Installation instructions for Sudo 1.6.3 ======================================== Sudo uses a `configure' script to probe the capabilities and type of the system in question. In this release, `configure' takes many more options than it did before. Please read this document fully before configuring and building sudo. You may also wish to read the file INSTALL.configure which explains more about the `configure' script. Simple sudo installation ======================== For most systems and configurations it is possible simply to: 0) If you are upgrading from a previous version of sudo please read the info in the UPGRADE file before proceeding. 1) If you previously ran `configure' on a different host you will probably want to do a `make distclean' to remove the old `config.cache' file. Otherwise, `configure' will complain and refuse to run. Alternately, one can simply `rm config.cache'. 2) Read the `OS dependent notes' section for any particular "gotchas" relating to your operating system. 3) `cd' to the source or build directory and type `./configure' to generate a Makefile and config.h file suitable for building sudo. Before you actually run configure you should read the `Available configure options' section to see if there are any special options you may want or need. Also of interest may be the section on `Mixing password authentication schemes'. 4) Edit the configure-generated Makefile if you wish to change any of the default paths (alternately you could have changed the paths via options to `configure'. 5) Type `make' to compile sudo. If you are building sudo in a separate build tree (apart from the sudo source) GNU make will probably be required. If `configure' did its job properly (and you have a supported configuration) there won't be any problems. If this doesn't work, take a look at the files TROUBLESHOOTING and PORTING for tips on what might have gone wrong. Please mail us if you have a fix or if you are unable to come up with a fix (address at EOF). 6) Type `make install' (as root) to install sudo, visudo, the man pages, and a skeleton sudoers file. Note that the install will not overwrite an existing sudoers file. You can also install various pieces the package via the install-binaries, install-man, and install-sudoers make targets. 7) Edit the sudoers file with `visudo' as necessary for your site. You will probably want to refer the sample.sudoers file and sudoers man page included with the sudo package. 8) If you want to use syslogd(8) to do the logging, you'll need to update your /etc/syslog.conf file. See the sample.syslog.conf file included in the distribution for an example. Available configure options =========================== This section describes flags accepted by the sudo's `configure' script. Defaults are listed in brackets after the description. Configuration: --cache-file=FILE Cache test results in FILE --help Print the usage/help info --no-create Do not create output files --quiet, --silent Do not print `checking...' messages Directory and file names: --prefix=PREFIX Install architecture-independent files in PREFIX This really only applies to man pages. [/usr/local] --exec-prefix=EPREFIX Install architecture-dependent files in EPREFIX This includes the sudo and visudo executables. [same as prefix] --bindir=DIR Install `sudo' in DIR [EPREFIX/bin] --sbindir=DIR Install `visudo' in DIR [EPREFIX/sbin] --sysconfdir=DIR Install `sudoers' file in DIR [/etc] --mandir=DIR Install man pages in DIR [PREFIX/man] --srcdir=DIR Find the sources in DIR [configure dir or ..] Special features/options: --with-CC=path Specifies path to C compiler you wish to use. --with-incpath Adds the specified directories to CPPFLAGS so configure and the compiler will look there for include files. Multiple directories may be specified as long as they are space separated. Eg: --with-incpath="/usr/local/include /opt/include" --with-libpath Adds the specified directories to SUDO_LDFLAGS and VISUDO_LDFLAGS so configure and the compiler will look there for libraries. Multiple directories may be specified as with --with-incpath. --with-libraries Adds the specified libaries to SUDO_LIBS and and VISUDO_LIBS so sudo will link against them. If the library doesn't start with `-l' or end in `.a' or `.o' a `-l' will be prepended to it. Multiple libraries may be specified as long as they are space separated. --with-csops Add CSOps standard options. You probably aren't interested in this. --with-skey Enable S/Key OTP (One Time Password) support. --with-opie Enable NRL OPIE OTP (One Time Password) support. --with-SecurID=DIR Enable SecurID support. If specified, DIR is directory containing