00PORTING   [plain text]

		Guide to Porting lsof 4 to Unix OS Dialects

| The latest release of lsof is always available via anonymous ftp   |
| from lsof.itap.purdue.edu.  Look in pub/lsof.README for its        |
| location.                                                          |


	How Lsof Works
	/proc-based Linux Lsof -- a Different Approach
	General Guidelines
	Source File Naming Conventions
	Coding Philosophies
	Data Requirements
	Dlsof.h and #include's
	Definitions That Affect Compilation
	Options: Common and Special
	Defining Dialect-Specific Symbols and Global Storage
	Coding Dialect-specific Functions
	Function Prototype Definitions and the _PROTOTYPE Macro
	The Makefile
	The Mksrc Shell Script
	The MkKernOpts Shell Script
	Testing and the lsof Test Suite
	Where Next?

How Lsof Works

Before getting on with porting guidelines, just a word or two about
how lsof works.

Lsof obtains data about open UNIX dialect files by reading the
kernel's proc structure information, following it to the related
user structure, then reading the open file structures stored
(usually) in the user structure.  Typically lsof uses the kernel
memory devices, /dev/kmem, /dev/mem, etc. to read kernel data.

Lsof stores information from the proc and user structures in an
internal, local proc structure table.  It then processes the open
file structures by reading the file system nodes that lie behind
them, extracting and storing relevant data in internal local file
structures that are linked to the internal local process structure.

Once all data has been gathered, lsof reports it from its internal,
local tables.

There are a few variants on this subject.  Some systems don't have
just proc structures, but have task structures, too, (e.g., NeXTSTEP
and OSF/1 derivatives).  For some dialects lsof gets proc structures
or process information (See "/proc-based Linux Lsof -- a Different
Approach) from files of the /proc file system.  It's not necessary
for lsof to read user structures on some systems (recent versions
of HP-UX), because the data lsof needs can be found in the task or
proc structures.  In the end lsof gathers the same data, just from
slightly different sources.

/proc-based Linux Lsof -- a Different Approach

For a completely different approach to lsof construction, take a
look at the /proc-based Linux sources in .../dialects/linux/proc.
(The sources in .../dialects/linux/kmem are for a traditional lsof
that uses /dev/kmem to read information from kernel structures.)

The /proc-based lsof obtains all its information from the Linux
/proc file system.  Consequently, it is relatively immune to changes
in Linux kernel structures and doesn't need to be re-compiled each
time the Linux kernel version changes.

There are some down-sides to the Linux /proc-based lsof:

    *  It must run setuid-root in order to be able to read the
       /proc file system branches for all processes.  In contrast,
       the /dev/kmem-based Linux lsof usually needs only setgid

    *  It depends on the exact character format of /proc files, so
       it is sensitive to changes in /proc file composition.

    *  It is limited to the information a /proc file system
       implementor decides to provide.  For example, if a
       /proc/net/<protocol> file lacks an inode number, the
       /proc-based lsof can't connect open socket files to that
       protocol.  Another deficiency is that the /proc-based may
       not be able to report file offset (position) information,
       when it isn't available in the /proc/<PID>/fd/ entry for a

       In contrast the /dev/kmem-based lsof has full access to
       kernel structures and "sees" new data as soon as it appears.
       Of course, that new data requires that lsof be recompiled
       and usually also requires changes to lsof.

Overall the switch from a /dev/kmem base to a /proc one is an
advantage to Linux lsof.  The switch was made at lsof revision 4.23
for Linux kernel versions 2.1.72 (approximately) and higher.  The
reason I'm not certain at which Linux kernel version a /proc-based
lsof becomes possible is that the /proc additions needed to implement
it have been added gradually to Linux 2.1.x in ways that I cannot

/proc-based lsof functions in many ways the same as /dev/kmem-based
lsof.  It scans the /proc directory, looking for <PID>/ subdirectories.
Inside each one it collects process-related data from the cwd, exe,
maps, root, and stat information files.

It collects open file information from the fd/ subdirectory of each
<PID>/ subdirectory.  The lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2) system
calls gather information about the files from the kernel.

Lock information comes from /proc/locks.  It is matched to open
files by inode number.  Mount information comes from /proc/mounts.
Per domain protocol information comes from the files of /proc/net;
it's matched to open socket files by inode number.

The Linux /proc file system implementors have done an amazing job
of providing the information lsof needs.  The /proc-based lsof
project has so far generated only two kernel modification:

    *  A modification to /usr/src/linux/net/ipx/af_ipx.c adds the
       inode number to the entries of /proc/net/ipx.

       Jonathan Sergent did this kernel modification.

       It may be found in the .../dialects/linux/proc/patches
       subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

    *  An experimental modification to /usr/src/linux/fs/stat.c
       allows lstat(2) to return file position information for
       /proc/<PID>/fd/<FD> files.
       Contact me for this modification.

One final note about the /proc-based Linux lsof: it doesn't need
any functions from the lsof library in the lib/ subdirectory.

General Guidelines

These are the general guidelines for porting lsof 4 to a new Unix

    *  Understand the organization of the lsof sources and the
       philosophies that guide their coding.

    *  Understand the data requirements and determine the methods
       of locating the necessary data in the new dialect's kernel.

    *  Pick a name for the subdirectory in lsof4/dialects for your
       dialect.  Generally I use a vendor operating system name

    *  Locate the necessary header files and #include them in the
       dialect's dlsof.h file.  (You may not be able to complete
       this step until you have coded all dialect-specific functions.)

    *  Determine the optional library functions of lsof to be used
       and set their definitions in the dialect's machine.h file.

    *  Define the dialect's specific symbols and global storage
       in the dialect's dlsof.h and dstore.c files.

    *  Code the dialect-specific functions in the appropriate
       source files of the dialect's subdirectory.

       Include the necessary prototype definitions of the dialect-
       specific functions in the dproto.h file in the dialect's

    *  Define the dialect's Makefile and source construction shell
       script, Mksrc.

    *  If there are #define's that affect how kernel structures
       are organized, and those #define's are needed when compiling
       lsof, build a MkKernOpts shell script to locate the #define's
       and supply them to the Configure shell script.


The code in a dialect-specific version of lsof comes from three

    1)  functions common to all versions, located in the top level
	directory, lsof4;

    2)  functions specific to the dialect, located in the dialect's
	subdirectory -- e.g., lsof4/dialects/sun;

    3)  functions that are common to several dialects, although
	not to all, organized in a library, liblsof.a.  The functions
	in the library source can be selected and customized with
	definitions in the dialect machine.h header files.

The tree looks like this:

			    lsof4 ----------------------+ 3) library --
			    |   \			     lsof4/lib
  1) fully common functions +    \
      e.g., lsof4/main.c	  + lsof4/dialects/
			   / / / / \
			   + + + +  +
  2) dialect-specific subdirectories -- e.g., lsof4/dialects/sun

The code for a dialect-specific version is constructed from these
three sources by the Configure shell script in the top level lsof4
directory and definitions in the dialect machine.h header files.
Configure uses the Mksrc shell script in each dialect's subdirectory,
and may use an optional MkKernOpts shell script in selected dialect

Configure calls the Mksrc shell script in each dialect's subdirectory
to assemble the dialect-specific sources in the main lsof directory.
Configure may call MkKernOpts to determine kernel compile-time
options that are needed for compiling kernel structures correctly
for use by lsof.  Configure puts the options in a dialect-specific
Makefile it build, using a template in the dialect subdirectory.

