cmdargs.texi   [plain text]

@c This is part of the Emacs manual.
@c Copyright (C) 1985, 86, 87, 93, 94, 95, 1997 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@c See file emacs.texi for copying conditions.
@node Command Arguments, Antinews, Service, Top
@appendix Command Line Arguments
@cindex command line arguments
@cindex arguments (command line)
@cindex options (command line)
@cindex switches (command line)
@cindex startup (command line arguments)

  GNU Emacs supports command line arguments to request various actions
when invoking Emacs.  These are for compatibility with other editors and
for sophisticated activities.  We don't recommend using them for
ordinary editing.

  Arguments starting with @samp{-} are @dfn{options}.  Other arguments
specify files to visit.  Emacs visits the specified files while it
starts up.  The last file name on your command line becomes the current
buffer; the other files are also present in other buffers.  As usual,
the special argument @samp{--} says that all subsequent arguments
are file names, not options, even if they start with @samp{-}.

  Emacs command options can specify many things, such as the size and
position of the X window Emacs uses, its colors, and so on.  A few
options support advanced usage, such as running Lisp functions on files
in batch mode.  The sections of this chapter describe the available
options, arranged according to their purpose.

  There are two ways of writing options: the short forms that start with
a single @samp{-}, and the long forms that start with @samp{--}.  For
example, @samp{-d} is a short form and @samp{--display} is the
corresponding long form.

  The long forms with @samp{--} are easier to remember, but longer to
type.  However, you don't have to spell out the whole option name; any
unambiguous abbreviation is enough.  When a long option takes an
argument, you can use either a space or an equal sign to separate the
option name and the argument.  Thus, you can write either
@samp{--display sugar-bombs:0.0} or @samp{--display=sugar-bombs:0.0}.
We recommend an equal sign because it makes the relationship clearer,
and the tables below always show an equal sign.

@cindex initial options (command line)
@cindex action options (command line)
  Most options specify how to initialize Emacs, or set parameters for
the Emacs session.  We call them @dfn{initial options}.  A few options
specify things to do: for example, load libraries, call functions, or
exit Emacs.  These are called @dfn{action options}.  These and file
names together are called @dfn{action arguments}.  Emacs processes all
the action arguments in the order they are written.

* Action Arguments::	Arguments to visit files, load libraries,
			  and call functions.
* Initial Options::     Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs.
* Command Example::     Examples of using command line arguments.
* Resume Arguments::	Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
* Environment::         Environment variables that Emacs uses.

* Display X::           Changing the default display and using remote login.
* Font X::	        Choosing a font for text, under X.
* Colors X::	        Choosing colors, under X.
* Window Size X::       Start-up window size, under X.
* Borders X::	        Internal and external borders, under X.
* Title X::             Specifying the initial frame's title.
* Icons X::             Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X.
* Resources X::         Advanced use of classes and resources, under X.
* Lucid Resources::     X resources for Lucid menus.
* Motif Resources::     X resources for Motif menus.
@end menu

@node Action Arguments
@appendixsec Action Arguments

  Here is a table of the action arguments and options:

@table @samp
@item @var{file}
Visit @var{file} using @code{find-file}.  @xref{Visiting}.

@item +@var{linenum} @var{file}
Visit @var{file} using @code{find-file}, then go to line number
@var{linenum} in it.

@need 3000
@item -l @var{file}
@itemx --load=@var{file}
Load a Lisp library named @var{file} with the function @code{load}.
@xref{Lisp Libraries}.  The library can be found either in the current
directory, or in the Emacs library search path as specified
with @code{EMACSLOADPATH} (@pxref{General Variables}).

@item -f @var{function}
@itemx --funcall=@var{function}
Call Lisp function @var{function} with no arguments.

@item --eval @var{expression}
Evaluate Lisp expression @var{expression}.

@item --insert=@var{file}
Insert the contents of @var{file} into the current buffer.  This is like
what @kbd{M-x insert-file} does.  @xref{Misc File Ops}.

@item --kill
Exit from Emacs without asking for confirmation.
@end table

@vindex command-line-args
  The init file can access the values of the action arguments as the
elements of a list in the variable @code{command-line-args}.  The init
file can override the normal processing of the action arguments, or
define new ones, by reading and setting this variable.

@node Initial Options
@appendixsec Initial Options

  The initial options specify parameters for the Emacs session.  This
section describes the more general initial options; some other options
specifically related to X Windows appear in the following sections.

  Some initial options affect the loading of init files.  The normal
actions of Emacs are to first load @file{site-start.el} if it exists,
then your own init file @file{~/.emacs} if it exists, and finally
@file{default.el} if it exists; certain options prevent loading of some
of these files or substitute other files for them.

@table @samp
@item -t @var{device}
@itemx --terminal=@var{device}
Use @var{device} as the device for terminal input and output.

