hv.h   [plain text]

/*    hv.h
 *    Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999,
 *    2000, 2001, 2002, by Larry Wall and others
 *    You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
 *    License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.

/* typedefs to eliminate some typing */
typedef struct he HE;
typedef struct hek HEK;

/* entry in hash value chain */
struct he {
    HE		*hent_next;	/* next entry in chain */
    HEK		*hent_hek;	/* hash key */
    SV		*hent_val;	/* scalar value that was hashed */

/* hash key -- defined separately for use as shared pointer */
struct hek {
    U32		hek_hash;	/* hash of key */
    I32		hek_len;	/* length of hash key */
    char	hek_key[1];	/* variable-length hash key */
    /* the hash-key is \0-terminated */
    /* after the \0 there is a byte for flags, such as whether the key is
       UTF8 */

/* hash structure: */
/* This structure must match the beginning of struct xpvmg in sv.h. */
struct xpvhv {
    char *	xhv_array;	/* pointer to malloced string */
    STRLEN	xhv_fill;	/* how full xhv_array currently is */
    STRLEN	xhv_max;	/* subscript of last element of xhv_array */
    IV		xhv_keys;	/* how many elements in the array */
    NV		xnv_nv;		/* numeric value, if any */
#define xhv_placeholders xnv_nv
    MAGIC*	xmg_magic;	/* magic for scalar array */
    HV*		xmg_stash;	/* class package */

    I32		xhv_riter;	/* current root of iterator */
    HE		*xhv_eiter;	/* current entry of iterator */
    PMOP	*xhv_pmroot;	/* list of pm's for this package */
    char	*xhv_name;	/* name, if a symbol table */

/* hash a key */
/* FYI: This is the "One-at-a-Time" algorithm by Bob Jenkins
 * from requirements by Colin Plumb.
 * (http://burtleburtle.net/bob/hash/doobs.html) */
/* The use of a temporary pointer and the casting games
 * is needed to serve the dual purposes of
 * (a) the hashed data being interpreted as "unsigned char" (new since 5.8,
 *     a "char" can be either signed or signed, depending on the compiler)
 * (b) catering for old code that uses a "char"
#define PERL_HASH(hash,str,len) \
     STMT_START	{ \
	register const char *s_PeRlHaSh_tmp = str; \
	register const unsigned char *s_PeRlHaSh = (const unsigned char *)s_PeRlHaSh_tmp; \
	register I32 i_PeRlHaSh = len; \
	register U32 hash_PeRlHaSh = 0; \
	while (i_PeRlHaSh--) { \
	    hash_PeRlHaSh += *s_PeRlHaSh++; \
	    hash_PeRlHaSh += (hash_PeRlHaSh << 10); \
	    hash_PeRlHaSh ^= (hash_PeRlHaSh >> 6); \
	} \
	hash_PeRlHaSh += (hash_PeRlHaSh << 3); \
	hash_PeRlHaSh ^= (hash_PeRlHaSh >> 11); \
	(hash) = (hash_PeRlHaSh + (hash_PeRlHaSh << 15)); \
    } STMT_END

=head1 Hash Manipulation Functions

=for apidoc AmU||HEf_SVKEY
This flag, used in the length slot of hash entries and magic structures,
specifies the structure contains an C<SV*> pointer where a C<char*> pointer
is to be expected. (For information only--not to be used).

=head1 Handy Values

=for apidoc AmU||Nullhv
Null HV pointer.

=head1 Hash Manipulation Functions

=for apidoc Am|char*|HvNAME|HV* stash
Returns the package name of a stash.  See C<SvSTASH>, C<CvSTASH>.

=for apidoc Am|void*|HeKEY|HE* he
Returns the actual pointer stored in the key slot of the hash entry. The
pointer may be either C<char*> or C<SV*>, depending on the value of
C<HeKLEN()>.  Can be assigned to.  The C<HePV()> or C<HeSVKEY()> macros are
usually preferable for finding the value of a key.

=for apidoc Am|STRLEN|HeKLEN|HE* he
If this is negative, and amounts to C<HEf_SVKEY>, it indicates the entry
holds an C<SV*> key.  Otherwise, holds the actual length of the key.  Can
be assigned to. The C<HePV()> macro is usually preferable for finding key

=for apidoc Am|SV*|HeVAL|HE* he
Returns the value slot (type C<SV*>) stored in the hash entry.

=for apidoc Am|U32|HeHASH|HE* he
Returns the computed hash stored in the hash entry.