The assembly of dialect-specific sources in the main lsof directory
is usually done by creating symbolic links from the top level to
the dialect's subdirectory.  The LSOF_MKC environment variable may
be defined prior to using Configure to change the technique used
to assemble the sources -- most commonly to use cp instead of ln -s.

The Configure script completes the dialect's Makefile by adding
string definitions, including the necessary kernel compile-time
options, to a dialect skeleton Makefile while copying it from the
dialect subdirectory to the top level lsof4 directory.  Optionally
Makefile may call the dialect's MkKernOpts script to add string

When the lsof library, lsof4/lib/liblsof.a, is compiled its
functions are selected and customized by #define's in the dialect
machine.h header file.

Source File Naming Conventions

With one exception, dialect-specific source files begin with a
lower case `d' character -- ddev.c, dfile.c, dlsof.h.  The one
exception is the header file that contains dialect-specific
definitions for the optional features of the common functions.
It's called machine.h for historical reasons.

Currently all dialects use almost the same source file names.  One
exception to the rule happens in dialects where there must be
different source files -- e.g., dnode[123].c -- to eliminate node
header file structure element name conflicts.  The source modules
in a few subdirectories are organized that way.

Unusual situations occur for NetBSD and OpenBSD, and for NEXTSTEP
and OPENSTEP.  Each pair of dialects is so close in design that
the same dialect sources from the n+obsd subdirectory serves NetBSD
and OpenBSD; from n+os, NEXTSTEP and OPENSTEP.

These are common files in lsof4/:

    Configure	the configuration script

    Customize	does some customization of the selected lsof

    Inventory	takes an inventory of the files in an lsof

    version	the version number

    dialects/	the dialects subdirectory

These are the common function source files in lsof4/:

    arg.c	common argument processing functions

    lsof.h	common header file that #include's the dialect-specific
		header files

    main.c	common main function for lsof 4

    misc.c	common miscellaneous functions -- e.g., special versions
		of stat() and readlink()

    node.c	common node reading functions -- readinode(), readvnode()

    print.c	common print support functions

    proc.c	common process and file structure functions

    proto.h	common prototype definitions, including the definition of
		the _PROTOTYPE() macro

    store.c	common global storage version.h	the current lsof version
		number, derived from the file version by the Makefile

    usage.c	functions to display lsof usage panel

These are the dialect-specific files:

    Makefile	the Makefile skeleton

    Mksrc	a shell script that assists the Configure script
		in configuring dialect sources

    MkKernOpts  an optional shell script that identifies kernel
		compile-time options for selected dialects -- e.g.,
		Pyramid DC/OSx and Reliant UNIX

    ddev.c	device support functions -- readdev() -- may be
		eliminated by functions from lsof4/lib/

    dfile.c	file processing functions -- may be eliminated by
		functions from lsof4/lib/

    dlsof.h	dialect-specific header file -- contains #include's
		for system header files and dialect-specific global
		storage declarations

    dmnt.c	mount support functions -- may be eliminated by
		functions from lsof4/lib/

    dnode.c	node processing functions -- e.g., for gnode or vnode

    dnode?.c	additional node processing functions, used when node
		header files have duplicate and conflicting element

    dproc.c	functions to access, read, examine and cache data about
		dialect-specific process structures -- this file contains
		the dialect-specific "main" function, gather_proc_info()

    dproto.h	dialect-specific prototype declarations

    dsock.c	dialect-specific socket processing functions

    dstore.c	dialect-specific global storage -- e.g., the nlist()

    machine.h	dialect specific definitions of common function options --
		e.g., a HASINODE definition to activate the readinode()
		function in lsof4/node.c

		The machine.h header file also selects and customizes
		the functions of lsof4/lib/.

These are the lib/ files.  Definitions in the dialect machine.h
header files select and customize the contained functions that are
to be compiled and archived to liblsof.a.

    Makefile.skel	is a skeleton Makefile, used by Configure
			to construct the Makefile for the lsof

    cvfs.c		completevfs() function

			USE_LIB_COMPLETEVFS selects it.

			and HASFSINO customize it.

    dvch.c		device cache functions

			HASDCACHE selects them.


    fino.c		find block and character device inode functions

			HASBLKDEV and USE_LIB_FIND_CH_INO select them.

    isfn.c		hashSfile() and is_file_named() functions

			USE_LIB_IS_FILE_NAMED selects it.

    lkud.c		device lookup functions

			HASBLKDEV and USE_LIB_LKUPDEV select them.

    pdvn.c		print device name functions


    prfp.c		process_file() function

			USE_LIB_PROCESS_FILE selects it.

			HASPSXSHM and HASPSXSEM customize it.

    ptti.c		print_tcptpi() function

			USE_LIB_PRINT_TCPTPI selects it.

			HASTCPTPIQ and HASTCPTPIW customize it.

    rdev.c		readdev() function

			USE_LIB_READDEV selects it.

			WARNDEVACCESS customize it.

    rmnt.c		readmnt() function

			USE_LIB_READMNT selects it.

			and MOUNTS_FSTYPE customize it.

    rnam.c		BSD format name cache functions

			HASNCACHE and USE_LIB_RNAM select them.

			X_NCACHE, and X_NCSIZE, customize them.

    rnch.c		Sun format name cache functions

			HASNCACHE and USE_LIB_RNCH select them.

			NCACHE_VP, X_NCACHE, and X_NCSIZE, customize

    snpf.c		Source for the snprintf() family of functions

			USE_LIB_SNPF selects it.

The comments and the source code in these library files give more
information on customization.

Coding Philosophies

A few basic philosophies govern the coding of lsof 4 functions:

    *  Use as few #if/#else/#endif constructs as possible, even at
       the cost of nearly-duplicate code.

       When #if/#else/#endif constructs are necessary:
       o  Use the form

		#if	defined(s<symbol>)
	  in preference to
		#ifdef	<symbol>
	  to allow easier addition of tests to the #if.

       o  Indent them to signify their level -- e.g.,

		#if	/* level one */
		# if	/* level two */
		# endif	/* level two */
		#else	/* level one */
		#endif	/* level one */

	o  Use ANSI standard comments on #else and #endif statements.

    *  Document copiously.

    *  Aim for ANSI-C compatibility:
       o  Use function prototypes for all functions, hiding them
	  from compilers that cannot handle them with the _PROTOTYPE()

       o  Use the compiler's ANSI conformance checking wherever
	  possible -- e.g., gcc's -ansi option.

Data Requirements

Lsof's strategy in obtaining open file information is to access
the process table via its proc structures, then obtain the associated
user area and open file structures.  The open file structures then
lead lsof to file type specific structures -- cdrnodes, fifonodes,
inodes, gnodes, hsfsnodes, pipenodes, pcnodes, rnodes, snodes,
sockets, tmpnodes, and vnodes.

