/**************************************************************** Copyright (C) Lucent Technologies 1997 All Rights Reserved Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that the copyright notice and this permission notice and warranty disclaimer appear in supporting documentation, and that the name Lucent Technologies or any of its entities not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. LUCENT DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL LUCENT OR ANY OF ITS ENTITIES BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE. ****************************************************************/ This file lists all bug fixes, changes, etc., made since the AWK book was sent to the printers in August, 1987. Sep 12, 1987: Very long printf strings caused core dump; fixed aprintf, asprintf, format to catch them. Can still get a core dump in printf itself. Sep 17, 1987: Error-message printer had printf(s) instead of printf("%s",s); got core dumps when the message included a %. Oct xx, 1987: Reluctantly added toupper and tolower functions. Subject to rescinding without notice. Dec 2, 1987: Newer C compilers apply a strict scope rule to extern declarations within functions. Two extern declarations in lib.c and tran.c have been moved to obviate this problem. Mar 25, 1988: main.c fixed to recognize -- as terminator of command- line options. Illegal options flagged. Error reporting slightly cleaned up. May 10, 1988: Fixed lib.c to permit _ in commandline variable names. May 22, 1988: Removed limit on depth of function calls. May 28, 1988: srand returns seed value it's using. see 1/18/90 June 1, 1988: check error status on close July 2, 1988: performance bug in b.c/cgoto(): not freeing some sets of states. partial fix only right now, and the number of states increased to make it less obvious. July 2, 1988: flush stdout before opening file or pipe July 24, 1988: fixed egregious error in toupper/tolower functions. still subject to rescinding, however. Aug 23, 1988: setting FILENAME in BEGIN caused core dump, apparently because it was freeing space not allocated by malloc. Sep 30, 1988: Now guarantees to evaluate all arguments of built-in functions, as in C; the appearance is that arguments are evaluated before the function is called. Places affected are sub (gsub was ok), substr, printf, and all the built-in arithmetic functions in bltin(). A warning is generated if a bltin() is called with the wrong number of arguments. This requires changing makeprof on p167 of the book. Oct 12, 1988: Fixed bug in call() that freed local arrays twice. Fixed to handle deletion of non-existent array right; complains about attempt to delete non-array element. Oct 20, 1988: Fixed %c: if expr is numeric, use numeric value; otherwise print 1st char of string value. still doesn't work if the value is 0 -- won't print \0. Added a few more checks for running out of malloc. Oct 30, 1988: Fixed bug in call() that failed to recover storage. A warning is now generated if there are more arguments in the call than in the definition (in lieu of fixing another storage leak). Nov 27, 1988: With fear and trembling, modified the grammar to permit multiple pattern-action statements on one line without an explicit separator. By definition, this capitulation to the ghost of ancient implementations remains undefined and thus subject to change without notice or apology. DO NOT COUNT ON IT. Dec 7, 1988: Added a bit of code to error printing to avoid printing nulls. (Not clear that it actually would.) Dec 17, 1988: Catches some more commandline errors in main. Removed redundant decl of modf in run.c (confuses some compilers). Warning: there's no single declaration of malloc, etc., in awk.h that seems to satisfy all compilers. Jan 9, 1989: Fixed bug that caused tempcell list to contain a duplicate. The fix is kludgy. Apr 9, 1989: Changed grammar to prohibit constants as 3rd arg of sub and gsub; prevents class of overwriting-a-constant errors. (Last one?) This invalidates the "banana" example on page 43 of the book. Added \a ("alert"), \v (vertical tab), \xhhh (hexadecimal), as in ANSI, for strings. Rescinded the sloppiness that permitted non-octal digits in \ooo. Warning: not all compilers and libraries will be able to deal with \x correctly. Apr 26, 1989: Debugging output now includes a version date, if one compiles it into the source each time. Apr 27, 1989: Line number now accumulated correctly for comment lines. Jun 4, 1989: ENVIRON array contains environment: if shell variable V=thing, ENVIRON["V"] is "thing" multiple -f arguments