survival.tex   [plain text]

% Title:  GNU Emacs Survival Card
% Author: Wlodek Bzyl <>
% $Revision: 1.8 $
% $Date: 2000/05/05 22:00:48 $
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%   2006, 2007  Free Software Foundation, Inc.

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\def\year{2007}                 % latest copyright year

    Copyright \year\ Free Software Foundation, Inc.\break
    Version \versionnumber{} for GNU Emacs \versionemacs, April 2000\break
    Project W{\l}odek Bzyl (

    Permission is granted to make and distribute copies of
    this card provided the copyright notice and this permission notice
    are preserved on all copies.\par}}

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\title{GNU\ \ Emacs\ \ Survival\ \ Card}{for version \versionemacs}

In the following, \kbd{C-z} means hit the `\kbd{z}' key while
holding down the {\it Ctrl}\ \ key. \kbd{M-z} means hit the
`\kbd{z}' key while hitting the {\it Meta\/} (labeled {\it Alt\/}
on some keyboards) or after hitting {\it Esc\/} key.

\section{Running Emacs}

To enter GNU Emacs, just type its name: \kbd{emacs}.
Emacs divides the frame into several areas:
  menu line,
  buffer area with the edited text,
  mode line describing the buffer in the window above it,
  and a minibuffer/echo area in the last line.
\key{C-x C-c} quit Emacs
\key{C-x C-f} edit file; this command uses the minibuffer to read
  the file name; use this to create new files by entering the name
  of the new file
\key{C-x C-s} save the file
\key{C-x k} kill a buffer
\key{C-g} in most context: cancel, stop, abort partially typed or
  executing command
\key{C-x u} undo

\section{Moving About}

\key{C-l} scroll current line to center of window
\key{C-x b} switch to another buffer
\key{M-<} move to beginning of buffer
\key{M->} move to end of buffer
\key{M-x goto-line} go to a given line number

\section{Multiple Windows}

\key{C-x 0} remove the current window from the display
\key{C-x 1} make active window the only window
\key{C-x 2} split window horizontally
\key{C-x 3} split window vertically
\key{C-x o} move to other window


Emacs defines a `region' as the space between the {\it mark\/} and
the {\it point}. A mark is set with \kbd{C-{\it space}}.
The point is at the cursor position.
\key{M-h} mark entire paragraph
\key{C-x h} mark entire buffer

\section{Killing and Copying}

\key{C-w} kill region
\key{M-w} copy region to kill-ring
\key{C-k} kill from the cursor all the way to the end of the line
\key{M-DEL} kill word
\key{C-y} yank back the last kill (\kbd{C-w C-y} combination could be
  used to move text around)
\key{M-y} replace last yank with previous kill


\key{C-s} search for a string
\key{C-r} search for a string backwards
\key{RET} quit searching
\key{M-C-s} regular expression search
\key{M-C-r} reverse regular expression search
Use \kbd{C-s} or \kbd{C-r} again to repeat the search in either direction.


Tags tables files record locations of function and
procedure definitions, global variables, data types and anything
else convenient. To create a tags table file, type
`{\tt etags} {\it input\_files}' as a shell command.
\key{M-.} find a definition
\key{C-u M-.} find next occurrence of definition
\key{M-*} pop back to where \kbd{M-.} was last invoked
\mkey{M-x tags-query-replace} run query-replace on all files
  recorded in tags table
\key{M-,} continue last tags search or query-replace


\key{M-x compile} compile code in active window
\key{C-c C-c} go to the next compiler error, when in
  the compile window or
\key{C-x `} when in the window with source code

\section{Dired, the Directory Editor}

\key{C-x d} invoke Dired
\key{d} flag this file for deletion
\key{\~{}} flag all backup files for deletion
\key{u} remove deletion flag
\key{x} delete the files flagged for deletion
\key{C} copy file
\key{g} update the Dired buffer
\key{f} visit the file described on the current line
\key{s} switch between alphabetical date/time order

\section{Reading and Sending Mail}

\key{M-x rmail} start reading mail
\key{q} quit reading mail
\key{h} show headers
\key{d} mark the current message for deletion
\key{x} remove all messages marked for deletion