The specific node structures must yield data about the open files.  The
most important items and device number (raw and cooked) and node
number.  (Lsof uses them to identify files and file systems named as
arguments.)  Link counts and file sizes are important, too, as are the
special characteristics of sockets, pipes, FIFOs, etc.

This means that to begin an lsof port to a new Unix dialect you
must understand how to obtain these structures from the dialect's
kernel.  Look for kernel access functions -- e.g., the AIX readx()
function, Sun and Sun-like kvm_*() functions, or SGI's syssgi()
function.  Look for clues in header files -- e.g. external declarations
and macros.

If you have access to them, look at sources to programs like ps(1),
or the freely available monitor and top programs.  They may give
you important clues on reading proc and user area structures.  An
appeal to readers of dialect-specific news groups may uncover
correspondents who can help.

Careful reading of system header files -- e.g., <sys/proc.h> --
may give hints about how kernel storage is organized.  Look for
global variables declared under a KERNEL or _KERNEL #if.  Run nm(1)
across the kernel image (/vmunix, /unix, etc.) and look for references
to structures of interest.

Even if there are support functions for reading structures, like the
kvm_*() functions, you must still understand how to read data from
kernel memory.  Typically this requires an understanding of the
nlist() function, and how to use /dev/kmem, /dev/mem, and /dev/swap.

Don't overlook the possibility that you may have to use the process
file system -- e.g., /proc.  I try to avoid using /proc when I can,
since it usually requires that lsof have setuid(root) permission
to read the individual /proc "files".

Once you can access kernel structures, you must understand how
they're connected.  You must answer questions like:

    *  How big are kernel addresses?  How are they type cast?

    *  How are kernel variable names converted to addresses?

    *  How are the proc structures organized?  Is it a static
       table?  Are the proc structures linked?  Is there a
       kernel pointer to the first proc structure?  Is there a
       proc structure count?

    *  How does one obtain copies of the proc structures?  Via
       /dev/kmem?  Via a vendor API?

    *  If this is a Mach derivative, is it necessary to obtain the
       task and thread structures?  How?

    *  How does one obtain the user area (or the utask area in Mach
       systems) that corresponds to a process?

    *  Where are the file structures located for open file
       descriptors and how are they located?  Are all file
       structures in the user area?  Is the file structure space

    *  Where do the private data pointers in file structures lead?
       To gnodes?  To inodes?  To sockets?  To vnodes?  Hint: look
       in <sys/file.h> for DTYPE_* instances and further pointers.

    *  How are the nodes organized?  To what other nodes do they
       lead and how?  Where are the common bits of information in
       nodes -- device, node number, size -- stored?  Hint: look
       in the header files for nodes for macros that may be used
       to obtain the address of one node from another -- e.g., the
       VTOI() macro that leads from a vnode to an inode.

    *  Are text reference nodes identified and how?  Is it
       necessary to examine the virtual memory map of a process or
       a task to locate text references?  Some kernels have text
       node pointers in the proc structures; some, in the user
       area; Mach kernels may have text information in the task
       structure, reached in various ways from the proc, user area,
       or user task structure.

    *  How is the device table -- e.g., /dev or /devices --
       organized?  How is it read?  Using direct or dirent structures?

       How are major/minor device numbers represented?  How are
       device numbers assembled and disassembled?

       Are there clone devices?  How are they identified?

    *  How is mount information obtained?  Getmntinfo()?  Getmntent()?
       Some special kernel call?

    *  How are sockets identified and organized?  BSD-style?  As
       streams?  Are there streams?

    *  Are there special nodes -- CD-ROM nodes, FIFO nodes, etc.?

    *  How is the kernel's name cache organized?  Can lsof access
       it to get partial name components?

Dlsof.h and #include's

Once you have identified the kernel's data organization and know
what structures it provides, you must add #include's to dlsof.h to
access their definitions.  Sometimes it is difficult to locate the
header files -- you may need to introduce -I specifications in the
Makefile via the DINC shell variable in the Configure script.

Sometimes it is necessary to define special symbols -- e.g., KERNEL,
_KERNEL, _KMEMUSER -- to induce system header files to yield kernel
structure definitions.  Sometimes making those symbol definitions
cause other header file and definition conflicts.  There's no good
general rule on how to proceed when conflicts occur.

Rarely it may be necessary to extract structure definitions from
system header files and move them to dlsof.h, create special versions
of system header files, or obtain special copies of system header
files from "friendly" (e.g., vendor) sources.  The dlsof.h header
file in lsof4/dialects/sun shows examples of the first case; the
second, no examples; the third, the irix5hdr subdirectory in
lsof4/dialects/irix (a mixture of the first and third).

Building up the necessary #includes in dlsof.h is an iterative
process that requires attention as you build the dialect-specific
functions that references kernel structures.  Be prepared to revisit
dlsof.h frequently.

Definitions That Affect Compilation

The source files at the top level and in the lib/ subdirectory
contain optional functions that may be activated with definitions
in a dialect's machine.h header file.  Some are functions for
reading node structures that may not apply to all dialects -- e.g.
CD-ROM nodes (cdrnode), or `G' nodes (gnode) -- and others are
common functions that may occasionally be replaced by dialect-specific
ones.  Once you understand your kernel's data organization, you'll
be able to decide the optional common node functions to activate.

Definitions in machine.h and dlsof.h also enable or disable other
optional common features.  The following is an attempt to list all
the definitions that affect lsof code, but CAUTION, it is only
attempt and may be incomplete.  Always check lsof4 source code in
lib/ and dialects/, and dialect machine.h header files for other


    AIX_KERNBITS	specifies the kernel bit size, 32 or 64, of the Power
			architecture AIX 5.x kernel for which lsof was built.

    CAN_USE_CLNT_CREATE	is defined for dialects where the more modern
			RPC function clnt_create() can be used in
			place of the deprecated clnttcp_create().

    CLONEMAJ            defines the name of the variable that
			contains the clone major device number.

    DEVDEV_PATH		defines the path to the directory where device
			nodes are stored, usually /dev.  Solaris 10
			uses /devices.

    DIALECT_WARNING	may be defined by a dialect to provide a
			warning message that will be displayed with
			help (-h) and version (-v) output.

    FSV_DEFAULT		defines the default file structure values to
			list.  It may be composed of or'd FSV_*
			(See lsof.h) values.  The default is none (0).

    GET_MAJ_DEV         is a macro to get major portion from device
			number instead of via the standard major()

    GET_MIN_DEV		is a macro to get minor portion from device
			number instead of via the standard minor()

    GET_MAX_FD		the name of the function that returns an
			int for the maximum open file descriptor
			plus one.  If not defined, defaults to

    HAS9660FS           enables CD9660 file system support in a
			BSD dialect.

    HAS_ADVLOCK_ARGS    is defined for NetBSD and OpenBSD dialects
			whose <sys/lockf.h> references vop_advlock_args.

    HAS_AFS		enables AFS support code for the dialect.

    HAS_ATOMIC_T	indicates the Linux version has an
			<asm/atomic.h> header file and it contains
			"typedef struct .* atomic_t;"

    HASAOPT		indicates the dialect supports the AFS -A
			option when HAS_AFS is also defined.

    HAS_ASM_TERMIOBITS  indicates for Linux Alpha that the
			<asm/termiobits.h> header file exists.