@item -d @var{display}
@itemx --display=@var{display}
Use the X Window System and use the display named @var{display} to open
the initial Emacs frame.

@item -nw
@itemx --no-windows
Don't communicate directly with X, disregarding the @code{DISPLAY}
environment variable even if it is set.

@need 3000
@cindex batch mode
@item -batch
@itemx --batch
Run Emacs in @dfn{batch mode}, which means that the text being edited is
not displayed and the standard terminal interrupt characters such as
@kbd{C-z} and @kbd{C-c} continue to have their normal effect.  Emacs in
batch mode outputs to @code{stderr} only what would normally be printed
in the echo area under program control.

Batch mode is used for running programs written in Emacs Lisp from
shell scripts, makefiles, and so on.  Normally the @samp{-l} option
or @samp{-f} option will be used as well, to invoke a Lisp program
to do the batch processing.

@samp{-batch} implies @samp{-q} (do not load an init file).  It also causes
Emacs to kill itself after all command options have been processed.  In
addition, auto-saving is not done except in buffers for which it has been
explicitly requested.

@item -q
@itemx --no-init-file
Do not load your Emacs init file @file{~/.emacs}, or @file{default.el}

@item --no-site-file
Do not load @file{site-start.el}.  The options @samp{-q}, @samp{-u}
and @samp{-batch} have no effect on the loading of this file---this is
the only option that blocks it.

@item -u @var{user}
@itemx --user=@var{user}
Load @var{user}'s Emacs init file @file{~@var{user}/.emacs} instead of
your own.

@item --debug-init
Enable the Emacs Lisp debugger for errors in the init file.

@item --unibyte
@cindex unibyte operation
Set up to do almost everything with single-byte buffers and strings.
All buffers and strings are unibyte unless you (or a Lisp program)
explicitly ask for a multibyte buffer or string.  Setting the
environment variable @code{EMACS_UNIBYTE} has the same effect.

@item --multibyte
Inhibit the effect of @code{EMACS_UNIBYTE}, so that Emacs
uses multibyte characters by default, as usual.
@end table

@node Command Example
@appendixsec Command Argument Example

  Here is an example of using Emacs with arguments and options.  It
assumes you have a Lisp program file called @file{hack-c.el} which, when
loaded, performs some useful operation on the current buffer, expected
to be a C program.

emacs -batch foo.c -l hack-c -f save-buffer >& log
@end example

This says to visit @file{foo.c}, load @file{hack-c.el} (which makes
changes in the visited file), save @file{foo.c} (note that
@code{save-buffer} is the function that @kbd{C-x C-s} is bound to), and
then exit back to the shell (because of @samp{-batch}).  @samp{-batch}
also guarantees there will be no problem redirecting output to
@file{log}, because Emacs will not assume that it has a display terminal
to work with.

@node Resume Arguments
@appendixsec Resuming Emacs with Arguments

  You can specify action arguments for Emacs when you resume it after
a suspension.  To prepare for this, put the following code in your
@file{.emacs} file (@pxref{Hooks}):

(add-hook 'suspend-hook 'resume-suspend-hook)
(add-hook 'suspend-resume-hook 'resume-process-args)
@end example

  As further preparation, you must execute the shell script
@file{emacs.csh} (if you use csh as your shell) or @file{emacs.bash} (if
you use bash as your shell).  These scripts define an alias named
@code{edit}, which will resume Emacs giving it new command line
arguments such as files to visit.

  Only action arguments work properly when you resume Emacs.  Initial
arguments are not recognized---it's too late to execute them anyway.

  Note that resuming Emacs (with or without arguments) must be done from
within the shell that is the parent of the Emacs job.  This is why
@code{edit} is an alias rather than a program or a shell script.  It is
not possible to implement a resumption command that could be run from
other subjobs of the shell; no way to define a command that could be
made the value of @code{EDITOR}, for example.  Therefore, this feature
does not take the place of the Emacs Server feature (@pxref{Emacs

  The aliases use the Emacs Server feature if you appear to have a
server Emacs running.  However, they cannot determine this with complete
accuracy.  They may think that a server is still running when in
actuality you have killed that Emacs, because the file
@file{/tmp/.esrv@dots{}} still exists.  If this happens, find that
file and delete it.

@node Environment
@appendixsec Environment Variables
@cindex environment variables

This appendix describes how Emacs uses environment variables.  An
environment variable is a string passed from the operating system to
Emacs, and the collection of environment variables is known as the
environment.  Environment variable names are case sensitive and it is
conventional to use upper case letters only.

