ones.

156) EXEMPTGROUP is now a string (group name) and user_is_exempt()
     is now less of a hack.  It uses getgrnam(EXEMPTGROUP) to
     get a list of users in the exempted group.

157) --prefix and --exe_prefix are now honored in the Makefile.

158) Sudo will now behave reasonably in the case where the sudoers
     file location is mounted via NFS and the client does not
     have "root" NFS privs.

     now set via the Makefile since that appears to be what
     most people expect...

160) Now include a pre-generated version of parse.lex since so many
     versions of lex are brain damaged.  If parse.lex is changed
     a new lex.yy.c will be generated.  The distribution copy is

161) Upgraded to GNU autoconf version 1.5.  There are now even
     *more* options.

CHANGES from sudo 1.3.5 BETA

162) Fixed S/Key support.

163) Cleaned up shadow password support further by moving much of
     it to getspwuid.c.

164) First cut at DCE support. [needs work to be functional]

165) New Digital UNIX C2 support based on code from
     "Randy M. Hayman" <>

166) S/key support now works with the generic bellcore s/key
     as well as the s/key from Wietse Venema's logdaemon.
     (Previously only worked with the logdaemon s/key).
     As an added bonus the s/key challenge is now embedded
     in the password prompt for a cleaner look.

167) lsearch.c will now compile on a strict ANSI C compiler.
     ANSI doesn't allow pointer arithmetic on a "void *"
     but gcc does.

168) Bought back latest HP-UX DCE support from Jeff Earickson

169) configure now comletely groks $SUDO_LIBS and $VISUDO_LIBS.
     Plain old $LIBS is no longer used.  LDFLAGS has also been
     split up into $SUDO_LDFLAGS and $VISUDO_LDFLAGS.
     The reason for this is that sudo often needs extra libs
     for alternate authentication schemes but visudo rarely does.

170) The code to copy command arguments flaied for large values of
     argc due to realloc() lossage.  We now cheat and treat argv[]
     as a flat string (since that's what it is) and use pointer
     arithmetic to compute the length.  Kind of sneaky but it
     works (and is relatively fast).

CHANGES from sudo 1.3.6 BETA

171) Added support for UN*X groups in sudoers based on code from
     Dougal Scott <>.

172) interfaces.c should work on ISC UN*X again.

173) All source files are <= 14 characters for old SYSV filesystems.

CHANGES from sudo 1.3.7 GAMMA

174) Minor configure[.in] fixes.

175) tgetpass.c now compiles on OS's that put the definition of
     fd_set in <sys/bsdtypes.h>

CHANGES from sudo 1.4

176) Command args in sudoers are now stored in an argument vector
     instead of a flat string to make wildcard matching simpler.

177) Added NewArgv and NewArgc that describe the command to be
     executed.  The copy of args in cmnd_args is no longer necessary
     and has been removed.

178) Using strcmp(3) for argument matching in command_matches()
     (was path_matches()) is no longer sufficient since we don't
     have a flat string.  compare_args() is used instead which
     calls either strcmp(3) or wildmat(3l) depending on whether
     there are shell-style meta chars (wildcards) present.

179) Shell-style wildcard matches are now available in the sudoers
     file.  Matches are done via Rich $alz's wildmat(3).
     This required the tweaks described in #176-178 as well as
     other, more minor, changes.

180) Commented out rule to build lex.yy.c from parse.lex since
     we ship with a pre-flex'd parser and can't rely on file
     dates being set correctly.

181) Fixed visudo and testsudoers to deal with new argument
     vector handling.

182) A null string ("") as shell in passwd file (or $SHELL) is
     now treated as the bourne shell.

183) Converted *.man to pod format for easy conversion to man,
     html, latex, and just plain text.  Tried to make the
     sudoers manual easier to read in the process.

184) Updated sample.sudoers and sudoers.pod to include info
     on wildcards.

CHANGES from sudo 1.4.1

185) compat.h now defines _PASSWD_LEN based on PASS_MAX if it
     is defined (from limits.h on SYSV).

186) Both short and long hostnames may now be used in the sudoers
     file if FQDN is defined.  From patches submitted by
     Michael Meskes <meskes@Informatik.RWTH-Aachen.DE>.

187) Now use skeylookup() instead of skeychallenge().  Hopefully
     this will work around a problem some people have reported
     on Solaris 2.5 with sudo and logdaemon 5.0's skey.

188) Now uses /var/run to hold timestamp files if it exists.  This
     is more secure.