    HASAX25CBPTR	indicates that the Linux sock struct has an
			ax25_db pointer.

    HASBLKDEV		indicates the dialect has block device support.

    HASBUFQ_H		indicates the *NSD dialect has the <sys/bufq.h>
			header file.

    HASCACHEFS		enables cache file system support for the

    HAS_CDFS		enables CDFS file system support for the

    HASCDRNODE		enables/disables readcdrnode() in node.c.

    HAS_CONN_NEW        indicates the Solaris version has the new form
			of the conn_s structure, introduced in b134 of
			Solaris 11.  This will always accompany the
			HAS_IPCLASSIFIER_H definition.

    HAS_CONST		indicates that the compiler supports the
			const keyword.

    HASCPUMASK_T	indicates the FreeBSD 5.2 or higher dialect
			has cpumask_t typedef's.

    HAS_CRED_IMPL_H	indicates the Solaris 10 dialect has the
			<sys/cred_impl.h> header file available.

    HASCWDINFO          indicates the cwdinfo structure is defined
			in the NetBSD <sys/filedesc.h>.

    HASDCACHE           enables device file cache file support.
			The device cache file contains information
			about the names, device numbers and inode
			numbers of entries in the /dev (or /device)
			node subtree that lsof saves from call to
			call.  See the 00DCACHE file of the lsof
			distribution for more information on this

    HASDENTRY		indicates the Linux version has a dentry
			struct defined in <linux/dcache.h>.

    HASDEVKNC           indicates the Linux version has a kernel
			name cached keyed on device number.

    HAS_DINODE_U	indicates the OpenBSD version has a dinode_u
			union in its inode structure.

    HASDNLCPTR          is defined when the name cache entry of
			<sys/dnlc.h> has a name character pointer
			rather than a name character array.

    HASEFFNLINK		indicates the *BSD system has the i_effnlink
			member in the inode structure.

    HASENVDC            enables the use of an environment-defined
			device cache file path and defines the name
			of the environment variable from which lsof
			may take it.  (See the 00DCACHE file of
			the lsof distribution for information on
			when HASENVDC is used or ignored.)

    HASEOPT		indicates the dialect supports the -e option to
			eliminate kernel blocks on a named file system.

    HASEXT2FS           is defined for BSD dialects for which ext2fs
			file system support can be provided.  A value
			of 1 indicates that the i_e2din member does not
			exist; 2, it exists.

    HASF_VNODE		indicates the dialect's file structure has an
			f_vnode member in it.

    HASFDESCFS		enables file descriptor file system support
			for the dialect.   A value of 1 indicates
			<miscfs/fdesc.h> has a Fctty definition; 2,
			it does not.

    HASFDLINK		indicates the file descriptor file system
			node has the fd_link member.

    HASFIFONODE		enables/disables readfifonode() in node.c.

    HAS_FL_FD		indicates the Linux version has an fl_fd
			element in the lock structure of <linux/fs.h>.

    HAS_FL_FILE		indicates the Linux version has an fl_file
			element in the lock structure of <linux/fs.h>.

    HAS_FL_WHENCE	indicates the Linux version has an fl_whence
			element in the lock structure of <linux/fs.h>.

    HAS_F_OPEN		indicates the UnixWare 7.x dialect has the
			f_open member in its file struct.

    HASFSINO            enables the inclusion of the fs_ino element
			in the lfile structure definition in lsof.h.
			This contains the file system's inode number
			and may be needed when searching the kernel
			name cache.  See dialects/osr/dproc.c for
			an example.

    HAS_JFS2		The AIX >= 5.0 dialect has jfs2 support.

    HASFSTRUCT		indicates the dialect has a file structure
			the listing of whose element values can be
			enabled with +f[cfn].  FSV_DEFAULT defines
			the default listing values.

    HASFSTYPE           enables/disables the use of the file system's
			stat(2) st_fstype member.

			If the HASFSTYPE value is 1, st_fstype is
			treated as a character array; 2, it is
			treated as an integer.

			See also the RMNT_EXPDEV and RMNT_FSTYPE
			documentation in lib/rmnt.c

    HASGETBOOTFILE	indicates the NetBSD or OpenBSD dialect has
			a getbootfile() function.

    HASGNODE		enables/disables readgnode() in node.c.

    HASHASHPID		is defined when the Linux version (probably
			above 2.1.35) has a pidhash_next member in
			its task structure.

    HASHSNODE		enables/disables readhsnode() in node.c.

    HASI_E2FS_PTR	indicates the BSD dialect has a pointer in
			its inode to the EXTFS dinode.

    HASI_FFS            indicates the BSD dialect has i_ffs_size
			in <ufs/ufs/inode.h>.

    HASI_FFS1		indicates the BSD dialect supports the fast
			UFS1 and UFS2 file systems.

    HAS_INKERNEL        indicates the SCO OSR 6.0.0 or higher, or
			UnixWare 7.1.4 or higher system uses the
			INKERNEL symbol in <netinet/in_pcb.h> or

    HASINODE		enables/disables readinode() in node.c.

    HASINOKNC		indicates the Linux version has a kernel
			name cache keyed on inode address.

    HASINADDRSTR	is defined when the inp_[fl]addr members
			of the inpcb structure are structures.

    HASINRIAIPv6	is defined if the dialect has the INRIA IPv6
			support.  (HASIPv6 will also be defined.)

    HASINT16TYPE	is defined when the dialect has a typedef
			for int16 that may conflict with some other
			header file's redefinition (e.g., <afs/std.h>).

    HASINT32TYPE	is defined when the dialect has a typedef
			for int32 that may conflict with some other
			header file's redefinition (e.g., <afs/std.h>).

    HASINTSIGNAL	is defined when signal() returns an int.

    HAS_IPCLASSIFIER_H	is defined for Solaris dialects that have the
			<inet/ipclassifier.h> header file.

    HAS_IPC_S_PATCH	is defined when the HP-UX 11 dialect has the
			ipc_s patch installed.  It has a value of
			1 if the ipc_s structure has an ipc_ipis
			member, but the ipis_s structure lacks the
			ipis_msgsqueued member; 2, if ipc_s has
			ipc_ipis, but ipis_s lacks ipis_msgsqueued.

    HASIPv6             indicates the dialect supports the IPv6
			Internet address family.

    HASKERNELKEYT       indicates the Linux version has a
			__kernel_key_t typedef in <linux/types.h>.

    HASKERNFS           is defined for BSD dialects for which
			/kern file system support can be provided.

    HASKERNFS_KFS_KT	indicates *kfs_kt is in the BSD dialect's

    HASKOPT		enables/disables the ability to read the
			kernel's name list from a file -- e.g., from
			a crash dump file.

    HASKQUEUE           indicates the dialect supports the kqueue
			file type.

    HASKVMGETPROC2      The *BSD dialect has the kvm_gettproc2()

    HAS_KVM_VNODE	indicates the FreeBSD 5.3 or higher dialect has
			"defined(_KVM_VNODE)" in <sys/vnode.h>.