Because environment variables come from the operating system there is no
general way to set them; it depends on the operating system and
especially the shell that you are using.  For example, here's how to set
the environment variable @code{ORGANIZATION} to @samp{not very much}
using bash:

export ORGANIZATION="not very much"
@end example

and here's how to do it in csh or tcsh:

setenv ORGANIZATION "not very much"
@end example

When Emacs is set-up to use the X windowing system, it inherits the
use of a large number of environment variables from the X library.  See
the X documentation for more information.

* General Variables::   Environment variables that all versions of Emacs use.
* Misc Variables::      Certain system-specific variables.
@end menu

@node General Variables
@appendixsubsec General Variables

@table @code
The name of a file used to archive news articles posted with the @sc{gnus}
@item CDPATH
Used by the @code{cd} command to search for the directory you specify,
when you specify a relative directory name.
The name of the Internet domain that the machine running Emacs is
located in.  Used by the @sc{gnus} package.
@cindex unibyte operation
Defining this environment variable directs Emacs to do almost everything
with single-byte buffers and strings.  It is equivalent to using the
@samp{--unibyte} command-line option on each invocation.  @xref{Initial
Used to initialize the variable @code{data-directory} used to locate the
architecture-independent files that come with Emacs.  Setting this
variable overrides the setting in @file{paths.h} when Emacs was built.
A colon-separated list of directories from which to load Emacs Lisp
files.  Setting this variable overrides the setting in @file{paths.h}
when Emacs was built.
The directory that Emacs places lock files---files used to protect
users from editing the same files simultaneously.  Setting this variable
overrides the setting in @file{paths.h} when Emacs was built.
The location of Emacs-specific binaries.  Setting this variable
overrides the setting in @file{paths.h} when Emacs was built.
@item ESHELL
Used for shell-mode to override the @code{SHELL} environment variable.
The name of the file that shell commands are saved in between logins.
This variable defaults to @file{~/.history} if you use (t)csh as shell,
to @file{~/.bash_history} if you use bash, to @file{~/.sh_history} if
you use ksh, and to @file{~/.history} otherwise.
@item HOME
The location of the user's files in the directory tree; used for
expansion of file names starting with a tilde (@file{~}).  On MS-DOS, it
defaults to the directory from which Emacs was started, with @samp{/bin}
removed from the end if it was present.
The name of the machine that Emacs is running on.
@item INCPATH 
A colon-separated list of directories.  Used by the @code{complete} package
to search for files.
A colon-separated list of directories holding info files.  Setting this
variable overrides the setting in @file{paths.el} when Emacs was built.
@item LANG
@itemx LC_ALL
@itemx LC_CTYPE
The user's preferred locale.  A locale name which contains
@samp{8859-@var{n}}, @samp{8859_@var{n}} or @samp{8859@var{n}}, where
@var{n} is between 1 and 4, automatically specifies the
@samp{Latin-@var{n}} language environment when Emacs starts up.  If
@var{n} is 9, that specifies @samp{Latin-5}.
The user's login name.  See also @code{USER}.
@item MAIL
The name of the user's system mail inbox.
@item MAILRC
Name of file containing mail aliases.  This defaults to
@item MH
Name of setup file for the mh system.  This defaults to
@item NAME
The real-world name of the user.
The name of the news server.  Used by the mh and @sc{gnus} packages.
The name of the organization to which you belong.  Used for setting the
`Organization:' header in your posts from the @sc{gnus} package.
@item PATH
A colon-separated list of directories in which executables reside.  (On
MS-DOS, it is semicolon-separated instead.)  This variable is used to
set the Emacs Lisp variable @code{exec-path} which you should consider
to use instead.
@item PWD
If set, this should be the default directory when Emacs was started.
If set, this specifies an initial value for the variable
@code{mail-default-reply-to}.  @xref{Mail Headers}.
The name of a directory in which news articles are saved by default.
Used by the @sc{gnus} package.
@item SHELL
The name of an interpreter used to parse and execute programs run from
inside Emacs.
@item TERM
The name of the terminal that Emacs is running on.  The variable must be
set unless Emacs is run in batch mode.  On MS-DOS, it defaults to
@samp{internal}, which specifies a built-in terminal emulation that
handles the machine's own display.
The name of the termcap library file describing how to program the
terminal specified by the @code{TERM} variable.  This defaults to
@item TMPDIR
Used by the Emerge package as a prefix for temporary files.
@item TZ
This specifies the current time zone and possibly also daylight savings
information.  On MS-DOS, the default is based on country code; see the
file @file{msdos.c} for details.
@item USER
The user's login name.  See also @code{LOGNAME}.  On MS-DOS, this
defaults to @samp{root}.
Used to initialize the @code{version-control} variable (@pxref{Backup
@end table

@node Misc Variables
@appendixsubsec Miscellaneous Variables

These variables are used only on particular configurations:

@table @code
On MS-DOS, the name of the command interpreter to use.  This is used to
make a default value for the @code{SHELL} environment variable.