189) configure now puts the timestamp dir in /var/run if it exists.
     Sugestion by Michael Meskes <meskes@Informatik.RWTH-Aachen.DE>.

190) Both short and long hostnames now exist even if FQDN is not set.
     This allows machines with fully qualified hostnames set via
     hostname(1) to use them in the sudoers file.

191) sudo was not honoring "." in $PATH due to a bug in find_path().

192) Added IGNORE_DOT_PATH option to ignore "." in $PATH.

193) tgetpass() now uses raw read(2) and write(2) instead of stdio.
     This should make it work on more OS's.  Previously, it used
     stdio (buffered) fgets(3) and fputs(3) with select(2) which
     may not be legal.  Also got rid of the nasty goto's and
     generally simplified the code.

194) Parser now supports hostnames like  Previously,
     `UPPERCASE' was interpreted as an Alias.  This means that
     the `fqdn' stuff has been moved to the lexer (FQHOST is used
     to avoid collision with FQDN option).

195) Reworked --with-FOO in to support --without-FOO.
     Made shadow passwords the default for appropriate OS's.  They
     can be turned off with --without-C2.

196) Added NO_PASSWD option for those who don't want to be bothered
     by a password prompt from sudo.  This is really just a hack.

197) Added support for double quotes to mean "treat these words as one
     argument".  This is similar to what most shells do.

198) Added mkinstalldirs to make install destination dirs if
     they do not already exist.

CHANGES from sudo 1.4.2

199) Added support for --with-CC (which C compiler to use).

200) Added support for NOPASSWD token and running commands a
     specified users (sudo -u) from Keith Garry Boyce

201) Only link with -lshadow for Linux if libc lacks getspnam().  Problem
     pointed out by Michael Meskes <meskes@Informatik.RWTH-Aachen.DE>.

202) Replaced SUDOERS_OWNER with SUDOERS_UID and SUDOERS_GID.  Added
     SUDOERS_MODE and changed the default to 0440 (from 0400).
     It is now possible to NFS-mount sudoers without doing anything fancy.

202) If a runas list is specified, a user may only run commands as
     "root" if "root" is a member of the runas list.  The old behavior
     was to always allow commands to be run as root, even if a runas
     list was specified.  Now you can give someone "sudo -u operator"
     and not have the equivalent of "sudo -u root" as well.

203) Added "USER=%s" to logging functions.

204) configure will now add -lPW to (VI)?SUDO_LIBS if using bison
     or DCE and alloca(3) is not in libc (or provided by gcc) but
     is in libPW.a.

205) sudo would give an incorrect error message if the sudoers file
     didn't exist due to close() stomping errno if the open() failed.

206) Fixed "shell" mode (sudo -s).  When building NewArgv sudo was
     not allocating space for the NULL.

207) Added support for wildcards in the pathname.  Ie: /bin/*.

208) 'command ""' in sudoers now means no args allowed.

209) Added command line args to SUDO_COMMAND envariable.

210) HP-UX 10.x with C2 now uses bigcrypt().
     Changes from david_dill@Merck.Com (David Dill).

211) lsearch.c will now compile w/o compiler warnings.
     (Updated from NetBSD lsearch.c)

212) Now uses POSIX fnmatch(3) (which uses ! instead of ^ in ranges)

CHANGES from sudo 1.4.3

213) Now allows network/netmask in sudoers to override per-interface

214) Fixed -u support with multiple user lists on a line.

215) Fixed a core dump problem when built with -DSHELL_IF_NO_ARGS.

216) Fixed 2 typos in parse.yacc and removed some unnecessary if's.

217) Now always use install-sh since SunOS install can't do uid/gid's.
     Other BSD installs are probably similarly afflicted.

218) Fixed NFS-mounted sudoers file under solaris both uid *and* gid
     were being set to -2.  Now set uid to 1 to avoid group being

219) Now includes alloca.c (from gcc) for those w/o it.  Linking
     against -lPW breaks visudo on HP-UX and probably others.

220) Added --with-libpath, --with-libraries, --with-incpath options
     to configure.

221) configure now uses shicc instead of gcc on BSD/OS >= 2.0 to
     generate binaries linked with shared libs.

222) The parser was setting no_passwd even if there wasn't a
     runas match.  I reordered some things in parse.yacc
     to fix this.

223) `sudo -v' (validate) wasn't paying attention to NOPASSWD.
     Now it does.

224) testsudoers now groks "-u user".

225) Updated AFS support based on what tcsh 6.06 does.

226) Fixed a typo/thinko that broke BSD > 4.3reno wrt interfaces.c.

227) HPUX 10.X shadow password stuff now uses SecureWare routines.