    HASLFILEADD		defines additional, dialect-specific elements
    SETLFILEADD		in the lfile structure (defined in lsof.h).
			HASLFILEADD is a macro. The accompanying SETFILEADD
			macro is used in the alloc_lfile() function of
			proc.c to preset the additional elements.

    HAS_LF_LWP          is defined for BSD dialects where the lockf
			structure has an lf_lwp member.

    HASLFS		indicates the *BSD dialect has log-structured
			file system support.

			indicates the Solaris 9 or Solaris 10 system has 
			a conflict over the lgrp_root symbol in the
			<sys/lgrp.h> and <sys/lgrp_user.h> header files.

    HAS_LIBCTF		indicates the Solaris 10 and above system has
			the CTF library.

    HAS_LOCKF_ENTRY	indicates the FreeBSD version has a lockf_entry
			structure in its <sys/lockf.h> header file.

    HAS_LWP_H		is defined for BSD dialects that have the
			<sys/lwp.h> header file.

    HASMOPT		enables/disables the ability to read kernel
			memory from a file -- e.g., from a crash
			dump file.

    HASMSDOSFS		enables MS-DOS file system support in a
			BSD dialect.

    HASMNTSTAT          indicates the dialect has a stat(2) status
			element in its mounts structure.

    HASMNTSUP		indicates the dialect supports the mount supplement

    HASNAMECACHE	indicates the FreeBSD dialect has a namecache
			structure definition in <sys/namei.h>.

    HASNCACHE		enables the probing of the kernel's name cache
			to obtain path name components.  A value
			of 1 directs printname() to prefix the
			cache value with the file system directory
			name; 2, avoid the prefix.

    HASNCVPID           The *BSD dialect namecache struct has an
			nc_vpid member.

    HASNETDEVICE_H	indicates the Linux version has a netdevice.h
			header file.

    HAS_NFS		enables NFS support for the dialect.

    HASNFSKNC		indicates the LINUX version has a separate
			NFS name cache.

    HASNFSPROTO         indicates the NetBSD or OpenBSD version
			has the nfsproto.h header file.

    HASNFSVATTRP	indicates the n_vattr member of the nfsnode of
			the *BSD dialect is a pointer.

    HASNLIST		enables/disables nlist() function support.
			(See NLIST_TYPE.)

    HASNOFSADDR		is defined if the dialect has no file structure
			addresses.  (HASFSTRUCT must be defined.)

    HASNOFSCOUNT	is defined if the dialect has no file structure counts.
			(HASFSTRUCT must be defined.)

    HASNOFSFLAGS	is defined if the dialect has no file structure flags.
			(HASFSTRUCT must be defined.)

    HASNOFSNADDR	is defined if the dialect has no file structure node
			addresses.  (HASFSTRUCT must be defined.)

    HAS_NO_6PORT	is defined if the FreeBSD in_pcb.h has no in6p_.port

    HAS_NO_6PPCB	is defined if the FreeBSD in_pcb.h has no in6p_ppcb

    HAS_NO_ISO_DEV	indicates the FreeBSD 6 and higher system has
			no i_dev member in its iso_node structure.

    HAS_NO_LONG_LONG	indicates the dialect has no support for the C
			long long type.  This definition is used by
			the built-in snprintf() support of lib/snpf.c.

    HASNORPC_H		indicates the dialect has no /usr/include/rpc/rpc.h
			header file.

    HAS_NO_SI_UDEV	indicates the FreeBSD 6 and higher system has
			no si_udev member in its cdev structure.

    HASNOSOCKSECURITY   enables the listing of open socket files,
			even when HASSECURITY restricts listing of
			open files to the UID of the user who is
			running lsof, provided socket file listing
			is selected with the "-i" option.  This
			definition is only effective when HASSECURITY
			is also defined.

    HASNULLFS           indicates the dialect (usually *BSD) has a
			null file system.

    HASOBJFS            indicates the Pyramid version has OBJFS

    HASONLINEJFS	indicates the HP-UX 11 dialect has the optional
			OnlineJFS package installed.

			indicates the Solaris 10 system's <sys/fs/pc_node.h>
			header file has the pc_direntpersec() macro.

    HAS_PAD_MUTEX	indicates the Solaris 11 system has the pad_mutex_t
			typedef in its <sys/mutex.h> header file.

    HASPERSDC           enables the use of a personal device cache
			file path and specifies a format by which
			it is constructed.  See the 00DCACHE file
			of the lsof distribution for more information
			on the format.

    HASPERSDCPATH       enables the use of a modified personal
			device cache file path and specifies the
			name of the environment variable from which
			its component may be taken.  See the 00DCACHE
			file of the lsof distribution for more
			information on the modified personal device
			cache file path.

    HASPINODEN		declares that the inode number of a /proc file
			should be stored in its procfsid structure.

    HASPIPEFN           defines the function that processes DTYPE_PIPE
			file structures.  It's used in the prfp.c
			library source file.  See the FreeBSD
			dialect source for an example.

    HASPIPENODE		enables/disables readpipenode() in node.c.

    HASPMAPENABLED      enables the automatic reporting of portmapper
			registration information for TCP and UDP
			ports that have been registered.

    HASPPID		indicates the dialect has parent PID support.

    HASPR_LDT		indicates the Solaris dialect has a pr_ldt
			member in the pronodetype enum.

    HASPR_GWINDOWS	indicates the Solaris dialect has a pr_windows
			member in the pronodetype enum.

    HASPRINTDEV         this value defines a private function for
			printing the dialect's device number.  Used
			by print.c/print_file().  Takes one argument:

			char *HASPRINTDEV(struct lfile *)

    HASPRINTINO         this value names a private function for
			printing the dialect's inode number.  Used
			by print.c/print_file(). Takes one argument:

			char *HASPRINTINO(struct lfile *)

    HASPRINTNM          this value names a private function for
			printing the dialect's file name.  Used by
			print.c/print_file().  Takes one argument:

			void HASPRINTNM(struct lfile *)

    HASPRINTOFF         this value names a private function for
			printing the dialect's file offset.  Used
			by print.c/print_file().  Takes two arguments:

			char *HASPRINTOFF(struct lfile *, int ty)

			Where ty == 0 if the offset is to be printed
			in 0t<decimal> format; 1, 0x<hexadecimal>.

    HASPRINTSZ		this value names a private function for
			printing the dialect's file size.  Used
			by print.c/print_file(). Takes one argument:

			char *HASPRINTSZ(struct lfile *)

			void HASPRINTNM(struct lfile *)

    HASPRIVFILETYPE     enables processing of the private file
			type, whose number (from f_type of the file
			struct) is defined by PRIVFILETYPE.
			HASPRIVFILETYPE defines the function that
			processes the file struct's f_data member.
			Processing is initiated from the process_file()
			function of the prfp.c library source file
			or from the dialect's own process_file()

    HASPRIVNMCACHE      enables printing of a file path from a
			private name cache.  HASPRIVNMCACHE defines
			the name of the printing function.  The
			function takes one argument, a struct lfile
			pointer to the file, and returns non-zero
			if it prints a cached name to stdout.

    HASPRIVPRIPP        is defined for dialects that have a private
			function for printing the IP protocol name.
			When this is not defined, the function to
			do that defaults to printiproto().

    HASPROCFS		defines the name (if any) of the process file
			system -- e.g., /proc.