permitted. error reporting is naive. (they were permitted before, but only the last was used.) fixed a really stupid botch in the debugging macro dprintf fixed order of evaluation of commandline assignments to match what the book claims: an argument of the form x=e is evaluated at the time it would have been opened if it were a filename (p 63). this invalidates the suggested answer to ex 4-1 (p 195). removed some code that permitted -F (space) fieldseparator, since it didn't quite work right anyway. (restored aug 2) Jun 14, 1989: added some missing ansi printf conversion letters: %i %X %E %G. no sensible meaning for h or L, so they may not do what one expects. made %* conversions work. changed x^y so that if n is a positive integer, it's done by explicit multiplication, thus achieving maximum accuracy. (this should be done by pow() but it seems not to be locally.) done to x ^= y as well. Jun 23, 1989: add newline to usage message. Jul 10, 1989: fixed ref-thru-zero bug in environment code in tran.c Jul 30, 1989: added -v x=1 y=2 ... for immediate commandline variable assignment; done before the BEGIN block for sure. they have to precede the program if the program is on the commandline. Modified Aug 2 to require a separate -v for each assignment. Aug 2, 1989: restored -F (space) separator Aug 11, 1989: fixed bug: commandline variable assignment has to look like var=something. (consider the man page for =, in file =.1) changed number of arguments to functions to static arrays to avoid repeated malloc calls. Aug 24, 1989: removed redundant relational tests against nullnode if parse tree already had a relational at that point. Oct 11, 1989: FILENAME is now defined in the BEGIN block -- too many old programs broke. "-" means stdin in getline as well as on the commandline. added a bunch of casts to the code to tell the truth about char * vs. unsigned char *, a right royal pain. added a setlocale call to the front of main, though probably no one has it usefully implemented yet. Oct 18, 1989: another try to get the max number of open files set with relatively machine-independent code. small fix to input() in case of multiple reads after EOF. Jan 5, 1990: fix potential problem in tran.c -- something was freed, then used in freesymtab. Jan 18, 1990: srand now returns previous seed value (0 to start). Feb 9, 1990: fixed null pointer dereference bug in main.c: -F[nothing]. sigh. restored srand behavior: it returns the current seed. May 6, 1990: AVA fixed the grammar so that ! is uniformly of the same precedence as unary + and -. This renders illegal some constructs like !x=y, which now has to be parenthesized as !(x=y), and makes others work properly: !x+y is (!x)+y, and x!y is x !y, not two pattern-action statements. (These problems were pointed out by Bob Lenk of Posix.) Added \x to regular expressions (already in strings). Limited octal to octal digits; \8 and \9 are not octal. Centralized the code for parsing escapes in regular expressions. Added a bunch of tests to T.re and T.sub to verify some of this. Jun 26, 1990: changed struct rrow (awk.h) to use long instead of int for lval, since cfoll() stores a pointer in it. now works better when int's are smaller than pointers! Aug 24, 1990: changed NCHARS to 256 to handle 8-bit characters in strings presented to match(), etc. Oct 8, 1990: fixed horrible bug: types and values were not preserved in some kinds of self-assignment. (in assign().) Oct 14, 1990: fixed the bug on p. 198 in which it couldn't deduce that an argument was an array in some contexts. replaced the error message in intest() by code that damn well makes it an array. Oct 29, 1990: fixed sleazy buggy code in lib.c that looked (incorrectly) for too long input lines. Nov 2, 1990: fixed sleazy test for integrality in getsval; use modf. Jan 11, 1991: failed to set numeric state on $0 in cmd|getline context in run.c. Jan 28, 1991: awk -f - reads the program from stdin. Feb 10, 1991: check error status on all writes, to avoid banging on full disks. May 6, 1991: fixed silly bug in hex parsing in hexstr(). removed an apparently unnecessary test in isnumber(). warn about weird printf conversions. fixed unchecked array overwrite in relex(). changed for (i in array) to access elements in sorted order. then unchanged it -- it really does run slower in too many cases. left the code in place, commented out. May 13, 1991: removed extra arg on gettemp, tempfree. minor error message rewording. Jun 2, 1991: better defense against very long printf strings. made break and continue illegal outside of loops. Jun 30, 1991: better test