228) SecureWare passwd checking now uses bigcrypt() if available.
     Now uses AUTH_MAX_PASSWD_LENGTH if defined.

229) configure now makes sure you don't have a config.cache file
     from another OS.

230) Added better shadow password detection.
     BSD >= 4.3reno -> /etc/master.passwd
     hpux9: getspwnam() -> /.secure/etc/passwd
     hpux10: getspnam() or getprpwnam() -> /tcb/files/auth/*/* (link with -lsec)
     SVR4: getspnam() -> /etc/shadow
     solaris: getspnam() -> /etc/shadow
     irix[56].x: getspnam() -> /etc/shadow
     sunos 4.x: getpwanam() -> /etc/security/passwd.adjunct
     DUNIX: getprpwnam() -> /tcb/files/auth/*/* (link with -lsecurity)
     SecureWare: getprpwnam() -> /tcb/files/auth/*/*
     ultrix 4.x: getauthuid() -> /etc/auth.{pag,dir}

231) '(' in command args no longer are a syntax error.

232) '!command' now works in the presence of a runas or NOPASSWD token.
     Simplified parse rules wrt runas and NOPASSWD (more consistent).

233) Command args and now compared as a flat string again.  This makes
     wildcard matches more consistent.


235) configure now uses config.{sub,guess} to guess OS type.
     Sudo should work out of the box on more OS's now.

236) Got rid of HAVE_C2_SECURITY, now just use SHADOW_TYPE.

237) Fixed race in tgetpass() where echo can be turned off and
     left off if sudo is used in a pipeline and a password is

CHANGES from sudo 1.4.4

238) `sudo -l' output now includes runas and NOPASSWD info and
     asks for a password unless NOPASSWD for ALL is set.

239) Sudo can now deal with all-caps user and host names.

240) Sudo will now remove the "ENV" and "BASH_ENV" envariables.
     From Michael Meskes <meskes@Informatik.RWTH-Aachen.DE>.

241) `sudo -l' will now expand Cmnd_Alias's (could be prettier).

242) `sudo -s' will now set $HOME to root's homedir (or that of
     the user specified -u) so dot files get sourced.

CHANGES from sudo 1.4.5

243) $HOME was always being set, not just with `-s'.

244) In visudo, the owner and group of the sudoers file were
     being set too early; an editor could change them and change
     the owner/group of the resulting sudoers file.

CHANGES from sudo 1.5

245) Added SHELL_SETS_HOME option.

246) Added NO_MESSAGE option.

247) Added %u and %h escapes in PASSPROMPT to expand to user's name
     and host.

248) Added "SUDO_PROMPT" envariable.

249) Usernames may now begin with a digit.  Gross, but people do it.

Sudo 1.5.1 released.

250) Added `opie' support.

251) Added check to make sure fnmatch() really works.

252) Now use the prompt S/Key gives us instead of rolling our own.

253) Added -H flag from Danny Barron <>.

254) Add SUDO_PS1 envariable support.

255) Attempt at sequent support.

Sudo 1.5.2 released.

256) visudo acts sanely when there is no sudoers file.

257) Added Runas_Alias support.

258) Sudo will now work with SUDOERS_MODE == 400 and SUDO_UID = 0.

259) Alias's in a runas list are now expanded.

260) Fixed bug with > 32 saved aliases.  Reported by

261) Code that uses sprintf() is now more paranoid about buffer

262) Whitespace is now allowed after a line continuation character before
     a newline in sudoers.

263) %h in MAILSUBJECT expands to local hostname.

Sudo 1.5.3 released.

264) Don't pass getdtablesize() as first arg to select(2).  No need
     to do this since we only select on one fd--use (fd+1) as nfds
     and the old way caused problems on some systems (arguably
     a bug in those OS's).  From Marc Slemko

265) Fixed coredump when passwd file is missing or unavailable.
     Reported by Jason Downs <> and
     Klee Dienes <> (via a Debian Linux bug report).

266) Fixed bug wrt exclusion lists and relative pathnames.
     Reported by osiris@COURIER.CB.LUCENT.COM.

267) exit(1) if user doesn't enter a passwd.
     Noted by Alex Parchkov <>.

Sudo 1.5.4 released.

268) Newer versions of Irix use _RLDN32_* envariables for 32-bit binaries
     so ignore _RLD* instead of _RLD_*.  From tarrall@bamboo.Colorado.EDU.

269) Only open sudoers file once as opposed to once for sanity checks and
     once for the parser.  Also try to open ten times if we get EAGAIN.