sdiclient.a, sdi_athd.h, sdconf.h, and sdacmvls.h. --with-fwtk=DIR Enable TIS Firewall Toolkit (FWTK) 'authsrv' support. If specified, DIR is the base directory containing the compiled FWTK package (or at least the library and header files). --with-kerb4 Enable kerberos v4 support. Tested only with the Cygnus Network Security package (CNS). This uses kerberos passphrases for authentication but does not use the kerberos cookie scheme. --with-kerb5 Enable kerberos v5 support. Tested against MIT Kerberos V, release 1.1, although also expected to work against CNS. This This uses kerberos passphrases for authentication but does not use the kerberos cookie scheme. Will not work for Kerberos V older than version 1.1. --with-authenticate Enable support for the AIX 4.x general authentication function. This will use the authentication scheme specified for the user on the machine. --with-pam Enable PAM support. Tested on: Redhat Linux 5.x, 6.0, and 6.1 Solaris 2.6 and 7 HP-UX 11.0 NOTE: on RedHat Linux you *must* install an /etc/pam.d/sudo file. You may either use the sample.pam file included with sudo or use /etc/pam.d/su as a reference. On Solaris and HP-UX 11 systems you should check (and understand) the contents of /etc/pam.conf. Do a "man pam.conf" for more information and consider using the "debug" option, if available, with your PAM libraries in /etc/pam.conf to obtain syslog output for debugging purposes. --with-AFS Enable AFS support with kerberos authentication. Should work under AFS 3.3. If your AFS doesn't have -laudit you should be able to link without it. --with-DCE Enable DCE support. Known to work on HP-UX 9.X, 10.X, and 11.0. The use of PAM is recommended for HP-UX 11.X systems, since PAM is fully implemented (this is not true for 10.20 and earlier versions). Check to see that your 11.X (or other) system uses DCE via PAM by looking at /etc/pam.conf to see if "libpam_dce" libraries are referenced there. Other platforms may require source code and/or `configure' changes; you should check to see if your platform can access DCE via PAM before using this option. --with-logincap Enable support for BSD login classes on FreeBSD and BSD/OS. This adds support for the login classes specified in /etc/login.conf. By default, a login class is not applied unless the 'use_loginclass' option is defined in sudoers or the user specifies a class on the command line. It does *not*, however cause sudo to use BSD authentication. --disable-sia Disable SIA support. This is the "Security Integration Architecture" on Digital UNIX. If you disable SIA sudo will use its own authentication routines. --disable-shadow Disable shadow password support. Normally, sudo will compile in shadow password support and use a shadow password if it exists. --with-sudoers-mode=mode File mode for the sudoers file (octal). Note that if you wish to NFS-mount the sudoers file this must be group readable. Also note that this is actually set in the Makefile. The default mode is 0440. --with-sudoers-uid User id that "owns" the sudoers file. Note that this is the numeric id, *not* the symbolic name. Also note that this is actually set in the Makefile. The default is 0. --with-sudoers-gid Group id that "owns" the sudoers file. Note that this is the numeric id, *not* the symbolic name. Also note that this is actually set in the Makefile. The default is 0. --with-execv Use execv() to exec the command instead of execvp(). I can't think of a reason to actually do this since execvp() is passed a fully qualified pathname but someone might thoroughly distrust execvp(). Note that if you define this you lose the ability to exec scripts that are missing the '#!/bin/sh' cookie (like /bin/kill on SunOS and /etc/fastboot on 4.3BSD). This is off by default. --without-interfaces This option keeps sudo from trying to glean the ip address from each attached ethernet interface. It is only useful on a machine where sudo's interface reading support does not work, which may be the case on some SysV-based OS's using STREAMS. --without-passwd This option authentication via the passwd (or shadow) file. It should only be used when another, alternate, authentication scheme is in use. --with-otp-only This option is now just an alias for --without-passwd. The following options are also configurable at runtime: --with-long-otp-prompt When validating with a One Time Password scheme (S/Key or OPIE), a two-line prompt is used to make it easier to cut and paste the challenge to a local window. It's not as pretty as the default but some people find it more convenient. --with-logging=TYPE How you want to do your logging. You may choose "syslog", "file", or "both". Setting