\key{C-x m} begin composing a message
\key{C-c C-c} send the message and switch to another buffer
\key{C-c C-f C-c} move to the `CC' header field, creating one
  if there is none


\key{M-q} fill paragraph
\key{M-/} expand previous word dynamically
\key{C-z} iconify (suspend) Emacs when running it under X or
  shell, respectively
\mkey{M-x revert-buffer} replace the text being edited with the
  text of the file on disk

\section{Query Replace}

\key{M-\%} interactively search and replace
\key{M-C-\%} using regular expressions
Valid responses in query-replace mode are
\key{SPC} replace this one, go on to next
\key{,} replace this one, don't move
\key{DEL} skip to next without replacing
\key{!} replace all remaining matches
\key{\^{}} back up to the previous match
\key{RET} exit query-replace
\key{C-r} enter recursive edit (\kbd{M-C-c} to exit)

\section{Regular Expressions}

\key{. {\rm(dot)}} any single character except a newline
\key{*} zero or more repeats
\key{+} one or more repeats
\key{?} zero or one repeat
\key{[$\ldots$]} denotes a class of character to match
\key{[\^{}$\ldots$]} negates the class

\key{\\{\it c}} quote characters otherwise having a special
  meaning in regular expressions

\key{$\ldots$\\|$\ldots$\\|$\ldots$} matches one of
  the alternatives (``or'')
\key{\\( $\ldots$ \\)} groups a series of pattern elements to
  a single element
\key{\\{\it n}} same text as {\it n\/}th group

\key{\^{}} matches at line beginning
\key{\$} matches at line end

\key{\\w} matches word-syntax character
\key{\\W} matches non-word-syntax character
\key{\\<} matches at word beginning
\key{\\>} matches at word end
\key{\\b} matches at word break
\key{\\B} matches at non-word break


\key{C-x r s} save region in register
\key{C-x r i} insert register contents into buffer

\key{C-x r SPC} save value of point in register
\key{C-x r j} jump to point saved in register


\key{C-x r r} copy rectangle to register
\key{C-x r k} kill rectangle
\key{C-x r y} yank rectangle
\key{C-x r t} prefix each line with a string

\key{C-x r o} open rectangle, shifting text right
\key{C-x r c} blank out rectangle


\key{M-x shell} start a shell within Emacs
\key{M-!} execute a shell command
\key{M-|} run a shell command on the region
\key{C-u M-|} filter region through a shell command

\section{Spelling Check}

\key{M-\$} check spelling of word at the cursor
\mkey{M-x ispell-region} check spelling of all words in region
\mkey{M-x ispell-buffer} check spelling of entire buffer

\section{International Character Sets}

\key{C-x RET C-\\} select and activate input method for
  the current buffer
\key{C-\\} enable or disable input method
\mkey{M-x list-input-methods} show all input methods
\mkey{M-x set-language-environment} specify principal language

\key{C-x RET c} set coding system for next command
\mkey{M-x find-file-literally} visit file with no conversion
  of any kind

\mkey{M-x list-coding-systems} show all coding systems
\mkey{M-x prefer-coding-system} choose preferred coding system

\section{Keyboard Macros}

\key{C-x (} start defining a keyboard macro
\key{C-x )} end keyboard macro definition
\key{C-x e} execute last-defined keyboard macro
\key{C-u C-x (} append to last keyboard macro
\mkey{M-x name-last-kbd-macro} name last keyboard macro

\section{Simple Customization}

\key{M-x customize} customize variables and faces

\section{Getting Help}

Emacs does command completion for you. Typing \kbd{M-x}
{\it tab\/} or {\it space\/} gives a list of Emacs commands.
\key{C-h} Emacs help
\key{C-h t} run the Emacs tutorial
\key{C-h i} enter Info, the documentation browser
\key{C-h a} show commands matching a string (apropos)
\key{C-h k} display documentation of the function invoked by
Emacs gets into different {\it modes}, each of which customizes
Emacs for editing text of a particular sort. The mode line
contains names of the current modes, in parentheses.
\key{C-h m} get mode-specific information


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