    HASPROCFS_PFSROOT	indicates PFSroot is in the BSD dialect's

    HASPSEUDOFS         indicates the FreeBSD dialect has pseudofs
			file system support.

    HASPSXSEM		indicates the dialect has support for the POSIX
			semaphore file type.

    HASPSXSHM		indicates the dialect has support for the POSIX
			shared memory file type.

    HASPTYFS		indicates the *BSD dialect has a ptyfs file system.

    HASRNODE		enables/disables readrnode() in node.c.

    HASRNODE3		indicates the HPUX 10.20 or lower dialect has NFS3
			support with a modified rnode structure.

    HASRPCV2H		The FreeBSD dialect has <nfs/rpcv2.h>.

    HAS_SANFS           indicates the AIX system has SANFS file system

    HASSBSTATE          indicates the dialect has socket buffer state
			information (e.g., SBS_* symbols) available.

    HASSECURITY         enables/disables restricting open file
			information access.  (Also see HASNOSOCKSECURITY.)

    HASSELINUX          indicates the Linux dialect has SELinux security
			context support available.

    HASSETLOCALE	is defined if the dialect has <locale.h> and

    HAS_SI_PRIV         indicates the FreeBSD 6.0 and higher cdev
			structure has an si_priv member.

    HAS_SOCKET_PROTO_H	indicates the Solaris 10 system has the header file

    HASSOUXSOUA		indicates that the Solaris <sys/socketvar.h> has
			soua_* members in its so_ux_addr structure.

    HASSPECDEVD		indicates the dialect has a special device
			directory and defines the name of a function
			that processes the results of a successful
			stat(2) of a file in that directory.

    HASSPECNODE         indicates the DEC OSF/1, or Digital UNIX,
			or Tru64 UNIX <sys/specdev.h> has a spec_node
			structure definition.

    HASSNODE		indicates the dialect has snode support.

    HAS_SOCKET_SK	indicates that the Linux socket structure
			has the ``struct sock *sk'' member.

    HASSOOPT            indicates the dialect has socket option
			information (e.g., SO_* symbols) available.

    HASSOSTATE          indicates the dialect has socket state
			information (e.g., SS_* symbols) available.

    HASSTATVFS          indicates the NetBSD dialect has a statvfs
			struct definition.

    HASSTAT64		indicates the dialect's <sys/stat.h> contains

    HAS_STD_CLONE	indicates the dialect uses a standard clone
			device structure that can be used in common
			library function clone processing.  If the
			value is 1, the clone table will be built
			by readdev() and cached when HASDCACHE is
			defined; if the value is 2, it is assumed
			the clone table is built independently.

    HASSTREAMS          enables/disables streams.  CAUTION, requires
			specific support code in the dialect sources.

    HAS_STRFTIME	indicates the dialect has the gmtime() and
			strftime() C library functions that support
			the -r marker format option.  Configure tests
			for the functions and defines this symbol.

    HASSYSDC            enables the use of a system-wide device
			cache file and defines its path.  See the
			00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution for
			more information on the system-wide device
			cache file path option.

    HAS_SYS_PIPEH	indicates the dialect has a <sys/pipe.h>
			header file.

    HAS_SYS_SX_H	indicates the FreeBSD 7.0 and higher system has
			a <sys/sx.h> header file.

    HASTAGTOPATH        indicates the DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, or
			Tru64 UNIX dialect has a libmsfs.so,
			containing tag_to_path().

    HASTMPNODE		enables/disables readtnode() in node.c.

    HASTCPOPT           indicates the dialect has TCP option
			information (i.e., from TF_* symbols)

    HASTCPTPIQ          is defined when the dialect can duplicate
			the receive and send queue sizes reported
			by netstat.

    HASTCPTPIW          is defined when the dialect can duplicate
			the receive and send window sizes reported
			by netstat.

    HASTCPUDPSTATE	is defined when the dialect has support for
			TCP and UDP state, including the "-s p:s"
			option and associated speed ehancements.

    HASTFS		indicates that the Pyramid dialect has TFS
			file system support.

    HAS_UFS1_2		indicates the FreeBSD 6 and higher system has
			UFS1 and UFS2 members in its inode structure.

    HAS_UM_UFS		indicates the OpenBSD version has UM_UFS[12]

    HASUNMINSOCK	indicates the Linux version has a user name
			element in the socket structure; a value of
			0 says there is no unix_address member; 1,
			there is.

    HASUINT16TYPE	is defined when the dialect has a typedef
			for u_int16 that may conflict with some other
			header file's redefinition (e.g., <afs/std.h>).

    HASUTMPX		indicates the dialect has a <utmpx.h> header

    HAS_UVM_INCL	indicates the NetBSD or OpenBSD dialect has
			a <uvm> include directory.

    HAS_UW_CFS      	indicates the UnixWare 7.1.1 or above dialect
			has CFS file system support.

    HAS_UW_NSC		indicates the UnixWare 7.1.1 or above dialect
			has a NonStop Cluster (NSC) kernel.

    HAS_V_LOCKF		indicates the FreeBSD version has a v_lockf
			member in the vode structure, defined in

    HAS_VM_MEMATTR_T	indicates the FreeBSD <sys/conf.h> uses the
			vm_memattr_t typedef.

    HASVMLOCKH		indicates the FreeBSD dialect has <vm/lock.h>.

    HASVNODE		enables/disables readvnode() function in node.c.

    HAS_V_PATH          indicates the dialect's vnode structure has a
			v_path member.

    HAS_VSOCK		indicates that the Solaris version has a VSOCK
			member in the vtype enum

    HASVXFS		enables Veritas VxFS file system support for
			the dialect.  CAUTION, the dialect sources
			must have the necessary support code.

    HASVXFSDNLC         indicates the VxFS file system has its own
			name cache.

    HASVXFS_FS_H	indicates <sys/fs/vx_fs.h> exists.

    HASVXFS_MACHDEP_H	indicates <sys/fs/vx_machdep.h> exists.

    HASVXFS_OFF64_T	indicates <sys/fs/vx_solaris.h> exists and
			has an off64_t typedef.

    HASXVFSRNL		indicates the dialect has VxFS Reverse Name
			Lookup (RNL) support.

    HASVXFS_SOL_H	indicates <sys/fs/vx_sol.h> exists.

    HASVXFS_SOLARIS_H	indicates <sys/fs/vx_solaris.h> exists.

    HASVXFS_U64_T       if HASVXFS_SOLARIS_H is defined, this
			variable indicates that <sys/fs/vx_solaris.h>
			has a vx_u64_t typedef.

    HASVXFSUTIL         indicates the Solaris dialect has VxFS 3.4
			or higher and has the utility libraries,
			libvxfsutil.a (32 bit) and libvxfsutil64.a
			(64 bit).

    HASVXFS_VX_INODE    indicates that <sys/fs/vx_inode.h> contains
			a vx_inode structure.

    HASWIDECHAR         indicates the dialect has the wide-character
			support functions iswprint(), mblen() and mbtowc().

    HASXNAMNODE         indicates the OSR dialect has <sys/fs/xnamnode.h>.