this to "syslog" is nice because you can keep all of your sudo logs in one place (see the FAQ). The default is "syslog". --with-logfac=FACILITY Determines which syslog facility to log to. This requires a 4.3BSD or later version of syslog. You can still set this for ancient syslogs but it will have no effect. The following facilities are supported: authpriv (if your OS supports it), auth, daemon, user, local0, local1, local2, local3, local4, local5, local6, and local7. --with-goodpri=PRIORITY Determines which syslog priority to log successfully authenticated commands. The following priorities are supported: alert, crit, debug, emerg, err, info, notice, and warning. --with-badpri=PRIORITY Determines which syslog priority to log unauthenticated commands and errors. The following priorities are supported: alert, crit, debug, emerg, err, info, notice, and warning. --with-logpath=path Override the default location of the sudo log file and use "path" instead. By default will use /var/log/sudo.log if there is a /var/log dir, falling back to /var/adm/sudo.log or /usr/adm/sudo.log if not. --with-loglen Number of characters per line for the file log. This is only used if you are to "file" or "both". This value is used to decide when to wrap lines for nicer log files. The default is 80. Setting this to 0 will disable the wrapping. --with-ignore-dot If set, sudo will ignore '.' or '' (current dir) in $PATH. The $PATH itself is not modified. --with-mailto User that mail from sudo is sent to. This should go to a sysadmin at your site. The default is "root". --with-mailsubject Subject of the mail sent to the "mailto" user. The token "%h" will expand to the hostname of the machine. Default is "*** SECURITY information for %h ***". --without-mail-if-no-user Normally, sudo will mail to the "alertmail" user if the user invoking sudo is not in the sudoers file. This option disables that behavior. --with-mail-if-no-host Send mail to the "alermail" user if the user exists in the sudoers file, but is not allowed to run commands on the current host. --with-mail-if-noperms Send mail to the "alermail" user if the user is allowed to use sudo but the command they are trying is not listed in their sudoers file entry. --with-passprompt Default prompt to use when asking for a password; can be overridden via the -p option and the SUDO_PROMPT environment variable. Supports two escapes: "%u" expands to the user's login name and "%h" expands to the local hostname. Default is "Password:". --with-badpass-message Message that is displayed if a user enters an incorrect password. The default is "Sorry, try again." unless insults are turned on. --with-fqdn Define this if you want to put fully qualified hostnames in the sudoers file. Ie: instead of myhost you would use myhost.mydomain.edu. You may still use the short form if you wish (and even mix the two). Beware that turning FQDN on requires sudo to make DNS lookups which may make sudo unusable if your DNS is totally hosed. Also note that you must use the host's official name as DNS knows it. That is, you may not use a host alias (CNAME entry) due to performance issues and the fact that there is no way to get all aliases from DNS. --with-timedir=path Override the default location of the sudo timestamp directory and use "path" instead. --with-sendmail=path Override configure's guess as to the location of sendmail. --without-sendmail Do not use sendmail to mail messages to the "mailto" user. Use only if don't run sendmail or the equivalent. --with-umask Umask to use when running the root command. The default is 0022. --without-umask Preserves the umask of the user invoking sudo. --with-runas-default=user The default user to run commands as if the -u flag is not specified on the command line. This defaults to "root". --with-exempt=group Users in the specified group don't need to enter a password when running sudo. This may be useful for sites that don't want their "core" sysadmins to have to enter a password but where Jr. sysadmins need to. You should probably use NOPASSWD in sudoers instead. --with-passwd-tries=tries Number of tries a user gets to enter his/her password before sudo logs the failure and exits. The default is 3. --with-timeout=minutes Number of minutes that can elapse before sudo will ask for a passwd again. The default is 5, set this to 0 to always prompt for a password. --with-password-timeout=minutes Number of minutes before the sudo password prompt times out. The default is 5, set this to 0 for no password timeout. --with-tty-tickets This makes sudo use a different ticket file for each user/tty combo. Ie: instead of the ticket path being "username" it