Sudo 1.5.5 released.

270) Initialize group vector if we are becoming a user other than root.
     For root, it is often more useful to hang on to our existing group

271) Fix usage of select(2) to deal correctly with a high-numbered fd.

272) Fixed a bug where sudo sometime didn't give the user a chance to
     enter a password at the prompt.

273) Use a dynamically sized buffer when reading ether interfaces.

274) Fixed configure problems with identification of HP-UX > 10.x and
     with cc being identified as a cross compiler on some platforms.

275) Fixed a problem with HP-UX 10.x and alloca.  Bison does not
     include alloca.h on HP-UX 10.x even though it uses alloca()
     (and thus needs the #define of alloca(x) to __builtin_alloca(x)).
     To fix this we include alloca.h ourselves if using bison and not gcc.

276) Included support for the AIX 4.x authenticate() function from
     Matt Richards <>.

277) Fixed an off by one error in the parser.  Found by
     Piete Brooks <>

278) Change NewArgv size computation to work on UNICOS.
     From Mike Kienenberger <>

279) Added --with-logfile and --with-timedir configure options.

280) Use getcwd(3), not getwd(3) to avoid possible buffer overflow.
     Use BSD getcwd(3) if system lacks one or is SunOS 4.x.

281) Fix 'fprintf' argument mismatches in 'visudo.c'.
     From (Ariel Faigon)

282) Use waitpid or wait3 to reap children in logging.c.
     Pointed out by Theo de Raadt <>

283) Sudo should prompt for a password before telling the user that
     a command could not be found.  Noted by rhodie@NAC.NET.

284) Fix OTP_ONLY for opie; "Deven T. Corzine" <>.

285) Include pre-yacc'd parse.yacc as[ch] since more and
     more vendors are charging for yacc (bad vendor, no cookie).

286) Use MAX*, not MAX*+1

287) Add support for Hitachi SR2201, from

288) Added RUNAS_DEFAULT option to allow one to compile sudo with a
     default runas user other than root.

289) Add options to log the hostname in the file-based log and to not
     do word wrap in file-based log.  From Theo Van Dinter <>

290) RedHat Linux pam support, from Gary Calvin <>.
     pam.sudo goes in /etc/pam.d/sudo on RedHat 5.0 and above.

291) With sudo -s, set command the full path of the shell, not the basename.
     Noted by Peter W. Osel <>

Sudo 1.5.6 released.

292) Pam auth now runs as root; necessary for shadow passwords.

293) Shadow password support is now compiled in by default.  You can disable
     it via --disable-shadow.

294) We now remove a timestamp file with a bogus date when it is detected.
     From Steve Fobes <>.

295) In tgetpass(), restart select if it is interrupted.  This really fixes a
     problem where a user sometimes is not given a change to enter a password.

296) All options have moved from options.h -> configure.

297) visudo is now installed in /usr/local/sbin where it belongs.

298) Lots of configure changes.  Instead of checking for the existence
     of -lsocket, -lnsl, or -linet, we instead check them for the
     functions we need only if they are not already in libc.

299) Added DUNIX SIA (Security Integration Architecture) support from
     Spider Boardman <spider@Orb.Nashua.NH.US>.

300) Added test for broken Digital UNIX 4.0 prot.h.

301) Better support for C2 security on Digital UNIX.

302) Hacked autoconf so that you have have single quotes in

303) For SecureWare-style shadow passwords use getprpwnam() instead
     of getprpwuid() since getprpwuid is broken in HP-UX 10.20 at
     least (it sleeps for 2 minutes if the shadow files don't exist).

304) We can't really trust UID_MAX or MAXUID since they may only exist for
     backwards compatibility; spider-both@Orb.Nashua.NH.US

305) Make %groups work as RunAs specifiers; Ray Bellis <>.

306) Set USER environment variable to target user.
     Suggested by Ray Bellis <>.

307) Go back to printing "command not found" unless --disable-path-info
     specified.  Also, tell user when we ignore '.' in their path and it
     would have been used but for --with-ignore-dot.

308) When using tty tickets make it user:tty not user.tty as a username
     could have a '.' in it.

309) Define BSD_COMP for svr4 to get BSD ioctl defs.  Also, if we have
     sys/sockio.h but SIOCGIFCONF is not defined by including sys/ioctl.h
     include sys/sockio.h directly.

310) Fixed a bug that could cause "sudo -l" to segfault or complain
     about non-existent syntax errors.

Sudo 1.5.7 released.

311) Fixed square bracket quoting in configure and moved check for -lnsl
     to be before -lsocket.