@item NAME
On MS-DOS, this variable defaults to the value of the @code{USER}

@item TEMP
@itemx TMP
On MS-DOS, these specify the name of the directory for storing temporary
files in.

On MS-DOS, this specifies a file to use to log the operation of the
internal terminal emulator.  This feature is useful for submitting bug

Used on MS-DOS systems to set screen colors early, so that the screen
won't momentarily flash the default colors when Emacs starts up.  The
value of this variable should be two-character encoding of the
foreground (the first character) and the background (the second
character) colors of the default face.  Each character should be the
hexadecimal code for the desired color on a standard PC text-mode

The PC display usually supports only eight background colors.  However,
Emacs switches the DOS display to a mode where all 16 colors can be used
for the background, so all four bits of the background color are
actually used.

Used when initializing the Sun windows system.
@end table

@node Display X
@appendixsec Specifying the Display Name 
@cindex display name (X Windows)
@cindex @code{DISPLAY} environment variable

  The environment variable @code{DISPLAY} tells all X clients, including
Emacs, where to display their windows.  Its value is set up by default
in ordinary circumstances, when you start an X server and run jobs
locally.  Occasionally you may need to specify the display yourself; for
example, if you do a remote login and want to run a client program
remotely, displaying on your local screen.

  With Emacs, the main reason people change the default display is to
let them log into another system, run Emacs on that system, but have the
window displayed at their local terminal.  You might need to use login
to another system because the files you want to edit are there, or
because the Emacs executable file you want to run is there.

  The syntax of the @code{DISPLAY} environment variable is
@samp{@var{host}:@var{display}.@var{screen}}, where @var{host} is the
host name of the X Window System server machine, @var{display} is an
arbitrarily-assigned number that distinguishes your server (X terminal)
from other servers on the same machine, and @var{screen} is a
rarely-used field that allows an X server to control multiple terminal
screens.  The period and the @var{screen} field are optional.  If
included, @var{screen} is usually zero.

  For example, if your host is named @samp{glasperle} and your server is
the first (or perhaps the only) server listed in the configuration, your
@code{DISPLAY} is @samp{glasperle:0.0}.

  You can specify the display name explicitly when you run Emacs, either
by changing the @code{DISPLAY} variable, or with the option @samp{-d
@var{display}} or @samp{--display=@var{display}}.  Here is an example:

emacs --display=glasperle:0 &
@end smallexample

  You can inhibit the direct use of X with the @samp{-nw} option.  This
is also an initial option.  It tells Emacs to display using ordinary
ASCII on its controlling terminal.

  Sometimes, security arrangements prevent a program on a remote system
from displaying on your local system.  In this case, trying to run Emacs
produces messages like this:

Xlib:  connection to "glasperle:0.0" refused by server
@end smallexample

You might be able to overcome this problem by using the @code{xhost}
command on the local system to give permission for access from your
remote machine.

@node Font X
@appendixsec Font Specification Options
@cindex font name (X Windows)

  By default, Emacs displays text in the font named @samp{9x15}, which
makes each character nine pixels wide and fifteen pixels high.  You can
specify a different font on your command line through the option
@samp{-fn @var{name}}.

@table @samp
@item -fn @var{name}
Use font @var{name} as the default font.

@item --font=@var{name}
@samp{--font} is an alias for @samp{-fn}.
@end table

  Under X, each font has a long name which consists of eleven words or
numbers, separated by dashes.  Some fonts also have shorter
nicknames---@samp{9x15} is such a nickname.  You can use either kind of
name.  You can use wildcard patterns for the font name; then Emacs lets
X choose one of the fonts that match the pattern.  Here is an example,
which happens to specify the font whose nickname is @samp{6x13}:

emacs -fn "-misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-*-*-*-c-60-iso8859-1" &
@end smallexample

You can also specify the font in your @file{.Xdefaults} file:

emacs.font: -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-*-*-*-c-60-iso8859-1
@end smallexample

  A long font name has the following form:

@end smallexample

@table @var
@item family
This is the name of the font family---for example, @samp{courier}.
@item weight
This is normally @samp{bold}, @samp{medium} or @samp{light}.  Other
words may appear here in some font names.
@item slant
This is @samp{r} (roman), @samp{i} (italic), @samp{o} (oblique),
@samp{ri} (reverse italic), or @samp{ot} (other).
@item widthtype
This is normally @samp{condensed}, @samp{extended}, @samp{semicondensed}
or @samp{normal}.  Other words may appear here in some font names.
@item style
This is an optional additional style name.  Usually it is empty---most
long font names have two hyphens in a row at this point.
@item pixels
This is the font height, in pixels.
@item height
This is the font height on the screen, measured in tenths of a printer's
point---approximately 1/720 of an inch.  In other words, it is the point
size of the font, times ten.  For a given vertical resolution,
@var{height} and @var{pixels} are proportional; therefore, it is common
to specify just one of them and use @samp{*} for the other.
@item horiz
This is the horizontal resolution, in pixels per inch, of the screen for
which the font is intended.
@item vert
This is the vertical resolution, in dots per inch, of the screen for
which the font is intended.  Normally the resolution of the fonts on
your system is the right value for your screen; therefore, you normally
specify @samp{*} for this and @var{horiz}.
@item spacing
This is @samp{m} (monospace), @samp{p} (proportional) or @samp{c}
(character cell).  Emacs can use @samp{m} and @samp{c} fonts.
@item width
This is the average character width, in pixels, multiplied by ten.
@item charset
This is the character set that the font depicts.
Normally you should use @samp{iso8859-1}.
@end table

  Use only fixed-width fonts---that is, fonts in which all characters
have the same width; Emacs cannot yet handle display properly for
variable-width fonts.  Any font with @samp{m} or @samp{c} in the
@var{spacing} field of the long name is a fixed-width font.  Here's how
to use the @code{xlsfonts} program to list all the fixed-width fonts
available on your system:

xlsfonts -fn '*x*' | egrep "^[0-9]+x[0-9]+"
xlsfonts -fn '*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-m*'
xlsfonts -fn '*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-c*'
@end example

To see what a particular font looks like, use the @code{xfd} command.
For example:

xfd -fn 6x13
@end example

displays the entire font @samp{6x13}.

  While running Emacs, you can set the font of the current frame
(@pxref{Frame Parameters}) or for a specific kind of text

@node Colors X
@appendixsec Window Color Options
@cindex color of window (X Windows)

  On a color display, you can specify which color to use for various
parts of the Emacs display.  To find out what colors are available on
your system, look at the @file{/usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt} file.  If you do
not specify colors, the default for the background is white and the
default for all other colors is black.  On a monochrome display, the
foreground is black, the background is white, and the border is gray if
the display supports that.

  Here is a list of the options for specifying colors:

@table @samp
@item -fg @var{color} 
@itemx --foreground-color=@var{color} 
Specify the foreground color.
@item -bg @var{color} 
@itemx --background-color=@var{color} 
Specify the background color.
@item -bd @var{color} 
@itemx --border-color=@var{color} 
Specify the color of the border of the X window.
@item -cr @var{color} 
@itemx --cursor-color=@var{color} 
Specify the color of the Emacs cursor which indicates where point is.
@item -ms @var{color} 
@itemx --mouse-color=@var{color} 
Specify the color for the mouse cursor when the mouse is in the Emacs window.
@item -r
@itemx --reverse-video
Reverse video---swap the foreground and background colors.
@end table

  For example, to use a coral mouse cursor and a slate blue text cursor,

emacs -ms coral -cr 'slate blue' &
@end example

  You can reverse the foreground and background colors through the
@samp{-r} option or with the X resource @samp{reverseVideo}.

@node Window Size X
@appendixsec Options for Window Geometry
@cindex geometry (X Windows)

  The @samp{-geometry} option controls the size and position of the
initial Emacs frame.  Here is the format for specifying the window

@table @samp
@item -g @var{width}x@var{height}@r{@{}+-@r{@}}@var{xoffset}@r{@{}+-@r{@}}@var{yoffset}
Specify window size @var{width} and @var{height} (measured in character
columns and lines), and positions @var{xoffset} and @var{yoffset}
(measured in pixels).

@item --geometry=@var{width}x@var{height}@r{@{}+-@r{@}}@var{xoffset}@r{@{}+-@r{@}}@var{yoffset}
This is another way of writing the same thing.
@end table

@code{@r{@{}+-@r{@}}} means either a plus sign or a minus sign.  A plus
sign before @var{xoffset} means it is the distance from the left side of
the screen; a minus sign means it counts from the right side.  A plus
sign before @var{yoffset} means it is the distance from the top of the
screen, and a minus sign there indicates the distance from the bottom.
The values @var{xoffset} and @var{yoffset} may themselves be positive or
negative, but that doesn't change their meaning, only their direction.

  Emacs uses the same units as @code{xterm} does to interpret the geometry.
The @var{width} and @var{height} are measured in characters, so a large font
creates a larger frame than a small font.  The @var{xoffset} and
@var{yoffset} are measured in pixels.

  Since the mode line and the echo area occupy the last 2 lines of the
frame, the height of the initial text window is 2 less than the height
specified in your geometry.  In non-X-toolkit versions of Emacs,
the menu bar also takes one line of the specified number.