is "username/tty". This is useful for "shared" accounts like "operator". Note that this means that there will be more files in the timestamp dir. This is not a problem if your system has a cron job to remove of files from /tmp (or wherever you specified the timestamp dir to be). --with-insults Define this if you want to be insulted for typing an incorrect password just like the original sudo(8). This is off by default. --with-all-insults Include all the insult sets listed below. --with-classic-insults Uses insults from sudo "classic." If you just specify --with-insults you will get the classic and CSOps insults. This is on by default if --with-insults is given. --with-csops-insults Insults the user with an extra set of insults (some quotes, some original) from a sysadmin group at CU (CSOps). You must specify --with-insults as well for this to have any effect. This is on by default if --with-insults is given. --with-hal-insults Uses 2001-like insults when an incorrect password is entered. You must specify --with-insults as well for this to have any effect. --with-goons-insults Insults the user with lines from the "Goon Show" when an incorrect password is entered. You must specify --with-insults as well for this to have any effect. --with-secure-path[=path] Path used for every command run from sudo(8). If you don't trust the people running sudo to have a sane PATH environment variable you may want to use this. Another use is if you want to have the "root path" be separate from the "user path." You will need to customize the path for your site. NOTE: this is not applied to users in the group specified by --with-exemptgroup. If you do not specify a path, "/bin:/usr/ucb:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/etc:/etc" is used. --without-lecture Don't print the lecture the first time a user runs sudo. --with-editor=path Specify the default editor used by visudo (and the only editor used unless --with-env-editor is specified). The default is the path to vi on your system. --with-env-editor Makes visudo consult the EDITOR and VISUAL environment variables before falling back on the default editor. Note that this may create a security hole as most editors allow a user to get a shell (which would be a root shell and hence, no logging). --disable-authentication By default, sudo requires the user to authenticate via a password or similar means. This options causes sudo to *not* require authentication. It is possible to turn authentication back on in sudoers via the PASSWD attribute. --disable-root-sudo Don't let root run sudo. This can be used to prevent people from "chaining" sudo commands to get a root shell by doing something like "sudo sudo /bin/sh". --enable-log-host Log the hostname in the log file. --enable-noargs-shell If sudo is invoked with no arguments it acts as if the "-s" flag had been given. That is, it runs a shell as root (the shell is determined by the SHELL environment variable, falling back on the shell listed in the invoking user's /etc/passwd entry). --enable-shell-sets-home If sudo is invoked with the "-s" flag the HOME environment variable will be set to the home directory of the target user (which is root unless the "-u" option is used). This option effectively makes the "-s" flag imply "-H". --disable-path-info Normally, sudo will tell the user when a command could not be found in their $PATH. Some sites may wish to disable this as it could be used to gather information on the location of executables that the normal user does not have access to. The disadvantage is that if the executable is simply not in the user's path, sudo will tell the user that they are not allowed to run it, which can be confusing. Shadow password and C2 support ============================== Shadow passwords (also included with most C2 security packages) are supported on most major platforms for which they exist. The `configure' script will attempt to determine if your system can use shadow passwords and include support for them if so. Shadow password support is now compiled in by default (it doesn't hurt anything if you don't have them configured). To disable the shadow password support, use the --disable-shadow option to configure. Shadow passwords are known to work on the following platforms: SunOS 4.x Solaris 2.x HP-UX >= 9.x Ultrix 4.x Digital UNIX IRIX >= 5.x AIX >= 3.2.x ConvexOS with C2 security (not tested recently) Linux SCO >= 3.2.2 Pyramid DC/OSx UnixWare SVR4 (and variants using standard SVR4 shadow passwords) 4.4BSD based systems (including OpenBSD, NetBSD, FreeBSD, and BSD/OS) OS's using SecureWare's C2 security. OS dependent notes ================== OpenBSD < 2.2 