312) In load_interfaces(), close sock after bwe are done with it.  Leak
     noticed by Mike Kienenberger <>.

313) Missing pieces from change #308; from Mike Kienenberger.

314) Real Kerberos 5 support from Frank Cusack <>.

315) FWTK 'authsrv' support from Kevin Kadow <kadow@MSG.NET>.

316) Fixed handling and documentation of -with-umask.

317) If the check for socket() or inet_addr() fails, retry, this time
     linking with both -lsocket and -lnsl for those systems that
     have interlibrary dependencies.

Sudo 1.5.8 released.

318) Add dirfd() macro for systems without it.

319) Better check for socket() in -lsocket -lnsl in configure.

320) Minor configure fixes.

Sudo 1.5.8p1 released.

321) Fixed a bug wrt quoting characters in command args.

322) Make --without-sendmail work.

Sudo 1.5.8p2 released.

323) Fixed a segv if HOST_IN_LOG defined and gethostbyname() fails.
     Reported by Gero Treuner <>.

324) Fixed a parse bug wrt the ! operator and runas specs.  Noted by
     David A Beck <>.

325) Use new emalloc/erealloc/estrdup functions (catch errors and exit).

326) New PAM code that should work on both Solaris and Linux.

327) Make sudo's usage info better when mutually exclusive args are given
     and don't rely on argument order to detect this.  From Nick Andrew.

328) In visudo, shift return value of system() by 8 to get the real exit value.

Sudo 1.5.9 released.

329) The runas user and NOPASSWD tags are now persistent across entries
     in a command list (ie: cmnd1,cmnd2,cmnd3).  A PASSWD tag has been
     added to reverse NOPASSWD.  The runas user and *PASSWD tags can be
     overridden on a per-command basis at which point they become the
     new default for the rest of the list.

330) It is now possible to use the '!' operator in a runas list as
     well as in a Cmnd_Alias, Host_Alias and User_Alias.

331) In estrdup(), do the malloc ourselves so we don't need to rely on the
     system strdup(3) which may or may not exist.  There is now no need to
     provide strdup() for those w/o it.

332) You can now specify a host list instead of just a host or alias
     in a privilege list.  Ie: user=host1,host2,ALIAS,!host3 /bin/ls

333) Stash the "safe" path to the command instead of stashing the struct
     stat.  Should be safer.

334) Now set $LOGNAME in addition to $USER.

335) No longer use stdio in tgetpass()

336) Don't use _PASSWD_LEN or PASS_MAX as we can't rely on them corresponding
     to anything real.  Instead, we just use a max password size of 256

337) Block keyboard-generated signals during startup and restore signal
     mask before exec'ing the program.  We don't want the user to be
     able to simply kill us and avoid logging.

338) Rewrote timestamp handling.  For the default case, a directory is used
     instead of a file.  For the tty-based case, the timestamp is just a
     file in that directory (eg. /var/run/sudo/username/tty).  You now only
     get the lecture once, even in the tty case.  The goal here is to allow
     the tty and non-tty schemes to coexist, though it is worth noting that
     when you update a tty file, the mtime of the dir gets updated too.

339) The meaning of -k has changed to mean "invalidate the timestamp".
     There is a new -K option to really remove the timestamp file/dir.

340) New modular authentication API.  This fixes the rat's nest of
     #ifdefs that was the old auth code.

341) New logging functions.  log_error() now takes a variable number of
     args ala printf() and log_auth() reacts to the return value of validate().

342) If a user is not in the sudoers file they are still asked for a password.
     This keeps someone who finds a user logged in to a terminal from being
     able to tell whether or not the user is allowed to use sudo.

343) New PAM code again, this time it should be correct.

344) tgetpass() now has a flag to specify whether or not to turn
     off echo while reading the password.  Used by the new PAM and
     fwtk code.

345) Fixed shadow password dectection on SCO.

346) Sudo is now available under a BSD/Apache style license.  This is
     possible because it no longer contains any of the original 1.1 code.

347) Added configuration info when sudo is run with the -V flag by root.

348) Change visudo tmp file from /etc/stmp -> /etc/sudoers.tmp since
     Solaris uses stmp for shadow temp file.  Also rename _PATH_SUDO_SUDOERS

349) Added configure option to set syslog priorities.

350) Sudo now locks its log file to prevent mangled entries.

351) Visudo now locks the sudoers temp file instead of bailing when
     the temp file already exists.  This fixes the problem of stale
     temp files but it does *require* that you not try to put the
     temp file in a world-writable directory.  This shoud not be
     an issue as the temp file should live in the same dir as sudoers.