  You do not have to specify all of the fields in the geometry

  If you omit both @var{xoffset} and @var{yoffset}, the window manager
decides where to put the Emacs frame, possibly by letting you place
it with the mouse.  For example, @samp{164x55} specifies a window 164
columns wide, enough for two ordinary width windows side by side, and 55
lines tall.

  The default width for Emacs is 80 characters and the default height is
40 lines.  You can omit either the width or the height or both.  If
you start the geometry with an integer, Emacs interprets it as the
width.  If you start with an @samp{x} followed by an integer, Emacs
interprets it as the height.  Thus, @samp{81} specifies just the width;
@samp{x45} specifies just the height.

  If you start with @samp{+} or @samp{-}, that introduces an offset,
which means both sizes are omitted.  Thus, @samp{-3} specifies the
@var{xoffset} only.  (If you give just one offset, it is always
@var{xoffset}.)  @samp{+3-3} specifies both the @var{xoffset} and the
@var{yoffset}, placing the frame near the bottom left of the screen.

  You can specify a default for any or all of the fields in
@file{.Xdefaults} file, and then override selected fields with a
@samp{--geometry} option.

@node Borders X
@appendixsec Internal and External Borders
@cindex borders (X Windows)

  An Emacs frame has an internal border and an external border.  The
internal border is an extra strip of the background color around all
four edges of the frame.  Emacs itself adds the internal border.  The
external border is added by the window manager outside the internal
border; it may contain various boxes you can click on to move or iconify
the window.

@table @samp
@item -ib @var{width}
@itemx --internal-border=@var{width}
Specify @var{width} as the width of the internal border.

@item -bw @var{width}
@itemx --border-width=@var{width}
Specify @var{width} as the width of the main border.
@end table

  When you specify the size of the frame, that does not count the
borders.  The frame's position is measured from the outside edge of the
external border.

  Use the @samp{-ib @var{n}} option to specify an internal border
@var{n} pixels wide.  The default is 1.  Use @samp{-bw @var{n}} to
specify the width of the external border (though the window manager may
not pay attention to what you specify).  The default width of the
external border is 2.

@node Title X
@appendixsec Frame Titles

  An Emacs frame may or may not have a specified title.  The frame
title, if specified, appears in window decorations and icons as the name
of the frame.  If an Emacs frame has no specified title, the default
title is the name of the executable program (if there is only one frame)
or the selected window's buffer name (if there is more than one frame).

  You can specify a title for the initial Emacs frame with a command
line option:

@table @samp
@item -title @var{title}
@itemx --title=@var{title}
@itemx -T @var{title}
Specify @var{title} as the title for the initial Emacs frame.
@end table

  The @samp{--name} option (@pxref{Resources X}) also specifies the title
for the initial Emacs frame.

@node Icons X
@appendixsec Icons
@cindex icons (X Windows)

  Most window managers allow the user to ``iconify'' a frame, removing
it from sight, and leaving a small, distinctive ``icon'' window in its
place.  Clicking on the icon window makes the frame itself appear again.
If you have many clients running at once, you can avoid cluttering up
the screen by iconifying most of the clients.

@table @samp
@item -i
@itemx --icon-type
Use a picture of a gnu as the Emacs icon.

@item -iconic
@itemx --iconic
Start Emacs in iconified state.
@end table

  The @samp{-i} or @samp{--icon-type} option tells Emacs to use an icon
window containing a picture of the GNU gnu.  If omitted, Emacs lets the
window manager choose what sort of icon to use---usually just a small
rectangle containing the frame's title.

  The @samp{-iconic} option tells Emacs to begin running as an icon,
rather than opening a frame right away.  In this situation, the icon
window provides only indication that Emacs has started; the usual text
frame doesn't appear until you deiconify it.

@node Resources X
@appendixsec X Resources
@cindex resources

  Programs running under the X Window System organize their user options
under a hierarchy of classes and resources.  You can specify default
values for these options in your X resources file, usually named

  Each line in the file specifies a value for one option or for a
collection of related options, for one program or for several programs
(optionally even for all programs).

  Programs define named resources with particular meanings.  They also
define how to group resources into named classes.  For instance, in
Emacs, the @samp{internalBorder} resource controls the width of the
internal border, and the @samp{borderWidth} resource controls the width
of the external border.  Both of these resources are part of the
@samp{BorderWidth} class.  Case distinctions are significant in these

  In @file{~/.Xdefaults}, you can specify a value for a single resource
on one line, like this:

emacs.borderWidth: 2
@end example

Or you can use a class name to specify the same value for all resources
in that class.  Here's an example:

emacs.BorderWidth: 2
@end example

  If you specify a value for a class, it becomes the default for all
resources in that class.  You can specify values for individual
resources as well; these override the class value, for those particular
resources.  Thus, this example specifies 2 as the default width for all
borders, but overrides this value with 4 for the external border:

emacs.Borderwidth: 2
emacs.borderwidth: 4
@end example

  The order in which the lines appear in the file does not matter.
Also, command-line options always override the X resources file.