for detecting too-long output record. Jul 21, 1991: fixed so that in self-assignment like $1=$1, side effects like recomputing $0 take place. (this is getting subtle.) Jul 27, 1991: allow newline after ; in for statements. Aug 18, 1991: enforce variable name syntax for commandline variables: has to start with letter or _. Sep 24, 1991: increased buffer in gsub. a very crude fix to a general problem. and again on Sep 26. Nov 12, 1991: cranked up some fixed-size arrays in b.c, and added a test for overflow in penter. thanks to mark larsen. Nov 19, 1991: use RAND_MAX instead of literal in builtin(). Nov 30, 1991: fixed storage leak in freefa, failing to recover [N]CCL. thanks to Bill Jones (firstname.lastname@example.org) Dec 2, 1991: die-casting time: converted to ansi C, installed that. Feb 20, 1992: recompile after abortive changes; should be unchanged. Apr 12, 1992: added explicit check for /dev/std(in,out,err) in redirection. unlike gawk, no /dev/fd/n yet. added (file/pipe) builtin. hard to test satisfactorily. not posix. Apr 24, 1992: remove redundant close of stdin when using -f -. got rid of core dump with -d; awk -d just prints date. May 31, 1992: added -mr N and -mf N options: more record and fields. these really ought to adjust automatically. cleaned up some error messages; "out of space" now means malloc returned NULL in all cases. changed rehash so that if it runs out, it just returns; things will continue to run slow, but maybe a bit longer. Nov 28, 1992: deleted yyunput and yyoutput from proto.h; different versions of lex give these different declarations. Jul 23, 1993: cosmetic changes: increased sizes of some arrays, reworded some error messages. added CONVFMT as in posix (just replaced OFMT in getsval) FILENAME is now "" until the first thing that causes a file to be opened. Feb 2, 1994: changed error() to print line number as %d, not %g. Apr 22, 1994: fixed yet another subtle self-assignment problem: $1 = $2; $1 = $1 clobbered $1. Regression tests now use private echo, to avoid quoting problems. May 11, 1994: trivial fix to printf to limit string size in sub(). Aug 24, 1994: detect duplicate arguments in function definitions (mdm). Jul 17, 1995: added dynamically growing strings to awk.lx.l and b.c to permit regular expressions to be much bigger. the state arrays can still overflow. Aug 15, 1995: initialized Cells in setsymtab more carefully; some fields were not set. (thanks to purify, all of whose complaints i think i now understand.) fixed at least one error in gsub that looked at -1-th element of an array when substituting for a null match (e.g., $). delete arrayname is now legal; it clears the elements but leaves the array, which may not be the right behavior. modified makefile: my current make can't cope with the test used to avoid unnecessary yacc invocations. Apr 29, 1996: replaced uchar by uschar everwhere; apparently some compilers usurp this name and this causes conflicts. fixed call to time in run.c (bltin); arg is time_t *. replaced horrible pointer/long punning in b.c by a legitimate union. should be safer on 64-bit machines and cleaner everywhere. (thanks to nelson beebe for pointing out some of these problems.) replaced nested comments by #if 0...#endif in run.c, lib.c. removed getsval, setsval, execute macros from run.c and lib.c. machines are 100x faster than they were when these macros were first used. revised filenames: awk.g.y => awkgram.y, awk.lx.l => awklex.l, y.tab.[ch] => ytab.[ch], lex.yy.c => lexyy.c, all in the aid of portability to nameless systems. "make bundle" now includes yacc and lex output files for recipients who don't have yacc or lex. May 2, 1996: removed all register declarations. enhanced split(), as in gawk, etc: split(s, a, "") splits s into a...a[length(s)] with each character a single element. made the same changes for field-splitting if FS is "". added nextfile, as in gawk: causes immediate advance to next input file. (thanks to arnold robbins for inspiration and code). small fixes to regexpr code: can now handle ], [, and variants;  is now a syntax error, rather than matching everything; [z-a] is now empty, not z. far from complete or correct, however. (thanks to jeffrey friedl for pointing out some awful behaviors.) May 26, 1996: an attempt to rationalize the (unsigned) char issue. almost all instances of unsigned char have been removed; the handful of places in b.c where chars are used as table indices have been hand-crafted. added some latin-1 tests to the regression, but i'm not confident; none of my compilers seem to care much. thanks to nelson