352) Fixed crypt() check in libufc.

353) It is now possible to put a list of users as the first thing in a
     user specification.  I don't suggest this but it makes the grammar
     more uniform.

354) Visudo will now warn about what it thinks are undefined aliases.
     Since it can't be 100% sure these are just warnings, not errors.

355) Add a --without-passwd option to configure that turns off
     passwd/shadow file authentication.  Only usable with an alternate
     authentication scheme.

356) Add a --disable-authentication option to configure that causes sudo
     to not require authentication by default.  The PASSWD tag can be
     used to require authentication for an entry.

357) Add a --with-devel option to add -Wall and uncomment yacc/lex
     generation in Makefile.

358) Zero out plaintext password after use (should do encrypted as well).

359) Added real dependencies in Makefile.

360) Deprecated --with-otp-only in favor of --without-passwd.

361) Add --with-mail-if-no-host to send mail if a user tries to run sudo on
     a host for which he/she is not authorized.

362) Most of sudo now runs as root instead of the invoking user to
     minimize the possibility of user control via signals or tracing.

363) Now Support CIDR-style netmasks (ie:

364) In "sudo -l" mode, the type of the stored (expanded) alias was not
     stored with the contents.  This could lead to incorrect output
     if the sudoers file had different alias types with the same name.
     Normal parsing (ie: not in '-l' mode) is unaffected.

365) Now include strcasecmp() for those without it.

366) Most compile-time options are now changable at runtime via
     the 'Defaults' specification in the sudoers file.

367) Added a -L flag to printout all the possible 'Defaults' parameters.

368) It is now possible to escape "special" characters in usernames, hostnames,
     etc with a backslash.

369) Sudo will now accept a hostname/username/netgroupname that contains
     almost any character in it.  It seems many people want to use '.'
     and other non-alphanumerics in usernames.

370) Fixed the root_sudo option.  Sudo was always complaining that root
     was not allowed to run sudo if the root_sudo flag was turned off.

371) tgetpass() now uses a function to read up until the end of line.
     Fixes problems in a pipeline when a program sets the tty mode
     to be character at a time.

372) sudo now turns off core dumps via setrlimit (probably paranoia).

Sudo 1.6 released.

373) Better diagnostics on PAM failure.

374) Killed shell_noargs option, it cannot work since the command needs to
     be set before sudoers is parsed.

375) Fixed the following Defaults options: set_home, fqdn, syslog, tty_tickets,
     ticket_dir, insults.

376) When using select() in tgetpass(), do a separate select before
     each read to be sure we can timeout correctly.

377) SecurID support compiles and works again.

378) Fixed a bug parsing runas modifiers.  If a user spec contained multiple
     runas specs, the latter ones may not be applied.

379) #uid now works in a RunasAlias

380) Don't ask the user for a password if the user is not allowed to run
     the command and the authenticate flag (in sudoers) is false.

381) Added configure check for initgroups(3).

382) Use our own fnmatch() if there is no fnmatch.h, even if there is an
     fnmatch() in libc.

Sudo 1.6.1 released.

383) Better behavior for -l and -v flags in conjunction with NOPASSWD and
     added "verifypw" and "listpw" options.

384) For HP-UX with cc, add the -Aa flag along with -D_HPUX_SOURCE.

385) Fix compilation with K&R compilers.

386) For netgroup host matching, match against the short version of the
     hostname as well as the long one if they are different.

387) Terminate passwd reading on '\r' in addition to '\n'

388) Visudo used to loop endlessly if a user entered ^D at the whatnow
     prompt.  EOF is now treaded as 'x' (exit w/o saving changes).

389) The 'shell_noargs' runtime option is back based on a patch from

390) Systems that return RLIM_INFINITY for RLIMIT_NOFILE (like AIX)
     would loop for a very loing time during sudo startup.  A value of
     RLIM_INFINITY is now ignored (getdtablesize/sysconf is used instead).

391) Locking in visudo was broken.  We now lock the sudoers file, not the
     sudoers temp file, which should be safe.

392) PAM fixups: custom prompts now work correctly and errors are
     dealt with more sanely.  Patches from Cloyce D. Spradling.

Sudo 1.6.2 released.

393) Users in the 'exempt' group shouldn't get their $PATH overridden
     by 'secure-path'.  Patch from

394) Pam now works on HP-UX 11.0, thanks to Jeff A. Earickson.

395) Fixed a bug that caused an infinite loop when the password
     timeout was disabled.