  The string @samp{emacs} in the examples above is also a resource
name.  It actually represents the name of the executable file that you
invoke to run Emacs.  If Emacs is installed under a different name, it
looks for resources under that name instead of @samp{emacs}.

@table @samp
@item -name @var{name}
@itemx --name=@var{name}
Use @var{name} as the resource name (and the title) for the initial
Emacs frame.  This option does not affect subsequent frames, but Lisp
programs can specify frame names when they create frames.

If you don't specify this option, the default is to use the Emacs
executable's name as the resource name.

@item -xrm @var{resource-values}
@itemx --xrm=@var{resource-values}
Specify X resource values for this Emacs job (see below).
@end table

  For consistency, @samp{-name} also specifies the name to use for
other resource values that do not belong to any particular frame.

  The resources that name Emacs invocations also belong to a class; its
name is @samp{Emacs}.  If you write @samp{Emacs} instead of
@samp{emacs}, the resource applies to all frames in all Emacs jobs,
regardless of frame titles and regardless of the name of the executable
file.  Here is an example:

Emacs.BorderWidth: 2
Emacs.borderWidth: 4
@end example

  You can specify a string of additional resource values for Emacs to
use with the command line option @samp{-xrm @var{resources}}.  The text
@var{resources} should have the same format that you would use inside a file
of X resources.  To include multiple resource specifications in
@var{data}, put a newline between them, just as you would in a file.
You can also use @samp{#include "@var{filename}"} to include a file full
of resource specifications.  Resource values specified with @samp{-xrm}
take precedence over all other resource specifications.

  The following table lists the resource names that designate options
for Emacs, each with the class that it belongs to:

@table @asis
@item @code{background} (class @code{Background})
Background color name.

@item @code{bitmapIcon} (class @code{BitmapIcon})
Use a bitmap icon (a picture of a gnu) if @samp{on}, let the window
manager choose an icon if @samp{off}.

@item @code{borderColor} (class @code{BorderColor})
Color name for the external border.

@item @code{borderWidth} (class @code{BorderWidth})
Width in pixels of the external border.

@item @code{cursorColor} (class @code{Foreground})
Color name for text cursor (point).

@item @code{font} (class @code{Font})
Font name for text (or fontset name, @pxref{Fontsets}).

@item @code{foreground} (class @code{Foreground})
Color name for text.

@item @code{geometry} (class @code{Geometry})
Window size and position.  Be careful not to specify this resource as
@samp{emacs*geometry}, because that may affect individual menus as well
as the Emacs frame itself.

If this resource specifies a position, that position applies only to the
initial Emacs frame (or, in the case of a resource for a specific frame
name, only that frame).  However, the size if specified here applies to
all frames.

@item @code{iconName} (class @code{Title})
Name to display in the icon.

@item @code{internalBorder} (class @code{BorderWidth})
Width in pixels of the internal border.

@item @code{menuBar} (class @code{MenuBar})
Give frames menu bars if @samp{on}; don't have menu bars if @samp{off}.

@item @code{minibuffer} (class @code{Minibuffer})
If @samp{none}, don't make a minibuffer in this frame.
It will use a separate minibuffer frame instead.

@item @code{paneFont} (class @code{Font})
Font name for menu pane titles, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs.

@item @code{pointerColor} (class @code{Foreground})
Color of the mouse cursor.

@item @code{reverseVideo} (class @code{ReverseVideo})
Switch foreground and background default colors if @samp{on}, use colors as
specified if @samp{off}.

@item @code{verticalScrollBars} (class @code{ScrollBars})
Give frames scroll bars if @samp{on}; don't have scroll bars if

@item @code{selectionFont} (class @code{Font})
Font name for pop-up menu items, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs.  (For
toolkit versions, see @ref{Lucid Resources}, also see @ref{Motif

@item @code{title} (class @code{Title})
Name to display in the title bar of the initial Emacs frame.
@end table

  Here are resources for controlling the appearance of particular faces

@table @code
@item @var{face}.attributeFont
Font for face @var{face}.
@item @var{face}.attributeForeground
Foreground color for face @var{face}.
@item @var{face}.attributeBackground
Background color for face @var{face}.
@item @var{face}.attributeUnderline
Underline flag for face @var{face}.  Use @samp{on} or @samp{true} for
@end table

@node Lucid Resources
@section Lucid Menu X Resources
@cindex Menu X Resources (Lucid widgets)
@cindex Lucid Widget X Resources