    HASXOPT		defines help text for dialect-specific X option
			and enables X option processing in usage.c and

    HASXOPT_ROOT        when defined, restricts the dialect-specific
			X option to processes whose real user ID
			is root.

    HAS_ZFS		indicates the dialect has support for the ZFS file

    HASXOPT_VALUE	defines the default binary value for the X option
			in store.c.

    HASZONES		the Solaris dialect has zones.

    HAVECLONEMAJ        defines the name of the status variable
			that indicates a clone major device number
			is available in CLONEMAJ.  (Also see CLONEMAJ
			and HAS_STD_CLONE.)

    HPUX_KERNBITS	defines the number of bits in the HP-UX 10.30
			and above kernel "basic" word: 32 or 64.

    KA_T		defines the type cast required to assign
			space to kernel pointers.  When not defined
			by a dialect header file, KA_T defaults to
			unsigned long.

    KA_T_FMT_X          defines the printf format for printing a
			KA_T -- the default is "%#lx" for the
			default unsigned long KA_T cast.








    LSOF_MKC		See the "The Mksrc Shell Script" section of
			this file.





    MACH		defines a MACH system.

    N_UNIXV		defines an alternate value for the N_UNIV symbol.

    NCACHELDPFX		defines C code to be executed before calling

    NCACHELDSFX		defines C code to be executed after calling

    NEEDS_BOOLEAN_T	indicates the FreeBSD 9 and above system needs a
			boolean_t definition for <sys/conf.h>.

    NEVER_HASDCACHE	keeps the Customize script from offering to
			change HASDCACHE by its presence anywhere
			in a dialect's machine.h header file --
			e.g., in a comment.  See the Customize
			script or machine.h in dialects/linux/proc.

    NEVER_WARNDEVACCESS	keeps the Customize script from offering to
			change WARNDEVACCESS by its presence anywhere
			in a dialect's machine.h header file --
			including in a comment.  See the Customize
			script or machine.h in dialects/linux/proc.

    NLIST_TYPE		is the type of the nlist table, Nl[], if it is
			not nlist.  HASNLIST must be set for this
			definition to be effective.

    NOWARNBLKDEV        specifies that no warning is to be issued
			when no block devices are found.  This
			definiton is used only when HASBLKDEV is
			also defined.

    OFFDECDIG           specifies how many decimal digits will be
			printed for the file offset in a 0t form
			before switching to a 0x form.  The count
			includes the "0t".  A count of zero means
			the size is unlimited.

    PRIVFILETYPE        is the number of a private file type, found
			in the f_type member of the file struct, to
			be processed by the HASPRIVFILETYPE function.
			See the AIX dialect sources for an example.

			indicates the HP-UX PSTAT header files require
			this symbol to be defined for proper handling of
			stream export data.

    TIMEVAL_LSOF        defines the name of the timeval structure.
			The default is timeval.  /dev/kmem-based
			Linux lsof redefines timeval with this
			symbol to avoid conflicts between glibc
			and kernel definitions.

    TYPELOGSECSHIFT     defines the type of the cdfs_LogSecShift
			member of the cdfs structure for UnixWare
			7 and higher.

    UID_ARG_T           defines the cast on a User ID when passed
			as a function argument.

			selects the use of the completevfs() function
			in lsof4/lib/cvfs.c.

			selects the use of the find_ch_ino() inode
			function in lsof4/lib/fino.c.

			Note: HASBLKDEV selects the has_bl_ino()

			selects the use of the is_file_named() function
			in lsof4/lib/isfn.c.

    USE_LIB_LKUPDEV	selects the use of the lkupdev() function
			in lsof4/lib/lkud.c.

			Note: HASBLKDEV selects the lkupbdev() function.

			selects the use of the printdevname() function
			in lsof4/lib/pdvn.c.

			Note: HASBLKDEV selects the printbdevname()

			selects the use of the print_tcptpi() function
			in lsof4/lib/ptti.c.

			selects the use of the process_file() function
			in lsof4/lib/prfp.c.

    USE_LIB_READDEV	selects the use of the readdev() and stkdir()
			functions in lsof4/lib/rdev.c.

    USE_LIB_READMNT	selects the use of the readmnt() function
			in lsof4/lib/rmnt.c.

    USE_LIB_RNAM	selects the use of the device cache functions
			in lsof4/lib/rnam.c.

			Note: HASNCACHE must also be defined.

    USE_LIB_RNCH	selects the use of the device cache functions
			in lsof4/lib/rnch.c.

			Note: HASNCACHE must also be defined.

    USE_STAT            is defined for those dialects that must
			use the stat(2) function instead of lstat(2)
			to scan /dev -- i.e., in the readdev()

    VNODE_VFLAG		is an alternate name for the vnode structure's
			v_flag member.

    WARNDEVACCESS	enables the issuing of a warning message when
			lsof is unable to access /dev (or /device)
			or one of its subdirectories, or stat(2)
			a file in them. Some dialects (e.g., HP-UX)
			have many inaccessible subdirectories and
			it is appropriate to inhibit the warning
			for them with WARNDEVACCESS.  The -w option
			will also inhibit these warnings.

    WARNINGSTATE        when defined, disables the default issuing
			of warning messages.  WARNINGSTATE is
			undefined by default for all dialects in
			the lsof distribution.

    WIDECHARINCL        defines the header file to be included (if any)
			when wide-character support is enabled with

    zeromem()		defines a macro to zero memory -- e.g., using
			bzero() or memset().

Any dialect's machine.h file and Configure stanza can serve as a
template for building your own.  All machine.h files usually have
all definitions, disabling some (with comment prefix and suffix)
and enabling others.

Options: Common and Special

All but one lsof option is common; the specific option is ``-X''.
If a dialect does not support a common option, the related #define
in machine.h -- e.g., HASCOPT -- should be deselected.

The specific option, ``-X'', may be used by any dialect for its
own purpose.  Right now (May 30, 1995) the ``-X'' option is binary
(i.e., it's not allowed arguments of its own, and its value must
be 0 or 1) but that could be changed should the need arise.  The
option is enabled with the HASXOPT definition in machine.h; its
default value is defined by HASXOPT_VALUE.

The value of HASXOPT should be the text displayed for ``-X'' by
the usage() function in usage.c.  HASXOPT_VALUE should be the
default value, 0 or 1.

AIX for the IBM RICS System/6000 defines the ``-X'' option to
control readx() usage, since there is a bug in AIX kernels that
readx() can expose for other processes.

Defining Dialect-Specific Symbols and Global Storage

A dialect's dlsof.h and dstore.c files contain dialect-specific
symbol and global storage definitions.  There are symbol definitions,
for example, for function and data casts, and for file paths.
Dslof.h defines lookup names the nlist() table -- X_* symbols --
when nlist() is being used.

Global storage definitions include such things as structures for
local Virtual File System (vfs) information; mount information;
search file information; and kernel memory file descriptors --
e.g., Kmem for /dev/kmem, Mem for /dev/mem, Swap for /dev/drum.

Coding Dialect-specific Functions

Each supported dialect must have some basic functions that the
common functions of the top level may call.  Some of them may be
obtained from the library in lsof4/lib, selected and customized by
#define's in the dialect machine.h header file.  Others may have
to be coded specifically for the dialect.