=for apidoc Am|char*|HePV|HE* he|STRLEN len
Returns the key slot of the hash entry as a C<char*> value, doing any
necessary dereferencing of possibly C<SV*> keys.  The length of the string
is placed in C<len> (this is a macro, so do I<not> use C<&len>).  If you do
not care about what the length of the key is, you may use the global
variable C<PL_na>, though this is rather less efficient than using a local
variable.  Remember though, that hash keys in perl are free to contain
embedded nulls, so using C<strlen()> or similar is not a good way to find
the length of hash keys. This is very similar to the C<SvPV()> macro
described elsewhere in this document.

=for apidoc Am|SV*|HeSVKEY|HE* he
Returns the key as an C<SV*>, or C<Nullsv> if the hash entry does not
contain an C<SV*> key.

=for apidoc Am|SV*|HeSVKEY_force|HE* he
Returns the key as an C<SV*>.  Will create and return a temporary mortal
C<SV*> if the hash entry contains only a C<char*> key.

=for apidoc Am|SV*|HeSVKEY_set|HE* he|SV* sv
Sets the key to a given C<SV*>, taking care to set the appropriate flags to
indicate the presence of an C<SV*> key, and returns the same


/* these hash entry flags ride on hent_klen (for use only in magic/tied HVs) */
#define HEf_SVKEY	-2	/* hent_key is an SV* */

#define Nullhv Null(HV*)
#define HvARRAY(hv)	(*(HE***)&((XPVHV*)  SvANY(hv))->xhv_array)
#define HvFILL(hv)	((XPVHV*)  SvANY(hv))->xhv_fill
#define HvMAX(hv)	((XPVHV*)  SvANY(hv))->xhv_max
#define HvRITER(hv)	((XPVHV*)  SvANY(hv))->xhv_riter
#define HvEITER(hv)	((XPVHV*)  SvANY(hv))->xhv_eiter
#define HvPMROOT(hv)	((XPVHV*)  SvANY(hv))->xhv_pmroot
#define HvNAME(hv)	((XPVHV*)  SvANY(hv))->xhv_name

/* the number of keys (including any placeholers) */
#define XHvTOTALKEYS(xhv)	((xhv)->xhv_keys)

/* The number of placeholders in the enumerated-keys hash */
#define XHvPLACEHOLDERS(xhv)	((xhv)->xhv_placeholders)

/* the number of keys that exist() (i.e. excluding placeholders) */
#define XHvUSEDKEYS(xhv)      (XHvTOTALKEYS(xhv) - (IV)XHvPLACEHOLDERS(xhv))

 * HvKEYS gets the number of keys that actually exist(), and is provided
 * for backwards compatibility with old XS code. The core uses HvUSEDKEYS
 * (keys, excluding placeholdes) and HvTOTALKEYS (including placeholders)
#define HvKEYS(hv)		XHvUSEDKEYS((XPVHV*)  SvANY(hv))
#define HvUSEDKEYS(hv)		XHvUSEDKEYS((XPVHV*)  SvANY(hv))

#define HvSHAREKEYS(hv)		(SvFLAGS(hv) & SVphv_SHAREKEYS)
#define HvSHAREKEYS_on(hv)	(SvFLAGS(hv) |= SVphv_SHAREKEYS)
#define HvSHAREKEYS_off(hv)	(SvFLAGS(hv) &= ~SVphv_SHAREKEYS)

/* This is an optimisation flag. It won't be set if all hash keys have a 0
 * flag. Currently the only flags relate to utf8.
 * Hence it won't be set if all keys are 8 bit only. It will be set if any key
 * is utf8 (including 8 bit keys that were entered as utf8, and need upgrading
 * when retrieved during iteration. It may still be set when there are no longer
 * any utf8 keys.
#define HvHASKFLAGS(hv)		(SvFLAGS(hv) & SVphv_HASKFLAGS)
#define HvHASKFLAGS_on(hv)	(SvFLAGS(hv) |= SVphv_HASKFLAGS)
#define HvHASKFLAGS_off(hv)	(SvFLAGS(hv) &= ~SVphv_HASKFLAGS)

#define HvLAZYDEL(hv)		(SvFLAGS(hv) & SVphv_LAZYDEL)
#define HvLAZYDEL_on(hv)	(SvFLAGS(hv) |= SVphv_LAZYDEL)
#define HvLAZYDEL_off(hv)	(SvFLAGS(hv) &= ~SVphv_LAZYDEL)

/* Maybe amagical: */
/* #define HV_AMAGICmb(hv)      (SvFLAGS(hv) & (SVpgv_badAM | SVpgv_AM)) */

#define HV_AMAGIC(hv)        (SvFLAGS(hv) &   SVpgv_AM)
#define HV_AMAGIC_on(hv)     (SvFLAGS(hv) |=  SVpgv_AM)
#define HV_AMAGIC_off(hv)    (SvFLAGS(hv) &= ~SVpgv_AM)