  If the Emacs installed at your site was built to use the X toolkit
with the Lucid menu widgets, then the menu bar is a separate widget and
has its own resources.  The resource names contain @samp{pane.menubar}
(following, as always, the name of the Emacs invocation or @samp{Emacs}
which stands for all Emacs invocations).  Specify them like this:

Emacs.pane.menubar.@var{resource}:  @var{value}
@end example

For example, to specify the font @samp{8x16} for the menu-bar items,
write this:

Emacs.pane.menubar.font:  8x16
@end example

Resources for @emph{non-menubar} toolkit pop-up menus have
@samp{menu*}, in like fashion.  For example, to specify the font
@samp{8x16} for the pop-up menu items, write this:

@example*.font:	8x16
@end example

For dialog boxes, use @samp{dialog} instead of @samp{menu}:

Emacs.dialog*.font:	8x16
@end example

Experience shows that on some systems you may need to add
@samp{shell.}@: before the @samp{pane.menubar} or @samp{menu*}.  On
some other systems, you must not add @samp{shell.}.

  Here is a list of the specific resources for menu bars and pop-up menus:

@table @code
@item font
Font for menu item text.
@item foreground
Color of the foreground.
@item background
Color of the background.
@item buttonForeground
In the menu bar, the color of the foreground for a selected item.
@item horizontalSpacing
Horizontal spacing in pixels between items.  Default is 3.
@item verticalSpacing
Vertical spacing in pixels between items.  Default is 1.
@item arrowSpacing
Horizontal spacing between the arrow (which indicates a submenu) and
the associated text.  Default is 10.
@item shadowThickness
Thickness of shadow line around the widget.
@end table

@node Motif Resources
@section Motif Menu X Resources
@cindex Menu X Resources (Motif widgets)
@cindex Motif Widget X Resources

  If the Emacs installed at your site was built to use the X toolkit
with the Motif widgets, then the menu bar is a separate widget and has
its own resources.  The resource names contain @samp{pane.menubar}
(following, as always, the name of the Emacs invocation or @samp{Emacs}
which stands for all Emacs invocations).  Specify them like this:

Emacs.pane.menubar.@var{subwidget}.@var{resource}:  @var{value}
@end smallexample

  Each individual string in the menu bar is a subwidget; the subwidget's
name is the same as the menu item string.  For example, the word
@samp{Files} in the menu bar is part of a subwidget named
@samp{emacs.pane.menubar.Files}.  Most likely, you want to specify the
same resources for the whole menu bar.  To do this, use @samp{*} instead
of a specific subwidget name.  For example, to specify the font
@samp{8x16} for the menu-bar items, write this:

Emacs.pane.menubar.*.fontList:  8x16
@end smallexample

This also specifies the resource value for submenus.

  Each item in a submenu in the menu bar also has its own name for X
resources; for example, the @samp{Files} submenu has an item named
@samp{Save Buffer}.  A resource specification for a submenu item looks
like this:

Emacs.pane.menubar.popup_*.@var{menu}.@var{item}.@var{resource}: @var{value}
@end smallexample

For example, here's how to specify the font for the @samp{Save Buffer}

Emacs.pane.menubar.popup_*.Files.Save Buffer.fontList: 8x16
@end smallexample

For an item in a second-level submenu, such as @samp{Check Message}
under @samp{Spell} under @samp{Edit}, the resource fits this template:

Emacs.pane.menubar.popup_*.popup_*.@var{menu}.@var{resource}: @var{value}
@end smallexample

For example,

Emacs.pane.menubar.popup_*.popup_*.Spell.Check Message: @var{value}
@end smallexample
  It's impossible to specify a resource for all the menu-bar items
without also specifying it for the submenus as well.  So if you want the
submenu items to look different from the menu bar itself, you must ask
for that in two steps.  First, specify the resource for all of them;
then, override the value for submenus alone.  Here is an example:

Emacs.pane.menubar.*.fontList:  8x16
Emacs.pane.menubar.popup_*.fontList: 8x16
@end smallexample

For toolkit pop-up menus, use @samp{menu*} instead of
@samp{pane.menubar}.  For example, to specify the font @samp{8x16} for
the pop-up menu items, write this:

@smallexample*.fontList:  8x16
@end smallexample

@end iftex
  Here is a list of the specific resources for menu bars and pop-up menus:

@table @code
@item armColor
The color to show in an armed button.
@item fontList
The font to use.
@item marginBottom
@itemx marginHeight
@itemx marginLeft
@itemx marginRight
@itemx marginTop
@itemx marginWidth
Amount of space to leave around the item, within the border.
@item borderWidth
The width of border around the menu item, on all sides.
@item shadowThickness
The width of the border shadow.
@item bottomShadowColor
The color for the border shadow, on the bottom and the right.
@item topShadowColor
The color for the border shadow, on the top and the left.
@end table