and NetBSD < 1.2.1: The fdesc filesystem has a bug wrt /dev/tty handling that causes sudo to hang at the password prompt. The workaround is to run configure with --with-password-timeout=0 Solaris 2.x: You need to have a C compiler in order to build sudo. Since Solaris 2.x does not come with one by default this means that you either need to have purchased the unbundled Sun C compiler or have a copy of the GNU C compiler (gcc). The SunSoft Catalyst CD should contain gcc binaries for Solaris. You can also get them from various places on the net, including http://www.sunfreeware.com/ NOTE: sudo will *not* build with the sun C compiler in BSD compatibility mode (/usr/ucb/cc). Sudo is designed to compile with the standard C compiler (or gcc) and will not build correctly with /usr/ucb/cc. You can use the `--with-CC' option to point `configure' to the non-ucb compiler if it is not the first cc in your path. Some sites link /usr/ucb/cc to gcc; configure will not notice this an still refuse to use /usr/ucb/cc, so make sure gcc is also in your path if your site is setup this way. Also: Many versions of Solaris come with a broken syslogd. If you have having problems with sudo logging you should make sure you have the latest syslogd patch installed. This is a problem for Solaris 2.4 and 2.5 at least. AIX 3.2.x: I've had various problems with the AIX C compiler producing incorrect code when the -O flag was used. When optimization is not used, the problems go away. Gcc does not appear to have this problem. Also, the AIX 3.2.x lex will not work with sudo's parse.lex. This should not be a problem as sudo comes shipped with a pre-generated lex.yy.c (created by flex). If you want to modify the lex tokenizer, make sure you grab a copy of flex from ftp.ee.lbl.gov (also available on most GNU mirrors) and sudo will use that instead. Ultrix 4.x: Ultrix still ships with the 4.2BSD syslog(3) which does not allow things like logging different facilities to different files, redirecting logs to a single loghost and other niceties. You may want to just grab and install: ftp://gatekeeper.dec.com/pub/DEC/jtkohl-syslog-complete.tar.Z (available via anonymous ftp) which is a port if the 4.3BSD syslog/syslogd that is backwards compatible with the Ultrix version. I recommend it highly. If you do not do this you probably want to run configure with --with-logging=file Digital UNIX: By default, sudo will use SIA (Security Integration Architecture) to validate a user. If you want to use an alternate authentication method that does not go through SIA, you need to use the --disable-sia option to configure. If you use gcc to compile you will get warnings when building interfaces.c. These are harmless but if they really bug you, you can edit /usr/include/net/if.h around line 123, right after the comment: /* forward decls for C++ */ change the line: #ifdef __cplusplus to: #if defined(__cplusplus) || defined(__GNUC__) If you don't like the idea of editing the system header file you can just make a copy in gcc's private include tree and edit that. Linux: NOTE: Reportedly, Linux's execvp(3) doesn't always execute scripts that lack the "#!/some/shell" header correctly. The workaround is to give all your scripts a proper header. Versions of glibc 2.x previous to 2.0.7 have a broken lsearch(). You will need to either upgrade to glibc-2.0.7 or use sudo's version of lsearch(). To use sudo's lsearch(), comment out the "#define HAVE_LSEARCH 1" line in config.h and add lsearch.o to the LIBOBJS line in the Makefile. It is not possible to access the sudoers file via NFS on Linux. This is due to a bug in the Linux client-side NFS implementation. It has been fixed in the developement kernel but, as of Aug 27, 1999, the fixes have not made it into the mainstream kernel. There is a workaround on the sudo ftp site, linux_nfs.patch, if you need to NFS-mount sudoers on Linux. Mac OS X: It has been reported that for sudo to work on Mac OS X it must either be built with the --with-password-timeout=0 option or the password timeout must be disabled in the Defaults line in the sudoers file. If sudo just hangs when you try to enter a password, you need to disable the password timeout (Note: this is not a bug in sudo). SCO ODT: You'll probably need libcrypt_i.a available via anonymous ftp from sosco.sco.com. The necessary files are /SLS/lng225b.Z and /SLS/lng225b.ltr.Z. Dynix: Some people have experienced problems building sudo with gcc on Dynix. If you experience problems compiling sudo using gcc on Dynix, try using the native compiler (cc). You can do so by removing the config.cache file and then re-running configure with the --with-CC=cc option.