396) It is now possible to set the path to the editor for visudo as well
     as the flag that determines whether or not visudo will look at
     $EDITOR in the sudoers file.

397) configure now pulls in the values of LIBS, LDFLAGS, CPPFLAGS, etc
     as the documentation says it ought to.

398) Added rootpw, runaspw, and targetpw to prompt for the root, runas_default
     and target user's passwords respectively (instead of the invoking user's

399) Added -S flag to force password read from stdin.

400) Restore coredumpsize resource limit before exec'ing the child
     process (sudo sets it to 0 internally).

401) Truncate unencrypted password to 8 chars if encrypted password is exactly
     13 characters (indicateing standard a DES password).  Many versions
     of crypt() do this for you, but not all (like HP-UX's).

402) Fixed a typo/thinko that broke secureware support for long passwords.

403) Added a new command line switch '-c' to support BSD login classes.
     The '-c' option can be used to sudo a command with specific resource
     limits in the login.conf database.  This feature is optionally enabled
     via the --with-logincap configure switch.  Based on a patch from
     Michael D. Marchionna.

404) Fixed a bug where sudo would hang around and consume CPU if we spawn
     a long-running process.

405) Deal with HP-UX password aging info tacked on to the end of the
     encrypted password.

406) Added set_logname run-time option.  When unset, sudo will not set
     the USER and LOGNAME environment variables.

407) Wildcards are now allowed in the hostnames specified in sudoers.
     The 'fqdn' option is often required for this to be useful.

408) Fixed a bug where host and user qualifiers in a Defaults entry were
     not being used correctly and the entry was being applied globally.

Sudo 1.6.3 released.

409) Fixed targetpw, rootpw, and runaspw options when used with non-passwd
     authentication (pam, etc).

Sudo 1.6.3p1 released.

410) When the targetpw flag is set, use the target username as part
     of the timestamp path.

Sudo 1.6.3p2 released.

411) Fixed a bug that prevented the -H option from being useful.

Sudo 1.6.3p3 released.

412) Fixed a case where a string was used after it had been freed.

Sudo 1.6.3p4 released.

413) Fixed listpw and verifypw sudoers options.

414) Do not write NUL when writing passwd prompt;

Sudo 1.6.3p5 released.

415) Fix word splitting bug that caused a segv for very long command line args.

Sudo 1.6.3p6 released.

416) Fix negation of path-type Defaults entries in a boolean context.

Sudo 1.6.3p7 released.

417) Visudo now checks for the existence of an editor and gives a sensible
     error if it does not exist.

418) The path to the editor for visudo is now a colon-separated list of
     allowable editors.  If the user has $EDITOR set and it matches
     one of the allowed editors that editor will be used.  If not,
     the first editor that actually exists is used.

419) Visudo now does its own fork/exec instead of calling system(3).

420) Allow special characters (including '#') to be embedded in pathnames
     if quoted by a '\\'.  The quoted chars will be dealt with by fnmatch().
     Unfortunately, 'sudo -l' still prints the '\\'.

421) Added the always_set_home option.

422) Strip NLSPATH and PATH_LOCALE out from the environment to prevent
     reading of protected files by a less privileged user.

423) Added support for BSD authentication and associated -a flag.

424) Added check for _innetgr(3) since NCR systems have this instead
     of innetgr(3).

425) Added stay_setuid option for systems that have libraries that perform
     extra paranoia checks in system libraries for setuid programs.

426) Environment munging is now done by hand.  The environment is zeroed
     upon sudo startup and a new environment is built before the command
     is executed.  This means we don't rely on getenv(3), putenv(3),
     or setenv(3).

427) Added a class of environment variables that are only cleared if they
     contain '/' or '%' characters.

428) Use stashed user_gid when checking against exempt gid since sudo
     sets its gid to SUDOERS_GID, making getgid() return that, not the
     real gid.  Fixes problem with setting exempt group == SUDOERS_GID.
     Fix from Paul Kranenburg.

429) Fixed file locking in visudo on NeXT which has a broken lockf().
     Patch from

430) Regenerated configure script with autoconf-2.52 (required some
     tweaking of and friends).

431) Added mail_badpass option to send mail when the user does not
     authenticate successfully.

432) Added env_reset Defaults option to reset the environment to
     a clean slate.  Also implemented env_keep Defaults option
     to specify variables to be preserved when resetting the

433) Added env_check and env_delete Defaults options to allow the admin
     to modify the builtin list of environment variables to remove.

434) If timestamp_timeout < 0 then the timestamp never expires.  This
     allows users to manage their own timestamps and create or delete
     them via 'sudo -v' and 'sudo -k' respectively.