#define HV_AMAGICbad(hv)     (SvFLAGS(hv) & SVpgv_badAM)
#define HV_badAMAGIC_on(hv)  (SvFLAGS(hv) |= SVpgv_badAM)
#define HV_badAMAGIC_off(hv) (SvFLAGS(hv) &= ~SVpgv_badAM)

#define Nullhe Null(HE*)
#define HeNEXT(he)		(he)->hent_next
#define HeKEY_hek(he)		(he)->hent_hek
#define HeKEY(he)		HEK_KEY(HeKEY_hek(he))
#define HeKEY_sv(he)		(*(SV**)HeKEY(he))
#define HeKLEN(he)		HEK_LEN(HeKEY_hek(he))
#define HeKUTF8(he)  HEK_UTF8(HeKEY_hek(he))
#define HeKWASUTF8(he)  HEK_WASUTF8(HeKEY_hek(he))
#define HeKLEN_UTF8(he)  (HeKUTF8(he) ? -HeKLEN(he) : HeKLEN(he))
#define HeKFLAGS(he)  HEK_FLAGS(HeKEY_hek(he))
#define HeVAL(he)		(he)->hent_val
#define HeHASH(he)		HEK_HASH(HeKEY_hek(he))
#define HePV(he,lp)		((HeKLEN(he) == HEf_SVKEY) ?		\
				 SvPV(HeKEY_sv(he),lp) :		\
				 (((lp = HeKLEN(he)) >= 0) ?		\
				  HeKEY(he) : Nullch))

#define HeSVKEY(he)		((HeKEY(he) && 				\
				  HeKLEN(he) == HEf_SVKEY) ?		\
				 HeKEY_sv(he) : Nullsv)

#define HeSVKEY_force(he)	(HeKEY(he) ?				\
				 ((HeKLEN(he) == HEf_SVKEY) ?		\
				  HeKEY_sv(he) :			\
				  sv_2mortal(newSVpvn(HeKEY(he),	\
						     HeKLEN(he)))) :	\
#define HeSVKEY_set(he,sv)	((HeKLEN(he) = HEf_SVKEY), (HeKEY_sv(he) = sv))

#define Nullhek Null(HEK*)
#define HEK_BASESIZE		STRUCT_OFFSET(HEK, hek_key[0])
#define HEK_HASH(hek)		(hek)->hek_hash
#define HEK_LEN(hek)		(hek)->hek_len
#define HEK_KEY(hek)		(hek)->hek_key
#define HEK_FLAGS(hek)	(*((unsigned char *)(HEK_KEY(hek))+HEK_LEN(hek)+1))

#define HVhek_UTF8	0x01 /* Key is utf8 encoded. */
#define HVhek_WASUTF8	0x02 /* Key is bytes here, but was supplied as utf8. */
#define HVhek_FREEKEY	0x100 /* Internal flag to say key is malloc()ed.  */
#define HVhek_PLACEHOLD	0x200 /* Internal flag to create placeholder.
                               * (may change, but Storable is a core module) */
#define HVhek_MASK	0xFF

#define HEK_UTF8(hek)		(HEK_FLAGS(hek) & HVhek_UTF8)
#define HEK_UTF8_on(hek)	(HEK_FLAGS(hek) |= HVhek_UTF8)
#define HEK_UTF8_off(hek)	(HEK_FLAGS(hek) &= ~HVhek_UTF8)
#define HEK_WASUTF8(hek)	(HEK_FLAGS(hek) & HVhek_WASUTF8)
#define HEK_WASUTF8_on(hek)	(HEK_FLAGS(hek) |= HVhek_WASUTF8)
#define HEK_WASUTF8_off(hek)	(HEK_FLAGS(hek) &= ~HVhek_WASUTF8)

/* calculate HV array allocation */
#if defined(STRANGE_MALLOC) || defined(MYMALLOC)
#  define PERL_HV_ARRAY_ALLOC_BYTES(size) ((size) * sizeof(HE*))
#  define MALLOC_OVERHEAD 16
#  define PERL_HV_ARRAY_ALLOC_BYTES(size) \
			(((size) < 64)					\
			 ? (size) * sizeof(HE*)				\
			 : (size) * sizeof(HE*) * 2 - MALLOC_OVERHEAD)

/* Flags for hv_iternext_flags.  */
#define HV_ITERNEXT_WANTPLACEHOLDERS	0x01	/* Don't skip placeholders.  */

/* available as a function in hv.c */
#define Perl_sharepvn(sv, len, hash) HEK_KEY(share_hek(sv, len, hash))
#define sharepvn(sv, len, hash)	     Perl_sharepvn(sv, len, hash)