Each supported dialect usually has private functions, too.  Those
are wholly determined by the needs of the dialect's data organization
and access.

These are some of the basic functions that each dialect must supply
-- they're all defined in proto.h:

    initialize()		function to initialize the dialect

    is_file_named()		function to check if a file was named
				by an optional file name argument

    gather_proc_info()		function to gather process table
				and related information and cache it

    printchdevname()		function to locate and optionally
				print the name of a character device

    print_tcptpistate()         function to print the TCP or TPI
				state for a TCP or UDP socket file,
				if the one in lib/ptti.c isn't
				suitable (define USE_LIB_PRINT_TCPTPI
				to activate lib/ptti.c)

    process_file()		function to process an open file
				structure (lsof4/lib/prfp.c)

    process_node()		function to process a primary node

    process_socket()		function to process a socket

    readdev() and stkdir()	functions to read and cache device
				information (lsof4/lib/rdev.c)

    readmnt()			function to read mount table information

Other common functions may be needed, and might be obtained from
lsof4/lib, depending on the needs of the dialect's node and socket
file processing functions.

Check the functions in lsof4/lib and specific lsof4/dialects/*
files for examples.

As you build these functions you will probably have to add #include's
to dlsof.h.

Function Prototype Definitions and the _PROTOTYPE Macro

Once you've defined your dialect-specific definitions, you should
define their prototypes in dproto.h or locally in the file where
they occur and are used.  Do this even if your compiler is not ANSI
compliant -- the _PROTOTYPE macro knows how to cope with that and
will avoid creating prototypes that will confuse your compiler.

The Makefile

Here are some general rules for constructing the dialect Makefile.

    *  Use an existing dialect's Makefile as a template.

    *  Make sure the echo actions of the install rule are appropriate.

    *  Use the DEBUG string to set debugging options, like ``-g''.
       You may also need to use the -O option when forking and
       SIGCHLD signals defeat your debugger.

    *  Don't put ``\"'' in a compiler flags -D<symbol>=<string>
       clause in your Makefile.  Leave off the ``\"'' even though
       you want <string> to be a string literal and instead adapt
       the N_UNIX* macros you'll find in Makefiles for FreeBSD
       and Linux.  That will allow the Makefile's version.h rule
       to put CFLAGS into version.h without having to worry about
       the ``\"'' sequences.

    *  Finally, remember that strings can be passed from the top
       level's Configure shell script.  That's an appropriate way
       to handle options, especially if there are multiple versions
       of the Unix dialect to which you are porting lsof 4.

The Mksrc Shell Script

Pattern your Mksrc shell script after an existing one from another
dialect.  Change the D shell variable to the name of your dialect's
subdirectory in lsof4/dialects.  Adjust any other shell variable
to your local conditions.  (Probably that won't be necessary.)

Note that, if using symbolic links from the top level to your
dialect subdirectory is impossible or impractical, you can set the
LSOF_MKC shell variable in Configure to something other than
"ln -s" -- e.g., "cp," and Configure will pass it to the Mksrc
shell script in the M environment variable.

The MkKernOpts Shell Script

The MkKernOptrs shell script is used by some dialects -- e.g.,
Pyramid DC/OSx and Reliant UNIX -- to determine the compile-time
options used to build the current kernel that affect kernel structure
definitions, so those same options can be used to build lsof.
Configure calls MkKernOpts for the selected dialects.

If your kernel is built with options that affect structure definitions.
-- most commonly affected are the proc structure from <sys/proc.h>
and the user structure from <sys/user.h> -- check the MkKernOpts
in lsof4/dialects/irix for a comprehensive example.

Testing and the Lsof Test Suite

Once you have managed to create a port, here are some tips for
testing it.

*  First look at the test suite in the tests/ sub-directory of the
   lsof distribution.  While it will need to be customized to be
   usable with a new port, it should provide ideas on things to
   test.  Look for more information about the test suite in the
   00TEST file.

*  Pick a simple process whose open files you are likely to
   know and see if the lsof output agrees with what you know.
   (Hint: select the process with `lsof -p <process_PID>`.)

   Are the device numbers and device names correct?

   Are the file system names and mount points correct?

   Are inode numbers and sizes correct?

   Are command names, file descriptor numbers, UIDs, PIDs, PGIDs,
   and PPIDs correct?

   A simple tool that does a stat(2) of the files being examined
   and reports the stat struct contents can provide a reference for
   some values; so can `ls -l /dev/<device>`.

*  Let lsof list information about all open files and ask the
   same questions.  Look also for error messages about not being
   able to read a node or structure.

*  Pick a file that you know is open -- open it and hold it
   that way with a C program (not vi), if you must.  Ask lsof to
   find the file's open instance by specifying its path to lsof.

*  Create a C program that opens a large number of files and holds
   them open.  Background the test process and ask lsof to list
   its files.

*  Generate some locks -- you may need to write a C program to
   do this, hold the locked file open, and see if lsof can identify
   the lock properly.  You may need to write several C programs
   if your dialect supports different lock functions -- fnctl(),
   flock(), lockf(), locking().

*  Identify a process with known Internet file usage -- inetd
   is a good one -- and ask lsof to list its open files.  See if
   protocols and service names are listed properly.

   See if your lsof identifies Internet socket files properly for
   rlogind or telnetd processes.

*  Create a UNIX domain socket file, if your dialect allows it,
   hold it open by backgrounding the process, and see if lsof can
   identify the open UNIX domain socket file properly.

*  Create a FIFO file and see what lsof says about it.

*  Watch an open pipe -- `lsof -u <your_login>  | less` is a
   good way to do this.

*  See if lsof can identify NFS files and their devices properly.
   Open and hold open an NFS file and see if lsof can find the open
   instance by path.

*  If your test system has CD-ROM and floppy disk devices, open
   files on them and see if lsof reports their information correctly.
   Such devices often have special kernel structures associated
   with them and need special attention from lsof for their
   identification.  Pay particular attention to the inode numbers
   lsof reports for CD-ROM and floppy disk files -- often they are
   calculated dynamically, rather than stored in a kernel node

*  If your implementation can probe the kernel name cache, look
   at some processes with open files whose paths you know to see
   if lsof identifies any name components.  If it doesn't, make
   sure the name components are in the name cache by accessing
   the files yourself with ls or a similar tool.

*  If your dialect supports the /proc file system, use a C program
   to open files there, background a test process, and ask lsof to
   report its open files.

*  If your dialect supports fattach(), create a small test program
   to use it, background a test process, and ask lsof to report
   its open files.

I can supply some quick-and-dirty tools for reporting stat buffer
contents, holding files open, creating UNIX domain files, creating
FIFOs, etc., if you need them.

Where Next?

Is this document complete?  Certainly not!  One might wish that it
were accompanied by man pages for all lsof functions, by free beer
or chocolates, by ...  (You get the idea.)

But those things are not likely to happen as long as lsof is a
privately supported, one man operation.

So, if you need more information on how lsof is constructed or
works in order to do a port of your own, you'll have to read the
lsof source code.  You can also ask me questions via email, but
keep in mind the private, one-man nature of current lsof support.

Vic Abell <abe@purdue.edu>
September 27, 2011