435) Authentication routines that use sudo's tgetpass() now accept
     ^C or ^Z at the password prompt and sudo will act appropriately.

436) Added a check-only mode to visudo to check an existing sudoers
     file for sanity.

437) Visudo can now edit an alternate sudoers file.

438) If sudo is configured with S/Key support and the system has
     skeyaccess(3) use that to determine whether or not to allow
     a normal Unix password or just S/Key.

439) Fixed CIDR handling in sudoers.

440) Fixed a segv if the local hostname is not resolvable and
     the 'fqdn' option is set.

441) "listpw=never" was not having an effect for users who did not
     appear in sudoers--now it does.

442) The --without-sendmail option now works on systems with
     a /usr/include/paths.h file that defines _PATH_SENDMAIL.

443) Removed the "secure_path" Defaults option as it does not work and
     cannot work until the parser is overhauled.

444) Added new -P flag and "preserve_groups" sudoers option to cause
     sudo to preserve the group vector instead of setting it to that
     of the target user.  Previously, if the target user was root
     the group vector was not changed.  Now it is always changed unless
     the -P flag or "preserve_groups" option was given.

445) If find_path() fails as root, try again as the invoking user (useful
     for NFS).  Idea from Chip Capelik.

446) Use setpwent()/endpwent() and its shadow equivalents to be sure
     the passwd/shadow file gets closed.

447) Use getifaddrs(3) to get the list of network interfaces if it is

448) Dump list of local IP addresses and environment variables to clear
     when 'sudo -V' is run as root.

449) Reorganized the lexer a bit and added more states.  Sudo now does a
     better job of parsing command arguments in the sudoers file.

450) Wrap each call to syslog() with openlog()/closelog() since some
     things (such as PAM) may call closelog(3) behind sudo's back.

451) The LOGNAME and USER environment variables are now set if the user
     specified a target uid and that uid exists in the password database.

452) configure will no longer add the -g flag to CFLAGS by default.

453) Now call pam_setcreds() to setup creds for the target user when
     PAM is in use.  On Linux this often sets resource limits.

454) If "make install" is run by non-root and the destination dir
     is writable, install things normally but don't set owner and mode.

455) The Makefile now supports installing in a shadow hierarchy
     specified via the DESTDIR variable.

456) is now generated by autoheader.

Sudo 1.6.4 released.

457) Move the call to rebuild_env() until after MODE_RESET_HOME is set.
     Otherwise, the set_home option has no effect.

458) Fix use of freed memory when the "fqdn" flag is set.  This was
     introduced by the fix for the "segv when gethostbynam() fails" bug.

459) Add 'continue' statements to optimize the switch statement.
     From Solar Designer.

Sudo 1.6.4p1 released.

460) Some special characters were not being escaped properly (e..g '\,')
     in command line arguments and would cause a syntax error instead.

461) "sudo -l" would not work if the always_set_home option was set.

462) Added a configure option to disable use of POSIX saved IDs for
     operating systems where these are broken.

463) The SHELL environment variable was preserved from the user's environment
     instead of being reset based on the passwd database even when the
     "env_reset" option was set.

Sudo 1.6.4p2 released.

464) Added a configure option to cause mail sent by sudo to be run as
     the invoking user instead of root.  Some people consider this to
     be safer.

465) If the mailer is being run as root, use a hard-coded environment
     that is not influenced in any way by the invoking user's environment.

466) Fixed the call to skeyaccess().  Patch from Phillip E. Lobbes.

Sudo 1.6.5 released.

467) Visudo could access memory that was already freed.

468) If the skey.access file denied use of plaintext passwords sudo
     would exit instead of allowing the user to enter an S/Key.

Sudo 1.6.5p1 released.

469) Older versions of BSDi have getifaddrs() but no freeifaddrs().

470) BSDi has a fake setreuid() as do certain versions of FreeBSD and NetBSD.

471) Ignore the return value of pam_setcred().  In Linux-PAM 0.75,
     pam_setcred() will return PAM_PERM_DENIED even if the setcred function
     of the module succeeds when pam_authenticate() has not been called.

472) Avoid giving PAM a NULL password response, use the empty string instead.
     This avoids a log warning when the user hits ^C at the password prompt
     when Linux-PAM is in use.  This also prevents older versions of
     Linux-PAM from dereferencing the NULL pointer.

473) The user's password was not zeroed after use when AIX authentication,
     BSD authentication, FWTK or PAM was in use.

Sudo 1.6.5p2 released.