beebe for pointing out some others that do care. May 27, 1996: cleaned up some declarations so gcc -Wall is now almost silent. makefile now includes backup copies of ytab.c and lexyy.c in case one makes before looking; it also avoids recreating lexyy.c unless really needed. s/aprintf/awkprint, s/asprintf/awksprintf/ to avoid some name clashes with unwisely-written header files. thanks to jeffrey friedl for several of these. May 28, 1996: fixed appalling but apparently unimportant bug in parsing octal numbers in reg exprs. explicit hex in reg exprs now limited to 2 chars: \xa, \xaa. Jun 28, 1996: changed field-splitting to conform to posix definition: fields are split using the value of FS at the time of input; it used to be the value when the field or NF was first referred to, a much less predictable definition. thanks to arnold robbins for encouragement to do the right thing. Jun 29, 1996: fixed awful bug in new field splitting; didn't get all the places where input was done. Jul 8, 1996: fixed long-standing bug in sub, gsub(/a/, "\\\\&"); thanks to ralph corderoy. Jun 17, 1997: replaced several fixed-size arrays by dynamically-created ones in run.c; added overflow tests to some previously unchecked cases. getline, toupper, tolower. getline code is still broken in that recursive calls may wind up using the same space. [fixed later] increased RECSIZE to 8192 to push problems further over the horizon. added \r to \n as input line separator for programs, not data. damn CRLFs. modified format() to permit explicit printf("%c", 0) to include a null byte in output. thanks to ken stailey for the fix. added a "-safe" argument that disables file output (print >, print >>), process creation (cmd|getline, print |, system), and access to the environment (ENVIRON). this is a first approximation to a "safe" version of awk, but don't rely on it too much. thanks to joan feigenbaum and matt blaze for the inspiration long ago. Jul 23, 1997: falling off the end of a function returns "" and 0, not 0. thanks to arnold robbins. Jul 30, 1997: using code provided by dan levy (to whom profuse thanks), replaced fixed-size arrays and awkward kludges by a fairly uniform mechanism to grow arrays as needed for printf, sub, gsub, etc. Aug 4, 1997: with some trepidation, replaced the ancient code that managed fields and $0 in fixed-size arrays with arrays that grow on demand. there is still some tension between trying to make this run fast and making it clean; not sure it's right yet. the ill-conceived -mr and -mf arguments are now useful only for debugging. previous dynamic string code removed. numerous other minor cleanups along the way. Aug 9, 1997: somewhat regretfully, replaced the ancient lex-based lexical analyzer with one written in C. it's longer, generates less code, and more portable; the old one depended too much on mysterious properties of lex that were not preserved in other environments. in theory these recognize the same language. now using strtod to test whether a string is a number, instead of the convoluted original function. should be more portable and reliable if strtod is implemented right. removed now-pointless optimization in makefile that tries to avoid recompilation when awkgram.y is changed but symbols are not. removed most fixed-size arrays, though a handful remain, some of which are unchecked. you have been warned. Aug 21, 1997: fixed some bugs in sub and gsub when replacement includes \\. this is a dark, horrible corner, but at least now i believe that the behavior is the same as gawk and the intended posix standard. thanks to arnold robbins for advice here. Aug 31, 1997: s/adelete/awkdelete/: SGI uses this in malloc.h. thanks to nelson beebe for pointing this one out. Feb 11, 1998: subtle silent bug in lex.c: if the program ended with a number longer than 1 digit, part of the input would be pushed back and parsed again because token buffer wasn't terminated right. example: awk 'length($0) > 10'. blush. at least i found it myself. Mar 12, 1998: added -V to print version number and die. [notify dave kerns, email@example.com] May 12, 1998: fixed potential bug in readrec: might fail to update record pointer after growing. thanks to dan levy for spotting this and suggesting the fix. Oct 19, 1998: fixed a couple of bugs in getrec: could fail to update $0 after a getline var; because inputFS wasn't initialized, could split $0 on every character, a misleading diversion. fixed caching bug in makedfa: LRU was actually removing least often used. thanks to ross ridge for finding these, and for providing great bug reports.